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The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in Personnel Psychology: Practical and Theoretical Implications of 100 Years of Research Findings

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... Conscientiousness can also be identified as one of the most significant predictors of adaptive performance (Christiansen & Tett, 2013). It is the main personality trait investigated in causal models of job performance (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998;Schmidt, Oh, & Shaffer, 2016). Therefore, the following discussion focusses on conscientiousness. ...
... Highly conscientious leaders work longer towards their task achievement, demonstrate greater motivation to deal with greater demands and exert greater effort and motivation (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998;Schmidt et al., 2016). Conscientiousness is also related to motivation to achieve task demands and goal-setting. ...
... The important role of personality traits in relation to task adaptive performance, leadership effectiveness, and the ability to overcome adversity is confirmed by Bono and Judge (2004) Conscientiousness is identified as one of the most significant personality dimension as a predictor of leader performance (Penney et al., 2011;Strang & Kuhnert, 2009), especially for task adaptive performance (Christiansen & Tett, 2013). It is the main personality trait investigated in causal models of job performance (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998;Schmidt et al., 2016). Highly conscientious leaders work harder towards their task achievement and show greater motivation, efforts and motivation to deal with demands (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998;Schmidt et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Recent studies have shown that a significant number of leaders are not able to successfully adapt to adversity within today’s increasingly volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous business environment. Adversity is one of the most challenging leadership issues to date, but fragmented research results prevent researchers and practitioners from forming a comprehensive view of the factors that influence leaders’ adaptation to it. This study addresses three questions in respect of the above research gap, namely: What is the nature of adversity? How can leaders adapt to adversity? What are the main factors influencing leaders’ task adaptive performance? The study shows that burnout is increasingly recognised as adversity in leadership triggered by volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous conditions. Leaders affected by a high level of the impact of adversity (magnitude, probability and relevance) and a low level of sense-making of adversity have increased burnout risks. Another contribution of this study is that leaders knowing this explanation are better prepared to prevent, anticipate or deal with adversity in order to avoid negative effects, and to see the positive side of adversity as a chance for learning and personal growth. There is also evidence that a higher level of burnout can decrease the leaders’ psychological capital. The main theoretical contribution of this study is that the mechanisms of psychological capital and authentic leadership can improve leaders’ task adaptive performance. These mechanisms are affected by the condition of burnout. Whereby a high level of the mechanism of the impact of adversity can directly decrease task adaptive performance. Further conditions which affects these mechanisms are sense-making of adversity, self-reflection and conscientiousness. The limitations of these findings are also discussed and the possible directions for future research are outlined.
... In the general population, educational level and cognitive ability correlate about r = .55 (Schmidt, Oh, & Shaffer, 2016;Strenze, 2007). However, relations between cognitive ability and educational level can be expected to be much lower in job applicant samples, due to educational requirements (e.g., college degree, JD, MD) for occupational entry. ...
... Worldwide, they remain a common method used in personnel selection, though in the United States the legal climate during the last quarter of the twentieth century caused a decline in their use. Even though over 30 states have enacted laws that limit legal liability from providing bona fide job references, these legislations have not had a major impact on the willingness of US employers providing anything more than information on the dates of employment and the positions that the former employee held (Schmidt et al., 2016). Employers possess rich and probably highly predictive information about their previous employees (e.g., disciplinary record, productivity), but such information remains inaccessible to subsequent employers at least in the US. ...
... N = 2,018). However, Schmidt et al. (2016) argued that the validity of reference checks is unlikely to reach similar levels in current organizations, at least in the US. We believe that traditional reference checks are outmoded in this day and age of technology and are being replaced by background checks that involve social and technological media (Roth, Bobko, Van Iddekinge, & Thatcher, 2016). ...
... Cognitive ability tests assess a candidate's ability to reason, verbal and mathematical ability, problem-solving skills, memorization, and perceptual and processing speed. Although not without its own problematic history (Hunter and Schmidt 1996;Ployhart and Holtz 2008), cognitive ability has remained an important construct to measure in job selection due to its strong and well-established relationship to job performance (Kuncel et al. 2010;Schmidt and Hunter 1998;Schmidt and Hunter 2004;Schmidt et al. 2016) and is widely used in applied settings today (Bertua et al. 2005;Schmidt and Hunter 2004). The tests usually administered by organizations are typically shorter and narrower in scope than the intelligence tests administered by medical professionals (e.g., Kuo and Eack 2020). ...
... Game-based measures of cognitive ability were considered in this study for several reasons. First, prior research indicates that cognitive ability is one of the strongest predictors of future job performance (Schmidt et al. 2016), making it a valuable tool in job selection. Second, assessing non-social cognitive traits in a non-social manner may provide a fair way to assess both autistic and neurotypical candidates' readiness Figures 1 and 2, the proportional distribution of scores appear roughly equal across both game packages. ...
... Game-based measures of cognitive ability were considered in this study for several reasons. First, prior research indicates that cognitive ability is one of the strongest predictors of future job performance (Schmidt et al. 2016), making it a valuable tool in job selection. Second, assessing non-social cognitive traits in a non-social manner may provide a fair way to assess both autistic and neurotypical candidates' readiness ...
Article
Full-text available
Although people with autism are protected under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, there is little theoretical or practical effort to determine whether traditional pre-employment assessments unfairly impact autistic job seekers. Due to the lack of emphasis on social communication, game-based assessments (GBAs) may offer a way of assessing candidate ability without disadvantaging autistic candidates. A total of 263 autistic job seekers took one of two game-based assessment packages designed to measure cognitive ability. After comparing their results to 323 college-graduate job seekers in the general population, we found that performance on the GBAs was generally similar in both populations, although some small differences were detected. Implications for hiring decisions are discussed.
... To enable this to be put into practice, psychometric standards such as reliability, validity, and fairness are applied in the decisionmaking process, which generally follows a systematic, logical, or sequential order (Yusko et al., 2017). Also, when evaluating the outcomes of selection decisions, the practical utility and cost-effectiveness of recruitment and selection methods and procedures are of major concern for industrial psychologists and managers alike (Schmidt et al., 2016). ...
... for biographical information, 5% for years of job experience, 1% for years of education, and 0% for age (Schmidt et al., 2016). Attribution errors, based on visible characteristics or spelling in the applicant blank or résumé, might bias evaluators' perception of candidates' suitability for a position (Lacroux & Martin-Lacroux, 2020;Martin-Lacroux, 2017). ...
... Most organisations attempt to confirm the accuracy of biographical information by contacting former employers and the persons named as references. According to Schmidt et al. (2016), the incremental validity of reference checks over cognitive ability is estimated to be 8%. However, references might be perceived to be distorted in an overly positive direction so that they may be useless in distinguishing among applicants. ...
Chapter
Organisational success, to a large extent, depends on the quality of people employed. The race for talented personnel or workers is becoming increasingly more competitive amidst technological advances and employers’ accessibility to talented people across the globe. Effective recruitment and selection processes that are sufficiently advanced and based on evidence of job competency and person-organisation, -job and -team fit are crucial for the expansion or replenishment of talented employees in the modern workplace. This chapter reviews the theory and practice of recruitment and selection from the perspective of personnel psychology. The application of psychometric standards in the decision-making process is discussed, including the aspects of employment equity and fairness in the recruitment and selection process.
... A. Terpstra et al., 1999). Additionally, the structured interview provides incremental validity beyond other selection measures and is typically facevalid to the applicant (Schmidt et al., 2016). Given this, organizations should take the design and conduct of interviews seriously if they wish to get the most out of the employment interview. ...
... In contrast, they found that low structure interviews had a mean criterion-validity of only .20 (SD = .08). This difference in predicting job performance is largely due to the fact that structured interviews have greater reliability (Schmidt et al., 2016). ...
... Structured interviews also offer excellent incremental validity, or additional predictive power, to selection procedures that use cognitive ability as a lone predictor of job performance (Campion et al., 1994Cortina et al., 2000;Dipboye, 1994;Schmidt et al., 2016). In a recent meta-analytic review by Schmidt et al. (2016) where they examined 100 years of research in personnel psychology, they found that behind tests of general mental ability and integrity tests (mean validity of .78), ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Despite the numerous benefits structured interviews offer, prior research and literature has shown that hiring professionals are inclined to use unstructured interviews over structured interviews. While unstructured interviews are convenient, they pose several severe limitations when compared to structured interviews. Namely, unstructured interviews can result in adverse legal outcomes, significantly worse predictive validity, and difficulty in comparing applicants. Our research examines if three variables: Interviewer conventional personality, interviewer training, and recording improve the acceptance and use of structured interviews. Our study included 171 hiring managers from the SIOP user directory, SIUE alumni from the I/O psychology program, Human Resource managers from the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM), and managers recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Our survey found that interviewer training helped improve acceptance and content standardization of the interview. Neither interviewer conventional personality nor recording of the interview improved structured interview acceptance or use. However, our results did find that structured interviews are used more often than previously thought and that recording was used by a third of respondents to compare applicants or for legal defense. We found marginal support that interviewers who recorded their interviews reported using lower content standardization. Given our findings, we recommend that interviewer training be used to improve structured interview acceptance and use above and beyond recording.
... Gran parte de la investigación realizada hasta la fecha se ha centrado en el diseño y la validación de diversos instrumentos y procedimientos de selección (Alonso y Moscoso, 2017;Nabeeh et al., 2019;Robertson, y Smith, 2001;Roth, Bobko. McFarland, y Buster, 2008;Salgado, y Moscoso, 2002;Schmidt, y Hunter, 1998, Schmidt, 2016, así como la incorporación de las nuevas tecnologías en estos procesos (Aguado, Rico, Rubio, y Fernández, 2016;Bauer, Truxillo, Paronto y Weekley, 2004;Fetzer, McNamara, y Geimer, 2017;Woods, Ahmed, Nikolaou, Costa, y Anderson, 2019). Estos trabajos son de gran importancia, ya que ayudan a optimizar la selección de personal y a que los técnicos de RRHH puedan tomar decisiones más acertadas. ...
... Dado que el objetivo de este trabajo es el de analizar las reacciones que muestran los candidatos a los procesos de selección, resulta conveniente exponer de forma breve unas nociones básicas acerca de cada uno de ellos. Si bien estos instrumentos se han evaluado de forma aislada, la capacidad predictiva de un proceso de selección puede verse potenciada si se emplean varios de estos métodos de forma conjunta, especialmente si dichos instrumentos Percepción de los candidatos a los métodos de selección tienen unos valores psicométricos elevados y si evalúan características distintas de los candidatos y no se solapan entre sí (Salgado y Moscoso, 2008;Schmidt, 2016). Siguiendo los resultados de la investigación realizada por Salgado y Moscoso (2008), el proceso de selección óptimo y que puede aportar mejores resultados es aquel en el que se combinan los test de capacidades cognitivas, la entrevista conductual estructurada y las pruebas de personalidad que evalúen la puntuación en conciencia del candidato, formando un trío de instrumentos que puede alcanzar un coeficiente de validez de .86. ...
