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Comparisons between battery chainsaws and internal combustion engine chainsaws: Performance and safety



The thesis compares the features and performance of three of battery chainsaw models of two Manufacturers against two equipped with internal combustion engine and all designed for use in pruning. The cutting times for five woody species with different hardness of the wood have been examined; assessed the safety in use of the individual machines and a rough evaluation for the energy consumption. The purpose is to understand the potential of these battery chainsaws, currently used for pruning, for possible use in forest exploitation.
Contemporary Engineering Sciences, Vol. 9, 2016, no. 27, 1315 - 1337
Comparisons between Battery Chainsaws and
Internal Combustion Engine Chainsaws:
Performance and Safety
A. Colantoni, F. Mazzocchi, F. Cossio, M. Cecchini,
R. Bedini and D. Monarca
Tuscia University, Department of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences (DAFNE)
Viterbo, Italy
Copyright © 2016 A. Colantoni et al. This article is distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.
The thesis compares the features and performance of three of battery chainsaw
models of two Manufacturers against two equipped with internal combustion
engine and all designed for use in pruning. The cutting times for five woody
species with different hardness of the wood have been examined; assessed the
safety in use of the individual machines and a rough evaluation for the energy
consumption. The purpose is to understand the potential of these battery
chainsaws, currently used for pruning, for possible use in forest exploitation.
Keywords: battery chainsaw, forest exploitation, safety and health
1 Introduction
Currently there is a great development of machines for the management of
portable battery-green, in a "green" development, to protect the environment and
the operator.
Currently there is a great development of portable battery machines for urban
green management, to protect the environment and the operator’s health. as we
shall see, the battery chain saws are able to decrease number of specific risks,
which makes them ideal for use in arboriculture (and other sectors such as agriculture,
1316 A. Colantoni et al.
food industries, etc.) where occupational hazards are high and it is important to
minimize (Mazzocchi et al. 2015, Cecchini et al. 2010 b, Marucci et al. 2012,
Marucci et al 2013, Di Giacinto et. al. 2012). Electric instruments technology has
been developed deeply, but is newly introduced in the urban green areas
management, because of the need to have a relatively high power but away from
the public network (Blanco et al. 2013, Blanco et al. 2014), and for all the
duration of the working day. Latterly development of batteries, has led to a
sufficiently high level of power and durability, suitable for this purpose, with
considerably reduced weights compared to older types of battery. Moreover,
Lithium-ion batteries could now be recycled with an efficiency of 97% w/w of the
valuable battery active materials (Hanisch al 2015, Boubaker et al. 2014). In
this study were taken into the cordless chainsaws exam, in two different types:
with built-in battery and separate battery to take backpack.
2 Materials and methods
For comparisons, in this work, have been used different machines, which
represent the most advanced technology available for operators, provided from the
Small chainsaws were selected, since light compact equipment, are necessary for
pruning with very short bars, because of the diameter of the branches cut that
rarely exceeds 10-15 cm. At the same time a discrete power is necessary, to cut
easily hard or dry wood.
They were taken into consideration:
Pellenc Selion C15- top handle backpack battery chainsaw;
Pellenc Selion C20- top handle backpack battery chainsaw;
Stihl MSA160C-BQ- battery forestry-shaped chainsaw;
Stihl MS192T- 2-stroke pruning chainsaw;
Stihl MS200T- 2-stroke pruning chainsaw;
Used battery are the following:
Pellenc Poly 5- ULiB Battery, with charger;
Stihl AP 160- Lithium ion battery, with fast charger AL 300.
2.1 Data acquisition mode.
The key parameter to judge the performance of a chainsaw is the cutting speed. A
valid machine must have a low cutting time, in relation to the diameter and to the
test species. Two operators are needed to detect this gave, the first dealt with the
cutting with the machine in question, the second fitted with chronometric table, taking
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1317
the cutting time and reported on a special grid where also write the diameter of the
branch. The cutting times are obtained with a chronometric table, equipped with
four analog chronometers, of which one is used for the relief of the total times, the
three other alternately actuated by a lever may be used for the relief of partial
rates. On the chronometric table sheets can be fixed to write rapidly the measured
times. The detection accuracy is the hundredth of a minute.
Since those chain saws intended mainly for use in pruning, it is chosen to detect
the timing of diameters from 30 to 100 mm, given that beyond this cutting
diameter is provoke major wounds to the plants and below, to obtain a good
cutting, the hacksaw or tin snips are required.
To detect the size of the branch subjected to cutting, the tree calliper, for larger
diameters (in excess of 60mm) was used, while for smaller diameters (from 30 to
60mm) the caliber was used.
A small part of the test however was extended to larger diameters, in which the
Stihl MS 200 T was used, whose scope also extends to fell small trees. The
material for the tests has been found on different work sites, where the required
size logs were identified, and taken to a square where once placed on an easel, it
started cutting and detect time. They were only used branches and green trunks.
Both operators were provided with the appropriate personal protective equipment:
chainsaw protection trousers class 1, chainsaw protection boots class 1 cut-
resistant, protective glasses and earplugs and the operator which was cutting wore
also safety helmet.
