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Comprehensive database of diameter-based biomass regressions for North American tree species

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... In this study, a new module, i.e., the biomass production module, was added to the STELLA model as detailed below. The total aboveground biomass of a poplar tree is calculated as [34] B ...
... a 1 in Equation (5) 0.034 Calculated based on data from Lee and Jose [29] a 2 in Equation (5) 4345 Calculated based on data from Lee and Jose [29] a 3 in Equation (5) 2800 Calculated based on data from Lee and Jose [29] a 4 in Equation (6) 0.627 Calculated based on data from Lee and Jose [29] a 5 in Equation (10) 3.473 Edmondson et al. [35] a 6 in Equation (10) 8760 Edmondson et al. [35] a 7 in Equation (10) Plant density (tree/ha) 229 Lee and Jose [29] Forest cover factor 0.85 Assumed based on our observations β0 in Equation (9) −1 Jenkins et al. [34] β1 in Equation (9) 2.1 Jenkins et al. [34] Dbh is assumed to be a function of poplar age [35] and is given as ...
... a 1 in Equation (5) 0.034 Calculated based on data from Lee and Jose [29] a 2 in Equation (5) 4345 Calculated based on data from Lee and Jose [29] a 3 in Equation (5) 2800 Calculated based on data from Lee and Jose [29] a 4 in Equation (6) 0.627 Calculated based on data from Lee and Jose [29] a 5 in Equation (10) 3.473 Edmondson et al. [35] a 6 in Equation (10) 8760 Edmondson et al. [35] a 7 in Equation (10) Plant density (tree/ha) 229 Lee and Jose [29] Forest cover factor 0.85 Assumed based on our observations β0 in Equation (9) −1 Jenkins et al. [34] β1 in Equation (9) 2.1 Jenkins et al. [34] Dbh is assumed to be a function of poplar age [35] and is given as ...
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Poplar trees (Populus spp.) are some of the fastest growing hardwoods used for biomass production. There are, however, conflicting observations about water use of poplars associated with the impact on local water resources. A STELLA (Structural Thinking and Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation) model was modified to investigate the aboveground biomass production and water use in a mature (6 to 8 yrs. old) poplar plantation for a 3-year simulation period. The model predicted the typical annual pattern of soil evaporation, root water uptake, and leaf water transpiration in the poplar plantation increasing from winter to summer followed by respective decreases from summer to winter. Root water uptake and leaf water transpiration were proportional to the soil water content. More water was needed to produce the same amount of biomass during summer than during other seasons. Less water was consumed to produce the same amount of biomass as the age of the poplar trees increased. The net increase in biomass over the 3-year period was 0.69 × 104 kg/ha, which was equivalent to a 65% increase in biomass. The average rate of daily water use to daily biomass production was 1.05 × 109 cm3 water/kg biomass/ha. A good linear correlation between cumulative biomass production (CBP) and cumulative water use (CWU) was identified: YCBP = 0.001 ∗ XCWU, R2 = 0.99, p < 0.001. This simple correlation provides a very good reference to estimate poplar water use efficiency (i.e., ratio of water use to biomass production) in growing regions where water resources are a limiting factor.
... We used the NSC concentration measurements of the multistemmed trees described above to estimate seasonal wholetree and organ-level NSC pool sizes for single-stemmed birch trees, using allometric equations specific to B. papyrifera with a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 2.5 cm (Jenkins et al., 2004;Chojnacky et al., 2014). This approach assumes that that multiand single-stemmed birch trees have similar NSC concentrations throughout the year. ...
... NSC concentrations and seasonal dynamics were similar between the two tree types (Supplementary Data Table S1), supporting the validity of our approach. First, to estimate the above-ground biomass (kg), bm, for each above-ground component (branches, stemwood and inner bark) of the nine single-stemmed trees, we used the following formula based on Jenkins et al. (2004): ...
... Above-ground B includes foliage, branches, stemwood and bark. The fractions ( f ) of foliage, stemwood and bark were calculated based on the α 0 and α 1 coefficients from table 1 in Jenkins et al. (2004), as: ...
Article
Background and aims: Carbon reserves are a critical source of energy and substrates that allow trees to cope with periods of minimal carbon gain and/or high carbon demands, conditions which are prevalent in high latitude forests. However, we have a poor understanding of carbon reserve dynamics at the whole-tree level in mature boreal trees. We therefore sought to quantify the seasonal changes in whole-tree and organ level carbon reserve pools in mature boreal Betula papyrifera. Methods: Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC; soluble sugars and starch) tissue concentrations were measured at key phenological stages throughout a calendar year in the roots, stem (inner bark and xylem), branches, and leaves and scaled up to estimate changes in organ and whole-tree NSC pool sizes. Fine root and stem growth were also measured to compare the timing of growth processes with changes in NSC pools. Key results: The whole-tree NSC pool increased from its springtime minimum to its maximum at bud set, producing an average seasonal fluctuation of 0.96 kg per tree. This fluctuation represents a 72% change in the whole-tree NSC pool, which greatly exceeds the relative change reported for more temperate conspecifics. At the organ level, branches accounted for roughly 48-60% of the whole-tree NSC pool throughout the year, and their seasonal fluctuation was four to eight times greater than that observed in the stemwood, coarse roots, and inner bark. Conclusions: Branches in boreal B. papyrifera were the largest and most dynamic storage pool, suggesting that storage changes at the branch level largely drive whole-tree storage dynamics in these trees. The greater whole-tree seasonal NSC fluctuation in boreal versus temperate B. papyrifera may result from (1) higher soluble sugar concentration requirements in branches for frost protection, and/or (2) a larger reliance of on reserves to fuel new leaf and shoot growth in the spring.
... Each tree in sample plots was identified to species, with height (LTI, TruPulse 200; Impulse 200 LR; VD function) and DBH measured in FIA-style subplots if DBH ≥ 12.7 cm. We calculated biomass with height and DBH using southcentral AK, taxon-specific allometric equations [41][42][43][44][45]; if 2.5 cm < DBH < 12.7 cm we used [44] equations with DBH = 6.35 cm. Course woody debris (CWD) as downed-dead-trees, limbs, and branches was estimated in FIA-style subplots using point intercept methods [45]. ...
... Each tree in sample plots was identified to species, with height (LTI, TruPulse 200; Impulse 200 LR; VD function) and DBH measured in FIA-style subplots if DBH ≥ 12.7 cm. We calculated biomass with height and DBH using southcentral AK, taxon-specific allometric equations [41][42][43][44][45]; if 2.5 cm < DBH < 12.7 cm we used [44] equations with DBH = 6.35 cm. Course woody debris (CWD) as downed-dead-trees, limbs, and branches was estimated in FIA-style subplots using point intercept methods [45]. ...
... Growth-The deconvolution model provided an estimate of NPP in kg pixel −1 y −1 . To check this value, we aged and measured 122 trees from outside but near to 32 FIA-style subplots and 90 variable radius subplots, then calculated their biomass using regional, species-specific allometric equations [41][42][43][44][45][46], and divided biomass by age. Next, we found the mean biomass per year per tree by averaging over all 122 trees and multiplied this mean by the number of trees in each of the 59 FIA-style subplots (644 total trees) sampled for biomass to arrive at a NPP rate per subplot. ...
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Temporal series of lidar, properly field-validated, can provide critical information allowing inferences about the dynamics of biomass and carbon in forest canopies. Forest canopies gain carbon through net primary production (NPP) and lose carbon through canopy component damage and death, such as fine and coarse woody debris and litterfall (collectively, debris-fall). We describe a statistical method to extract gamma distributions of NPP and debris-fall rates in forest canopies from lidar missions repeated through time and we show that the means of these distributions covary with ecologically meaningful variables: topography, canopy structure, and taxonomic composition. The method employed is the generalized method of moments that applies the R package gmm to uncover the distribution of latent variables. We present an example with ecological interpretations that support the method’s application to change in biomass estimated for a boreal forest in southcentral Alaska. The deconvolution of net change from remote sensing products as distributions of NPP and debris-fall rates can inform carbon cycling models of canopy-level NPP and debris-fall rates.
... MTCO 2 eq estimation: A MS Excel spreadsheet using diameter distribution was used to generate estimates of green tons of carbon acre −1 for the eight species sampled (see Appendix B). This spreadsheet used the composite formulas estimating green tons of carbon acre −1 that were derived for 6 species groups [13]. The green tons estimate was then recalculated to produce MTCO 2 eq ha −1 estimates (multiplying green tons acre −1 times 2.47 hectares acre −1 times 0.91 Mtonnes ton −1 times 44 mass of CO 2 eq 12 mass of carbon −1 ). ...
... MTCO2eq estimation: A MS Excel spreadsheet using diameter distribution was used to generate estimates of green tons of carbon acre −1 for the eight species sampled (see Appendix B). This spreadsheet used the composite formulas estimating green tons of carbon acre −1 that were derived for 6 species groups [13]. The green tons estimate was then recalculated to produce MTCO2eq ha −1 estimates (multiplying green tons acre −1 times 2.47 hectares acre −1 times 0.91 Mtonnes ton −1 times 44 mass of CO2eq 12 mass of carbon −1 ). ...
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The carbon sequestration potential of exotics might be considered as one of the several alternatives for forest adaptation to climate change. The results presented here demonstrate that exotic larches’ (Larix spp.) growth rates for both carbon accumulation and traditional forest products exceed those of both natural regeneration and other planted species when planted on a good site in Maine. Recent re-measurement of a species-site trial established in 1988 represents the 34th growing season. Species included Black Spruce (BS) (Picea mariana Mill.), European larch (EL) (Larix decidua Mill.), hybrid larch (HL) (L. x marschelensi), Japanese larch (JL) (L. kaempferi (Lam.) Carrière), Jack pine (JP) (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), Red pine (RP) (Pinus resinosa Ait.), Tamarack (TL) (L. larcinia (Du Roi) K. Koch), and White spruce (WS)(Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). All three of the exotic larches outgrew the other species. Hybrid larch had over nearly twice the merchantable volume (m3 ha−1) and over three times the sawlog volume (green tonnes ha−1) than Red pine. Hybrid larch had the highest growth rate at age 34, over 20 m3 per hectare per year (nearly 3.3 cords ac−1 year−1 or 6.8 tons−1 acre−1 year−1). The other two exotic larches are growing at over 19 m3 ha−1 year−1 (3 cords acre−1 year−1 or 6.4 tons acre−1 year−1). Converting these growth rates to accumulation of CO2eq over the 34-year period produces stunning contrasts compared to native species. Over the 34-year period, larch hybrids sequestered 2.4 times as much CO2eq as the untreated plots (444 vs. 186 tonnes−1 ha−1). We discuss practical implications for forest management and carbon policies.
