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Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on livelihood of fishing community around Lake Tana, Ethiopia

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Fisheries are one of livelihood strategies that have contributed significantly to the improvement of life quality in developing countries. However, anthropogenic and climate change poses new challenges to the sustainability of fisheries and aquaculture systems. This study aimed: 1) to assess the main anthropogenic activities, 2) to identify climate change trend and its impact on the fishers in the area of study, and 3) to identify major problems in the fishery in order to recommend means of intervention for better resource utilization. Selection of the fishers was conducted using a three stages sampling technique. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected between November 2013 and September 2014. Descriptive statistics such as; frequency, mean, percentage, standard deviations , t-test and chi-square test were used to summarize and compare the information. Most of the selected households participate seasonally and part time in the fishery. The variety of fish species and fish production showed a declining trend. In the area of study main anthropogenic activities take place around the lake, with the most important being the deposition of waste, fishing in breeding season and area, free and over grazing, deterioration of wetlands/buffering zones, recession agriculture, agricultural influents, and the widely used monofilament gillnet. Hence, benefits from the lake and reservoir are not as usual due ever increasing users and depletion of the resources. The study presents the fluctuation of rainfall, temperature, and humidity over the years. A 3.1°C increment was found in mean maximum temperature within 22 years. Multiple uses of the lake watershed and being a common ground threatened the resources which result in 'tragedy of the commons'. Citation: Erkie Asmare Beyene., et al. " Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on livelihood of fishing community around Lake Tana, Ethiopia ". EC Agriculture 3.1 (2016): 548-557. Ethiopia is a landlocked country and depends on its inland water bodies for fish supply for its population. The country's water bodies have a surface area estimated at 7334 km 2 of major lakes and reservoirs, and 275 km 2 of small water bodies with 7185 km of rivers within the country [1]. Fisheries are one of livelihood strategies that have contributed much to people in developing countries. It is one of the vital strategies for the poor to achieve food, income and other social benefits. For instance, it serves as an important source of diet for over one billion people and provides employment for about 38 million people around the world [2]. Many capture fisheries worldwide have declined sharply in recent decades or have already collapsed from overfishing, and major fishing grounds are concentrated in zones threatened by pollution, the mismanagement of freshwater, and the habitat and coastal zone modification. Climate changes may affect fisheries and aquaculture directly by influencing fish stocks and the global supply of fish for consumption [3].
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AGRICULTURE
Research Article
Erkie Asmare1*, Sewmehon Demissie2, Dereje Tewabe1 and Mihret Endalew1
1Bahir-Dar Fisheries and Other Aquatic Life Research Center, Ethiopia
2Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute, Ethiopia
Received: February 06, 2016; Published: February 23, 2016
*Corresponding Author:
Erkie Asmare Beyene, Bahir-Dar Fisheries and Other Aquatic Life Research Center, Ethiopia.
          
community around Lake Tana, Ethiopia
Abstract
   -
 


    
collected between November 2013 and September 2014. Descriptive statistics such as; frequency, mean, percentage, standard devia-
tions, t-test and chi-square test were used to summarize and compare the information. Most of the selected households participate



      
    -
ment was found in mean maximum temperature within 22 years. Multiple uses of the lake watershed and being a common ground
threatened the resources which result in ‘tragedy of the commons’.
Keywords:
Anthropogenic activity; Climate change; Lake Fishery
Citation:
Erkie Asmare Beyene., et al
around Lake Tana, Ethiopia”. EC Agriculture 3.1 (2016): 548-557.
-
ies have a surface area estimated at 7334 km2 of major lakes and reservoirs, and 275 km2 of small water bodies with 7185 km of rivers
within the country [1].
Fisheries are one of livelihood strategies that have contributed much to people in developing countries. It is one of the vital strategies
 
people and provides employment for about 38 million people around the world [2].
      