2.2 Features of the used machines (declared by the manufacturer).
Pellenc Selion C15-C20
The Selion C15 is the first electronic chainsaw introduced by
the French company in 2008, which was joined by the model
Selion C20 with more power (in 2010). Both of reduced
dimensions but with a 30cm long bar, brushless electric
motor, able to develop 1500W to 2000W for the C15 and
C20, very light because the battery is not incorporated but is
brought to backpack. The engine is connected directly to the
pinion that moves the chain and therefore the friction and the
speed reducer are absent. The chain brake has an electronic
clutch, controlled by a sensor which reacts to the machine falling or bouncing, and
is also equipped with fixed grip front protection.
The chain tension adjustment is automatic, just engage the guide on the tool head
that tends properly via a spring mechanism, while removing the chain cover is
facilitated by an integrated removable key. The oil flow is electronically controlled,
1318 A. Colantoni et al.
depending on the absorption of the motor, to avoid waste, and the start of the
engine is controlled by the double pulse trigger can only be activated if you press
the handle positioned security simultaneously. The energy delivery depends on
the absorption of torque, required at the time of the cut, thus optimizing fuel
Table 1. Technical data: Pellenc Selion C15 e C20
Pellenc Selion C15
Pellenc Selion C20
1,5 at 5400 rpm
2 at 6200 rpm
Chain speed
Guide bar
Saw chain
Oregon ¼ Micro
Chisel 25AP
Oregon ¼ Micro
Chisel 25AP
Measured power
sound level
Guaranteed sound
power level
Vibration level
Oil tank capacity
* without guide bar, saw chain and oil
Stihl MSA 160C-BQ
The Stihl MSA C-BQ cordless chainsaw is the first
of the German House, and keeps the traditional
design with rear handle for the right hand and
tophandle for the left hand. Also here there is an
electronically controlled brushless motor. The
battery is inserted in the machine, vertically, right
behind the front handle, which is protected by hand
guards that acts as a switch for the chain block in
case of impact or kickback. The chain tension is adjusted by the rotation of a
wheel located over the drive sprocket, which also owns an integrated lever to
loosen and tighten the chain cover.
This model has supplied the chain brake Quick Stop Super, which locks the chain
not only in case of activation of the front hand guard, but also in the case of the
throttle trigger release. To work more comfortable, a belt where to place the battery is
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1319
available. Operator can connect it to the chain saw by a cable, reducing the overall
weight of 1.7 kg in order of work.
Table 2. Technical data: Stihl MSA 160 C-BQ
Stihl MSA 160 C-BQ
Wheight whitout battery
Wheight with battery
Guide bar
Saw chain
¼ PM3
Power sound level
Sound power level
Vibration level (left/right)
Stihl MS 192 T
It is the lightest of the Stihl chainsaw for the
maintenance of the trees at the time of testing. It
is equipped with the ignition microprocessor to
minimize the bounces startup. The handle is
mounted on anti-vibration dampers to reduce the
perception of vibrations by the operator. It is
equipped with a low bounce chains and you can
mount the carving bar to work with greater precision. Mounts a 30 cm long
guidebar and with its 2-stroke engine, it develops 1.3kW. The side chain
tensioning is operated from the supplied wrench to unscrew the plug. It owns the
manual fuel pump to facilitate the start-up after a period of inactivity. The
closures of the tanks can be opened without tools, but ensure a perfect fluid seal.
The safety devices are the classic: accelerator with security, front hand guard
button that actuates the chain brake in the event of a collision, chain catcher
mounted beneath the pinion to decrease the speed of impact of the chain in case of
Table 3. Technical data: Stihl MS192T
Guide bar
1320 A. Colantoni et al.
Saw chain pitch
3/8 P
Sound pressure level
Sound power level
Vibration level left/right
* without guide bar, saw chain and oil
Stihl MS 200 T
A lightweight and powerful precision chainsaw,
designed to work specifically for arborists. It
has good handling thanks to the top handle and
good balance. Fitted with 35 cm long guide bar
and low bounce chain for higher safety in use. It
mounts an oil pump with adjustable flow, a
compensator that maintains the fuel-air mixture
even when increased air filter dirt. It is equipped
with a damping element integrated in the tear-starting system that absorbs peak of
force generated during start-up, making them uniform and facilitating the setting
in motion (Stihl ElastoStart). The oil pump is supplied with adjustable flow, for
precision dosing of the required amount of oil depending on the type of wood and
the cutting length. The chain lock mechanism kicks in with "bump" on the
traditional protection of the left hand. The chain tensioner is lateral and operated
from the supplied wrench to unscrew the plug. The right handle locates the
throttle control with an attached security on top, and the ignition command,
shutdown and cold ignition.
Table 4. Technical data: Stihl MS200T
Stihl MS200 T
Weight *
Guide bar
Saw chain pitch
3/8 P
Sound pressure level
Sound power level
Vibration level left/right
Chain speed
* without guide bar, saw chain and oil
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1321
2.3Used batteries
Pellenc Poly 5
The ULiB Poly 5 battery is designed specifically to deliver high
power as that required by chainsaws C15 and C20 and for use in
pruning climbing. The whole is structured to be carried on the
shoulders like a backpack. The lithium-polymer components are
less heated of other elements, and it allows to have a greater power
at the moment of cutting, while maintaining the reduced weight, as
well as the dimensions: thickness of only 45mm. The ergonomic
vest allows the operator to move freely while climbing. The
display autonomy expressed in percentage (1-99%) and the sockets for charging
and the cable coupling of the instrument are present.