... pero puede llegar a rondar el .54 si se emplea en procesos de selección para este tipo de trabajos (Schmidt, 2016). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
La selección de personal es una parte muy relevante para cualquier organización, que influye de forma directa en que las nuevas incorporaciones sean las adecuadas y respondan bien al entorno laboral de la misma. Este trabajo ha tenido como objetivo conocer las percepciones de una muestra española (N=109) sobre once métodos de selección extensamente utilizados, ampliando y actualizando los resultados aportados por Moscoso y Salgado (2004) al investigar esta cuestión en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios españoles. Para este fin se ha empleado una versión adaptada del cuestionario elaborado por Steiner y Gilliland (1996) para investigar las reacciones de los candidatos a los procesos de selección. Los resultados muestran que los test de muestras de trabajo, los test de conocimientos y los currículums son los métodos mejor valorados, siendo los contactos personales y la grafología los dos instrumentos con una peor valoración, resultados similares a los obtenidos en investigaciones previas y que concuerdan con los valores de validez y fiabilidad estimados por los participantes. Las dimensiones de calidez interpersonal, respeto a la privacidad y frecuencia de uso son las únicas dimensiones de justicia procedimental que no muestran una alta correlación con la dimensión de favorabilidad del proceso. También se ha investigado la posible existencia de diferencias significativas entre la favorabilidad del proceso de los participantes respecto a su sexo y a su experiencia previa en procesos de selección, pero estas han mostrado ser bajas o nulas. Se discutirán las contribuciones e implicaciones prácticas de estos resultados.
... Psychological testing is often used in the real world in making important decisions such as school admittance; employee hiring and promotion; military personnel selection, placement, and enrollment into training programs; family court rulings; and criminal culpability (e.g., Amrein & Berliner, 2002;Erickson et al., 2007;Hartmann et al., 2003;Heilbrun, 1992;Nwafor & Adesuwa, 2014). A consistent finding in this area is that general mental ability (namely, psychometric intelligence) is the best predictor of academic performance, training success, job performance, and career potential (Bosco et al., 2015;Gottfredson, 1986;Kuncel et al., 2004;Ree & Earles, 1992;Schmidt et al., 2016;Schmidt & Hunter, 1998;Song et al., 2010)-hence, why many personnel selection tests place heavy demands on accumulated knowledge (crystalized intelligence) and reasoning ability (fluid intelligence). ...
... But it is still imperative from a legal, moral, and practical (e.g., economical) standpoint that researchers and practitioners strive to minimize the extent to which these differences are reflected in test scores, and consequently the extent to which tests result in adverse impact (see Burgoyne et al., 2021;Ceci & Papierno, 2005). Critical reviews and examinations have found that one of the most effective strategies for combating subgroup differences, and thus adverse impact, is to use noncognitive selection methods such as personality assessments (e.g., integrity and conscientiousness), biographical data, and structured interviews, as these methods can reduce or even eliminate subgroup differences and may improve prediction of job performance when used in addition to cognitive tests (Bobko et al., 1999;Newman & Lyon, 2009;Ployhart & Holtz, 2008;Pulakos & Schmitt, 1996;Roth et al., 2001;Schmidt et al., 2016;Schmitt et al., 1997;Sinha et al., 2011). However, adding noncognitive tests is not universally practiced because it results in increased administration time and some practitioners are concerned that using this approach reduces overall predictive validity (the so-called diversity-validity dilemma; see Campion et al., 2001;Ployhart & Holtz, 2008). ...
Article
Working memory capacity is an important psychological construct, and many real-world phenomena are strongly associated with individual differences in working memory functioning. Although working memory and attention are intertwined, several studies have recently shown that individual differences in the general ability to control attention is more strongly predictive of human behavior than working memory capacity. In this review, we argue that researchers would therefore generally be better suited to studying the role of attention control rather than memory-based abilities in explaining real-world behavior and performance in humans. The review begins with a discussion of relevant literature on the nature and measurement of both working memory capacity and attention control, including recent developments in the study of individual differences of attention control. We then selectively review existing literature on the role of both working memory and attention in various applied settings and explain, in each case, why a switch in emphasis to attention control is warranted. Topics covered include psychological testing, cognitive training, education, sports, police decision-making, human factors, and disorders within clinical psychology. The review concludes with general recommendations and best practices for researchers interested in conducting studies of individual differences in attention control.
... Cognitive assessment is usually carried out by means of cognitive tests, often described in the literature as standardised tools that allow cognitive abilities to be assessed in a "reliable, standardised and objective" way (Ones, Dilchert, Viswesvaran, & Salgado, 2010). Their use is ideal both for the power of their prediction on certain business outcomes and for their lower cost of application (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998;Sonnentag, Volmer, & Spychala, 2008;Salgado, 2017;Schmidt, Oh, & Shaffer, 2016). As intelligence models have been developed and tested for more than a century, the theoretical foundations of cognitive tests are stronger than those of other selection methods (Schmidt, Oh & Shaffer, 2016;Salgado, 2017). ...
... Their use is ideal both for the power of their prediction on certain business outcomes and for their lower cost of application (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998;Sonnentag, Volmer, & Spychala, 2008;Salgado, 2017;Schmidt, Oh, & Shaffer, 2016). As intelligence models have been developed and tested for more than a century, the theoretical foundations of cognitive tests are stronger than those of other selection methods (Schmidt, Oh & Shaffer, 2016;Salgado, 2017). Nevertheless, the tests recognised in the literature do not have a digital version that is much more adapted to the professional environment and the advances of the 21st century. ...
Conference Paper
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"Recruiting today is no longer what it used to be. Digital transformation has deeply changed the company, and particularly the recruitment process. The challenges linked to this transformation are two-fold: practical and scientific. Indeed, the world of human resources needs new tools to detect potentials. Research must meet this need by adapting, modernizing and scientifically validating the tools. To predict job performance, cognitive and soft skills, often referred to as ""21st century skills"", are now central to recruitment, talent development and career management. The objective of our study was to create digital versions of cognitive tests, based on reliable and well-known theoretical foundations. We want to present in detail the conception and construct validity of two of our online tests: the first one inspired by the Stroop effect (Stroop, 1935), the second one based on corsi blocks (Corsi, 1972). We hypothesise that the tests we created are positively correlated to the original ones. 91 participants were interviewed, aged between 18 and 58 (average = 34.57 years old, SD = 10.91). The proportion of women was 76.6% (n = 69), compared to 24.4% of men (n = 22). They all answered the original tests first, face-to-face, and a few months later, the digital ones we had created. We observed positive correlations between the two series of results. These very encouraging results will be clarified and discussed. These two new versions shed light on the candidates' attention and memory abilities that should be enriched during an interview focused on soft skills. In fact, the highest predictability is guaranteed by a method which necessarily combines cognitive evaluations and with other types of assessments, such as personality tests (Güler, Bayrak & Ocaks, 2019). This is why it is important to continue research efforts on the adaptation of digital cognitive tests in a professional environment."
... According to individual-environmental fit theories (Edwards, 2008;Kristof-Brown & Guay, 2011;Su et al., 2015), the congruence between characteristics of employees and characteristics of working environment (e. g. compatibility of personality traits, abilities, and values with job requirements and organizational culture) is essential in the field of career counselling, personnel management and industrial and organizational psychology. Although research on individual differences has been ongoing for over 100 years (Sackett et al., 2017), vocational interests are also valid predictor of job performance (Nye et al., 2012(Nye et al., , 2017 above and beyond cognitive abilities and personality, in addition to cognitive abilities and personality traits that are stable individual characteristics for predicting job performance Salgado, 2017;Schmidt et al., 2016;Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). As workplaces change rapidly, the needs of future employees also may change -such skills as flexibility and learning are among the 21 st century employability skills (De Fruyt et al., 2015), therefore additional predictors of job performance may be explored. ...
... Personality as a stable individual characteristic of employees has been researched in work settings (Rojon et al., 2015;Sackett & Walmsley, 2014;Salgado, 1997Salgado, , 2017Schmidt et al., 2016;Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). Costa (1996) states that personality can be explained by five core factors -extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The present study was designed to distinguish non-cognitive predictors of job performance for various job groups in order to develop a method for identification of the suitability of an employee for positions and career development in organizational settings. This study included personality traits, vocational interests, grit, growth mindset, resistance to change, goal orientation and self-efficacy as potential predictors of job performance from several individual characteristics related to training, learning and job performance found in the literature. The study sample included customer service specialists, support specialists and managers from five different companies in Latvia. The results show that grit, social, conventional, and enterprising interests are significant predictors of subjective job performance. Personality traits, self-efficacy, growth mindset, resistance to change and goal orientation did not predict job performance in this sample. The relationship between subjective job performance and personality traits for conscientiousness and neuroticism is weak. The results are partly in line with other studies. Possible explanations of results and future directions are offered.
... A pioneering and influential meta-analysis examining the validity of selection tools to predict job and training performance has been conducted by Schmidt and Hunter (1998), with still ongoing follow-up investigations (Schmidt, Oh, & Shaffer, 2016). Overall, this metaanalytic work learned that general mental ability showed consistent substantive positive relationships with both job and training performance, with validity coefficients around .50. ...
... Congruency measures predicted these criteria better than interest assessments alone. For an extensive review of different measures and methods see Schmidt et al. (2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Laburpena: Ebidentzia gehiago erabiltzen bada, kalitate hobekoa eta garrantzitsua, arazoa zehaztasun handiagoz identifikatuko da eta emaitza hobeak lortuko dira giza baliabideen politikak eta estrategiak diseinatzerakoan erabakiak hartzean. Dokumentu honek helburu du ebidentzian oinarritutako erreklutamendu- eta hautaketa-prozesu baten alde egitea, ikerketa aurreratu baten berrikuspenaren bidez. Hautaketako eta langile-hautaketako profesionalentzako lau erronka nagusi hauei buruzko ikerketa berrikusiko da: talentua definitzea, erakartzea, ebaluatzea eta garatzea. Izan ere, hautaketak eta garapenak batera joan behar dute. Gainera, azpimarratzen du zeinen garrantzitsua den konstruktu eta metodoak aintzat hartzea lan-jarduera aurreikusteko, erakundeek ebidentzian oinarritutako garapen- eta hautaketa-politika bat diseinatu behar dutenean. Azkenik, jarraibide batzuk ematen dira, ebidentzian oinarritutako gomendioak ezartzeari buruz, erakundearen estrategian eta jarduera operatiboetan. Resumen: El uso de más evidencia, de mejor calidad y relevante, resultará en una identificación más precisa del problema y mejores resultados en la toma de decisiones al diseñar políticas y estrategias de recursos humanos. El objetivo de este documento es abogar por un proceso de reclutamiento y selección basado en la evidencia mediante la revisión de la investigación más avanzada sobre cuatro desafíos principales para los profesionales de selección y selección de personal: definir, atraer, evaluar y desarrollar talento, ya que la selección y el desarrollo deben ir de la mano. Además, enfatiza la importancia de considerar la validez de constructos y métodos para predecir el desempeño laboral al diseñar una política de desarrollo y selección basada en la evidencia dentro de las organizaciones. Finalmente, se proporcionan directrices sobre cómo implementar recomendaciones basadas en evidencia en la estrategia de la organización y las actividades operativas. Abstract: Using more, better quality, and relevant evidence is likely to result in more accurate problem identification and better decision-making outcomes when designing HR policies and strategies. The aim of this paper is to advocate for an evidence-based recruitment and selection process by reviewing the state-of-the-art research on four major challenges for staffing and selection professionals: defining, attracting, assessing, and developing talent, as selection and development should go hand-inhand. Furthermore, it stresses the importance of considering the validity of constructs and methods to predict job performance when designing an evidence-based selection and development policy within the organizations. Finally, guidelines on how to implement evidence-based recommendations into the organization’s strategy and operational activities are provided.