... Whereas tropical biomass data have been pooled to form the basis of a standardized approach to biomass estimation across the tropics (Chave et al., 2005(Chave et al., , 2014Réjou-Méchain et al., 2017), no such standardized approach currently exists for extratropical regions (above 23.5° latitude N or S). Rather, a wide variety of allometries developed for various levels of taxonomic and geographic organization, and of variable quality, are scattered throughout the literature (Chojnacky et al., 2014;Conti et al., 2019;Jenkins et al., 2004;Luo et al., 2018Luo et al., , 2020Muukkonen, 2007;Návar, 2009;Paul et al., 2016;Rojas-García et al., 2015). These equations differ in functional form, input and output variables, units and size range across which they can be applied. ...
... ForestGEO currently includes 33 extratropical forests across North America (n = 17), Europe (n = 4) and Asia (n = 12), ranging in latitude from 23 to 61 degrees N. At each site, all stems ≥1 cm DBH within 5-50 ha plots are censused following standardized protocols, including identification to species level (Condit, 1998). From the 24 participant sites included in allodb (Table S1) developed primarily in extratropical regions (Chojnacky et al., 2014;Forrester et al., 2017;Jenkins et al., 2004;Luo et al., 2018), and drew upon these and local expertise to help identify original, speciesspecific and location-specific allometries ( Figure S1). Three of our ...
... Summarizing the biomass from all trees within the sampling plot provides an areabased biomass estimation [12]. Tremendous efforts had been dedicated to developing the species-specific allometric relationships for forest biomass [14,15]. These allometric relationships can be re-used in the place where they were developed. ...
... Therefore, canopy height from LiDAR sensors has proved to be the most important variable for biomass mapping [67]. However, the height-biomass relationship is speciesdependent, as is a well-known fact in allometry [14,15,68]. Although reports used optical sensors alone that produced reliable biomass maps, these studies are generally based on coarse resolution remotely sensed data [50,69,70]. ...
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The majority of the aboveground biomass on the Earth’s land surface is stored in forests. Thus, forest biomass plays a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Yet accurate estimate of forest aboveground biomass (FAGB) remains elusive. This study proposed a new conceptual model to map FAGB using remotely sensed data from multiple sensors. The conceptual model, which provides guidance for selecting remotely sensed data, is based on the principle of estimating FAGB on the ground using allometry, which needs species, diameter at breast height (DBH), and tree height as inputs. Based on the conceptual model, we used multiseasonal Landsat images to provide information about species composition for the forests in the study area, LiDAR data for canopy height, and the image texture and image texture ratio at two spatial resolutions for tree crown size, which is related to DBH. Moreover, we added RaDAR data to provide canopy volume information to the model. All the data layers were fed to a Random Forest (RF) regression model. The study was carried out in eastern North Carolina. We used biomass from the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis plots to train and test the model performance. The best model achieved an R2 of 0.625 with a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 18.8 Mg/ha (47.6%) with the “out-of-bag” samples at 30 × 30 m spatial resolution. The top five most important variables include the 95th, 85th, 75th, and 50th percentile heights of the LiDAR points and their standard deviations of 85th heights. Numerous features from multiseasonal Sentinel-1 C-Band SAR, multiseasonal Landsat 8 imagery along with image texture features from very high-resolution imagery were selected. But the importance of the height metrics dwarfed all other variables. More tests of the conceptual model in places with a broader range of biomass and more diverse species composition are needed to evaluate the importance of other input variables.
... The basic methods of the contact approach are the forestry inventory, production tables, and eddy covariance methods. Forestry inventory, or national forest inventory (NFI), is a common approach to assessing biomass and carbon stocks based on parameters implemented during ground exploration [61][62][63]. Ponce-Hernandez [64] described the principle of tree allometry in detail in connection with the measurement of carbon in biomass. Allometry, namely the biomass expansion factor (BEF) and biomass equations, is often one of main challenges in NFI use [62,65]. ...
... Methods used for carbon-stock assessment also vary according to the applied scale: harvest methods for the plot/local scale [70], the combination of measured data and allometric equations for the local to semi-regional scale, and remote-sensing methods for the regional, national or global scale [71]. Within large-scale biomass mapping, differences in expert data and allometric equations used, either empirical [61,72] or modeled [73,74], may lead to large uncertainties [75]. The models of productivity further use biomass expansion factors, which are another source of uncertainty in carbon accounting on the national level [76]. ...
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Given the significance of national carbon inventories, the importance of large-scale estimates of carbon stocks is increasing. Accurate biomass estimates are essential for tracking changes in the carbon stock through repeated assessment of carbon stock, widely used for both vegetation and soil, to estimate carbon sequestration. Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine the variability of several aspects of the carbon stock value when the input matrix was (1) expressed either as a vector or as a raster; (2) expressed as in local (1:10,000) or regional (1:100,000) scale data; and (3) rasterized with different pixel sizes of 1, 10, 100, and 1000 m. Method: The look-up table method, where expert carbon content values are attached to the mapped landscape matrix. Results: Different formats of input matrix did not show fundamental differences with exceptions of the biggest raster of size 1000 m for the local level. At the regional level, no differences were notable. Conclusions: The results contribute to the specification of best practices for the evaluation of carbon storage as a mitigation measure, as well as the implementation of national carbon inventories.
... The observed and predicted stand tables were converted to total aboveground biomass (m, dry weight in kg) per ha by DBH class. The DBH-based biomass equations with coefficients used were obtained from Jenkins et al. (2004), a large collection of biomass equations for North American trees. The equations and sources for six species groups are given as: ...
... where Ln is natural logarithm, β 0 -β 3 are model coefficients given in Jenkins et al. (2004). Hickory spp. ...
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Accurately assessing forest structure and productivity is critical to making timely management decisions and monitoring plant communities. This study aims to evaluate the prediction accuracy of site-level stand and biomass tables from the diameter distribution models. The efficacy of the single Weibull function and two finite mixture models was compared for six species groups on three mixed-hardwood sites in eastern Tennessee, USA. To evaluate model performance, two types of stand/biomass tables were generated. The first type was constructed from all species on a given site (site-specific), whereas the second type was built for a single species from all sites (species-specific). Results indicate that both types of stand and biomass tables were consistently well quantified by the two-component mixture model in terms of goodness of fit, parsimony, and robustness. The two-component mixture model better characterized the complex, multimodal diameter distributions than the single Weibull model, which underpredicted the upper portion of the distributions. The three-component model tends to overfit the data, which results in lower prediction accuracy. Among the three models examined, the two-Weibull mixture model is suggested to construct site-level stand/biomass tables, which provides more reliable and accurate predictions to assess forest structure and product class.
... Whereas tropical biomass data have been pooled to form the basis of a standardized approach to biomass estimation across the tropics (Chave et al., 2005(Chave et al., , 2014Réjou-Méchain et al., 2017), no such standardized approach currently exists for extratropical regions (above 23.5° latitude N or S). Rather, a wide variety of allometries developed for various levels of taxonomic and geographic organization, and of variable quality, are scattered throughout the literature (Chojnacky et al., 2014;Conti et al., 2019;Jenkins et al., 2004;Luo et al., 2018Luo et al., , 2020Muukkonen, 2007;Návar, 2009;Paul et al., 2016;Rojas-García et al., 2015). These equations differ in functional form, input and output variables, units and size range across which they can be applied. ...
... ForestGEO currently includes 33 extratropical forests across North America (n = 17), Europe (n = 4) and Asia (n = 12), ranging in latitude from 23 to 61 degrees N. At each site, all stems ≥1 cm DBH within 5-50 ha plots are censused following standardized protocols, including identification to species level (Condit, 1998). From the 24 participant sites included in allodb (Table S1) developed primarily in extratropical regions (Chojnacky et al., 2014;Forrester et al., 2017;Jenkins et al., 2004;Luo et al., 2018), and drew upon these and local expertise to help identify original, speciesspecific and location-specific allometries ( Figure S1). Three of our ...
Article
Allometric equations for calculation of tree aboveground biomass (AGB) form the basis for estimates of forest carbon storage and exchange with the atmosphere. While standard models exist to calculate forest biomass across the tropics, we lack a standardized tool for computing AGB across boreal and temperate regions that comprise the global extratropics. Here we present an integrated R package, allodb, containing systematically selected published allometric equations and proposed functions to compute AGB. The data component of the package is based on 701 woody species identified at 24 large Forest Global Earth Observatory (ForestGEO) forest‐dynamics plots representing a wide diversity of extratropical forests. A total of 570 parsed allometric equations to estimate individual tree biomass were retrieved, checked, and combined using a weighting function designed to ensure optimal equation selection over the full tree size range with smooth transitions across equations. The equation dataset can be customized with built‐in functions that subset the original dataset and add new equations. Although equations were curated based on a limited set of forest communities and number of species, this resource is appropriate for large portions of the global extratropics and can easily be expanded to cover novel forest types.
... Summer forage was deciduous shrub and tree leaves, forbs and grasses (not sedges, rushes and ferns ;Lupardus et al., 2011;Schneider et al., 2006). To estimate shrub and sapling leaf biomass, we summed woody stem counts at field plots and used diameter-specific allometric equations (Jenkins et al., 2004;Perala & Alban, 1993;Smith & Brand, 1983). Winter forage was deciduous twigs (not grasses; see Jenkins et al., 2007). ...
... Winter forage was deciduous twigs (not grasses; see Jenkins et al., 2007). We used allometric equations to estimate total above-ground deciduous shrub and tree biomass (Jenkins et al., 2004;Perala & Alban, 1993;Smith & Brand, 1983) and estimated twig biomass as the product of total biomass and the proportion that is current year growth consumed by ungulates in Minnesota (0.07; Ohmann et al., 1974Ohmann et al., , 1976. Forage biomass was for shrubs and trees ≤2.54 cm in diameter (D15), corresponding with mean elk foraging height (1.5 m; Rounds, 2006;Gehring et al., 2008;VanderSchaaf, 2013). ...