Table 5. Technical data: Pellenc ultra lithium battery poly 5
U. M.
Pellenc Ultra Lithium Battery Poly 5
Total weight
Stored energy
Life cycle
Stihl AP 160
This is a very powerful battery with lithium ions, which must
be inserted inside the chain saw, hangs pushing it to the
bottom and can be removed by pressing two buttons on the
machine head. In the upper part of the battery there is the
indicator displays the state of charge formed by 4 LED
representing 1/4, 2/4, 3/4, 4/4 autonomy.
Table 6. Technical data: Stihl AP160
Stihl AP 160
Total weight
Stored energy
1322 A. Colantoni et al.
2.4 Vibration and weight
In addition to cutting performance, it is important to also consider other features
to understand the quality of these instruments and disadvantages if any. The data
are declared by the manufacturer.
Vibrations are generally low frequency wave phenomena, transmitted through a
solid medium. They become a source of noise when their frequency is within the
range of human audibility (from 20 to 20,000 Hz). The vibration measurement
unit is the frequency, expressed in number of cycles per second (Herz), but to
describe the physical characteristics the reference parameter is the acceleration
generated (m/s2). The chainsaw produces vibrations due to piston movements and
the impact of the chain with the wood that is being cut. These can cause damage
to the hand-arm system at osteoarticular level; at the level of the central nervous
system and vascular (Rottensteiner, C. 2013, Deboli et al. 2014, Proto et al. 2010,
Proto et al 2015). The perception of vibration, and the effect it can cause, it is
worse by cold, by an intense contraction of the muscles of the hands and fingers,
the pressure of the tool on the limb. These last two items depends largely on the
weight of the tool, so if that is high not only increases the muscular work for an
operator to perform, but also increases the risk of occurrence of diseases due to
According to the Legislative Decree no. 81/2008 Title VIII Chapter III, an
operator should not be exposed beyond a daily value limit of vibration (as far as
5m/s2 hand-arm), while the value daily exposure is set at 2.5 m/s2, remaining
allowable exposure for short periods up to 20 m/s2. Beyond these values the
operator is considered at risk and must be subjected to surveillance by a
competent physician.
Table 7. Levels of vibrations and weight of models tested
Vibration L/R (m/s2)
Weight (kg)
Pellenc Selion
Pellenc Selion
Stihl MSA 160C-
Stihl MS 192T
Stihl MS 200T
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1323
Chart. n° 1 Average value of the vibration level and weight, for all chainsaw
Electric chainsaws C20 and MS160C-BQ value less than 3 m/s2, with the absolute
minimum of MS160C-BQ that generates only 2m/s2. To counter this last model
turns out to be the heaviest (almost 5kg) even more of chainsaws equipped with
endothermic motor under test. The model Pellenc Selion C20 combines a low
level to a low weight vibration to sustain in hand, since the batteries for a
backpack on the operator's back with a special harness, avoiding to highlight the
harmful effects of vibration due to the tension muscle that must be applied with
higher weights.
From the graph it can be seen that the motor machines endothermic develop more
vibration, up to 3.8m / s2. The C15 electric model is not generating little vibration
as other electric models. Probably the C15 being an older model and advanced
than the C20 is built with less advanced techniques.
2.5 The noise
Noise is an acoustic phenomenon arising from vibration frequencies of between
20 and 20,000 Hz, which is unpleasant, or even may cause damage to health. The
hearing damage may occur remaining exposed to noise levels between 90 and 130
dB (A), or at lower levels but with prolonged exposure. Hearing loss due to noise
exposure in the workplace is a significant health problem with economic
consequences (Lie A. et al. 2016). In addition to hearing loss phenomena it can
undergo numerous collateral damage, such as stress, increased heart rate, blood
pressure, respiratory rate, vascular tone, gastric secretion, sweating, muscle tone,
pupil size. It is very important to wear ear protectors (headphones or inserts) when
working with machines that generate noise during use, but it is also very important
1324 A. Colantoni et al.
that these machines are made to minimize this type of disorder (Cecchini et al.
2010 a; Riccioni et al. 2015).
Table 8. Test models’ sound pressure level
Sound pressure level dB(A)
Sound power level dB(A)
Pellenc Selion C15
Pellenc Selion C20
Stihl MSA 160C-BQ
Stihl MS 192T
Stihl MS 200T
We can note that models equipped with endothermic motor, generating high
acoustic pressures, 109 dB (A), making it essential to use by the operator of PHPE
for not incurring the problems mentioned above. The Stihl MSA160C-BQ
develops a lower noise, 99 dB (A), which is already appreciate the benefits of the
electric motor, decreasing considerably.
Electric models Pellenc C15 and C20 generate an even lower sound pressure level
84 dB (A), and the M12 model generates 89 dB (A), all lower than the
endothermic motor models. In any case it is compulsory to work with the auditory
protection to ensure a better working comfort and the maintenance of the hearing
ability of the operator.