  
  
consumption [3].
Introduction
Cronicon
OPEN ACCESS

Ethiopia


of animal protein [3].
 
order to formulate focused and targeted interventions to sustain the life of the lakes and reservoir by maximizing its usability. Thus, the


Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile, is Ethiopia’s largest lake; it probably was formed during late Pliocene or early Pleistocene
times. It now covers an area of about 3150 km2 and has an average depth of 8 m, with a maximum of 14 m. It is situated at an altitude of
1830 m and can be characterized as oligo-mesotrophic Lake [4]. Several large and small rivers including Gumara, Ribb, Megech, Gilgel

The climate around Lake Tana is characterized by four seasons: 1) a main-rainy season with heavy rains during June-August, 2) a dry
season during December-February, 3) a pre-rainy season during March-May and 4) a post-rainy season during September-November.

and noug are the main crops growing in the study area. The mean annual rainfall of the lake region varies from 74.6 mm to 163.3 mm
with a mean value of 166.6mm. The long term rainfall distribution data (from 1982 to 2014) shows that most of rain occurs starting


549
Citation:
Erkie Asmare Beyene., et al
around Lake Tana, Ethiopia”. EC Agriculture 3.1 (2016): 548-557.
Material and Methods
Description of the Study Area
Methods of Data Collection

preparing structured questionnaire, direct observation, focus group discussion (FGD), key informant interview, and stakeholder consul-


Figure 1: Mean monthly rainfall of Lake Tana from year 1982 to 2014 taken from
Bahir-Dar meteorology station, 2015.

Ethiopia
550
Citation:
Erkie Asmare Beyene., et al
around Lake Tana, Ethiopia”. EC Agriculture 3.1 (2016): 548-557.
The respondents’ religion falls under Orthodox and Muslim, with the 63.8% being Orthodox and the rest Muslims. This reveals that

    
gives it an advantage over beef.
The educational status of the respondents can be described as all can write and read. Only 12.7% were illiterate. This indicates that
-
ation (Table 1).
The main means of income in the area of study was agriculture (cropping). Of the total households, 37.9% of them participate mainly

Within ten districts that bound up with the Lake Tana, nine representative districts were purposely chosen. Both primary and sec-
ondary data has been collected from about forty (out of 54) kebeles surrounding Lake Tana. A three-stage sampling technique was fol-


respondents were interviewed using a pretested structured questionnaire and checklist.
The collected data was analyzed by both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean,
  -
crete variables respectively) were used to summarize and compare the information by using SPSS version 20 software. Non-parametric
     
analyzed using chart.
  
ways. The age structure of the sample household’s showed an average of 32.9 years. This implies that most of the respondents have had

mainly as an occupation for men, while the post harvest activities seem to be addressed in common with women. Marital status of the
respondents showed that 74.5% of the respondents were married and 21.8% were single. Thus, majority of the respondents were bear-

Sampling Procedures
Data Analysis
Demographic characteristics of sample households
Results and Discussion
Religion Frequency % Marital
status
Frequency % Education Frequency %
Orthodox 37 63.8 single 12 21.8 Illiterate 7 12.7
Muslim 21 36.2 married 41 74.5 Able write and
read
16 29.1
Total 58 100 divorce 2 3.7 Grade 5-10 29 52.8
total 55 100 Above grade 10 3 5.5
Total 55 100
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the respondents.

Ethiopia
551
Citation:
Erkie Asmare Beyene., et al
around Lake Tana, Ethiopia”. EC Agriculture 3.1 (2016): 548-557.

and targets mainly the tasty Oreochromis niloticus-


respondents participate in a seasonal (58.2%) and part time (23.6%) basis.
The household uses their catches for both home consumption and selling to generating income by at the nearby local market. Oreo-
chromis niloticus (84.8%), Labeobarbus intermedius (10.9%), and Clarias gariepinus 
Clarias gariepinus 
to year; due to increase in knowledge of the respondents about its nutritional value, the number of consumers (population), export
market to Sudan and high price of substitute goods.

        

is available and their breeding ground.
Fishing equipments used and level of participation
Consumption and Demand For Fish
Means of livelihood Frequency Percent
agriculture(cropping) 29 50.0
Livestock rearing 1 1.7
 22 37.9
agriculture(crop), animal

4 6.9
agriculture(crop), animal
rearing
2 3.4
Total 58 100.0
Table 2: Income source of the respondents.
Figure 2: Fishing boat type.

Ethiopia
552
Citation:
Erkie Asmare Beyene., et al
around Lake Tana, Ethiopia”. EC Agriculture 3.1 (2016): 548-557.
Socio-Economic Aspects of Fisheries in the Study Area


-
cessing and marketing and job opportunity.