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Translocations are essential for reestablishing wildlife populations. As they sometimes fail, it is critical to assess factors that influence their success pre‐translocation. Socio‐ecological suitability models (SESMs) integrate social acceptance and ecological suitability to enable identification of areas where wildlife populations will expand, which makes it likely that SESMs will also be useful for predicting translocation success. To inform site‐selection for potential elk (Cervus canadensis) reintroduction to northeastern Minnesota, USA, we developed broad‐scale maps of social acceptance from surveys of local residents and landowners, animal use equivalence (AUE) from forage measured in the field, and empirical conflict risk from geospatial data. Resulting SESMs integrated social acceptance favorability scores, AUE, and conflict risk, and weighted SESMs showed the relative influences of acceptance and conflict. Social acceptance was positive for local residents and landowners (mean ≥ 5.4; scale of 1 to 7). AUE (scaled to an elk home range) ranged between 1 and 9 elk/16 km2 during winter, and from 14 to 83 elk/16 km2 during summer. Human‐elk conflict risk was low (mean ≤ 0.10; scaled 0 to 1), increasing from north to south. Geographical distributions differed for social acceptance, AUE, and conflict risk, and weighted SESMs revealed unsuitable areas that were otherwise obscured. Synthesis and applications. Integrating human‐wildlife conflict risk into SESMs shows where social acceptance of translocated species is likely to erode, even where viewed favorably pre‐translocation, to inform translocation planning by highlighting interactions between key factors. Such integrated models supplement existing reintroduction biology frameworks by supporting decision‐making and knowledge development. In northeastern Minnesota, natural resource managers who are considering elk reintroductions are using SESMs reported here to identify where human‐elk conflict is likely to result in an isolated elk population and where addressing concerns for area residents about conflict risk is essential.
... These factors have led to extensive research with this species, with multiple allometric equations having been developed. Jenkins et al. (2004) compiled a set of diameter-based biomass estimations of ponderosa pine from four sources across the United States. Among them, Gholz et al. (1979) constructed some allometric equations with various aboveground components of biomass from 9 trees (DBH 15.5-79.5 cm) sampled from a natural stand at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest in Arizona, which was extensively used for ponderosa pine biomass estimation. ...
... Among them, Gholz et al. (1979) constructed some allometric equations with various aboveground components of biomass from 9 trees (DBH 15.5-79.5 cm) sampled from a natural stand at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest in Arizona, which was extensively used for ponderosa pine biomass estimation. Another source used in the compilation of Jenkins et al. (2004) was Means et al. (1994) who actually led to an unpublished source that was most likely the same as Gholz et al. (1979). The third one was Cochran et al. (1984), who used 23 natural trees (DBH 5.3-38.7 cm) from two different stands varying with stand density in southeastern Oregon. ...
Article
Forests not only provide forest products to meet people’s demands, but also sequester enough carbon to offset more than 11% of anthropogenic CO2 release in the United States. An accurate estimate of forest carbon sequestration over different forest and forest product combinations requires the species-specific and site-specific allometric biomass equations for trees and understory vegetation at particular forest developmental stages. Here, we constructed the above- and below-ground allometric equations by harvesting 108 20-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees grown under four different silvicultural treatments (four combinations of with and without competing vegetation control (H) and fertilization (F): C = control with no vegetation control and no fertilization, H, F, and HF) at three diverse site conditions in northern California. We found that the logarithmic regressions provided superior estimations of biomass for total, aboveground, bole, coarse roots, branches, and foliage compared to simple or scaled power-law fits. Treatment effect in allometric equations was generally lacking but site effect was significant, suggesting site specific allometric relations exist. With the best allometric equations, we estimated the biomass and carbon for each plot among treatments and sites. In addition, understory woody plant biomass was also measured with fixed area subplots. Results show significantly more total carbon sequestration at the high-quality sites with 113.1–162.5 Mg ha⁻¹ than the lower ones with 85.8–105.9 Mg ha⁻¹ at the intermediate site and 29.3–70.4 Mg ha⁻¹ at the poorest site, respectively. The range of carbon stocks indicates the treatment differences at each site, with the largest effect (240%) at the poorest site and similar at other two sites (~130%). If planted trees only were considered, a trend among sites exists with 93.4 – 149.3 Mg ha⁻¹ at the richest site, 26.2–88.1 Mg ha⁻¹ at the intermediate site, and 17.1–64.2 Mg ha⁻¹ at the poorest site, respectively. Therefore, if we manage forests for carbon or forest products, intensive management practices will substantially enhance plantation productivity and stand development while site quality cannot be changed.
... At local scales, forest structural parameters such as diameter at breast height, canopy height, etc., can be obtained from the measurement of individual trees. Then, the forest biomass can be estimated with allometric functions, which provides a functional relationship with easily measured variables such as standing tree height and diameter at breast height [1,2]. However, satellite remote sensing is an expected technology for upscaling the in situ estimates of forest biomass into broad scales. ...
... It includes forest inventory data from five forests: Harvard Forest (moist temperate), Howland Research Forest (mature evergreen), Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (deciduous hardwoods), Bartlett Experimental Forest (deciduous hardwoods), and Penobscot Experimental Forest (mixed conifers and hardwoods). The above-ground biomass was calculated with diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm using the allometric function [1]. The heterogeneous sample plots mixed with other land cover types, such as built-up areas, water ponds, etc., were discarded from the analysis. ...
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Utilization of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model parameters obtained from the multi-angular remote sensing is one of the approaches for the retrieval of vegetation structural information. In this research, the potential of multi-angular vegetation indices, formulated by the combination of multi-spectral reflectance from different view angles, for the retrieval of forest above-ground biomass was assessed in the New England region. The multi-angular vegetation indices were generated by the simulation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/Albedo Model Parameters Product (MCD43A1 Version 6)-based BRDF parameters. The effects of the seasonal (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) composites of the multi-angular vegetation indices on the above-ground biomass, the angular relationship of the spectral reflectance with above-ground biomass, and the interrelationships between the multi-angular vegetation indices were analyzed. Among the existing multi-angular vegetation indices, only the Nadir BRDF-adjusted NDVI and Hot-spot incorporated NDVI showed significant relationship (more than 50%) with the above-ground biomass. The Vegetation Structure Index (VSI), newly proposed in the research, performed in the most efficient way and explained 64% variation of the above-ground biomass, suggesting that the right choice of the spectral channel and observation geometry should be considered for improving the estimates of the above-ground biomass. In addition, the right choice of seasonal data (summer) was found to be important for estimating the forest biomass, while other seasonal data were either insensitive or pointless. The promising results shown by the VSI suggest that it could be an appropriate candidate for monitoring vegetation structure from the multi-angular satellite remote sensing.
... Our original goal was to make use of the full set of allometric information in [29,35] to incorporate uncertainty in scaling dbh to tree biomass, using the Bayesian statistical methods provided in the PEcAn software [36] allometry module. However, even at the taxonomic aggregation inherent in our 21 taxa, there are often few allometries available for a given taxonomic group, and, in many cases, the allometries come from locations outside of our midwestern US spatial domain. ...
... However, even at the taxonomic aggregation inherent in our 21 taxa, there are often few allometries available for a given taxonomic group, and, in many cases, the allometries come from locations outside of our midwestern US spatial domain. Furthermore, although there are more allometries for stem biomass (component 6 in the nomenclature of [35]; note that this excludes branches) than for aboveground (component 2) or total biomass (component 1), most research focuses on aboveground biomass rather than stem biomass. As a result, it was not feasible to robustly estimate the aboveground biomass allometries with uncertainty and therefore we have omitted incorporating allometric uncertainty. ...
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We present gridded 8 km-resolution data products of the estimated stem density, basal area, and biomass of tree taxa at Euro-American settlement of the midwestern United States during the middle to late 19th century for the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana. The data come from settlement-era Public Land Survey (PLS) data (ca. 0.8-km resolution) of trees recorded by land surveyors. The surveyor notes have been transcribed, cleaned, and processed to estimate stem density, basal area, and biomass at individual points. The point-level data are aggregated within 8 km grid cells and smoothed using a generalized additive statistical model that accounts for zero-inflated continuous data and provides approximate Bayesian uncertainty estimates. The statistical modeling smooths out sharp spatial features (likely arising from statistical noise) within areas smaller than about 200 km2. Based on this modeling, presettlement Midwestern landscapes supported multiple dominant species, vegetation types, forest types, and ecological formations. The prairies, oak savannas, and forests each had distinctive structures and spatial distributions across the domain. Forest structure varied from savanna (averaging 27 Mg/ha biomass) to northern hardwood (104 Mg/ha) and mesic southern forests (211 Mg/ha). The presettlement forests were neither unbroken and massively-statured nor dominated by young forests constantly structured by broad-scale disturbances such as fire, drought, insect outbreaks, or hurricanes. Most forests were structurally between modern second growth and old growth. We expect the data product to be useful as a baseline for investigating how forest ecosystems have changed in response to the last several centuries of climate change and intensive Euro-American land use and as a calibration dataset for paleoecological proxy-based reconstructions of forest composition and structure for earlier time periods. The data products (including raw and smoothed estimates at the 8-km scale) are available at the LTER Network Data Portal as version 1.0.
... The TRW-based stem diameter 507 was converted into diameter at the breath height (DBH) using the model from508 Lockwood et al45 . Then DBH was converted into AABIper_tree using species-specific 509 allometric relationships from Jenkins46 and Chojnacky et al.47 , and then was averaged 510 to a site-level dataset using bi-weighted robust mean. Where the species-specific 511 equations were not available, more general equations at the biome level were used.512 ...
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Our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle is strongly focussed on C fixation in the leaf, the process of photosynthesis, while the process whereby trees actually sequester C in durable form, i.e., tissue growth, has received much less attention and is neglected in global vegetation models 1,2. Significant uncertainty exists in estimating the response of terrestrial C sequester to climatic change if photosynthesis and growth respond differently to environmental drivers 3. Here we analysed the long-term (1984-2010) annual aboveground growth biomass response (AABIper_area) across North America to temperature and precipitation by combining tree-ring observations and satellite-based tree stem-density variations. We discover a contrasting spatio-temporal pattern of climatic responses between photosynthesis and AABIper_area, resulting in a weak correlation of their inter-annual variations. Moreover, AABIper_area is significantly more strongly limited by climatic variability than is predicted by dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), with significant consequences for the predicted response to terrestrial C uptake projections. Our findings question current understanding of controls on terrestrial carbon cycling with major implications for future atmospheric CO 2 concentrations.
... Generalized, regional biomass allometric equations were developed for the nine most abundant species at HWF using a modified metaanalysis approach (Table 2: See Pastor et al., 1984& Ter-Mikaelian & Korzukhin, 1997 for methods). These equations were developed using simulated biomass data from species-specific biomass allometric equations developed in the northeastern United States or southeastern Canada (Jenkins et al., 2004). New generalized models were fit to natural log transformed simulated data using OLS regression. ...