2.6 Safety
Many studies shows the dangers of chainsaw. Even workers experts are involved
in serious injury and death (Cividino S.R.S. et al. 2013; Proto and Zimbalatti
2010; Proto and Zimbalatti 2015). Pruning chain saws are designed to be used
both on land and climbing inside the tree canopy, where it has less room to
maneuver, so they are compact machines with the right grip positioned over. This
gives greater maneuverability, but makes the machine less controllable in the
event of inadvertent collision of the tip of the guide bar during cutting. To avoid
this kind of inconvenience Stihl mounts specially designed chains to limit the
rebound and bounce (Picco Micro Mini Comfort 3 for MS192T, Picco Micro
Comfort 3 for MS200T and Picco Micro 3 for MSA160C-BQ) but ensure high
cutting capacity, especially for the PMMC3 model in which the cutting edge of
the tooth thickness is less. MS 200T, MS192T and MSA160C-BQ come standard
with a safety trigger to avoid unintentional acceleration, and the chain brake
which comes into operation only if the operator drive. The models C15, C20 and
M12 are equipped with Pruning chains Oregon Micro Chisel specifications and
low bounce. These models have supplied the electronic brake of the chain, which
enters into action instantaneously, automatically (so 10 times more sensitive than
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1325
a traditional chain brake) whenever the sensor senses an abnormal movement of
the machine that can be originated from a phenomenon of kickback or tool failure.
Such electronic system is more performing than manual, as seen with other
electronic systems (Cividino et al. 2015, Pascuzzi 2015, 2013; Proto and
Zimbalatti 2016). This improvement of the reaction of the chain brake is very
important because of the great number of injuries which happens every year
(Dąbrowski, A. et al. 2015) and which could be avoided. Arnold (2015) has also
seen that gasoline-powered saw showed the same propensity to kickback as those
with the battery-powered saw; however, the rotational velocities during a
kickback were greater, approximately double ( 1,000°/s for gasoline chainsaw
against 600 °/s for battery chainsaw). Moreover, the instrument has a self-
diagnosis function that allows the ignition only in the case in which this sensor is
functioning, otherwise it is not allowed. Additional security comes from the
ignition trigger double pulse: it is necessary to double click to start the engine.
3. Results and discussion
3.1 Castanea sativa Mill.
The chestnut wood has a density variable fresh from 700 to 1180kg / m3 and is
moderately hard: 18N / mm2 Brinell hardness. In this test, there have been
available models: Stihl MSA160C-BQ, Pellenc Selion C15 and C20, and Stihl
MS192T MS200T.
The available material has been primarily used to test the performance of the
electric chain saws, and the chain saw is equipped with a combustion engine
specific for pruning (MS192T) to have a valid term of comparison. The MS200T
has had so less material to work on to which the curve that represents the cutting
time was generated by the software using a trend line on the basis of a smaller
number of observations. The working times were measured on diameters from 30
to 100mm, and at least 60 tests for each diameter, and then averaged. The times
shown in red in the table are processed on the basis of the trend line generated
with the available data, that gives the lowest value of R2.
For the detected times of the C15 it is used an exponential curve with an R2 of
0.8977, while for the MS200T a power curve, having an R2 of 0.9984. R2 values
next to 1 have a high correlation coefficient between the actual data and the trend
1326 A. Colantoni et al.
Table 8. Average cutting times obtained in tests with five different chainsaws on
chestnut wood
Average time
(hundredth of
a minute)
Average time
(hundredth of a
Average time
(hundredth of
a minute)
Average time
(hundredth of
a minute)
Average time
(hundredth of
a minute)
From the data and from the chart n°2 we can note that the cutting times of Pellenc
Selion C15 are higher than the others, this is clearly due to the lack of available
power (1.5kW) and the low speed of the chain (10,3m/s). The cutting times of the
other two battery chainsaws C20 and MSA160C-BQ are very close to each other
and also to MS192T which is one of the best models on the market for pruning.
Chart. n° 2. Cutting times on chestnut wood with five chainsaws
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1327
With the values obtained was processed a second chart (chart n°3), the line of the
x-axis has been set to act as a benchmark and represents the cutting time of the
saw which obtained the best performance in this test cutting: Stihl MS192.
Assuming this, the positive values indicate a lower performance, while negative
values represent a superior performance compared to the benchmark machine.
The differences of the measured average times were made for each diameter. The
trend lines that best express the trend of gap, are 5th order polynomial lines, with
R2 value for C20, respectively, 0.956 and 0.967 of MSA160C-BQ.
By the MSA160C-BQ trend line you notice that the gap positively increases up to
60mm in diameter, and then down and become negative over the 90mm diameters
and achieve better performance than the MS192T. The C20 trend is less linear,
tends to increase up to 60mm, to go down until it becomes negative at the 80mm,
then becomes positive.
Chart. n° 3. Difference in cutting times compared with MS192T (Castanea sativa
The greatest torque generated by the electric motors helps chainsaws to maintain a
constant engine speed as the cutting diameter, contributing to the improvement in
the detected timing.
As for the consumption, the three models mentioned above were used for 480 cuts
each, for which the C20 has consumed 28% of the battery, the MSA160C-BQ has
consumed over 80% of its accumulator (a flashing diode on the display), the
MS192T has consumed less than a full tank of mixture.
3.2 Picea abies Dietr.
The spruce has a light wood (fresh mass density of 860 kg / m3) and tender (11N /
mm2 Brinell hardness).