... This requires a latent construct that is suitable for automatic item generation and useful in the context of personnel selection. Since intelligence is the best singular predictor of job performance (e.g., Ree et al., 1994;Schmidt et al., 2016;Schmidt & Hunter, 1981, 1998Ziegler et al., 2011) and working memory is a good predictor of intelligence (e.g., Gignac, 2014;Kane et al., 2005;Oberauer et al., 2005), working memory seems to be excellent for personnel selection purposes, especially for OA. Moreover, working memory is highly suitable for automatic item generation because most test procedures that measure working memory involve repetitive tasks that differ only in their length or semantic content, for example. ...
... It is common knowledge that intelligence is the best predictor of job performance when only one predictor is considered (Ganzach & Pankaj, 2018;Ree et al., 1994;Scherbaum, Goldstein, Yusko, Ryan, & Hanges, 2012;Schmidt et al., 2016;Schmidt & Hunter, 1981, 1998Ziegler et al., 2011). This is unsurprising considering that different cognitive abilities correlate more strongly with each other as time goes on and are closely interwoven with one another (Breit, Brunner, & Preckel, 2020). ...
Thesis
Wie die meisten westlichen Streitkräfte, bewegt sich die Bundeswehr im Spannungsfeld zwischen hohem Personalbedarf und Fachkräftemangel. Durch ein Onlineassessment kann der Bewerbungsprozess dahingehend optimiert werden, dass fähiges Personal schneller gebunden wird. Onlineassessment hat diverse Vorteile, gleichzeitig sind damit jedoch Herausforderungen verbunden. Die wahrscheinlich größte ist es, Betrug zu minimieren, da Onlineassessment in einer weitestgehend unkontrollierten Umgebung stattfindet. Zur Entgegnung dieser Problematik dienen verschiedene Ansätze, wie beispielsweise große Itempools, wodurch einer Verbreitung der Lösung im Internet entgegengewirkt werden kann. Dieser Ansatz ist jedoch mit hohen Kosten verbunden. Automatische Itemgenerierung hingegen ermöglicht es, kostengünstig und zeiteffizient psychometrisch hochwertige Items zu erstellen. Aus diesem Grund wurden in der vorliegenden Arbeit zwei Arbeitsgedächtnistests mit automatischer Itemgenerierung für das Onlineassessment der Bundeswehr entwickelt und evaluiert, mit dem Ziel einer hohen prädiktiven Validität auf die Diagnostik vor Ort. In der ersten Studie (N = 330) wurde gezeigt, dass automatische Itemgenerierung für die entwickelten Arbeitsgedächtnistests eingesetzt werden kann. Hierbei wurden zudem zwei verschiedene zeitliche Varianten untersucht, wobei sich diejenige mit der längeren Stimulusrepräsentationszeit als vorteilhafter erwies. In der zweiten Studie (N = 621) wurden Nachweise für Reliabilität und Validität erbracht. Die Tests zeigten eine gute konvergente und diskriminante Validität. Zudem konnte einer der beiden Tests eine sehr gute prädiktive Validität aufweisen. Unter Gesamtberücksichtigung der Testgütekriterien wurde dieser Test schließlich für das Onlineassessment der Bundeswehr vorgeschlagen. Somit steht der Bundeswehr nun ein wissenschaftlich fundierter Arbeitsgedächtnistest für das Onlineassessment zur Verfügung.
... Psychological testing is often used in the real world in making important decisions such as school admittance; employee hiring and promotion; military personnel selection, placement, and enrollment into training programs; family court rulings; and criminal culpability (e.g., Amrein & Berliner, 2002;Erickson et al., 2007;Hartmann et al., 2003;Heilbrun, 1992;Nwafor & Adesuwa, 2014). A consistent finding in this area is that general mental ability (namely, psychometric intelligence) is the best predictor of academic performance, training success, job performance, and career potential (Bosco et al., 2015;Gottfredson, 1986;Kuncel et al., 2004;Ree & Earles, 1992;Schmidt & Hunter, 1998;Schmidt et al., 2016;Song et al., 2010), hence why many personnel selection tests place heavy demands on accumulated knowledge (crystalized intelligence) and reasoning ability (fluid intelligence). ...
... But it is still imperative from a legal, moral, and practical (e.g., economical) standpoint that researchers and practitioners strive to minimize the extent to which these differences are reflected in test scores, and consequently the extent to which tests result in adverse impact (see Burgoyne et al., 2021;Ceci & Papierno, 2005). Critical reviews and examinations have found that one of the most effective strategies for combating subgroup differences, and thus adverse impact, is to use non-cognitive selection methods such as personality assessments (e.g., integrity and conscientiousness), biographical data, and structured interviews, as these methods can reduce or even eliminate subgroup differences and may improve prediction of job performance when used in addition to cognitive tests (Bobko et al., 1999;Newman & Lyon, 2009;Ployhart & Holtz, 2008;Pulakos & Schmitt, 1996;Roth et al., 2001;Schmidt, 2016;Schmitt et al., 1997;Sinha et al., 2011). However, adding non-cognitive tests is not universally practiced because it results in increased administration time and some practitioners are concerned that using this approach reduces overall predictive validity (the so-called diversity-validity dilemma, see Campion et al., 2001;Ployhart & Holtz, 2008). ...
Preprint
Working memory capacity is an important psychological construct and many real-world phenomena are strongly associated with individual differences in working memory functioning. Although working memory and attention are intertwined, several studies have recently shown that individual differences in the general ability to control attention is more strongly predictive of human behavior than working memory capacity. In this review, we argue that researchers would therefore generally be better suited to studying the role of attention control rather than memory-based abilities in explaining real-world behavior and performance in humans. The review begins with a discussion of relevant literature on the nature and measurement of both working memory capacity and attention control, including recent developments in the study of individual differences of attention control. We then selectively review existing literature on the role of both working memory and attention in various applied settings and explain, in each case, why a switch in emphasis to attention control is warranted. Topics covered include psychological testing, cognitive training, education, sports, police decision making, human factors, and disorders within clinical psychology. The review concludes with general recommendations and best practices for researchers interested in conducting studies of individual differences in attention control.
... Wanneer de interessedomeinen wel matchen met overeenkomstige functies, zien we aanzienlijk hogere correlatiecoëfficiënten (r = .31; Schmidt, Oh, & Shaffer, 2016). Maar niet alle interessevragenlijsten zijn even valide. ...
... Kandidaten krijgen korte situaties voorgelegd en er wordt gevraagd om elke situatie te (Corstjens, Lievens, & Krumm, 2017). Deze opvattingen hebben implicaties voor de ontwikkeling van SJT's: Items worden eerder deductief dan inductief ontwikkeld, er wordt minder context aangeboden en er wordt een beperkter aantal (soms slechts één) antwoordalternatief voorgelegd aan sollicitanten (single response SJT's, Motowidlo, Crook, Kell, & Naemi, 2009 (Schmidt en Hunter, 1998;Schmidt, et al., 2016). Soms is de voorspellende waarde van gedragsproeven iets lager. ...
Chapter
Het selecteren van goede werknemers is van groot belang voor het garanderen van goed functionerende organisaties. Allereerst bekijken we de huidige wetenschappelijk stand van zaken met betrekking tot het selecteren van werknemers. We bespreken de verschillende fases van een selectieprocedure, perspectieven om naar selectie te kijken en het selectiemodel. We eindigen het eerste deel met een kritische bespreking van de voornaamste selectie-instrumenten op basis van de best beschikbare wetenschappelijke evidentie en een samenvattende testwijzer. Vervolgens illustreren we een aantal recente uitdagingen voor werving en selectie aan de hand van casussen; we eindigen met een kritische noot over de zogenoemde scientist-practitioner gap (de kloof tussen wetenschap en praktijk) en wat we hieraan kunnen doen.
... With regard to personnel selection, the correlations of our model achieved 0.81 to 0.87, which was far greater than the operational validities of structured employment interviews at 0.41, personality inventory at 0.14-0.25, occupational interest testing at 0.34, and assessment centers at 0.37 for training performance [58], similar to the probationary evaluation in this study. Moreover, the MSEs are all less than one SD for the six competency scores, which indicates that the risk of error is acceptable. ...
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This work aims to develop a real-time image and video processor enabled with an artificial intelligence (AI) agent that can predict a job candidate's behavioral competencies according to his or her facial expressions. This is accomplished using a real-time video-recorded interview with a histogram of oriented gradients and support vector machine (HOG-SVM) plus convolutional neural network (CNN) recognition. Different from the classical view of recognizing emotional states, this prototype system was developed to automatically decode a job candidate's behaviors by their microexpressions based on the behavioral ecology view of facial displays (BECV) in the context of employment interviews using a real-time video-recorded interview. An experiment was conducted at a Fortune 500 company, and the video records and competency scores were collected from the company's employees and hiring managers. The results indicated that our proposed system can provide better predictive power than can human-structured interviews, personality inventories, occupation interest testing, and assessment centers. As such, our proposed approach can be utilized as an effective screening method using a personal-value-based competency model. Keywords Behavioral ecology view of facial displays (BECV) · Convolutional neural network (CNN) · Employment selection · Histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) · Real-time image and video processing · Support vector machine (SVM)
... For example, one outcome of the IEA and PISA studies is that, by the time children are 11 years of age, there are no differences in the much sought after areas of educational attainment between school systems which admit children from all ages from 4 to 8. 6 But even here it is not always clear that the researchers concerned have fully understood what they are doing but have, for example, simply fed their data into off-the-shelf statistical packages yielding esoteric indices. 7 Hunter & Hunter (1984), Schmidt et al (2016) 8 For a fuller discussion of this process see eg Raven (1991) 9 Stephenson (2001), . 10 While such observations have led many outstanding researchers (eg Hamilton et al, 1977) to, at least partially reject quantitative evaluation, and others to desert the field entirely, the alternatives are usually dismissed as "unscientific" and, as a result, unlikely to be funded by government departments. ...
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In this article I argue that the majority of studies purporting to offer evaluations of educational policies and programmes are seriously misleading; indeed, viewed from a wider perspective, they cannot be considered to constitute good science. As a result, they lead to, or support, policies which have many harmful consequences. These studies, and the policies associated with them, must therefore be considered unethical1. Worse, the failure of the researchers concerned to draw attention to the limitations of their work, or challenge the policies based upon them, must be considered unprofessional and unethical. This does not mean that those studies tell us nothing ... simply that they are not fit for purpose. Conversely, the thoughtways and social practices they recursively cement need to be radically reconsidered. One further implication of the defects in the studies reviewed is that, as with the “replication crisis”, there are very few conclusions that can be accepted uncritically. This has pervasive implications for many of those offering conventional courses in psychology.