Article
Managing forests for carbon sequestration is an emerging objective within forestry sectors, although considerable uncertainty remains about how best to influence forest C dynamics through silviculture. This study tests hypotheses regarding forest C management within the central Adirondacks and assesses management trade-offs between aboveground live tree C relative to forest structural and biological complexity. The effects of management on forest C stocks, sequestration rates and structural complexity were assessed using a multivariate metric of management intensity derived from historical harvest records, combined with forest inventory data collected from Huntington Wildlife Forest (Newcomb, NY) from 1970 to 2011. Management intensity was quantified using a principal component analysis on measures of management inputs (harvest duration, total harvest area, number of harvest entries) and outputs (harvested wood volume). The first principal axis was used as a unitless metric of management intensity, which explained 64.1% of the variation in management activity. As management intensity increased, above ground live tree C stocks significantly declined but C sequestration rates significantly increased. Management intensity was correlated with decreased structural complexity. Active management can increase forest C uptake through the distribution of resources to young tree cohorts within a stand, which is consistent with the hypothesis of the C stock-sequestration trade-off. However, structural complexity was significantly reduced in areas with the highest C sequestration rates. These trade-offs should be considered and balanced when implementing management that aims to improve the C storing potential of central Adirondack forests.
... The majority of rainforests occur within the tropics, temperate rainforests are roughly 0.2% of the earth's land area, with a significant portion occurring in British Columbia, Canada (Farr, 2003;Mackey et al., 2017). British Columbia's temperate rainforests are composed mainly of coniferous trees, with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) as the dominant species (Jenkins et al., 2004). The number of species able to grow within these coastal forests is limited by dense overstorey canopy (Kimmins, 2004), low temperature, and limited winter daylight. ...
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The significance of stumps and other coarse woody debris in maintaining biodiversity has been widely recognized in temperate rainforests, however, there is a paucity of research on the role of stumps in tree regeneration. We studied vascular plant diversity, island species area-relationship, and tree regeneration on stumps in temperate rainforests across three sites in British Columbia, Canada (Malcom Knapp Research Forest, MKRF; Pacific Spirit Regional Park, PSRP; and Stanley Park, SP). Our results were: 1) identification of 19 vascular plant species on stumps, including eight tree species, 2) the number of plants established on stumps observed convex up shape in MKRF and sigmoid shape for PSRP and SP, 3) the overall species established on stumps were positively associated in MKRF (Variance ratio = 2.74) and SP (Variance ratio = 1.37), but negatively associated in PSRP (Variance ratio = 0.57), and 4) tree species appeared to compete with each other on stumps and likely to co-occur with understorey species. Our results highlight species relationships and stumps diameter are major factors affecting tree regeneration on stumps in these second-growth temperate rainforests. We synthesized our results in a schematic of tree regeneration processes on stumps, which could be used to stimulate ideas for new hypothesis generation and for studies relevant to conservation and management.
... The majority of rainforests occur within the tropics, temperate rainforests are roughly 0.2% of the earth's land area, with a significant portion occurring in British Columbia, Canada (Farr, 2003;Mackey et al., 2017). British Columbia's temperate rainforests are composed mainly of coniferous trees, with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) as the dominant species (Jenkins et al., 2004). The number of species able to grow within these coastal forests is limited by dense overstorey canopy (Kimmins, 2004), low temperature, and limited winter daylight. ...
Article
Full-text available
The significance of stumps and other coarse woody debris in maintaining biodiversity has been widely recognized in temperate rainforests, however, there is a paucity of research on the role of stumps in tree regeneration. We studied vascular plant diversity, island species area-relationship, and tree regeneration on stumps in temperate rainforests across three sites in British Columbia, Canada (Malcom Knapp Research Forest, MKRF; Pacific Spirit Regional Park, PSRP; and Stanley Park, SP). Our results were: 1) identification of 19 vascular plant species on stumps, including eight tree species, 2) the number of plants established on stumps observed convex up shape in MKRF and sigmoid shape for PSRP and SP, 3) the overall species established on stumps were positively associated in MKRF (Variance ratio = 2.74) and SP (Variance ratio = 1.37), but negatively associated in PSRP (Variance ratio = 0.57), and 4) tree species appeared to compete with each other on stumps and likely to co-occur with understorey species. Our results highlight species relationships and stumps diameter are major factors affecting tree regeneration on stumps in these second-growth temperate rainforests. We synthesized our results in a schematic of tree regeneration processes on stumps, which could be used to stimulate ideas for new hypothesis generation and for studies relevant to conservation and management.
... As a consequence, this variable is commonly used in combination with diameter at breast height, allowing models to be applied in a wider range of stands, providing information on growth and site conditions [23]. Although diameter at breast height, height and biomass are known to be closely related [47], some authors argue that it is better not to include both dimensions in biomass equations given that they are highly correlated and the fact that the increased accuracy resulting from the inclusion of both dimensions is often negligible [48][49][50][51]. In our study, it can be observed that the combination of RCD and h resulted in lower average RMSE and higher R 2 adj . ...
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Biomass models are key to the correct quantification of aboveground biomass and carbon stocks. Most of the current available sets of biomass models were developed for adult trees although very few have been employed to accurately estimate biomass during the first years of reforestations, despite the increasing number of reforestations over recent years. In this study, species-specific and generalized models for aboveground biomass of single trees have been developed for the main 14 species used in reforestations in Spain. A comparison with the existing biomass models at individual tree level for larger trees of these species was also conducted to confirm the hypothesis that specific models are required for the first years of the reforestation. A new set of biomass models was fitted simultaneously per species, based on three different independent variables – root-collar-diameter, total height and crown projection area- and their combinations. The fitted models provide more accurate and unbiased predictions of aboveground biomass in the first years after reforestation when compared with previously existing models for adult trees. The generalized models can be applied to reforestations when the main species is unknown or for mixed plantations where species are not individualized. The set of models provided can be used in a wide variety of surveys and monitoring conditions depending on the available data, from classical field inventories to more novel approaches such as airborne LiDAR data or aerial photographs.
... In addition, ecosystem service potential; most especially carbon sequestration should be considered for most of the polluted regions in Nigeria due to gas flaring. For example, at the industrial facility in Wisconsin, 300 willow trees were planted, and following the total plant biomass calculation(Nowak & Crane 2002;Jenkins et al. 2003), 8000 pounds of carbon was estimated to have been stored by the project (approximately 1.3 tons of carbon per acre per year) and this is a commendable high value(Carman et al. 2000).3.6.6 The fate of the harvested plantsAfter the plants might have been used to achieve its target, the question that usually arises, and that remains one of the limitations for phytoremediation is the fate of the plant biomass. ...
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In order to integrate necessary interdisciplinary complexity, sustainability, defined targets and endpoints for reclamation progress, the objective of this research is to advance reclamation knowledge on (i) international scale and (ii) national scale, taking Nigeria as an example. On the international scale (i), a systematic reclamation threshold scale for assessing, evaluating, documenting, and monitoring reclamation progress was developed. The threshold stages begin from the initial state I0 down to degraded state D0 (depending on the type of mining). Reclamation starts with soil reconstruction R-2 up to revegetation R-1 (red zones) to reach minimum threshold R0 (amber zone). Beyond R0 are the green zones R1, R2, and R3 representing soil/abiotic condition, biological and improved threshold respectively. Adaptation of the threshold model to degraded ecosystems in national and international laws is recommended. On the national scale with Nigeria (ii), endowed with over 34 solid minerals and abundant crude oil, findings show that almost all mine sites are below the minimum threshold scale R0. The sites are adversely affected by Artisanal and Small Scale Mining (ASM), whereby, contamination and soil lithology disturbances are the state-of-the-art discussions. However, bioremediation (phytoremediation) is the most feasible remediation technique. Therefore, for the crude oil contaminated sites, this study highlights typical cogitation for large in-situ implementation and potential species for remediation. For the mineral resources, gold mining was the typical example. As a practical approach, experimental areas on an abandoned mining site (Site 1), an active mining site (Site 2) and an undisturbed vegetation site (Control) in southwestern Nigeria were mapped out to represent its mining and farming activities. On the sites, (a) the impacts of the ASM activities on the floristic association were assessed. (b) the potential of 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was explored to characterize the horizontal and vertical landscape homogeneity of the mine sites, and lastly, (c) the study identified native high-accumulating plants growing on the sites that can be employed for phytoremediation. Thus, the results show that (a) the floristic association of the mine sites have been stressed and disturbed. (b) the resistivity structure of the sites shows that ASM has greatly impaired the lithological status of the sites. (c) out of the 9 considered species, Crinum jagus has the highest accumulation factor of 8.71, 37.47, 1.08 and 29.38 for Pb, Cd, Fe and Cu respectively. It is a recommendable novel plant in the tropics. However, future studies must verify its hyperaccumulator potentials, identify other high accumulating species and develop effective approaches and policies to curb ASM activities and enhance remediation in Nigeria.
... We sampled sycamores ranging from 2-31-cm diameter at breast height (DBH at 1.37 m, Jenkins et al., 2004). Trees were cut down to sample leaves, branches, stem, and bark above the DBH. ...
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The Big River, in the Old Lead Belt, southeast Missouri, experienced large-scale contamination of channel sediments and floodplain soils from over 200 years of lead mining pollution. Sediments of gravel bars downstream of mining in Big River are contaminated with Pb and Zn and have higher metal concentrations than upstream sites. Plants on these contaminated gravel bars are thus exposed to high metal concentrations and can accumulate metals. We measured multielement concentrations in leaves, branches, stems, and bark of American sycamores (Platanus occidentalis) from a contaminated and non-contaminated gravel bar in the Big River to determine the extent of metal accumulation in these trees. Element concentrations were 2–70 times higher in contaminated than non-contaminated tree parts. Contaminated sycamores were enriched with Cd, Co, Pb, and Tl in leaves; Cd, Na, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn in branches; Cd, Co, Pb, Tl, U, Zn, and Zr in stems; and Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn in bark (enrichment ratio >2). Contaminated bark accumulated higher concentrations of Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Er, Ho, Li, Na, Ni, Pb, Tl, U, Zn, and Zr than other tree parts. Leaves had the highest P concentrations and the second highest concentrations of Ba, Fe, Li, Tl, U, Zn, and Zr after bark. Contaminated sycamores have the potential to disperse accumulated metals in the environment, particularly those in bark and leaves, as sycamores frequently shed these tree parts. After contaminated tree parts shed and become detritus, they can transfer accumulated metals from the sediment to food webs. The resulting detritus can change microbial and macroinvertebrate communities and subsequently inhibit decomposition in rivers.
... The data points were disregarded if trapping days exceeded 300 days since such long-term collected data may have potential physical or environmental disturbances, for example, oversampling due to strong wind (Yanai et al., 2012). We used wood specific gravity database from U.S. Forest Service (Jenkins, 2004), tree diameter and height in the woody plant vegetation structure data product for estimating wood biomass. Soil organic C was calculated using the observations of the soil organic C content in the soil chemical properties data product and bulk density from the soil chemical properties (National Ecological Observatory Network, 2021g). ...