1328 A. Colantoni et al.
In this site we used the models Stihl MSA160C-BQ, Pellenc Selion C20 and Stihl
Table 9. Average cutting times obtained in tests with three different chainsaws on
spruce wood
Average time
(hundredth of a
Average time
(hundredth of a
Average time
(hundredth of a
Chart. n° 4. Cutting times for the three chainsaws tested on Picea abies Dietr., in
function on diameter
From the obtained data it is noted that also in the case of spruce, cutting times of
the three machines are very close to each other. In an absolute sense are very short
times, which highlight the high performances of the three models. The best results
are registered with the MS192T and C20 with slightly better values. MS192T gets
better times with a diameter of up to 60 mm, while C20 gets better times, even if
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1329
only slightly, from 60 to 90 mm. In this test the MSA160C-BQ pointed Rates of
the highest compared to the other two machines, up to more than 1 hundredth of a
Also in this case the line of the x-axis has been set to act as a benchmark and
represents the cutting time of the saw which obtained the best performance in this
test cutting: Stihl MS192.
In the graph, the positive times show a worse performance than the comparison
machine, while negative values indicate a better performance and hence better
productivity defined as the ability to cut a given diameter in less time.
Chart. n° 5. Difference in cutting times compared with MS192T (Picea abies
The trend lines express the trend of deviations from the benchmark time, are 4th
order polynomial lines, with R2 value respectively 0.7894 for C20, and 0.8243
From the graph you can see that the scraps of cutting times of MSA160C-BQ than
the comparison chainsaw tend to increase up to 80mm in diameter and then
decreased but always remaining above the reference time. The trend of the C20
line instead has positive values up to 50mm in diameter, while does record
negative deviations and thus superior performance to the reference machine; from
60 to 90mm in diameter. Besides this diameter the times and the scraps return
again to increase.
As for the consumption, the three models mentioned above were used for 480 cuts
each, for which the C20 has consumed 21% of the battery, the MSA160C-BQ has
consumed over 80% of its accumulator (a flashing diode on the display), the
MS192T has consumed less than a full tank of mixture.
1330 A. Colantoni et al.
3.3 Fagus sylvatica L.
The beech is a heavy wood (fresh mass density of 1050 kg / m3) and quite hard
(34N / mm2 Brinell hardness).
The machines used were the three previously used: Stihl MSA160C-BQ, Pellenc
Selion C20 and Stihl MS192T.
Table 10. Average cutting times obtained in tests with three different chainsaws
on beech wood
Average time
(hundredth of a
Average time
(hundredth of a
Average time
(hundredth of a
Chart. n° 6. Difference in cutting times compared with MS192T (Fagus sylvatica
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1331
The graph shows the similarity in performance between the three chainsaws
without the predominance of one over the other. In particular it is noted that the
performance of the C20 are in no case the best MS192T, while for diameters from
80 to 90 mm of the Stihl cordless model manages to be more powerful than that
provided with endothermic engine.
Chart. n° 6. Difference in cutting times compared with MS192T (Fagus sylvatica
The chart took, like its predecessors, the MS192T as a comparison. It has been
calculated that the difference between the cutting times obtained with the other
two chainsaws. To chart the trend lines have been added that best express the
trend of deviations from the benchmark time. They are 5th order polynomial lines,
with R2 value for C20 respectively 0.9616 and 0.9854 MSA160C-BQ. In the
cutting test on beech, the MSA 160 C-BQ continues to show an improvement of
cutting times more than the diameter of 60mm, compared to the 2-stroke model.
The C20 obtains performance close to those of comparison, only between 80 and
90mm but never best. As for the consumption, the three models mentioned above
were used for 480 cuts each, for which the C20 has consumed 26% of the battery,
the MSA160C-BQ has downloaded more than 80% of its accumulator (a flashing
diode on the display), the MS192T has consumed less than a full tank of mixture.
3.4 Quercus pubescens Willd.
The oak wood is heavy and hard (fresh density 1080 kg / m3, Brinell hardness of
34 N / mm2). For this test we were used C15 and MS200T models, the first great
1332 A. Colantoni et al.
for a work of pruning, the other for the sawing and small felling work. The cuts
were made on the available diameters, trying to increase the maximum diameter
also to better highlight the features of MS200T.
Table 11. Average cutting times obtained in tests with three different chainsaws
on oak wood
Average time (hundredth of
a minute)
Average time (hundredth of
a minute)
Chart. n° 7. Graphical representation of a function cutting times of diameters on
the two chainsaws tested on Quercus pubescens Willd
Obviously the results are quite different from each other. The cutting times are
similar only for the minimum measured diameter (60 mm), while the diameter
increases the performance difference tends to increase. This is due not only to the
increased power of MS200T (1,7kW) but above all to the high chain speed: 27
m/s against the C15 10,3 m/s).
3.5 Pinus pinea L.
Il legno di pino domestico è un legno pesante (massa volumica fresca 900kg/m3).
Anche in questa prova sono stati utilizzati i modelli C15 e MS200T.
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1333
Table 12. Average cutting times obtained in tests with three different chainsaws
on pine wood
Diameter (mm)
Average time (hundredth of
a minute)
Average time (hundredth of
a minute)
The values in the table highlighted in red, are values generated by the equation of
the exponential curve that best approximates the trend of the values of the
MS200T cutting times. This was necessary because the available material was not
enough to test all diameters.