... There is ample evidence that at the individual level, measures of patience predict better life outcomes, ranging from job success to health. Some of this validity is retained when measures of intelligence are included in models (O'Boyle et al., 2011;Schmidt, Oh & Shaffer, 2016;Zissman & Ganzach, 2020). Thus, it is not surprising to find that researchers who study global variation in country well-being, whether focused on economic outcomes such as GDP per capita or something else, have attempted to explain these in terms of patience differences between populations (Dohmen et al., 2015Falk et al., 2018;Galor & Özak, 2016;Wang, Rieger & Hens, 2016). ...
Article
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Patient people fare better in life than impatient people. Based on this and on economic models, many economists have claimed that more patient countries should fare better than less patient countries. We utilize cross-national data in non-cognitive traits measured in the Global Preference Survey (GPS). This survey measured six non-cognitive traits — risk and time preferences, positive and negative reciprocity, altruism, and trust — across 76 countries in about 80,000 persons. As such, it provides the best current database of economics-focused non-cognitive traits. We combine this database with existing estimates of national intelligence (national IQs) and model country outcomes as a function of these predictors. For outcomes, we used the 51 national well-being indicators from the Social Progress Index (SPI) as well as the composite extracted from this, the general socioeconomic factor. We find that non-cognitive variables, time preference included, are only weakly predictive of national well-being outcomes when national IQs are also in the model. The median β across the indicators was 0.11 for time preference but 0.39 for national IQ. We replicated these results using six economic indicators, again with similar results: median βs of 0.15 and 0.52 for time preference and national IQ, respectively. Across all our results, we found that national IQ has 2-4 times the predictive validity of time preference. These results are fairly robust to inclusion of a spatial autocorrelation control, alternative measures of national IQ and time preference, or no controls. Our results suggest that the importance of national non-cognitive traits, including time preference, is overestimated or that these traits are mismeasured.
... Researchers have spent over a century accumulating convincing evidence that welldesigned hiring systems can enhance the measurement and prediction of human potential at work (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998;Schmidt, Oh, & Shaffer, 2016). However, human behavior is inherently complex. ...
Article
It is widely acknowledged that subgroup bias can influence hiring evaluations. However, the notion that bias still threatens equitable hiring outcomes in modern employment contexts continues to be debated, even among organizational scholars. In this study, we sought to contextualize this debate by estimating the practical impact of bias on real-world hiring outcomes (a) across a wide range of hiring scenarios and (b) in the presence of diversity-oriented staffing practices. Toward this end, we conducted a targeted meta-analysis of recent hiring experiments that manipulated both candidate gender and qualifications to couch our investigation within ongoing debates surrounding the impact of small amounts of bias in otherwise meritocratic hiring contexts. Consistent with prior research, we found evidence of small gender bias effects ( d = −0.30) and large qualification effects ( d = 1.61) on hiring managers’ evaluations of candidate hireability. We then used these values to inform the starting parameters of a large-scale computer simulation designed to model conventional processes by which candidates are recruited, evaluated, and selected for open positions. Collectively, our simulation findings empirically substantiate assertions that even seemingly trivial amounts of subgroup bias can produce practically significant rates of hiring discrimination and productivity loss. Furthermore, we found contextual factors can alter but cannot obviate the consequences of biased evaluations, even within apparently optimal hiring scenarios (e.g., when extremely valid assessments are used). Finally, our results demonstrate residual amounts of subgroup bias can undermine the effectiveness of otherwise successful targeted recruitment efforts. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
... Aptitude takes mental form (e.g., cognitive intelligence) (Churchill et al., 1997) or personality trait such as self-confidence or perseverance (Kotler, 2010). Cognitive ability and personality are critical variables that appeal to managers in personnel selection (Schmidt et al., 2016) and connect strongly with performance (Salgado, 2016). The aura characterization of FS helps neutralize barriers and pave way for offer discussion. ...
Article
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Field salespersons’ disengagement in deposit money banks (DMB) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has maintained an upward trajectory. Failures in sales target delivery mostly take the blame. Despite the obvious implications of non-target delivery for DMBs’ financial health, there is under-reportage culminating in little understanding regarding those factors that predict field salespersons’ performance from typical SSA settings. This paper bridges the gap by empirically examining antecedents of field salespersons’ sales target performance in DMBs in Nigeria that is alarmingly competitive and significantly characterized by physical-cash-transactions. Also, it examines the mediating effect of organizational commitment regarding identified antecedents on FS sales target performance in DMBs. A sample of 334 field salespersons from 17 DMBs in Southeastern Nigeria was surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using a structural equation modeling approach with the aid of Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) 25.0 software concerning hypothesized paths in the research model. Reliability, convergence and discriminant validity were checked. Significant and positive relations regarding motivation, aptitude, and job satisfaction were confirmed; nevertheless, role perceptions and work environment show a negative and significant effect on sales target actualization. Skill-set shows no statistical support. Organizational commitment as a mediator shows a complementary partial mediation effect on determinants and sales target performance. Understanding both economic and human-inclined variables is crucial to improving the performance of field salespersons. Theoretical implications and directions for further research were proposed. AcknowledgmentThe authors express their deep gratitude to Prof. A. D. Nkamnebe of the Department of Marketing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria, for reviewing the manuscript and suggestions for improving the quality of the paper.
... Modern prehire assessments are highly effective at screening out poorly qualified applicants (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998;Schmidt et al., 2016). But does the use of these tools paradoxically harm an organization's chance to hire high-quality candidates as well? ...
Article
Hiring managers are often hesitant to implement online assessments over concerns that higher‐quality candidates are more likely to quit lengthy assessment batteries than lower‐quality candidates. In this paper, we present the results of two studies that collectively challenge this assumption. In Study 1, data from 327,517 job‐seekers spanning eight hiring contexts showed that assessment performance was negatively associated with subsequent assessment attrition behavior. In Study 2, we replicated this pattern of effects in two additional samples comprising 1,844,604 applicants for hourly associate positions, and 18,937 applicants for nursing positions. Collectively, these findings suggest that some degree of attrition may ultimately benefit, rather than harm, organizations using prehire assessments.
... Even though performance-based pay variables and support for psychological needs variables had a relatively low explanatory value for the performance outcomes, the variables included in this study are clear examples of active strategies that organizations can use to increase performance. In this sense, they are not directly comparable to more stable individual factors that can explain performance differences between individuals, such as general mental ability (Schmidt, Oh & Shaffer, 2016). ...
Article
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The use of performance-based pay is increasing rapidly, but empirical evidence on how and why it relates to job performance, as well as its relative strategical importance, remains unclear. The present study examined the relative importance of performance-based pay variables and support of psychological needs variables for task and contextual performance in a sample of 582 white-collar employees in Sweden. Multiple regression results, based on survey and register data, showed that the instrumentality of the pay system related to lower levels of task and contextual performance. However, supplementary relative weight analysis (RWA) showed that, in relative terms, instrumentality of the pay system was of minor importance for performance. Performance-based pay-raise amount was positively related to contextual performance but not predictive of task performance. Procedural pay-setting justice was unrelated to both outcomes. Among the support of psychological needs variables, feedback and job autonomy had positive associations with both outcomes while social support from colleagues was not predictive of performance. Considering the explained variance (16–17%), the performance-based pay variables combined accounted for up to a third (12.6–29.2%) while support of psychological needs variables accounted for more than half of the explained variance (56.1–68.1%) in task and contextual performance. The results indicate that organizations would benefit from putting support of psychological needs to the forefront of their motivational strategies as a complement to administrating complex compensation systems.
... The findings related to our final research question suggest that, on average, HR managers have a technically accurate, if optimistic, picture of what percentage of variance in overall job performance can be explained at the time of hire. As previously noted, participants' mean response to this item was very close to the highest meta-analytic operational validity reported by Schmidt et al. (2016), which was achieved when combining GMA tests and integrity tests to predict overall job performance. The wide variance in responses (SD = 18.9%) suggests there is still a considerable amount of work to be done to educate practitioners about how well selection tools can predict valued work behavior; but, contrary to what Highhouse (2008) suggested, relatively few participants indicated that an extremely high percentage of performance variance can be predicted at the time of hire. ...
Article
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After nearly two decades of awareness on the research-practice gap in human resource management, this study updates and expands on the seminal findings of Rynes et al. (2002) specific to personnel selection. In a sample of 453 HR practitioners in the United States and Canada, we found the research-practice gap persists. Notably, compared to the 2002 findings, HR practitioners tended to be worse at identifying personnel selection myths than was shown by Rynes et al. over 15 years ago, while those who reported not conducting validity studies were surprisingly better at identifying several myths as false. Several potential avenues for advancement are suggested in light of the disturbing stubbornness of the research-practice gap in personnel selection.
... If you seek evidence of the social impact of a psychological intervention look no further. 20 Actually, asHunter (1998) andSchmidt et al (2016) show, they have little predictive validity outside the educational system.21 Deary et al 2008. ...
Article
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To me, the most surprising and disturbing feature of these important commentaries was the authors' apparent lack of concern about the kinds of abuse of science, logic, and authority I highlighted in my starter paper and/or discussion of what might be done to stem these abuses. To put this in context, I have had several discussions with teachers, clinical psychologists, and occupational psychologists in which those concerned spoke about the damaging effects of the policies they were required to implement and the way in which such policies were often justified by reference to research. How could it be that those who commented on my paper were unaware of, or unconcerned about, that research and its effects? Perhaps they attributed the problem, not to the research itself, but to the politicians or bureaucrats who generated the prescriptions, thereby avoiding responsibility. That certainly seemed to be the case in relation to high-stakes testing. But what of the cyclical process whereby psychologists' failure to generate meaningful measures of areas of competence beyond "academic ability" fuels a preoccupation "academic ability" in schools, thus leading to a situation in which it is easy to obtain funding for research into such things as "motivation for academic achievement" but great difficulty obtaining funding for creating alternative curricula and means of enabling people to get credit for alternative talents. Whatever the political motivations behind it, it was researchers who dominated the Council of the International Association for Educational Achievement (the precursor to PISA) who determined the evaluations that were used and were therefore, at least to some degree, in a position to promote more broadly based measures of "achievement" than those which, despite endless declarations to the effect that the promotion of an International Educational Olympics was not what they were about, resulted in just that. How could these commentators not be alarmed about researchers' role in this and similar processes? How could they not be concerned about the process described by Margaret Clark (2015) in a recent edition of PER whereby control over both the framing of policy relating to the "reading" problem and the framing of research commissioned in relation to both reading itself and the evaluation of remedial programmes excludes alternative framings of both "the problem" and its "evaluation"? 1
... They have dominated this top position since 2010 (ManpowerGroup 2018). Abounding literature indicates that firms with welldeveloped selection practices will have significantly lower employee turnover, higher productivity and overall financial performance(Hoffman, Kahn & Li 2018;Schmidt, Oh & Shaffer 2016). Furthermore, weaknesses in HRS processes could have dire and widespread consequences for a firm(Aladwan, Bhanugopan & D'Netto 2015;Ekwoaba, Ikeije & Ufoma 2015;Trindale 2015). ...