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Terrestrial ecosystems can potentially alleviate or exacerbate climate change by regulating atmospheric CO2 concentration. Divergent predictions of the terrestrial C sink by the Earth System Models (ESMs) indicate no unified mechanism regarding abiotic and biotic response to climate change. The amount and diversity of observations of the terrestrial C cycle create an opportunity to improve the predictive capacity of C‐cycle models. Modeling study with observations could provide valuable insights into the controls on interannual variability of the terrestrial C sink. In this study, we used data from three deciduous forest sites in the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) to do site‐specific parameterizations in the Terrestrial ECOsystem model (TECO), and explore controls of the net C uptake. Calibrated TECO explained 58%–83% of variation in leaf area index and 35%–40% in net ecosystem C exchange. Root mean square (percentage) errors were 131–436 gC/m² (0.9%–3.3%) for wood C pool, 3–73 gC/m² (0.5%–11.5%) for fine root C, and 170–763 gC/m² (1.9%–8.0%) for soil C pool. Calibrated parameters revealed site‐specific processes in phenology and turnover of leaves, fine roots, slow‐decomposing soil C, and temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition among the three deciduous forest sites. These findings imply the presence of bias in models using parameters at plant functional type (PFT) level, which is the case for many ESMs relying on land surface components (i.e., PFTs), rather than site‐specific parameters. Lastly, the magnitude of the terrestrial C sink in deciduous forests increased with temperature and this increase was caused by the temperature‐driven stimulation of the gross primary production.
... DBH is a customary tree measurement for arborists, and is widely used in urban forestry to estimate ecosystem services [66][67][68]. Diameter at breast height and tree age have been used to predict the structural dimensions of trees, which was linked to ecosystem services [69]. The relationships between the DBH of individual trees and, canopy width and area have been well established in the literature [70][71][72][73][74][75][76]. ...
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A cost–benefit analysis (CBA) is an economic approach to estimate the value of alternative programs, policies or management options. Net present value in CBA is one of the standard approaches to value the future benefits of investments. Due to the complexity of urban tree benefits, little is known about how to estimate the monetary value of the ecosystem services that urban trees provide as future benefits. We modeled the economic analyses of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) management scenarios for urban ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in New Jersey. These scenarios include: (1) no infestation or baseline scenario, (2) infestation with no action, (3) immediate removal and replacement and (4) the treatment of ash trees. The net present value for each management option is calculated using discount rates of 0%, 2% and 5%. The National Tree Benefit Calculator (NTBC) tool is used to quantify the economic value of the ecosystem services provided by the ash trees based on their diameter at breast height (DBH) values. The horizon over which benefits and costs are calculated was set at up to 20 years to estimate the net present value of ash trees that have DBH values of 4 inches. Results from the NPV outputs conclude that across most discount rates, the treatment of ash trees provided greater dollar (USD) values of ecosystem services over time when compared to inaction or the removal and replacement of ash trees. The present research suggests that removing and replacing ash trees is not cost effective at any discount rate due to the high future costs associated with retaining the newly planted trees over a twenty-year time horizon.
... A strict and stable allometric ratio (power function) is known between the biomass of a tree and its diameter (simple allometry), or between the biomass of a tree and some massforming indicators (multifactorial allometry), and similar allometric equations for different tree species in the world are already in the tens of thousands (Jenkins et al., 2004). Allometric models of tree biomass are particularly relevant when assessing biomass in mixed species stands (Shuman et al., 2011). ...
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Forest ecosystems play an essential role in climate stabilization, and the study of influence of climate change on their biomass and carbon depositing is of paramount importance. The objective of this study was (a) to verify the operation of the law of the limiting factor at the transcontinental level when modeling changes in the biomass of trees and stands of the two-needled subgenus Pinus sp. of Eurasia in relation to geographically determined indicators of temperatures and precipitation, and (b) to show the possibility of using the constructed climate-conditioned models of tree and stand biomass in predicting temporal changes in tree and stand biomass based on the principle of space-for-time substitution. As a result of the implementation of the principles of the limiting factor and space-for-time substitution, a common pattern has been established on tree and stand levels: in sufficiently moisture–rich climatic zones, an increase in temperature by 1°C with a constant amount of precipitation causes an increase in aboveground biomass, and in moisture–deficient zones - its decrease; in warm climatic zones, a decrease in precipitation by 100 mm at a constant average January temperature causes a decrease in aboveground biomass, and in cold climatic zones - its increase.
... The aboveground biomass of trees is generally known to be well predicted by dimensional variables such as RCD, DBH (diameter at breast height), H, or a combination of diameter and height variables (Annighöfer et al., 2016;Jenkins et al., 2004;Ter-Mikaelian and Korzukhin, 1997;Zianis et al., 2005). Here, we wanted to predict the belowground biomass using aboveground dimensional variables (RCD, H), next to aboveground woody biomass as an additional predictor. ...
Article
Just as the aboveground tree organs represent the interface between trees and the atmosphere, roots act as the interface between trees and the soil. In this function, roots take-up water and nutrients, facilitate interactions with soil microflora, anchor trees, and also contribute to the gross primary production of forests. However, in comparison to aboveground plant organs, the biomass of roots is much more difficult to study. In this study, we analyzed 19 European datasets on above- and belowground biomass of juvenile trees of 14 species to identify generalizable estimators of root biomass based on tree sapling dimensions (e.g. height, diameter, aboveground biomass). Such estimations are essential growth and sequestration modelling. In addition, the intention was to study the effect of sapling dimension and light availability on biomass allocation to roots. All aboveground variables were significant predictors for root biomass. But, among aboveground predictors of root biomass plant height performed poorest. When comparing conifer and broadleaf species, the latter tended to have a higher root biomass at a given dimension. Also, with increasing size, the share of belowground biomass tended to increase for the sapling dimensions considered. In most species, there was a trend of increasing relative belowground biomass with increasing light availability. Finally, the height to diameter ratio (H/D) was negatively correlated to relative belowground biomass. This indicates that trees with a high H/D are not only more unstable owing to the unfavorable bending stress resistance, but also because they are comparatively less well anchored in the ground. Thus, single tree stability may be improved through increasing light availability to increase the share of belowground biomass.
... Dead trees were assigned to a decay class using USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) protocols [30] based on visible characteristics (Table 1). Overstory standing tree biomass was estimated using species-specific allometric relationships [31] for all overstory species (Table 1). Allometric regressions for estimating biomass of pond pine do not exist in the literature, representing a pressing research need, so equations were used for the taxonomically closely-related pitch pine (Pinus resinosus L.) [32]. ...
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Coastal forested wetlands provide important ecosystem services along the southeastern region of the United States, but are threatened by anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Here, we examined the species composition, mortality, aboveground biomass, and carbon content of vegetation and soils in natural pine forests of the lower coastal plain in eastern North Carolina, USA. We compared a forest clearly in decline (termed “ghost forest”) adjacent to a roadside canal that had been installed as drainage for a road next to an adjacent forest subject to “natural” hydrology, unaltered by human modification (termed “healthy forest”). We also assessed how soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation changed over time using 14C radiocarbon dating of wood sampled at different depths within the peat profile. Our results showed that the ghost forest had a higher tree density at 687 trees ha−1, and was dominated by swamp bays (Persea palustric), compared to the healthy forest, which had 265 trees ha−1 dominated by pond pine (Pinus serotina Michx). Overstory tree mortality of the ghost forest was nearly ten times greater than the healthy forest (p < 0.05), which actually contributed to higher total aboveground biomass (55.9 ± 12.6 Mg C ha−1 vs. 27.9 ± 8.7 Mg ha−1 in healthy forest), as the dead standing tree biomass (snags) added to that of an encroaching woody shrub layer during ecosystem transition. Therefore, the total aboveground C content of the ghost forest, 33.98 ± 14.8 Mg C ha−1, was higher than the healthy forest, 24.7 ± 5.2 Mg C ha−1 (p < 0.05). The total SOC stock down to a 2.3 m depth in the ghost forest was 824.1 ± 46.2 Mg C ha−1, while that of the healthy forest was 749.0 ± 170.5 Mg C ha−1 (p > 0.05). Carbon dating of organic sediments indicated that, as the sample age approaches modern times (surface layer year 2015), the organic soil accumulation rate (1.11 to 1.13 mm year−1) is unable to keep pace with the estimated rate of recent sea level rise (2.1 to 2.4 mm year−1), suggesting a causative relationship with the ecosystem transition occurring at the site. Increasing hydrologic stress over recent decades appears to have been a major driver of ecosystem transition, that is, ghost forest formation and woody shrub encroachment, as indicated by the far higher overstory tree mortality adjacent to the drainage ditch, which allows the inland propagation of hydrologic/salinity forcing due to SLR and extreme storms. Our study documents C accumulation in a coastal wetland over the past two millennia, which is now threatened due to the recent increase in the rate of SLR exceeding the natural peat accumulation rate, causing an ecosystem transition with unknown consequences for the stored C; however, much of it will eventually be returned to the atmosphere. More studies are needed to determine the causes and consequences of coastal ecosystem transition to inform the modeling of future coastal wetland responses to environmental change and the estimation of regional terrestrial C stocks and flux.
... Above-ground biomass for all overstory stems (DBH ≥ 10 cm) was estimated using species-specific allometric equations (Jenkins et al., 2004; Table A1). We also quantified the relative density of each stand to allow (in combination with the status of recruitment) an assessment of the rate of stand development. ...
Article
In addition to long-standing concerns about sustaining forest productivity, maintaining forest ecosystems under changing conditions and emerging threats has become increasingly important when planning forest management. With the aim of understanding effects of management on both productivity and recovery, we quantified the 25-year impact of varying degrees of organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction on above-ground biomass, soil carbon and nutrients, soil bulk density, and stand development in aspen-dominated forests in the upper Lake States region of the US. Treatment impacts were assessed at three different sites with comparable overstory composition, but with varying soil texture, site quality, and climate. Across all sites, soil C and N generally decreased with increasing OM removal, and bulk density increased with increasing compaction; 25-year observations indicate recovery of bulk density at the surface (0–10 cm) but not at deeper portions of the soil profile. At the most productive site (loamy soils) with favorable initial soil porosity, severe compaction decreased mean aboveground biomass (-46%), particularly of trees (-73%). Biomass at 25 years did not differ among organic matter removal treatments (e.g. stem-only harvest), but a greater increase in soil C occurred with stem-only harvest relative to whole-tree harvest plus forest floor removal. In contrast, at a less productive site with sandy soils poorly buffered to nutrient and C removals, whole-tree harvest reduced biomass by 25% (tree biomass declined 35%) relative to stem-only harvest while compaction treatments did not differ in effects on biomass production, soil C or soil N. On clay soils, compaction treatments did not significantly impact biomass production, but whole-tree harvest plus forest floor removal reduced tree biomass by 47% relative to whole-tree harvest alone. Assessment of mean relative density indicates canopy closure has not yet occurred at the least productive site (clay soils) or the more severely disturbed stands at the intermediate site (sandy soils), suggesting the possibility for treatment impacts not yet discernible to become more pronounced as stands develop and nutrient uptake continues in the future. Our results align with concepts of soil quality and texture-specific limitations to growth, underlying a need to understand key soil limitations when considering forest management impacts to aboveground structure and productivity.