Chart. n° 8. Graphical representation of a function cutting times of diameters on
the two chainsaws tested on Pinus pinea L.
1334 A. Colantoni et al.
As in the case of tests with oak, even for this species there are differences in
cutting times ranging increasing proportionally to the diameter, highlighting the
vocation of MS200T more for cutting large branches and trunks of true and proper
pruning, where it is more appropriate to use the saw.
In the graph constructed based on the difference between the times of the MS200
taken as a reference, placed on the horizontal axis, and the C15, we see that the
trend line has a fairly linear up to 60mm, and then have an exponential trend. This
means that despite the performance of the C15 are lower than those of the
MS200T, they are in a contained manner for the case of smaller diameters, while,
conversely, become increasingly large with the increase of the cutting dimensions.
This difference in results confirms the different areas of use for which the two
machines are designed.
The trend line used is a 2nd order polynomial with R2 of 0.9853.
Chart. n° 9. Difference in the cutting times for model C15 greater than those
associated with MS200T
4 Conclusions
Battery chainsaws have achieved good results in the absolute sense, and in some
cases have been able to achieve higher cutting performance than the reference
model with internal combustion engine. The first case is the test with the chestnut
wood (Pellenc C20 and MSA160CBQ Vs MS 192T) to the diameter 80 mm for
Pellenc and 100 for Stihl.
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1335
The second case is the test with the spruce wood (Pellenc C20 to the diameter 60-
70-80-90 mm.
The third case is the test with the beech wood (Stihl MSA160CBQ) to the
diameter 80-90 mm.
In the fourth and fifth case (with oak and pine) the cordless chainsaws did not get
superior performance to homologous with combustion engine. Thanks to the high
power of the electric motors in relation to its own weight, it is conceivable to
obtain a battery chain saw for forest use, increasing the performance and the
length of the bar. The only current limitation is the battery, which for models that
included lead in the body to find the right balance with the weight, it has a very
limited life span, while for models that lead separate, a backpack, forcing to have
a connecting cable to the machine that makes it less maneuverable than its
Further developments in this technology would lead to having chainsaws cleaner,
eliminating the carcinogenic risk of forest workers (Kawachi I. 1989) after
removing the combustion of the mixture. Furthermore, the electric motors, do not
develop inside them alternating motions, thanks to the rotation of the rotor, the
vibrations are substantially reduced, as well as noise, much lower than the
endothermic engines.
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[3] M. Cecchini, A. Colantoni, R. Massantini, D. Monarca, Estimation of the risks
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in central Italy, Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health, 16 (2010), no. 3, 141-
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Food, Agriculture & Environment, 10 (2012), 1117-1121.
[8] A. Marucci, D. Monarca, M. Cecchini, A. Colantoni, A. Cappuccini, The heat
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[9] C. Hanisch, T. Loellhoeffel, J. Diekmann, K.J. Markley, W. Haselrieder, A.
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Nordby, B. Engdahl, K. Tambs, Occupational noise exposure and hearing: a
systematic review, International Archives of Occupational and Environmental
Health, 89 (2016), no. 3, 351-372.
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Colopardi, G. Cipollari, R. Rapiti, An Improved Safety Device for Electric
Chainsaws, Contemporary Engineering Sciences, 8 (2015), no. 25, 1171-1177.
[13] S. Riccioni, M. Cecchini, D. Monarca, A. Colantoni, , Longo, L., Cavalletti,
P., Bedini, R. Overview of the noise measurements process in recent years,
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chainsaws equipped with a Kesper safety bar, Scandinavian Journal of Forest
Research, 28 (2013), no. 2, 193-200.
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1337
[15] I. Blanco, S. Pascuzzi, A. S. Anifantis, G. Scarascia Mugnozza, Study of a
pilot photovoltaic-electrolyzer-fuel cell power system for a geothermal heat pump
heated greenhouse and evaluation of the electrolyzer efficiency and operational
mode, Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 45 (2014), 111-118.
[16] I. Blanco, A. S. Anifantis, S. Pascuzzi, G. Scarascia Mugnozza, Hydrogen
and renewable energy sources integrated system for greenhouse heating, Journal
of Agricultural Engineering, 44 (2013), no. s2, 226-230.
[17] R. Deboli, A. Calvo, F. Gambella, C. Preti, R. Dau and E.C. Casu, Hand arm
vibration generated by a rotary pick-up for table olives harvesting, Agricultural
Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 16 (2014), no. 1, 228-235.
[18] S. Pascuzzi, The effects of the forward speed and air volume of an air-
assisted sprayer on spray deposition in “tendone” trained vineyards, Journal of
Ag. Eng., 44 (2013), no. 3, 125-132.
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to a narrow-track wheeled tractor rollover, J. Agric. Eng., 46 (2015), 105-114.