-

gear.
Figure 3: 

compared to costs
Frequency Percent
Very good 21 77.4
Good 16 22.6
Total 37 100.0
Table 3: 
Table 4: 
 Frequency Percent
 20 35.7
Enhance income level 32 57.1
No change 4 7.1
Total 56 100.0
553
Citation:
Erkie Asmare Beyene., et al
around Lake Tana, Ethiopia”. EC Agriculture 3.1 (2016): 548-557.

Ethiopia
Major Threats for the Fisheries of Lake Tana
Temperature, Rainfall and Humidity Trend Over 30 Years
 

  
-





rainfall, direction of wind, relative humidity and trend of temperature. The meteorological data also shows that mean annual rainfall

to decrease to a minimum of 89.7 mm in 1994 and starts to increase to 142.6 mm in 2014. These show mean annual rainfall in 2014
is lower by 20.7 mm from the maximum amount in 1991 and higher than the minimum amount of mean annual rainfall in 1982 by 68
mm.
Regarding the anthropogenic activities on the other hand, the following points were observed: encroachment of the wetlands for
cultivation (recession agriculture) of local variety of teff (Eragrostis tef), chickpea, grass pea and maize using residual moisture at the
-

              
surrounding the lake which sewage untreated wastes directly to the lake. The wetland is communally used but no responsible body to
manage such problems. Multiple uses of the lake watershed threatened the resources.
Figure 4: Mean annual rainfall taken from Bahir-Dar meteorology station, 2015.
The mean maximum annual temperature shows increasing trend especially after 2009. The mean maximum temperature was
       
-
ment in mean maximum temperature within 22 years and variability in the rainfall, temperature, and humidity in the study area is a
common phenomenon.
554
Citation:
Erkie Asmare Beyene., et al
around Lake Tana, Ethiopia”. EC Agriculture 3.1 (2016): 548-557.

Ethiopia
Trend of Fish Production and Species Composition
Consequence of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities
 

production of target species; shifts in distribution of macrophyte, invertebrates, and other aquatic animals. Fishers were asked about
the severity of the impacts from climate change and anthropogenic activities, and 51.4% of the respondents replied that the severity of
the impact was medium. On the other hand, 42.9% of the respondents said the impact is severe while the remaining said it is low and

-
 


Figure 5: Mean annual maximum temperature taken from Bahir-Dar meteorology station, 2015.
Figure 6: 

Ethiopia
555
Citation:
Erkie Asmare Beyene., et al
around Lake Tana, Ethiopia”. EC Agriculture 3.1 (2016): 548-557.
Regarding the water body, water quality problem is a big issue; especially due to algal blooming and water hyacinth infestation in
Oreochromis niloticus 

sites. According to the group discussion result, the main reasons for deterioration are: drought, degradation of wetlands, draining of
lakes for recession agriculture, lack of natural resource conservation on the upper catchment, and expansion of invasive water weeds.
Trend of Water Volume and Aquatic Species
-

Figure 7: 
and Aytegeb A., 2013.
Figure 8: Extent of Shesher and Welala wetlands in 1987 (a) and in 2008 (b) Picture
taken from Tewabe D. (2014).
A B

Ethiopia
556
Citation:
Erkie Asmare Beyene., et al
around Lake Tana, Ethiopia”. EC Agriculture 3.1 (2016): 548-557.
Shesher and Welela wetlands consists the main part of Lake Tana, but the drastic change in the areas of Shesher and Welala wet-

1557 and 298 hectares, respectively. In 2008 the surface area of Shesher shrunk to 136 hectares (91% shrinkage) and Welala shrunk to
159 hectares (47% shrinkage) as shown in Figure 8. These wetlands are shrinking at an alarming rate, mainly because of unsustainable
farming practices by the local inhabitants. The local farmers drain the water from these wetlands to expand their farmland and pump
water for irrigation until dried up totally.
-


-

processing are executed by both men and women. However caring child, preparing food, fetching water and fuel wood, cleaning house,
shopping, washing close and utensils, grinding are mainly tasks of women [8,9].
Recession agriculture in the study area is the most commonly practiced agricultural activity. When the water level is reduced the
farmers sow their crop after they clear some weeds without ploughing. Unlike dry land cropping, sowing crop in this area is not time
restricted rather they cultivate teff (Eragrostis tef), and other cash crops when the lake become shirked each day.
Gender Division of Work in the Fishery
Figure 9: Dried area of Shesher wetland and Furrow irrigation Picture taken from: Tewabe D. (2014).
Figure 10: 

Ethiopia
557
Citation:
Erkie Asmare Beyene., et al
around Lake Tana, Ethiopia”. EC Agriculture 3.1 (2016): 548-557.