... Where S w is the vegetation surcharge, bm is the total aboveground biomass for each tree (kg),  is the moisture content of the wood (%), n is the number of trees on the slope, A is the slope area (m 2 ), DBH is the tree's diameter at the breast height (cm), and the parameter 0  and 1  are the coefficient of tree species [20].Meanwhile, [33] explained that the vegetation surcharge equation using a different equation (equation 5) is as follows: ...
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Vegetated slopes have variouslevels of slope stability. Variation of slope stability is affected by characteristics of vegetation, slopes, and soils which are shown by hydrological and mechanical (hydro-mechanical) effects. This article presents a review of the role of hydromechanical vegetation on slope stability asan explanation of landslide mechanism on vegetated slopes. The review showed that the hydro-mechanicaleffectsfrom rootsenhanced matric suction by evapotranspiration (ua – uw), change of volumetric water content by plant water uptake (  ), and enhanced effective soil cohesion due to root matrix reinforcement (CR), while vegetation and wind load canenhance surcharge (Sw) andenhance wind load force parallel to the slope (Fwind). Hydro-mechanical vegetation effects can increase or decrease slope stability depending on factors of slope steepness, root diameter, root depth, root area ratio, root morphology, soil aggregate, season or weather (wet, dry, snow), vegetation type, slope shape, location, and vegetation spacing.
... Where S w is the vegetation surcharge, bm is the total aboveground biomass for each tree (kg),  is the moisture content of the wood (%), n is the number of trees on the slope, A is the slope area (m 2 ), DBH is the tree's diameter at the breast height (cm), and the parameter 0  and 1  are the coefficient of tree species [20].Meanwhile, [33] explained that the vegetation surcharge equation using a different equation (equation 5) is as follows: ...
Article
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Abstract. Vegetated slopes have various levels of slope stability. Variation of slope stability is affected by characteristics of vegetation, slopes, and soils which are shown by hydrological and mechanical (hydro-mechanical) effects. This article presents a review of the role of hydromechanical vegetation on slope stability as an explanation of landslide mechanism on vegetated slopes. The review showed that the hydro-mechanical effects from roots enhanced matric suction by evapotranspiration (ua – uw), change of volumetric water content by plant water uptake (  ), and enhanced effective soil cohesion due to root matrix reinforcement (CR), while vegetation and wind load canenhance surcharge (Sw) andenhance wind load force parallel to the slope (Fwind). Hydro-mechanical vegetation effects can increase or decrease slope stability depending on factors of slope steepness, root diameter, root depth, root area ratio, root morphology, soil aggregate, season or weather (wet, dry, snow), vegetation type, slope shape, location, and vegetation spacing. Keyword: hydro-mechanical, vegetation, slope, stability
... 3). For priors on the leaf biomass allometry parameters, we fit a multivariate normal distribution to allometry coefficients from Jenkins et al. (2003Jenkins et al. ( , 2004 using the PEcAn.allometry package (https://github.com/ ...
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Canopy radiative transfer is the primary mechanism by which models relate vegetation composition and state to the surface energy balance, which is important to light- and temperature-sensitive plant processes as well as understanding land–atmosphere feedbacks. In addition, certain parameters (e.g., specific leaf area, SLA) that have an outsized influence on vegetation model behavior can be constrained by observations of shortwave reflectance, thus reducing model predictive uncertainty. Importantly, calibrating against radiative transfer outputs allows models to directly use remote sensing reflectance products without relying on highly derived products (such as MODIS leaf area index) whose assumptions may be incompatible with the target vegetation model and whose uncertainties are usually not well quantified. Here, we created the EDR model by coupling the two-stream representation of canopy radiative transfer in the Ecosystem Demography model version 2 (ED2) with a leaf radiative transfer model (PROSPECT-5) and a simple soil reflectance model to predict full-range, high-spectral-resolution surface reflectance that is dependent on the underlying ED2 model state. We then calibrated this model against estimates of hemispherical reflectance (corrected for directional effects) from the NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and survey data from 54 temperate forest plots in the northeastern United States. The calibration significantly reduced uncertainty in model parameters related to leaf biochemistry and morphology and canopy structure for five plant functional types. Using a single common set of parameters across all sites, the calibrated model was able to accurately reproduce surface reflectance for sites with highly varied forest composition and structure. However, the calibrated model's predictions of leaf area index (LAI) were less robust, capturing only 46 % of the variability in the observations. Comparing the ED2 radiative transfer model with another two-stream soil–leaf–canopy radiative transfer model commonly used in remote sensing studies (PRO4SAIL) illustrated structural errors in the ED2 representation of direct radiation backscatter that resulted in systematic underestimation of reflectance. In addition, we also highlight that, to directly compare with a two-stream radiative transfer model like EDR, we had to perform an additional processing step to convert the directional reflectance estimates of AVIRIS to hemispherical reflectance (also known as “albedo”). In future work, we recommend that vegetation models add the capability to predict directional reflectance, to allow them to more directly assimilate a wide range of airborne and satellite reflectance products. We ultimately conclude that despite these challenges, using dynamic vegetation models to predict surface reflectance is a promising avenue for model calibration and validation using remote sensing data.
... The annual change in cross-sectional area of a tree stem, known as the basal area increment (BAI), is a widely used estimate of absolute growth and biomass (West, 1980;LeBlanc, 1990;Biondi and Qeadan, 2008). Basal area increment is often used to calculate total biomass and has been suggested as a reliable estimate of above-ground forest productivity (Belmecheri et al., 2014;Klesse et al., 2016;Babst et al., 2018), with BAI-based allometric equations being used to estimate total annual above-ground biomass at both the tree and stand levels (Jenkins, 2004;Foster et al., 2014). The relative ease of obtaining this metric using tree-rings makes BAI an attractive measure of annual growth. ...
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Above-ground forest productivity can be reliably estimated from tree-ring width measurements. In doing so, annual growth is linked to the tree’s basal area increment (BAI), which is the change in cross-sectional area associated with each annual ring. When BAI is estimated from ring-width series, a value for the diameter of the tree is required. This diameter is ideally measured in the field, but can also be estimated as the sum of the annual ring widths. Tree biomass can also be estimated directly from the diameter estimates derived from tree-rings. Summing the ring widths, however, typically underestimates the tree’s true diameter. To evaluate this potential bias in diameter, we compared field-measured diameter and diameter estimated from the sum of the ring widths using tree-ring chronologies for seven common species in the eastern United States. We then evaluated the impacts of using the biased diameter estimates on derived BAI and biomass values. To simulate field-sampling error (i.e., failure to reach the pith when obtaining a core sample), we re-calculated BAI and biomass after removing a portion of the innermost rings from each tree. Comparisons of these various methods quantify the substantial and consistent underestimations in forest productivity estimates. To reduce the bias in diameter when using ring widths, we developed a regression model to adjust the diameter using core samples. This model is predicated on having some field-measured diameter values available at a site to calibrate and validate the model, but it can then be used to produce estimates at similar sites with similar species where no field-measured diameter values are available. Values of BAI and biomass derived from model-estimated diameter were more accurate at representing absolute growth than values produced by using the sum of the ring widths. Assessing the interannual variations in tree-growth is dependent on having metrics that accurately reflect the area and mass of wood produced. Our results suggest that published estimates of BAI and biomass using the sum of the ring widths to estimate diameter have substantially underestimated these productivity metrics. Our new procedure allows for more reliable estimates of productivity metrics that use diameter-at-breast height derived from tree rings.
... Biomass estimation models at different levels could obviously influence local, regional, and global biomass estimates. Individual tree biomass models relate different tree biomass components to easily measured variables (i.e., diameter at breast height and tree height), and a large number of such models have been established with the additive method for tree species under different regional and site conditions across the world, such as Europe (Zianis et al., 2005;Forrester et al., 2017), America (Ter-Mikaelian and Korzukhin, 1997;Parresol, 1999Parresol, , 2001Jenkins et al., 2004;Návar, 2009), and China (Wang, 2006;Xiang et al., 2011;Dong et al., 2014;Luo et al., 2015Luo et al., , 2020Yuen et al., 2016). These models are essential for stand-level and large-scale biomass estimation. ...
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Accurate forest carbon service accounting is essential for climate change mitigation. At present, the knowledge about whether and how climate-sensitive stand biomass models could reduce the uncertainty of forest biomass/carbon estimation is lacking. Hence, the aim of this study is to develop climate-sensitive stand biomass models and quantify their differences. Data containing 539 sample plots of larch plantations in northern and northeastern China were utilized to develop two basic and the corresponding climate-sensitive stand biomass models. Owing to the uncertainty from predictors, the forecast combination method was used to combine the two basic models (FCMs) and the two climate-sensitive models (CS-FCMs) and to quantify the difference in biomass estimations at the plot and regional scales. Results showed that the adjusted R² values of the stand biomass models were greater than 0.85 and the relative root mean square errors ranged from 5.51% to 22.62%. The CS-FCMs produced more accurate biomass estimates than the FCMs. The difference in biomass estimations derived from biomass models with and without climatic variables was 411,549 tons or 0.27% at the regional scale, but the carbon value difference amounted to about $8.3 million. This study underlined the importance of accurate carbon accounting based on climate-modified stand biomass models for forest carbon management.
... The remaining observations were from elsewhere in the Western US. We queried existing databases for allometric observations (Jenkins et al., 2004;Chojnacky et al., 2014;Falster et al., 2015). ...