Article
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Apprentice selection: A systematic literature review from 1990 to 2020
... 22 Clark (2014), Raven (1991Raven ( , 1997Raven ( , 2014, Suggate (2012). These measures have little predictive validity outside the educational system (Schmidt et al., 2016). The measurement of differential change (eg more vs less "academic" pupils) in response to some intervention is even more problematic (Kazdin, 2006;Prieler & Raven, 2008). ...
Article
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In this paper, problems with the philosophy and research relating to various interpretations of "closing the gap" in educational achievement are used to open up a discussion of, and illustrate, the process whereby a narrow interpretation of "science" and neglect of systemic thinking result in the generation of huge amounts of dangerous and misleading misinformation and thence the generation of draconian and destructive policies. The paper opens by returning to an unfinished debate arising out of a summary of the unanticipated and counterin-tuitive effects of interventions designed to close the "attainment" gap between more and less advantaged pupils. This is used to illustrate the importance of studying the unintended as well as intended outcomes of interventions and the importance of considering whether those outcomes are desirable. More of the problems facing those who seek to contribute to evidence-based policy are then illustrated, via a discussion of an "illuminative" evaluation of competency-oriented , project-based, education conducted in the environment around a number of schools, to open a discussion of the need for comprehensive evaluation of educational-and other-projects and policies. "Comprehensive evaluation" implies the evaluation of all short and long term, personal and social, desired and desirable, and undesired and undesirable effects of the programmes and policies under investigation. when this criterion is applied to the vast number of published evaluations of school effectiveness it emerges that most fall well short of the mark. worse than that, most of their conclusions are nothing less than seriously misleading and damaging. The generation of such misleading information is much more widespread and serious than that exposed by the "replication crisis." It is argued that, in essence, it stems from the pervasive deployment of non-systemic (viz. "reductionist") science. A range of serious deficits in the thinking and methodology of psychologists and educational researchers associated with this approach are then discussed. It is concluded that it is vital for social scientists to do what they can to rectify the situation.
... 1. Immigrant groups from countries with higher human capital should fare better than those from countries with lower human capital, in particular, cognitive ability as the most important component of human capital (Christainsen, 2013(Christainsen, , 2020O'Boyle et al., 2011;Rindermann, 2018;Schmidt et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Immigrants to Western countries typically have worse social outcomes than natives, but country of origin immigrant groups differ widely. We studied school performance in Denmark for 116 immigrant groups measured by the grade point average (GPA) of the 9th grade exam at the end of compulsory schooling. General intelligence is a strong causal factor of school outcomes and life outcomes in general for individuals. We accordingly predicted that country of origin average intelligence (national IQ) will predict immigrant group outcomes. We furthermore included as covariates immigrant generation (first vs. second) as well as the Muslim percentage of country of origin. Results show that GPA in Denmark can be predicted by national IQ r = .47 (n = 81), Muslim percentage r = -.40 (n = 81), and educational selectivity of immigrants entering Denmark r = .35 (n = 71). Regression modeling indicated that each predictor is informative when combined. The final model explained 46.3% of the variance with first generation (binary) β = -0.65, βIQ = 0.29, βMuslim = -0.21, and β education selectivity index = 0.27 (all predictors p < .001, n = 97). Our results are in line with existing research on cognitive stratification and immigration.
... A profile of high scores on Honesty-Humility, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, and low scores on Emotionality increases the likelihood of achieving a higher social position. The role of Conscientiousness and Openness is not strange given the relationship of both traits with educational achievement (e.g., Moshagen et al., 2019), and Conscientiousness with work achievement (Schmidt et al., 2016). Note that the relationships between the FFM and social position are replicated (Bucciol et al., 2015). ...
Article
Objectives The present paper tests the cross-national stability of the HEXACO-60 structure across 18 countries from four continents. Gender and age differences across countries will be examined. Finally, this is the first study to explicitly analyze the relationships between the HEXACO and social position. Method 10,298 subjects (5,410 women and 4,888 men) from 18 countries and 13 languages were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis techniques were used to test configural, metric and scalar invariance models. Congruence coefficients with the original structure of the HEXACO-60 were computed for every culture. Effect sizes of gender, age, and social position factors across countries were also computed. Results HEXACO-60 demonstrates configural and metric invariance, but not scalar invariance. Congruence coefficients show a great equivalence in almost all countries and factors. Only Emotionality presents a large gender difference across countries. No relevant effect of age is observed. A profile of high scores on Honesty-Humility, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience, and low scores on Emotionality increases the likelihood of achieving a higher social position, although the effect sizes are small. Conclusions HEXACO-60 is a useful instrument to conduct personality trait research and practice around the world. Implications of gender, social position and country differences are discussed.
... Selection methods have been used in recruitment for over 100 years to evaluate candidate suitability and predict future job performance (Ryan and Ployhart 2013;Schmidt et al. 2016;Schmidt and Hunter 1998), with around 40 million assessments being completed globally by candidates each year (Chamorro-Premuzic 2017). The most valid predictor of job performance is cognitive ability (Schmitt 2014), with validity estimates of r = 0.51 (Schmidt and Hunter 1998), a value that increases when combined with integrity tests (r = 0.65), work sample tests (r = 0.63), structured interviews (r = 0.63), or tests of conscientiousness (r = 0.60) (Schmidt and Hunter 1998). ...
Article
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Selection methods are commonly used in talent acquisition to predict future job performance and to find the best candidates, but questionnaire-based assessments can be lengthy and lead to candidate fatigue and poor engagement, affecting completion rates and producing poor data. Gamification can mitigate some of these issues through greater engagement and shorter testing times. One avenue of gamification is image-based tests. Although such assessments are starting to gain traction in personnel selection, few studies describing their validity and psychometric properties exist. The current study explores the potential of a five-minute, forced-choice, image-based assessment of the Big Five personality traits to be used in selection. Study 1 describes the creation of the image pairs and the selection of the 150 best-performing items based on a sample of 300 respondents. Study 2 describes the creation of machine-learning-based scoring algorithms and tests of their convergent and discriminate validity and adverse impact based on a sample of 431 respondents. All models showed good levels of convergent validity with the IPIP-NEO-120 (openness r = .71, conscientiousness r = .70, extraversion r = .78, agreeableness r = .60, and emotional stability r = .70) and were largely free from potential adverse impact. The implications for recruitment policy and practice and the need for further validation are discussed.
... We argue no: our new ability validity estimate of .31 fits with the .33 for work samples of Schmidt et al. (2016). So, there is a coherent pattern. ...
Article
This paper systematically revisits prior meta-analytic conclusions about the criterion-related validity of personnel selection procedures, and particularly the effect of range restriction corrections on those validity estimates. Corrections for range restriction in meta-analyses of predictor-criterion relationships in personnel selection contexts typically involve the use of an artifact distribution. After outlining and critiquing five approaches that have commonly been used to create and apply range restriction artifact distributions, we conclude that each has significant issues that often result in substantial overcorrection and that therefore the validity of many selection procedures for predicting job performance has been substantially overestimated. Revisiting prior meta-analytic conclusions produces revised validity estimates. Key findings are that most of the same selection procedures that ranked high in prior summaries remain high in rank, but with mean validity estimates reduced by .10-.20 points. Structured interviews emerged as the top-ranked selection procedure. We also pair validity estimates with information about mean Black-White subgroup differences per selection procedure, providing information about validity-diversity tradeoffs. We conclude that our selection procedures remain useful, but selection predictor-criterion relationships are considerably lower than previously thought. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... They have dominated this top position since 2010 (ManpowerGroup 2018). Abounding literature indicates that firms with welldeveloped selection practices will have significantly lower employee turnover, higher productivity and overall financial performance(Hoffman, Kahn & Li 2018;Schmidt, Oh & Shaffer 2016). Furthermore, weaknesses in HRS processes could have dire and widespread consequences for a firm(Aladwan, Bhanugopan & D'Netto 2015;Ekwoaba, Ikeije & Ufoma 2015;Trindale 2015). ...
Article
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Orientation: Technological innovations and developments in methods of productivity have resulted in an increased demand for technically-oriented artisans. However, the supply of qualified artisans is insufficient to meet the demand. Research purpose: This article is the product of a systematic investigation into the extent and nature of empirical literature related to human resource selection practices used for apprentices. Motivation for the study: The authors noted inadequate research into the selection practices used for apprentices. This investigation was motivated by the need to systematically verify the extent and nature of the empirical literature on apprentice selection, both internationally and nationally. Research design, approach and method: A systematic literature review of published empirical research articles (for the period 1990–2020) in scholarly databases was conducted. The literature was accessed through relevant databases within the business management, human resource management and industrial psychology fields. The literature was restricted to scholarly (i.e., peer reviewed journals), English full textual data. Twelve combinations of two clusters of key words were used in the search function. The first cluster was apprentice, apprenticeship and artisan, with the second cluster being selection, selection process, staffing and recruitment. Four exclusion categories were used to reject literature that were unrelated, dissimilar and unconnected with the purpose of the literature review. Main findings: From the comprehensive review of the literature, 12 articles were found to have content related to the selection of apprentices. Five core themes, with 11 sub-themes, were identified from this literature. A research agenda is proposed with research questions identified for each theme. Practical/managerial implications: This literature review has provided a synthesised summary of the available literature on apprentice selection. Through the provision of a research agenda, this article contributes by providing a foundation for further research in the field. Contribution/value-add: This article adds to the current literature available on apprentice selection practices. This should alert researchers of the need to further explore this area to enhance knowledge and understanding of the best practices employed in the selection of apprentices.
... A primary emphasis in personnel selection research identifies determinants of future work performance, where tests of general mental ability and personality traits, employment interviews, and work sample tests are examples of established and valid predictors (Hunter & Schmidt, 1998;Schmidt et al., 2016). However, some selection methods, such as work sample tests (e.g., assessment center exercises) and interviews, are more complex relative to psychometric tests in terms of measurement methodology. ...
... Other AI-based recruitment systems focus on the psychometric characteristics of candidates, with Traitify offering image-based measures of personality and HireVue using game-based versions of traditional psychometric assessments to estimate attributes such as personality, intelligence and emotional intelligence. Additionally, companies such as Cammio offer AI-based tools to analyze video interviews and predict psychological traits such as personality, with these psychometric traits being able to predict how well applicants will perform in a future role (Schmidt and Hunter 2016). The models used in these recruitment solutions are typically informed by the work of business psychologists who often work closely with the developers of these tools to create algorithms that can predict how a hiring manager would evaluate a candidate, reducing the need for psychologists or trained recruiters to be involved in assessing applicants. ...
Article
Full-text available
Business psychologists study and assess relevant individual differences, such as intelligence and personality, in the context of work. Such studies have informed the development of artificial intelligence systems (AI) designed to measure individual differences. This has been capitalized on by companies who have developed AI-driven recruitment solutions that include aggregation of appropriate candidates (Hiretual), interviewing through a chatbot (Paradox), video interview assessment (MyInterview), and CV-analysis (Textio), as well as estimation of psychometric characteristics through image-(Traitify) and game-based assessments (HireVue) and video interviews (Cammio). However, driven by concern that such high-impact technology must be used responsibly due to the potential for unfair hiring to result from the algorithms used by these tools, there is an active effort towards proving mechanisms of governance for such automation. In this article, we apply a systematic algorithm audit framework in the context of the ethically critical industry of algorithmic recruitment systems, exploring how audit assessments on AI-driven systems can be used to assure that such systems are being responsibly deployed in a fair and well-governed manner. We outline sources of risk for the use of algorithmic hiring tools, suggest the most appropriate opportunities for audits to take place, recommend ways to measure bias in algorithms, and discuss the transparency of algorithms.