    -
 

depletion of the resources. Multiple uses of the lake watershed and being a common ground might result in ‘tragedy of the commons’.
The water Lake is communally used but no responsible body to manage such problems. Communities’ awareness about the short and
long term impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities is still limited.


Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) and Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute (ARARI) to conduct this research is also
very much appreciated. We also acknowledge Ethiopian meteorological agency Bahir-Dar branch for their meteorological data.
  
         

about the short and long term impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Fill knowledge gaps on mitigation and adapta-
tion mechanisms for climate change. Diversify livelihood strategy for risk averting.
Conclusions and Recommendations
Acknowledgment
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Volume 3 Issue 1 February 2016
© All rights reserved by Erkie Asmare Beyene., et al.
... It is also a preferred species for local consumption and is thus targetted by fishers. O. niloticus and the other commercially important species currently supports the livelihood of approximately 5 400 fishers (Asmare et al. 2016). In addition, many people, particularly women, are employed in fisheries-related activities, such as fish processing, marketing, and net making. ...
... Rapid increases in the human population increase mean that 50% of the youths in the lake basin are landless, which has led to the conversion of vast tracts of the wetlands for cultivation and urbanisation (Wondie 2010;Tewabe 2013;Dejen et al. 2017;Goshu and Aynalem 2017;Shewit et al. 2017;. This negatively affects the O. niloticus stock as it destroys breeding and nursery areas (Asmare et al. 2016). In addition, fishing pressure in Lake Tana has increased steeply, particularly pressure on O. niloticus (de Graaf et al. 2006;Dejen et al. 2017). ...
... In addition, fishing pressure in Lake Tana has increased steeply, particularly pressure on O. niloticus (de Graaf et al. 2006;Dejen et al. 2017). The number of fishers, for example, increased from ~400 in 1991 -2001 to 5 400 in 2015 (Aragaw 2012;Asmare et al. 2016), of which 20% of the fulltime fishers own motorised boats (Gebremedhin et al. 2013); this was not the case before the turn of the century. Today, 98% of fishers in Lake Tana use 5-7 cm stretched mesh size monofilament gillnets imported from Egypt. ...
Article
Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the most important species for consumption and economic purposes in Lake Tana, yet, tilapia stocks have declined drastically over the past decades because of anthropogenic impacts. Thus, effective conservation management is required urgently. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution and size structure of O. niloticus populations in Lake Tana in order to evaluation conditions to promote sustainable exploitation. Data were collected monthly at three sites on the lake from April 2016 to March 2017. The size at first maturity was computed using logistic regression. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) of O. niloticus in Lake Tana has sharply declined from 75 kg trip−1 in 2001 to 24 kg trip−1 in 2016/2017. The mean CPUE values between sites and seasons were significantly different. The size at first maturity for O. niloticus was 21 cm in 2016/2017. Of the catches taken, more than 24% of those were motorised and reed boat fisheries and 46% of the chase-and-trap fishery catches were below the size at first maturity in 2016/2017. Additionally, large size specimens were rarely recorded. Widening the mesh size of the gillnets would give a chance for immature fish to spawn at least once. Considering the fish size distribution and social context of the fishers, limiting mesh size could be a more feasible management option than a closed season.
... At third stage, fishers were selected purposively from non-fishers in collaboration with fishery expert. At fourth stage, simple random selection of fishers was done and interviewed using pre-tested structured questionnaires as indicated in Asmare et al. (2016). ...
... Fisheries of Lake Hayq has faced many challenges, illegal fishing activities (overfishing, narrowed sized gillnet (monofilaments), fishing during reproduction and at breeding ground), destruction of macrophytes and the buffer zone, siltation, catchment degradation, land use and land cover change, expansion of invasive weed (Ceratophylum submersum), less support from the government and poor implementation of the fishery regulatory acts and proclamations. The present study was in agreement to what has been studied for Lake Tana (Asmare et al., 2016;Gebremedihin et al., 2018;Worie et al., 2019;Amro et al., 2019). The present study also agrees with Abraham and Mitiku (2018) who reported about challenges of Ethiopian fisheries. ...
... Losses of fishing tools and instruments are also reported in past literatures. Water hyacinth thus not only diminishes the fish population but also the efficiency of fish production (Asmare, Sewmehon, Tewabe & Mihret, 2016;Tewabe et al., 2017). ...