[20] A.R. Proto & G. Zimbalatti, Risk assessment of repetitive movements in the
citrus fruit industry, Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health- Ed. American
Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), 16 (2010), no. 4, 219-
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olive growing: analysis of annual exposure level assessment models with the
OCRA checklist, Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health - Ed. American
Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), 21 (2015), no. 4, 241-
Received: August 1, 2016; Published: October 3, 2016
... In the last few years, the biggest brands producing chainsaws have improved the performance of their top models of battery-powered chainsaws, providing at the same time less harmful working conditions for their operators [14] and good cutting and duration performance of the tools. Nowadays, thanks to improvements in electrical-instrument technologies, the declared power values of battery-operated chainsaws are comparable with their lightweight petrol counterparts. ...
... Very few studies have investigated the performance of battery-powered chainsaws in tree cutting. In the literature, it seems that only Colantoni et al. [14] in 2016 have examined the cutting times for branches (60-90 mm in diameter) during the cross-cutting of different wood species using two types of cordless chainsaws-with a built-in battery and with a separate backpack battery. The battery-powered chainsaw performances were compared with those of two models of petrol-powered chainsaws built for pruning. ...
Full-text available
The use of battery tools is very common in many fields of work. In fact, the electric engine and batteries have several advantages over traditional endothermic engines, including low emissions, in terms of pollutants, vibration and noise. In this context, the chainsaw market started producing electric models powered by batteries. These machines can be useful in forestry, but information on their performance is scarce. The aim of this work was to compare the performance, in terms of cutting times, of three Stihl chainsaw models: the MS 220C-B (battery powered), and the MS 201 C-M and MS 261 C-M (both petrol powered). The study was carried out on five different wood species, also taking into consideration the presence/absence of wood defects in the cutting. More than 800 cuts on 15 m × 15 cm wood beams were video recorded, and the cutting times were later obtained to a resolution of 4/100 of a sec, using video-editing software. The results showed a poorer performance of the battery chainsaw than the petrol chainsaws, especially on certain wood species. However, this difference has been reduced when compared with older models. In conclusion, battery chainsaws need some additional improvements to be introduced into forestry, but their high potential is evident.
... Neste contexto, Riccioni et al. (2015) ressaltam a importância do desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias que minimizem a insalubridade, como a substituição de motosserras de combustão interna. Colantoni et al. (2016) testaram diferentes motosserras dotadas de motores de combustão interna e elétricos e observaram substancial redução nos níveis de ruído e vibração em motosserras elétricas. Apesar das limitações desta tecnologia para trabalhos mais leves, pode ser uma alternativa futura para a atenuação da insalubridade nas áreas operacionais de colheita semimecanizada. ...
... Trabalhos que comparam os níveis de vibração de mãos e braços entre as atividades parciais do corte de madeira são escassos. Entretanto, Colantoni et al. (2016) observaram níveis fatigantes de vibração nesta operação. Os maiores níveis de vibração no desgalhamento podem estar associados ao tipo de corte desenvolvido em cada atividade estudada. ...
Full-text available
Objetivou-se analisar o nível de exposição de trabalhadores a ruídos e vibração de mãos e braços por máquinas utilizadas na colheita semimecanizada de madeira. A pesquisa foi realizada em áreas operacionais de uma empresa florestal na região Sul do Espírito Santo, em povoamentos de Pinus elliottii com 40 anos de idade. Analisou-se ruído e vibração nas atividades parciais do ciclo de trabalho do corte com motosserra e extração de madeira com trator agrícola equipado com grua e carreta. O nível de exposição a ruídos foi mensurado com dosímetro e a vibração com acelerômetro, seguindo as normas NHO-01 e ISO 5349-1. As atividades de corte e extração superaram o limite de exposição a ruídos, apresentando 100,8 dB (A) e 91,3dB (A), respectivamente. Para o corte, a análise de vibração demonstrou níveis de fadiga em ambos os eixos estudados, destacando o desgalhamento com maior exposição (0,265 m s-²). Observaram-se níveis de fadiga nos eixos xy dos membros superiores dos trabalhadores durante a extração, com destaque para o deslocamento carregado e vazio (0,174 m s-²). Observa-se a necessidade de adoção de medidas que diminuam a exposição dos operários às condições inadequadas, sendo consideradas indispensáveis para o desempenho das atividades.
... At the same time, the paper [4] suggests an improved design of this node, which increases its reliability and safety. Authors [5] compare the performance characteristics of a chainsaw with an internal combustion engine and a battery electric saw. At the same time, they pay attention to the fact that with a significantly higher performance, the chainsaw has less reliability and is more dangerous. ...
... Performance of the work to increase the reliability of the engine of a chainsaw in operation is accompanied by an improvement in its fuel and economic characteristics and an increase in [5,7] with a decrease in the release of toxic substances into the atmosphere. As noted [3], improving the performance of any mechanical system is a significant factor in the growth of productivity of operators in combination with an increase in its environmental and ergonomic properties. ...
Full-text available
A method is proposed for calculating the reliability of components of a chainsaw and its construction as a whole based on a passive experiment to collect information about the failures of components and cases of inoperable condition. The design of a gasoline saw is considered as a mechanical system with sequential connection of elements, when the failure of one element causes the failure of the entire structure as a whole. The proposed calculation method can be used for the modernization and design of such structures in order to increase the failure time of low-reliability units and equalize the reliability indicators of all components of the chainsaw. It was found that the least reliable node of the MP-5 chainsaw is the ignition system with an average time to failure of 114 hours. At the same time, the most reliable element of a chainsaw is its frame, the average time to failure of which is 264 motor hours. The average time to failure of the remaining chainsaw links for a period of 300 hours is in the range of 20 to 80 hours.