... L'évaluation psychométrique, pratique qui consiste essentiellement en l'utilisation d'instruments psychométriques, est ainsi employée dans divers secteurs, notamment dans le domaine clinique, en recherche, en éducation et en employabilité, à des fins d'orientation, de sélection, de classement, de dépistage et de diagnostic (Hogan, 2017;Neukrug & Fawcett, 2015;Urbina, 2014). De nombreuses études montrent l'efficacité de l'évaluation psychométrique dans le domaine clinique (Hanson & Poston, 2011;Meyer et al., 2001;Poston & Hanson, 2010), en contexte de sélection de personnel (Morris, Daisley, Wheeler, & Boyer, 2015;Sackett, Borneman, & Connelly, 2008;Schmidt, Oh, & Shaffer, 2016) et en éducation (Sackett et al., 2008). ...
... Au niveau de la recherche académique, la question de la validité (prédictive et de construit) des outils de sélection digitaux est un sujet nouveau, et il n'existe pas suffisamment de résultats de recherches pouvant servir de guide au praticien (Woods & West, 2019). Si la méta-analyse récente de Schmidt et al. (2016) analyse la validité prédictive de nombreuses méthodes de sélection, la validité prédictive des nouvelles techniques issues de la digitalisation demeure inconnue. ...
Article
Le marché des outils d’aide au recrutement intégrant des modules d’intelligence artificielle est en plein essor. Parmi les arguments utilisés pour promouvoir ces dispositifs, figure la promesse que ceux-ci permettraient de favoriser un recrutement non discriminatoire, en raison de leur capacité supposée à éliminer les biais de jugement humains. L’objectif de cette revue des recherches est de montrer que ces promesses sont difficilement tenables, car la correction de certains biais de jugement est contrecarrée par l’émergence de nouveaux biais induits par l’usage de l’IA.
... Ezért a teljesítmény tesztek eredményének főkomponens-elemzése -vagy a gyakorlatban, az IQ-tesztek kiértékelésekor sokszor azok egyszerű összpontszáma -révén a teszteket kitöltő, illetve elvégző személyeknél egy területáltalános kognitív képesség (g-faktor, "intelligencia") számítható vagy becsülhető. Az így mért pszichometriai intelligencia időben stabil (Deary, Pattie, & Starr, 2013;Gow és mtsai, 2011;Larsen, Hartmann, & Nyborg, 2008;Lyons és mtsai, 2009), a különböző tesztek között magas konvergens validitást mutat (Floyd, Reynolds, Farmer, & Kranzler, 2013;Johnson, Bouchard, Krueger, McGue, & Gottesman, 2004;Johnson, Nijenhuis, & Bouchard, 2008;Major, Johnson, & Bouchard, 2011), és prospektív vizsgálatokban nemcsak az iskolai teljesít ménnyel (Roth és mtsai, 2015), hanem a széles körben vett társadalmi siker legkülönbözőbb mutatóival, például a jövedelemmel, az iskolai végzettség gel, a végzett munka presztízsével, a korai iskolaelhagyással, a bűnözés sel vagy a szociális juttatások igénybevételével is összefügg (Hegelund, Flensborg-Madsen, Dammeyer, & Mortensen, 2018;Hegelund, Flensborg-Madsen, Dammeyer, Mortensen, & Mortensen, 2019;Herrnstein & Murray, 2010;Schmidt, Oh, & Shaffer, 2016;Strenze, 2007Strenze, , 2015. A kognitív epide miológia tudománya az intelligenciateszteknek egy speciális területen -nevezetesen az egészségi mutatókkal kapcsolatban -való prediktív validitásával foglalkozik . ...
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A kognitív epidemiológia az intelligencia és az egészségi állapot összefüggésének tudo- mánya. A modern, sokszor több százezer fős, teljes populációkon végzett kognitív epide- miológiai vizsgálatok eredményei alapján a magasabb premorbid intelligencia gya- korlatilag valamennyi mentális betegség, illetve pszichiátriai probléma alacsonyabb kockázatával függ össze. A magasabb premorbid intelligencia a halálozás, a szív- és ér- rendszeri betegségek, a metabolikus betegségek, a rossz egészség-magatartás és számos kisebb népegészségügyi jelentőségű betegség előfordulásával is negatívan függ össze; a légzőszervi betegségekkel és a dohányzáshoz nem köthető daganatokkal azonban gyen- ge vagy hiányzik az összefüggés. A mentális betegségekkel való összefüggést nem, a szo- matikus betegségekkel és a mortalitással való összefüggést azonban részben mediálják a felnőttkori szocioökonómiai státusz mutatói. A speciális vizsgálati elrendezések – úgymint ikerkontroll-vizsgálatok, pszeudoexperimentális vizsgálatok, valamint a mendeli ran- domizáció módszerét használó molekuláris genetikai vizsgálatok – eredményei arra utal- nak, hogy az intelligencia és az egészség közötti kapcsolat jelentős részét genetikai ténye- zők közvetítik, de a szomatikus egészségre a magasabb intelligencia következményeként elérhető jobb szocioökonómiai státusz is szerény hatást gyakorol. Cognitive epidemiology is the science of the relationship between intelligence and health. Modern studies of cognitive epidemiology, often with samples of several hundreds of thousands of individuals, have revealed that higher premorbid intelligence is associated with a lower risk of virtually all of mental illnesses and psychiatric problems. Higher premorbid intelligence is also associated negatively with the incidence of mortality, circulatory illness, metabolic illness, poor health behavior and many diseases of lower epidemiological significance, but its relationship to respiratory illness and non-smoking related cancers is weaker or non-existent. Indicators of adult socioeconomic status do not mediate the association between intelligence and mental illness, but they do partially mediate the relationship with somatic illness and mortality. Studies with special designs -twin control studies, pseudo-experimental studies and molecular genetic studies using Mendelian randomization – suggest that the relationship between intelligence and health is heavily mediated by genetic factors, but somatic health may be modestly but causally improved by better social status as a consequence of higher intelligence.
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There is a great need for people with specialist knowledge about cybersecurity in both the civil and military sector. The Swedish Armed Forces has decided that a basic education for conscript cyber soldiers shall be established. The work presented in this paper describes the development of an aptitude test for use in the selection process of conscript cyber soldiers, including a work analysis, test development, and initial validation. Based on the results from the work analysis and a literature review on other cyber tests, the test battery CyberTest Future Soldiers (CTFS) was developed. The cyber test (CTFS) consists of one skill test (with six subareas), one abilities test (with four subareas), and one survey regarding the test taker’s interests. The results from the initial validation show that the different test sections (skill and ability) measure different aspects important for performance. This lack of correlation makes it possible to select highly skilled people as well as people on a lower skill level, but who should perform well during the education due to their high level of abilities.
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Over recent years, Russia’s government has been expanding its presence in domestic state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and instituting numerous regulatory revisions. However, research is inconclusive over the government’s underlying economic intentions, and intervention outcomes, vis-à-vis SOEs. Likewise, it remains imprecise in relation to various characteristics of government–SOE interaction. To mitigate these issues, this paper develops a new state predation model relevant to large Russian SOEs. It argues, using the NOC (national oil company) mid-management recruitment and selection case, that SOEs are being re-oriented into centers of active regime support. Accordingly, the Russian government is prioritizing the placement of loyal clients, into NOC structures, who advance the SOEs’ growing political obligations. It is also rewarding them, in a performance-curbing manner, through tolerating their inadequate economic competence and heightened engagement in corporate corruption. At the same time, non-clients, including top international talent, are experiencing diminishing recruitment numbers and opportunities. This status quo, then, is being maintained via informal (closed and procedure-less) practices, though certain formal rules support it too. Consequently, the above-outlined state predation insights are important to understanding SOE political over-embeddedness and patron–client relations in emerging market SOEs.
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In a recently-featured commentary, Winston [1] defined scientific racism as “the use of scientific concepts and data to create and justify ideas of an enduring, biologically based hierarchy” [1, p. 425]. Winston further argued that scientific racism persists because of the “social genealogy and history” of the research program, rather than because it is an open empirical question as to whether some inherited behavioral differences exist between ethnic and racial groups. Finally, Winston called out one of us (BJP) for exemplifying scientific racism in a paper concerning Cold Winter’s Theory. Specifically, the article [2] tested whether Cold Winter’s Theory could account for race differences in intelligence across the 50 U.S. states. Unfortunately, Winston mischaracterized the article’s position on this matter. We therefore write here to correct the mischaracterization, and to illustrate that the study of race differences is part of a progressive research program on psychological differences
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Fortschritte in der Psychometrie, insbesondere die Anwendung von maschinellem Lernen, ermöglichen die Entwicklung neuartiger Assessment-Modalitäten. Spiel- und Video-Assessments bieten nicht nur eine verbesserte Erfahrung für die TeilnehmerInnen und kürzere Testzeiten gegenüber traditionellen Fragebögen, sie kommunizieren auch ein positives Arbeitgeberimage. Dies ist bei Assessments von Führungskräften besonders relevant. Dieser Beitrag erläutert die theoretischen Hintergründe von neuartigen Assessments und zeigt deren psychometrischen Qualitäten anhand von Hirevue Spiel und Video-Assessments. Validität und Fairness werden beschrieben, um interessierten Anwendern Anhaltspunkte für die Evaluation neuartiger Assessments zu bieten.
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The construct of general intelligence (g) is one of psychology’s most replicated and predictively useful constructs. Although research indicates that g is a highly heritable trait, deeply rooted in brain physiology, to date neither a strong biological correlate nor a comprehensive explanatory model involving neuronal mechanisms have been established. In this article I aim to do so by hypothesising that the von Economo neuron (VEN), a unique nerve cell thus far implicated in social cognition and interoception, may in fact represent a central biological constituent of g. After presenting supportive evidence from neuroscience, psychiatry/neurology, clinical gerontology, and comparative psychology, an integrated reductionist framework is outlined, which reaches from the level of cognitive theory to the level of single neurons. Based thereon, it is concluded that the VENs might contribute to individual differences in g by rapidly inducing the coherence of neuronal oscillations within a functionally invariant parieto-frontal network underlying higher-order cognition, thereby facilitating mental efficiency.
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Das Interview ist eine altbewährte und effektive Methode der Personalauswahl – gerade im Feld der Management-Diagnostik. Durch den technologischen Fortschritt ergeben sich heute als Alternative zur klassischen Gesprächssituation eine Vielzahl an alternativen Settings von Interviews für die Praxis, wie zum Beispiel Web-basierte Videointerviews. Diese werden mithilfe von mobilen Geräten oder PCs online ausgeführt.
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Online-Assessments haben sich fest in der Personalgewinnung etabliert, vor allem in jüngeren Zielgruppen wie Schüler/Auszubildende, Praktikanten, Hochschulabsolventen und Young Professionals. Zunehmend werden diese mittlerweile nicht mehr nur von großen Konzernen, sondern auch von mittleren und kleinen Unternehmen eingesetzt.