... With due consideration of the problems inflicted by the water hyacinth, several research studies cited elsewhere above (e.g. Anteneh et al., 2015;Tewabe, 2015;Asmare et al., 2016;Asmare, 2017;Tewabe et al., 2017;Agidie et al., 2018) were conducted at different times. Most of these studies focused on the weed expansion and on its potential impacts. ...
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Water hyacinth is an exotic freshwater weed damaging wetland resources over the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia. Different measures, including manual labour and harvesting machinery are in use to reduce its damage and expansion. Yet, the invasion of the weed appears expanding its scope across the wetlands of the Lake. This paper presented the study made to identify determinant factors affecting manual control of water hyacinth expansion over the Lake wetlands. It tried to analyse the expansion trend of the water hyacinth and community efforts to control its extension. Data were gathered from questionnaire surveys, group discussions, interviews and field observations. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used for data analysis. The study revealed that the water hyacinth cover in the Lake’s wetland increased from ≤10, 000 ha in 2011 to over 50, 000 ha in 2017. Wetland terrain, water depth, food availability, farming time, employment and government support were found significantly influencing the manual control practices of households. Hence, government support must increase to motivate people involvement in manual weed removal campaigns. Micro-relief maps and floating boats need be readily available to help participants easily identify risky terrains and expand the physical weed removal into the deeper waters.Key Words: Water hyacinth, Invasive weeds, Manual control, Wetlands, Lake Tana, Ethiopia
... Ethiopia is a land-locked country with approximate 7400 Km2 surface area of water body and 7185 Km of river network (Eshete and Zemenu, 2012;Erkie et al., 2016). In addition, water harvesting dates back to the pre-Axumite period (560 BC), Lalibela Rock hewn churches (over 800 years ago), and castles in Gondar (15th and16th century) with a strong attachment to the ancient Orthodox churches (Habtamu, 1999) (Habtamu, 1999). ...
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Although integrated aquaculture has the potential to contribute to food security, it is still among the neglected sector in Amhara region. Therefore, this study aimed: (1) to assess the performance of the existing integrated aquaculture intervention and its contribution for the farmers, (2) to evaluate the current pond management practices, and (3) to identify major obstacles that hinder integrated aquaculture practices. The data were collected from 72 aquaculture adopters at 11 purposively selected aquaculture potential districts of the region. The quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics supported by exhaustive narrations. The study reveals that only 20.8% of the surveyed aquaculture ponds were functionally good. From these ponds, 25% of the aquaculture owners earned an average of 513.6 ETB per fish pond. However, these aquaculture adopters start harvesting after three to four years of fish stocking in irregular ways. Such irregularity in fish harvesting arises from farmers’ little knowledge on post-harvest processing and lack of fishing nets. In this regard, 80.4% of the surveyed pond owners perceived as they are not benefited from aquaculture adoption compared to their expectations. In general, by evaluating the level of inputs used, feeding type and degree of pond management the current integrated aquaculture practice in Amhara region can be characterized as extensive type. Therefore, it can be concluded that aquaculture development is still at its infancy stage after many years of adoption in the region.
... Consequently, all fishers changed their landing site because of water hyacinth expansion obstructs their fishing activities [23]. Therefore, is the expansion of water hyacinth increase in this trend, it can be negatively influencing the local community of fishers by increasing costs of fishing and reduce the amount of fish caught in lake Tana [24]. The fish production potential is estimated for 51,500 tons per year in Ethiopia. ...
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Water hyacinth (Eichhprnia crassipes) is the most dangerous and worst invasive aquatic weed in the worldwide including Ethiopia, and negatively affecting millions of water resources, fisheries, transportation and social structure. Water hyacinth was introduced in the water bodies of the Rift Valley in 68years ago and currently, the weed is distributed Lake Tana, Lake Abaya, Lake Koka, Koka Dam. The wide distribution and abundance of water hyacinth has led to decreased water availability and sustainable water biodiversity in Ethiopian lakes. However, the spread of water hyacinth is threatening not only water biodiversity but also socioeconomic development and human wellbeing. Water hyacinth in water bodies and nearby areas the local stakeholder has its negative impact on environmental problem and it’s influenced aquatics biodiversity. This review paper aimed to investigate the distribution, impacts and its integrated management option against water hyacinth in Ethiopia. Therefore, based on the review it can be concluded that human intervention is considered as the current problem of water resource in the country and further study is needed to sustain the water resource are needed to keep water hyacinth at unproblematic levels.