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Plant community composition influences carbon, water and energy fluxes at regional to global scales. Composition is a dynamic property of ecosystems, arising from complex feedbacks among the environment, disturbance, and plant physiology. Vegetation demographic models (VDMs) allow investigation of the effects of changing climate and disturbance regimes on vegetation composition and fluxes. Such investigation requires that the models can accurately resolve these feedbacks to simulate realistic composition. Vegetation in VDMs is composed of plant functional types (PFTs), which are specified according to plant traits. Defining PFTs is challenging due to large variability in trait observations within and between plant types and a lack of understanding of model sensitivity to these traits. Here we present an approach for developing PFT parameterizations that are connected to the underlying ecological processes determining forest composition in the mixed-conifer forest of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. We constrain multiple relative trait values between PFTs, as opposed to randomly sampling within the range of observations. An ensemble of PFT parameterizations are then filtered based on emergent forest properties meeting observation-based ecological criteria under alternate disturbance scenarios. A small ensemble of alternate PFT parameterizations is identified that produces plausible forest composition, and demonstrates variability in response to disturbance frequency and regional environmental variation. Retaining multiple PFT parameterizations allows us to quantify the uncertainty in forest responses due to variability in trait observations. Vegetation composition is a key emergent outcome from VDMs and our methodology provides a foundation for robust PFT parameterization across ecosystems.
... Specific gravity values for each tree species or group of species were developed at the U.S. Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory and applied to FIA tree volume estimates for developing merchantable tree biomass (weight of tree bole). To calculate total live-tree biomass, we have to add the biomass for stumps (Raile 1982), limbs and tops (Hahn 1984), and belowground stump and coarse roots (Jenkins et al. 2004). We do not currently report live biomass for foliage. ...
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The third 5-year annualized inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2013 after more than 3170 forested plots were measured. Maine contains more than 17.6 million acres of forest land, an area that has been quite stable since 1960, covering more than 82 percent of the total land area. The number of live trees greater than 1 inch in diameter are approaching 24.5 billion trees. Aboveground biomass of all live trees has increased slightly since 2008. Over the same period, the average annual volume for tree growth has increased 30 percent and tree mortality has decreased 15 percent. Tree harvest levels have remained flat since 2008.This report also includes detailed information on forest inventory methods and the quality of the estimates found in five tables (Tables A-E). A complete set of data tables and other resources can be found at http://dx.
... Specific gravity values for each tree species or group of species were developed at the U.S. Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory and applied to FIA tree volume estimates for developing merchantable tree biomass (weight of tree bole). To calculate total live-tree biomass, we have to add the biomass for stumps (Raile 1982), limbs and tops (Hahn 1984), and belowground stump and coarse roots (Jenkins et al. 2004). We do not currently report live biomass for foliage. ...
Technical Report
The third 5-year annualized inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2013 after more than 3170 forested plots were measured. Maine contains more than 17.6 million acres of forest land, an area that has been quite stable since 1960, covering more than 82 percent of the total land area. The number of live trees greater than 1 inch in diameter are approaching 24.5 billion trees. Aboveground biomass of all live trees has increased slightly since 2008. Over the same period, the average annual volume for tree growth has increased 30 percent and tree mortality has decreased 15 percent. Tree harvest levels have remained flat since 2008.This report also includes detailed information on forest inventory methods and the quality of the estimates found in five tables (Tables A-E). A complete set of data tables and other resources can be found at http://dx.
... Specific gravity values for each tree species or group of species were developed at the U.S. Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory and applied to FIA tree volume estimates for developing merchantable tree biomass (weight of tree bole). To calculate total live-tree biomass, we have to add the biomass for stumps (Raile 1982), limbs and tops, and belowground stump and coarse roots (Jenkins 2004). We do not currently report live biomass for foliage. ...
Technical Report
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The second full annual inventory of Pennsylvania's forests reports a stable base of 16.7 million acres of forest land. Northern hardwoods and mixed-oak forest-type groups account for 54 and 32 percent of the forest land, respectively. The State's forest land averages about 61 dry tons of wood per acre and almost 6,500 board feet (International ¼-inch rule) per acre on timberland. The ratio of average annual net growth-to-removals for growing-stock trees on timberland was about 2:1. Additional information is presented on forest land use, forest resources, forest sustainability, forest health (including regeneration), and timber products. Detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates are included in a DVD at the back of the report. Tables of population estimates and a glossary are also included.
... Then, by pinpointing the actual locations of forest conversions with Landsat-based forest disturbance and land cover datasets, we quantify the actual climate impact of true forest conversions where they occurred from 1986 to 2000. We estimate carbon emissions with biomass from the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Baseline Dataset (46), adjusted to total live biomass based on U.S. Forest Service component ratios (47), and adopting emitted fractions consistent with the U.S. Forest Service Timber Products Output (48). We estimate annual NEP lost due to forest conversion based on a comprehensive set of published curves specific to regions and forest types (49). ...
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Storing carbon in forests is a leading land-based strategy to curb anthropogenic climate change, but its planetary cooling effect is opposed by warming from low albedo. Using detailed geospatial data from Earth-observing satellites and the national forest inventory, we quantify the net climate effect of losing forest across the conterminous United States. We find that forest loss in the intermountain and Rocky Mountain West causes net planetary cooling but losses east of the Mississippi River and in Pacific Coast states tend toward net warming. Actual U.S. forest conversions from 1986 to 2000 cause net cooling for a decade but then transition to a large net warming over a century. Avoiding these forest conversions could have yielded a 100-year average annual global cooling of 0.00088°C. This would offset 17% of the 100-year climate warming effect from a single year of U.S. fossil fuel emissions, underscoring the scale of the mitigation challenge.
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Remote sensing techniques are increasingly used for crop monitoring to improve the profitability of plantations. These studies are mainly based on spectral information recorded by satellites or unmanned aerial vehicles. However, the development of Earth Observation Systems capable of retrieving 3D point clouds at an affordable cost enables the possibility of exploring new approaches in agriculture. In this context, more research is required to analyze the capability of 3D data for inventory, management and prediction of inputs (water, fertilizers and pesticides) and outputs (production, biomass) of fruit plantations. To do this, the complete representation of each tree contribute to extract the main geometric parameters. The objective of this work is to obtain regression models to estimate total height (Ht), crown height (Hc), stem diameter (Ds), crown diameter (Dc), stem volume (Vs) and crown volume (Vc) from 45 walnut specimens. For this, 3D models were computed for these trees by applying ground-based Structure from Motion (SfM). A circular photogrammetric survey of each tree was carried out using a standard digital camera and three-dimensional point clouds were retrieved for each tree. From these data, the tree parameters were computed. Linear regression models were obtained to estimate Ht, Hc, Ds, Dc, Vs and Vc, with R2 values between 0.89 and 0.99. The results showed accurate fits between field parameters and those derived from 3D point clouds retrieved from SfM technique, indicating the applicability of this cost-effective method to model walnut trees and to extract their accurate parameters without costly field campaigns.
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Despite the importance of biodiversity‐ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationships in ecology and conservation, relatively little is known about how BEF relationships change across spatial scales. Theory predicts that change in BEF relationships with increasing spatial scale depends on variation in species composition across space (β‐diversity), but empirical evidence is limited. Moreover, studies have not quantified the direct and indirect role the environment plays in co‐structuring ecosystem functioning across spatial scales. We used 14 1.4‐ha temperate‐forest plots containing 18,323 trees to quantify scale‐dependence between aboveground tree biomass and three components of tree‐species diversity – α‐diversity (average local diversity), γ‐diversity (total diversity), and β‐diversity. Using structural‐equation models, we quantified direct effects of each diversity component and the environment (soil nutrients and topography), as well as indirect effects of the environment, on tree biomass across 11 spatial extents ranging from 400‐m2 to 14,400‐m2. Our results show that the relationship between β‐diversity and tree biomass strengthened with increasing spatial extent. Moreover, β‐diversity appeared to be a stronger predictor of biomass than α‐diversity and γ‐diversity at intermediate to large spatial extents. The environment had strong direct and indirect effects on biomass, but in contrast to diversity, these effects did not strengthen with increasing spatial extent. This study provides some of the first empirical evidence that β‐diversity underpins the scaling of BEF relationships in naturally complex ecosystems.
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Three-dimensional urban vegetation data provide crucial ecological information, but generally feature poor coverage and availability. The spaceborne radar interferometer TanDEM-X delivers a digital elevation model that can be processed to produce urban Canopy Height Models (CHMs), including vegetation height and area per 12-metre cell. To date, these CHMs are underutilised in urban research. This study therefore explores the potential of urban TanDEM-X CHM by combining an expert survey on potential directions for CHM in urban research and a case study conducting and integrating a CHM for climatological research in the city of Yazd, Iran. We complement these empirical analyses with a detailed literature section of the current state of application of TanDEM-X-CHM. The expert survey highlights key research directions and interests for urban CHM implementation. The case study provides an example of implementation based on findings from the expert survey, revealing effects of vegetation height and volume on land surface temperature. Our results underscore the unique characteristics of a TanDEM-X-based CHM, asserting their potential for producing three-dimensional vegetation information crucial for effective research and policy efforts in urban ecology.
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Abstract What are typical values and dynamic status of live‐tree biomass pools in old‐growth, mesic, cool temperate forests? A handful of biomass density estimates in eastern North American temperate forests show large biomass/carbon reserves on a per‐area basis. However, it is less clear whether these ecosystems are, over multi‐decade scales, typically steady‐state or non‐equilibrial carbon pools. Previous studies have suggested both possibilities, but claims are based on inferences from short‐term studies or proxy data sets. An unusually long‐term and extensive data set from repeatedly sampled permanent plots (84 yr, ca. 10 ha sample area, 6–8 measurements), from old‐growth conifer‐hardwood forest in northern Michigan, USA, allows direct estimation of multi‐decade trends in aboveground live‐tree biomass. Results confirm prior suggestions of high‐biomass density for old‐growth temperate forests (averaging >300 Mg/ha), but, despite significant decade‐scale variation, show no overall, long‐term directional change. Study plots typically show multi‐decade trends of gradually increasing biomass density, interrupted by sharp declines attributed to intermediate‐severity disturbances, with recovery of pre‐disturbance biomass density requiring upwards of a half‐century. At the stand scale, biomass dynamics are strongly historically contingent, and short‐term studies may yield biased or misleading results. Disturbance legacies, through demographic and structural effects, can have multi‐decade effects on vulnerability to further disturbance. While this study shows no general trend in aboveground biomass pools, it suggests that changes in disturbance regime may drive important feedbacks in biomass pool dynamics.