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General mental ability (intelligence) is the dominant determinant of the large individual differences in work output on the job revealed by research, but highly visible individual differences in citizenship behavior on the job make the intelligence-performance relationship harder to observe in everyday life. Over time, the validity of job experience for predicting performance declines, while that of ability remains constant or increases. Path analyses indicate that the major reason ability predicts performance so well is that higher ability individuals learn relevant job knowledge more quickly and team more of it. The current social policy that strongly discourages use of mental ability in hiring is counterproductive and has produced severe performance decrements. This policy should be changed to encourage the use of ability measures. However, it should also encourage the use of personality measures that increase overall predictive validity while simultaneously reducing differences in minority-majority hiring rates.
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Data from four different jobs (N = 1,474) were used to evaluate three hypotheses of the joint relation of job experience and general mental ability to job performance as measured by (a) work sample measures, (b) job knowledge measures, and (c) supervisory ratings of job performance. The divergence hypothesis predicts an increasing difference and the convergence hypothesis predicts a decreasing difference in the job performance of high- and low-mental-ability employees as employees gain increasing experience on the job. The noninteractive hypothesis, by contrast, predicts that the performance difference will be constant over time. For all three measures of job performance, results supported the noninteractive hypothesis. Also, consistent with the noninteractive hypothesis, correlational analyses showed essentially constant validities for general mental ability (measured earlier) out to 5 years of experience on the job. In addition to their theoretical implications, these findings have an important practical implication: They indicate that the concerns that employment test validities may decrease over time, complicating estimates of selection utility, are probably unwarranted.
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This study uses meta-analysis of an extensive predictive validity database to explore the boundary conditions for the validity of the structured interview as presented by McDaniel, Whetzel, Schmidt, and Maurer (1994). The interview examined here differs from traditional structured interviews in being empirically constructed, administered by telephone, and scored later based on a taped transcript. Despite these and other differences, this nontraditional employment interview was found to have essentially the same level of criterion-related validity for supervisory ratings of job performance reported by McDaniel for other structured employment interviews. These findings suggest that a variety of different approaches to the construction, administration, and scoring of structured employment interviews may lead to comparable levels of validity. We hypothesize that this result obtains because different types of structured interviews all measure to varying degrees constructs with known generalizable validity (e.g., conscientiousness and general mental ability). The interview examined here was also found to be a valid predictor of production records, sales volume, absenteeism, and job tenure.
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This article summarizes the practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) and the 18 other selection procedures. Overall, the 3 combinations with the highest multivariate validity and utility for job performance were GMA plus a work sample test (mean validity of .63), GMA plus an integrity test (mean validity of .65), and GMA plus a structured interview (mean validity of .63). A further advantage of the latter 2 combinations is that they can be used for both entry level selection and selection of experienced employees. The practical utility implications of these summary findings are substantial. The implications of these research findings for the development of theories of job performance are discussed.
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This meta-analytic review presents the findings of a project investigating the validity of the employment interview. Analyses are based on 245 coefficients derived from 86,311 individuals. Results show that interview validity depends on the content of the interview (situational, job related, or psychological), how the interview is conducted (structured vs. unstructured; board vs. individual), and the nature of the criterion (job performance, training performance, and tenure; research or administrative ratings). Situational interviews had higher validity than did job-related interviews, which, in turn, had higher validity than did psychologically based interviews. Structured interviews were found to have higher validity than unstructured interviews. Interviews showed similar validity for job performance and training performance criteria, but validity for the tenure criteria was lower.
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The purpose of this article is to examine the nature and magnitude of the relationship between cognitive abilities and vocational interests — two important measures of individual differences. Our meta-analysis of 27 studies with 29 independent samples and an overall sample size of 55,297 participants demonstrated meaningful relations between cognitive abilities and vocational interests. Meta-analytic coefficients ranged from −0.29 to 0.47; their strength and direction were comparable for females and males. Furthermore, we established both age and birth cohort as moderators of the relation between interests and cognitive abilities. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
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Recent empirical reviews have claimed a surprisingly strong relationship between job performance and self-reported emotional intelligence (also commonly called trait EI or mixed EI), suggesting self-reported/mixed EI is one of the best known predictors of job performance (e.g., ρ̂ = .47; Joseph & Newman, 2010b). Results further suggest mixed EI can robustly predict job performance beyond cognitive ability and Big Five personality traits (Joseph & Newman, 2010b; O'Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2011). These criterion-related validity results are problematic, given the paucity of evidence and the questionable construct validity of mixed EI measures themselves. In the current research, we update and reevaluate existing evidence for mixed EI, in light of prior work regarding the content of mixed EI measures. Results of the current meta-analysis demonstrate that (a) the content of mixed EI measures strongly overlaps with a set of well-known psychological constructs (i.e., ability EI, self-efficacy, and self-rated performance, in addition to Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and general mental ability; multiple R = .79), (b) an updated estimate of the meta-analytic correlation between mixed EI and supervisor-rated job performance is ρ̂ = .29, and (c) the mixed EI-job performance relationship becomes nil (β = -.02) after controlling for the set of covariates listed above. Findings help to establish the construct validity of mixed EI measures and further support an intuitive theoretical explanation for the uncommonly high association between mixed EI and job performance-mixed EI instruments assess a combination of ability EI and self-perceptions, in addition to personality and cognitive ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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In this article, I present a theory that explains the origin of sex differences in technical aptitudes. The theory takes as proven that there are no sex differences in general mental ability (GMA), and it postulates that sex differences in technical aptitude (TA) stem from differences in experience in technical areas, which is in turn based on sex differences in technical interests. Using a large data set, I tested and found support for four predictions made by this theory: (a) the construct level correlation between technical aptitude and GMA is larger for females than males, (b) the observed and true score variability of technical aptitude is greater among males than females, (c) at every level of GMA females have lower levels of technical aptitude, and (d) technical aptitude measures used as estimates of GMA for decision purposes would result in underestimation of GMA levels for girls and women. Given that GMA carries the weight of prediction of job performance, the support found for this last prediction suggests that, for many jobs, technical aptitude tests may underpredict the job performance of female applicants and employees. Future research should examine this question. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.
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Employment interviews are one of the most widely used selection tools across organizations, industries, and countries (Dipboye, 1992, 1997; Dip-boye & Jackson, 1999; Ryan, McFarland, Baron, & Page, 1999; Salgado, Viswesvaran, & Ones, 2001; Wilk & Cappelli, 2003, Table 1). Interviews also play an important role in government employment decisions, particularly at the Federal level (U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board, 2003). Likewise, employment interviews have long been a focus of both laboratory (e.g., Highhouse & Bottrill, 1995; Motowidlo & Burnett, 1995; Paunonen, Jack-son, & Oberman, 1987; Purkiss, Perrewe, Gillespie, Mayes, & Ferris, 2006) and field (e.g., Chapman & Zweig, 2005; Maurer & Solamon, 2006; van der Zee, Bakker, & Bakker, 2002) research. Although the use of employment interviews is widespread, a wealth of research indicates that not all inter-views are equally valid predictors of future job performance. In particular,
Chapter
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Employment interviews are one of the most widely used selection tools across organizations, industries, and countries (Dipboye, 1992, 1997; Dip-boye & Jackson, 1999; Ryan, McFarland, Baron, & Page, 1999; Salgado, Viswesvaran, & Ones, 2001; Wilk & Cappelli, 2003, Table 1). Interviews also play an important role in government employment decisions, particularly at the Federal level (U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board, 2003). Likewise, employment interviews have long been a focus of both laboratory (e.g., Highhouse & Bottrill, 1995; Motowidlo & Burnett, 1995; Paunonen, Jack-son, & Oberman, 1987; Purkiss, Perrewe, Gillespie, Mayes, & Ferris, 2006) and field (e.g., Chapman & Zweig, 2005; Maurer & Solamon, 2006; van der Zee, Bakker, & Bakker, 2002) research. Although the use of employment interviews is widespread, a wealth of research indicates that not all inter-views are equally valid predictors of future job performance. In particular,
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The practical value to organizations and to society of even small increments to validity from suppressor effects may be substantial. This study empirically examined the potential importance of suppressor variables in the personality domain. Of the five suppressor variables tentatively identified in the initial validation sample, four were found to hold up in an independent cross-validation sample. The suppressor variables increased the cross-validated multiple r from .61 to .68 (an 11% increase). The authors argue that, in addition to potential increments to prediction, suppressor variables in the personality domain may also contribute to substantive knowledge and theory development. The authors recommend that examination of potential suppressors be a more frequent component of research and analysis in the personality domain.
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In recent years, it has been advocated that capital budgeting and financial accounting techniques be used in evaluating the utility of human resources programs such as selection, training, and performance appraisal (Cronshaw & Alexander, 1985; Boudreau, 1983a, 1983b). We have demonstrated that many of these methods are often conceptually and logically inappropriate. We also showed that even in cases in which these techniques are logically applicable, their use may have unintended negative consequences. Finally, we discussed the question of the appropriate conceptual definition of utility. We conclude that different conceptual definitions of utility are useful under different circumstances; there is no single "correct" definition of utility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Given the overwhelming research evidence showing the strong link between general cognitive ability (GCA) and job performance, it is not logically possible for industrial -organizational (I/O) psychologists to have a serious debate over whether GCA is important for job performance. However, even if none of this evidence existed in I/O psychology, research findings in differential psychology on the nature and correlates of GCA provide a sufficient basis for the conclusion that GCA is strongly related to job performance. In I/O psychology, the theoretical basis for the empirical evidence linking GCA and job performance is rarely presented, but is critical to understanding and acceptance of these findings. The theory explains the why behind the empirical findings. From the viewpoint of the kind of world we would like to live in - and would like to believe we live in - the research findings on GCA are not what most people would hope for and are not welcome. However, if we want to remain a science-based field, we cannot reject what we know to be true in favor of what we would like to be true.
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This article presents a series of meta-analyses carried out, exploring the construct validity of personnel selection interviews. Accordingly, the interviews were divided into two different groups: conventional interviews and behavior interviews. Conventional interviews are typically composed of questions directed at checking credentials, description of experience, and self-evaluative information. Behavior interviews mainly include questions concerning job knowledge, job experience, and behavior descriptions. The results showed that conventional interviews assessed general mental ability, job experience, the Big Five personality dimensions, and social skills, whereas behavior interviews mainly assessed job knowledge, job experience, situational judgment, and social skills. According to these findings, conventional and behavior interviews seem to be different interviews.