... Lake Tana, which is the largest lake in Ethiopia (Barker, 2004;Gordon et al., 2007), is surrounded by agricultural lands (Erkie, 2016) and fed from many small seasonal to large permanent rivers to the lake (Nyssen et al., 2015). It is recently losing its natural conditions (Vijverberg et al., 2009). ...
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Southern Gulf of Lake Tana is southern part of Lake Tana in Northwestern Ethiopia. Water samples were obtained from eight sites of the gulf for six months during November to April 2010/11 twice a month to determine temporal and spatial variation in phytoplankton biomass of the gulf. Phytoplankton biomass data was estimated following total chlorophyll-a concentrations determination methods. There was no significant difference in sampling sites and interactions between sampling sites and months (P>0.05). However, there is a significant difference in sampling months (P<0.05). The absence of significant difference in sampling sites and the interactions might be due to the similarity in human or natural impacts, and phytoplankton growth and decline. But, the presence of significant difference among sampling months might be due to the difference in growth/decline periods of the phytoplankton. Southern Gulf of Lake Tana subparts are similarly impacted naturally or by humans who passed their time around the gulf. The Ethiopian government and concerned non-governmental organizations in general and local communities, in particular, have better cooperate their efforts for conservation and sustainable use of the gulf. Similarly, they have to play in awareness creation for stakeholders to reduce natural/human impacts to the lake gulf.
... Even though fish catch from Lake Tana is not as the previous, fisheries of Lake Tana serves as a source of direct cash for more than 5400 fishers. Now a day, anthropogenic activities and the newly emerged water hyacinth [18] poses a big threat on the fisheries of Lake Tana. Important feeding and spawning grounds of the fish are reduced or lost altogether. ...
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The study was conducted from June, 2015 to October, 2016 to assess the effect of water hyacinth on fishing and fishers around the North-Eastern part of Lake Tana. The presence of water hyacinth in Lake Tana has been recognized in 2011. Starting from the last five years, especially after 2014, fishing in the study area becomes tiring due to the expansion of this invasive weed. Water hyacinth entangles the fishing nets and boats’ propeller, making it difficult to fish and resulting in reduced fish catches. Hence, a reduced fish catch would have an adverse effect on the quality of life of the communities around the lake and consequently affect sustainable development in the region. Despite the fact that several efforts have been made by different parties, water hyacinth in Lake Tana continues to expand itself year after year. Therefore, o its expansion is not easy to manage and complete eradication is unimaginable. Therefore, if the expansion of water hyacinth continues in this trend, it can negatively affect the livelihood of fishers in both directions by increasing costs of fishing and reducing the amount of fish caught.
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Fish production, processing and utilization in the Lake Tana fisheries: Implementation of Ecohydrology -a transdisciplinary science for integrated water resources and sustainable development in Ethiopia
  • Alayu Yalew
Alayu Yalew. "Fish production, processing and utilization in the Lake Tana fisheries: Implementation of Ecohydrology -a transdisciplinary science for integrated water resources and sustainable development in Ethiopia". (2012).
Management and Livelihood Opportunity of Lake Tana Fishery, Ethiopia: The need for co management, Master thesis in International Fisheries Management, Norwegian College of Fisheries Science
  • Chekol Aytegeb Anteneh
Aytegeb Anteneh Chekol. "Management and Livelihood Opportunity of Lake Tana Fishery, Ethiopia: The need for co management, Master thesis in International Fisheries Management, Norwegian College of Fisheries Science". Bioprospecting and Devolopment 1 (2013): 131.
Impacts of climate change and population on tropical aquatic resources
  • Dereje Tewabe
Dereje Tewabe. "Impacts of climate change and population on tropical aquatic resources". (2011).
  • Demeke Admasu
Demeke Admasu. "Report on Limnological Studies on Lake Tana Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Addis Ababa University". Dept. of Biology, internal report. (1986): 1-44.