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La estimación de la biomasa aérea total en bosques tropicales es una tarea crítica para la gestión forestal y los mercados del carbono. Los modelos pantropicales multiespecies y multisitios tratan de desarrollar estimaciones para el caso general de falta de conocimiento de modelos locales específicos. Bajo un enfoque algebraico simple, este trabajo presenta las equivalencias entre los modelos analizados, los cuales son parametrizados por regresión lineal simple en el espacio log-log mediante una base de datos pantropical (bosques tropicales), con 4004 mediciones en 58 sitios en el mundo; incluye mediciones del diámetro a la altura del pecho (D) y altura total (H), así como estimaciones de la densidad de la madera (ρ). Los resultados soportan la equivalencia de los modelos alométricos. Adicionalmente se realizó una parametrización de los modelos alométricos usando la base de datos pantropical a través de regresión lineal simple de las transformaciones logarítmicas de los modelos. El modelo que usa D, H y ρ a nivel local (clases de densidad o sitios) resulta en la estimación con menor error. El modelo alométrico pantropical estimado se propone como un modelo global; aunque con una discusión sobre su aplicabilidad con relación a los modelos locales. Una aproximación al modelo global es introducida al parametrizar un modelo en función de la densidad de la madera y dos enfoques con relación al exponente de la relación potencial analizada. Los modelos pantropicales desarrollados muestran estimaciones ligeramente mejores que el modelo pantropical, dando flexibilidad al error de estimación al asociarlo a la densidad de la madera de las especies de árboles.
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La cuantificación de la biomasa aérea y carbono total es importante en el contexto de los mercados del carbono y la productividad forestal, por lo que es necesario el desarrollo de métodos cuantitativos costo-efectivos que reduzcan la incertidumbre en sus estimaciones. El uso de ecuaciones alométricas entre la biomasa aérea total y volumen del fuste o total y entre el diámetro normal y la altura total es práctica común en la evaluación de recursos forestales, donde se usan modelos específicos y generalizados, con diferentes niveles de incertidumbre. En la literatura se han propuesto diversas metodologías para simplificar el uso de tales relaciones alométricas, sugiriendo algunas con bases correctas, pero sin explorar sus implicaciones y matemáticas asociadas. En este trabajo se presenta un marco teórico general de las relaciones entre constantes y exponentes, así como entre exponentes, de ciertas ecuaciones alométricas, usando bases matemáticas relativamente simples. Seguido del desarrollo del marco teórico, se usa una base de parámetros de relaciones alométricas y un conjunto de bases de datos de mediciones de campo. Con lo anterior se obtiene, como resultado las estimaciones que son comparables a las ecuaciones alométricas clásicas, pero con el uso de solo la relación altura total-diámetro normal. Se exploran las consecuencias de la propuesta teórica y se generan recomendaciones para cambiar el paradigma en los desarrollos alométricos tradicionales para plantas leñosas.
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The quantification of carbon storage in vegetation biomass is a crucial factor in the estimation and mitigation of CO2 emissions. Globally, arid and semi-arid regions are considered an important carbon sink. However, they have received limited attention and, therefore, it should be a priority to develop tools to quantify biomass at the local and regional scales. Individual plant variables, such as stem diameter and crown area, were reported to be good predictors of individual plant weight. Stand-level variables, such as plant cover and mean height, are also easy-to-measure estimators of above-ground biomass (AGB) in dry regions. In this study, we estimated the AGB in semi-arid woody vegetation in Northeast Patagonia, Argentina. We evaluated whether the AGB at the stand level can be estimated based on plant cover and to what extent the estimation accuracy can be improved by the inclusion of other field-measured structure variables. We also evaluated whether remote sensing technologies can be used to reliably estimate and map the regional mean biomass. For this purpose, we analyzed the relationships between field-measured woody vegetation structure variables and AGB as well as LANDSAT TM-derived variables. We obtained a modelbased ratio estimate of regional mean AGB and its standard error. Total plant cover allowed us to obtain a reliable estimation of local AGB, and no better fit was attained by the inclusion of other structure variables. The stand-level plant cover ranged between 18.7% and 95.2% and AGB between about 2.0 and 70.8 Mg/hm2. AGB based on total plant cover was well estimated from LANDSAT TM bands 2 and 3, which facilitated a model-based ratio estimate of the regional mean AGB (approximately 12.0 Mg/hm2) and its sampling error (about 30.0%). The mean AGB of woody vegetation can greatly contribute to carbon storage in semi-arid lands. Thus, plant cover estimation by remote sensing images could be used to obtain regional estimates and map biomass, as well as to assess and monitor the impact of land-use change on the carbon balance, for arid and semi-arid regions. SharedIt link: https://rdcu.be/cysqH
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Первинну продукцію компонентів надземної фітомаси (стовбура і крони) оцінено для дерев сосни звичайної, які ростуть переважно у чистих та мішаних (домішка від 1 до 3 од.) соснових насадженнях штучного походження Східного Полісся України. Насадження високопродуктивні (II, I, Ia і вище класів бонітету), середньо- та високоповнотні, ростуть у свіжих борах (А2), суборах (B2) та сугрудах (C2). Використано дані 80 тимчасових пробних площ (ТПП), які закладено у соснових деревостанах Сумської (36 ТПП) та Чернігівської (44 ТПП) областей. Зрубано й обміряно 900 модельних дерев (МД) сосни звичайної, з яких 226 МД опрацьовано з пофракційним оцінюванням компонентів надземної фітомаси та 674 МД – без оцінювання фітомаси крони. Обмір моделей і розрахунки первинної продукції компонентів надземної фітомаси дерев сосни звичайної виконано за допомогою удосконалених загальноприйнятих методів та розробленого алгоритму. Сукупність значень дослідного матеріалу характеризується їх нормальним розподілом за віком, діаметром, висотою дерев та відносною повнотою насаджень. Встановлено тісноту зв’язку між досліджуваними показниками модельних дерев сосни звичайної (від помірного – -0,31 < r < -0,50, до дуже високого – r > 0,91); слабкої тісноти зв'язок (0,11 < r < 0,30) виявлено між повнотою насаджень та часткою поточного об’ємного приросту з показниками компонентів фітомаси крони дерев. Розраховано регресійні математичні моделі для оцінювання абсолютного та відносного поточного об’ємного приросту деревини стовбурів, об’єму кори стовбурів, маси деревини, кори гілок і маси хвої в абсолютно сухому стані, в яких аргументами є вік та діаметр дерев (R2 = 0,72-0,92). Для частки хвої 1-го року зв’язок з віком дерев обернений та помірний, але значущий на 5%-му рівні (R2 = 0,33). Розроблені нормативні таблиці первинної стовбурової продукції деревини та первинної продукції надземної частини дерев сосни звичайної показали, що за однакового діаметра зі збільшенням віку дерев первинна продукція стовбурової деревини збільшується лише до певного віку, а досягнувши максимуму – зменшується. Зі збільшенням діаметра за однакового віку первинна продукція стовбурової деревини зростає. Первинна продукція надземної частини дерев, подібно до окремих компонентів надземної фітомаси, зі збільшенням віку та діаметра також збільшується. У типових лісорослинних умовах Східного Полісся середньовікове дерево (50 років) сосни звичайної в надземній частині може нагромаджувати 15,22 кг·рік-1 первинної продукції.
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Land-use history is the template upon which contemporary plant and tree populations establish and interact with one another and exerts a legacy on the structure and dynamics of species assemblages and ecosystems. We use the first census (2010-2014) of a 35-ha forest-dynamics plot at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts to explore such legacies. The plot includes 108,632 live stems ≥ 1 cm in diameter (2215 individuals/ha) and 7,595 dead stems ≥ 5 cm in diameter. Fifty-one woody plant species were recorded in the plot, but two tree species - Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) and Acer rubrum (red maple) - and one shrub - Ilex verticillata (winterberry) -comprised 56% of all stems. Live tree basal area averaged 42.25 m ² /ha, of which 84% was represented by T. canadensis (14.0 m ² /ha), Quercus rubra (northern red oak; 9.6 m ² /ha), A. rubrum (7.2 m ² /ha) and Pinus strobus (eastern white pine; 4.4 m ² /ha). These same four species also comprised 78% of the live aboveground biomass, which averaged 245.2 Mg/ha, and were significantly clumped at distances up to 50 m within the plot. Spatial distributions of A. rubrum and Q. rubra showed negative intraspecific correlations in diameters up to at least a 150-m spatial lag, likely indicative of competition for light in dense forest patches. Bivariate marked point-pattern analysis showed that T. canadensis and Q. rubra diameters were negatively associated with one another, indicating resource competition for light. Distribution and abundance of the common overstory species are predicted best by soil type, tree neighborhood effects, and two aspects of land-use history: when fields were abandoned in the late 19th century and the succeeding forest types recorded in 1908. In contrast, a history of intensive logging prior to 1950 and a damaging hurricane in 1938 appear to have had little effect on the distribution and abundance of present-day tree species.
Article
This paper traces the history of diameter at breast height (DBH) tree measurements in the United States and suggests that DBH is a socially constructed scientific standard. In 1899, Gifford Pinchot—arguably the most important forester in U.S. history—claimed that 4.5 feet (ft) (137 cm) was the customary height for measuring the diameter of a tree’s trunk, which then became the default height in the United States. However, based on my review of archival forestry texts, there was wide variation in the heights used to measure trees pre-1900. Furthermore, my analysis of male anthropometric datasets contradicts assertions that 4.5 ft is a comfortable measurement height for men. Rather, 4.5 ft was likely Pinchot’s own BH. The selection of 4.5 ft might have also resulted from a mis-conversion of Bavarian forestry data. I discuss the social context in which the 4.5 ft standard emerged.
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Exotic conifers are rapidly spreading in many regions of New Zealand, as well as in many other countries, with detrimental impacts on both natural ecosystems and some productive sector environments. Herbicides, in particular the active ingredient (a.i.) triclopyr, are an important tool to manage invasive conifers, yet there is a paucity of information that quantifies the amount of herbicide required to kill trees of different sizes when applied as a basal bark treatment. Two sequential experiments were conducted to define the amount of triclopyr required to kill individual invasive Pinus contorta trees of different sizes when applied in a methylated seed oil to bark (either the whole stem or base of the tree) and to determine which tree size variates (height (HT), diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter (CD)), or derived attributes (crown area, crown volume index) best characterised this dose-response relationship. The outcomes of the dose-response research were compared to field operations where triclopyr was applied to the bark of trees from an aerial platform. Applying the herbicide to the whole stem, as opposed to the base of the tree only, significantly increased treatment efficacy. The tree size variates DBH, CD, crown area and crown volume index all provided good fits to the tree mortality data, with >91% prediction accuracy. Of these variates, crown diameter provided the most practical measure of tree size for ease of in-field calculation of dose by an operator. Herbicide rates used in field operations were 7 to 8 times higher than lethal doses calculated from experimental data. Our results highlight the potential for substantial reductions in herbicide rates for exotic conifer control, especially if dose-response data are combined with remotely sensed quantitative measurements of canopy area or volume using new precision technologies such as unmanned aerial vehicles.
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