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Meta-analysis is arguably the most important methodological innovation in the social and behavioral sciences in the last 25 years. Developed to offer researchers an informative account of which methods are most useful in integrating research findings across studies, this book will enable the reader to apply, as well as understand, meta-analytic methods. Rather than taking an encyclopedic approach, the authors have focused on carefully developing those techniques that are most applicable to social science research, and have given a general conceptual description of more complex and rarely-used techniques. Fully revised and updated, Methods of Meta-Analysis, Second Edition is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. New to the Second Edition: * An evaluation of fixed versus random effects models for meta-analysis* New methods for correcting for indirect range restriction in meta-analysis* New developments in corrections for measurement error* A discussion of a new Windows-based program package for applying the meta-analysis methods presented in the book* A presentation of the theories of data underlying different approaches to meta-analysis
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Despite early claims that vocational interests could be used to distinguish successful workers and superior students from their peers, interest measures are generally ignored in the employee selection literature. Nevertheless, theoretical descriptions of vocational interests from vocational and educational psychology have proposed that interest constructs should be related to performance and persistence in work and academic settings. Moreover, on the basis of Holland's (1959, 1997) theoretical predictions, congruence indices, which quantify the degree of similarity or person-environment fit between individuals and their occupations, should be more strongly related to performance than interest scores alone. Using a comprehensive review of the interest literature that spans more than 60 years of research, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine the veracity of these claims. A literature search identified 60 studies and approximately 568 correlations that addressed the relationship between interests and performance. Results showed that interests are indeed related to performance and persistence in work and academic contexts. In addition, the correlations between congruence indices and performance were stronger than for interest scores alone. Thus, consistent with interest theory, the fit between individuals and their environment was more predictive of performance than interest alone. © The Author(s) 2012.
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Based on data from 4 independent studies reported by R. Vineberg and E. N. Taylor (1972) with a total sample size of 1,474, path analysis was used to examine the causal impact of job experience on job knowledge, performance capability as measured by job sample tests, and supervisory ratings of job performance. Findings support the conclusion that (1) when mean job experience is 2–3 yrs, there is substantial variance in job experience and (2) when the jobs are of an intermediate complexity level, job experience has a substantial direct impact on job knowledge and a smaller direct impact on performance capabilities as assessed by job sample measures. Job experience also has a substantial indirect effect on work sample performance through its effect on job knowledge, which, in turn, was found to be the strongest determinant of work sample performance. The pattern and magnitude of causal effects of general mental ability were similar to those of job experience. The effect of job knowledge on supervisory ratings was several times stronger than the effect of job sample performance, confirming the findings of J. E. Hunter (1983). When job experience was held constant, the direct impact of ability on the acquisition of job knowledge increased substantially, and this, in turn, increased the indirect effect of ability on job sample performance. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Claims that cognitive ability tests of the kind generally used in personnel selection are valid predictors of successful performance for jobs in all settings. This controversial stance is supported by analyses that recast findings of invalid tests as instances of Type I error. Ideally, if an employer has large enough samples, perfectly reliable tests, and an unrestricted range of ability in the applicant pool, the most widely used types of standardized tests should be valid in all job situations, and the notion of job-specific validity would no longer hold. The authors argue against previous reservations about the suitability of cognitive ability tests for employee selection that were made on the basis of their supposed limited applicability, their bias, and their ultimate contribution to workforce productivity. (56 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Personnel psychologists have traditionally believed that employment test validities are situation specific. This study presents a Bayesian statistical model that is based on the alternate hypothesis that variation in validity outcomes from study to study for similar jobs and tests is artifactual in nature. Certain outcomes using this model permit validity generalization to new settings without carrying out a validation study of any kind. Where such generalization is not justified, the procedure is considered to provide an improved method of data analysis and decision making for the necessary situational validity study. Application to 4 distributions of empirical validity coefficients is presented to demonstrate the power of the model. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose of this investigation was to explore the extent to which employment interview evaluations reflect cognitive ability. A meta-analysis of 49 studies found a corrected mean correlation of .40 between interview ratings and ability test scores, suggesting that on average about 16% of the variance in interview constructs represents cognitive ability. Analysis of several design characteristics that could moderate the relationship between interview scores and ability suggested that (a) the correlation with ability tends to decrease as the level of structure increases; (b) the type of questions asked can have considerable influence on the magnitude of the correlation with ability; (c) the reflection of ability in the ratings tends to increase when ability test scores are made available to interviewers; and (d) the correlation with ability generally is higher for low-complexity jobs. Moreover, results suggest that interview ratings that correlate higher with cognitive ability tend to be better predictors of job performance. Implications for incremental validity are discussed, and recommendations for selection strategies are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A literature review indicates that the standard deviation of employee output averaged 20% of mean output under nonpiecework compensation systems and 15% under piecework systems. For both systems, variability around the mean was small. Implications for selection and workforce productivity are discussed. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Used decision theoretic equations to estimate the impact of the Programmer Aptitude Test (PAT) on productivity if used to select new computer programers for 1 yr in the federal government and the national economy. A newly developed technique was used to estimate the standard deviation of the dollar value of employee job performance, which in the past has been the most difficult and expensive item of required information. For the federal government and the US economy separately, results are presented for different selection ratios and for different assumed values for the validity of previously used selection procedures. The impact of the PAT on programmer productivity was substantial for all combinations of assumptions. Results support the conclusion that hundreds of millions of dollars in increased productivity could be realized by increasing the validity of selection decisions in this occupation. Similarities between computer programers and other occupations are discussed. It is concluded that the impact of valid selection procedures on work-force productivity is considerably greater than most personnel psychologists have believed. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Using a large database, this study examined 3 refinements of validity generalization procedures: (1) a more accurate procedure for correcting the residual standard deviation (SD) for range restriction to estimate SD p, (2) use of r̄ instead of study-observed rs in the formula for sampling error variance, and (3) removal of non-Pearson rs. The 1st procedure does not affect the amount of variance accounted for by artifacts. The addition of the 2nd and 3rd procedures increased the mean percentage of validity variance accounted for by artifacts from 70 to 82%, a 17% increase. The cumulative addition of all 3 procedures decreased the mean SD p estimate from .150 to .106, a 29% decrease. Six additional variance-producing artifacts were identified that could not be corrected for. In light of these it was concluded that the obtained estimates of mean SD p and mean validity variance accounted for were consistent with the hypothesis that the true mean SD p value is close to zero. These findings provide further evidence against the situational specificity hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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How should data be interpreted to optimize the possibilities for cumulative scientific knowledge? Many believe that traditional data interpretation procedures based on statistical significance tests reduce the impact of sampling error on scientific inference. Meta-analysis shows that the significance test actually obscures underlying regularities and processes in individual studies and in research literatures, leading to systematically erroneous conclusions. Meta-analysis methods can solve these problems, and have done so in some areas. However, meta-analysis represents more than merely a change in methods of data analysis. It requires major changes in the way psychologists view the general research process. Views of the scientific value of the individual empirical study, the current reward structure in research, and even the fundamental nature of scientific discovery may change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies, with a total sample size of 400,000 Ss and with the US Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Job Titles (1977), examined the traditional belief that between-job task differences cause aptitude tests to be valid for some jobs but not for others. Results indicate that aptitude tests are valid across jobs, since the moderating effect of tasks(a) is negligible even when jobs differ grossly in task makeup and (b) is probably nonexistent when task differences are less extreme. Findings have implications for validity generalization, the use of task-oriented job analysis in selection research, criterion construction, moderator research, and proper interpretation of the US's Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures. It is concluded that the belief that tasks are important moderators of test validities can be traced to behaviorist assumptions introduced into personnel psychology in the early 1960's and that, in retrospect, these assumptions are false. (44 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Quantifying the economic impact of psychological programs in organizations requires determination of (a) the size and variability of the resulting increase in job performance and (b) the economic value of the increase in job performance. New methods of meta-analysis allow attainment of the 1st of these; and in relation to the 2nd, utility analysis methods provide the ability to translate job performance increases into estimates of the economic value of the program. In the area of personnel selection, many meta-analytic studies have resulted in precise and generalizable estimates of the validity of cognitive ability tests and other selection procedures. Utility analyses show that the job performance increases resulting from use of valid selection methods have substantial economic value. Valid selection produces major increases in work-force productivity. It is concluded that the combined effects of selection and nonselection interventions can be expected to produce substantial increases in workforce productivity. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Previous studies have suggested handwriting analysis (HA) as potentially useful in the screening of job applicants. The present study examined 4 issues pertinent to this application of HA: (a) interjudge reliability of graphological inferences, (b) criterion-related validity of graphological inferences, (c) effect of what is written (content) rather than how it is written, and (d) the knowledge or skill level involved in HA. 103 adult writers were asked to supply 2 samples of their handwriting—"neutral" in content and autobiographical. Criterion data included supervisory ratings, self-ratings, and sales productivity. 20 professional graphologists were used to analyze the handwriting samples. 24 undergraduates with no prior experience with graphology or HA were asked to provide "inferences" from the same script samples given to the graphologists. Results provide only minimal support for an analysis of inferences based on handwriting. Whereas there was some evidence for interrater reliability among the graphologists, no evidence for validity was detected. Type of script sample did not appear to make a difference. Implications for industry are discussed. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Cognitively loaded tests of knowledge, skill, and ability often contribute to decisions regarding educpation, jobs, licensure, or certification. Users of such tests often face difficult choices when trying to optimize both the performance and ethnic diversity of chosen individuals. The authors describe the nature of this quandary, review research on different strategies to address it, and recommend using selection materials that assess the full range of relevant attributes using a format that minimizes verbal content as much as is consistent with the outcome one is trying to achieve. They also recommend the use of test preparation, face-valid assessments, and the consideration of relevant job or life experiences. Regardless of the strategy adopted, it is unreasonable to expect that one can maximize both the performance and ethnic diversity of selected individuals.
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In the current study, we present a more accurate method for correcting for range restriction (Case V) that expands upon Bryant and Gokhale’s (1972) method. We further present detailed steps to incorporate the Case V method into Schmidt and Hunter’s (2015; Hunter & Schmidt, 2004) psychometric meta-analysis methods (both individual correction and artifact distribution approaches). We then evaluate the accuracy of the Case V method vis-à-vis existing methods. Monte-Carlo simulation results indicate that the Case V method provides very accurate estimates for the mean true score correlation and reasonably accurate estimates for the true standard deviation. More importantly, Case V almost always provides more accurate results than alternative methods (particularly, Case IV). To illustrate how the Case V method works with real data, we conduct a reanalysis of Judge, Heller, and Mount’s (2002) meta-analysis examining the relationships between the Big Five personality traits and job satisfaction. Results indicate that the true score correlations between the Big Five traits and job satisfaction have been underestimated, whereas their true standard deviations have been overestimated. Implications for range restriction corrections in organizational research are discussed.
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The empirical evidence that has accumulated in support of the notion that personality is a valid predictor of employee performance is vast, yet debate on the matter continues. This study investigates frame‐of‐reference effects as they relate to the validity of self‐report measures of personality. Specifically, we compare the validities of general, noncontextualized personality measures and work‐specific, contextualized measures. The findings suggest that personality measures are a more valid predictor of performance when the scale items or instructions are framed specifically so as to reference work‐specific behaviors. We found that the validities for noncontextualized measures of personality ranged from .02 to .22, with a mean validity of .11. The validities for contextualized measures ranged from .19 to .30, with a mean of .25. Additional moderator analyses were conducted in an effort to examine several alternate explanations for these validity differences. Specifically, we examined differences between the developmental purpose (general use vs. workplace use) and reliabilities of each type of personality measure. We also compared the validities from published studies to those from unpublished studies. Results suggest that these moderators did not have an impact on the validity differences between noncontextualized and contextualized measures.