... Their advantages include, in addition to eliminating exhaust gases, their lower weight as well as less vibration and noise during operation, compared to conventional saws (Colantoni et al. 2016). ...
... They could, however, be used in house firewood operations. In the market, electric chainsaws can be found under specifications of 45cm length and a power of 2.5KW which are capable of most wood cutting operations, whereas lithium-ion chainsaws can be used in tree trunks and tree treatments as well as part-time at farm operations (Colantoni et al. 2016). ...
Full-text available
Anthropogenic activities in the environment have an impact on climate change. Among these activities is the use of the chainsaw which plays an important role through releasing greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. Hence the need for research on improved logging operations is of importance. The present study compares carbon monoxide (CΟ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) emissions generated by the engines of one catalytic chainsaw and two conventional chainsaws, of which one is professional and the other amateur. Measurements were carried out under three functional modes (infrequent accelerator use, use of quality oils, use of clean filters). Measurements that were conducted under normal conditions were named "witness measurements" and were used for future comparisons. Additionally, a set of measurements for CΟ and ΝΟ 2 emissions was collected under different operation modes for all three types of saws (frequent accelerator use, use of low quality oils, use of impure filters). Data collection was carried out in real conditions using a portable gas detector. Average concentration values of CΟ and ΝΟ 2 under normal conditions for all three types of chainsaw found in the air of the operator"s breathing zone were 88.32 ppm and 0.07 ppm respectively. Results show that CO concentrations exceed the permissible exposure limit (50 ppm), whereas CO concentrations in excess of the short-term exposure limit (300 ppm) were only found in the case of the amateur chainsaw operated with low quality oils. These results are of use towards efforts to reduce the CO and NO 2 to the atmosphere.
... Moreover, Lithium-ion batteries could now be recycled with an efficiency of 97% w/w of the valuable battery active materials [46,47]. In the only accessible previous study on chainsaws powered by alternative sources [38,48], it was established that the use of battery-powered chainsaws may decrease the exposure to noise and onset of HAV when compared with the use of petrol chainsaws. No recent studies have focused their attention on noise and vibration exposure by wired electric chainsaws in comparison to Li-Ion batteries models. ...
... The few studies available at present [38,48] have made comparisons between electric and traditional endothermic chainsaws and the results have clearly shown lower emissions of both vibrations and noise in electric chainsaws than in the others, but these cannot be used in the same operations. In forest conditions, wired chainsaws are obviously inappropriate due to their need of an electric connection, while battery chainsaws can be used in specific operations only, such as delimbing and the cross-cutting of small-diameter trees, but not in felling and the processing of medium and large diameter trees. ...
Full-text available
In many activities, chainsaw users are exposed to the risk of injuries and several other hazard factors that may cause health problems. In fact, environmental and working conditions when using chainsaws result in workers’ exposure to hazards such as noise, vibration, exhaust gases, and wood dust. Repeated or continuous exposure to these unfavourable conditions can lead to occupational diseases that become apparent after a certain period of time has elapsed. Since the use of electric tools is increasing in forestry, the present research aims to evaluate the noise and vibration exposure caused by four models of electric chainsaws (Stihl MSA160T, Stihl MSA200C Li-Ion battery powered and Stihl MSE180C, Stihl MSE220C wired) during cross-cutting. Values measured on the Stihl MSA160T chainsaw (Li-Ion battery) showed similar vibration levels on both right and left handles (0.9–1.0 m s−2, respectively) and so did the other battery-powered chainsaw, the Stihl MSA200C (2.2–2.3 m s−2 for right and left handles, respectively). Results showed a range of noise included between 81 and 90 dB(A) for the analysed chainsaws. In conclusion, the vibrations and noise were lower for the battery chainsaws than the wired ones, but, in general, all the values were lower than those measured in previous studies of endothermic chainsaws.
... The exposure to noise and HAV when using petrol powered chainsaws varies between 98 and 101 dB(A) and 3.3 and 7.7 m/s 2 (Goglia et al. 2012;Lipoglavšek 1995;Lipoglavšek 1997;Minetti et al. 1998;Neitzel and Yost 2002;Rottensteiner et al. 2012). In the only accessible previous study about battery-powered chainsaws (Colantoni et al. 2016), it was established that use of cordless electric chainsaws may decrease exposure to noise and HAV when compared with the use of petrol chainsaws. ...
... Thus, the study results should not be generalised to bigger trees, where technological differences may be more prominently reflected in terms of efficiency. Notwithstanding our assumptions, the results comply with the only previous study which addressed cordless electric chainsaws but nevertheless only compared the efficiency in test of cross-cutting (Colantoni et al. 2016). ...
Since the electric tools are increasingly entering the field of forestry, the aim of this study was to establish the consequences of using electric powered chainsaws on work and its energy efficiency, as well as health of workers. For this purpose, 40 trees were felled in two young spruce stands, half with a cordless electric chainsaw and one half with a petrol chainsaw. Results showed that electric chainsaws are a good alternative to petrol chainsaws for use in small-scale forestry, since in terms of work efficiency their use is comparable to petrol chainsaws and they provide a lower level of energy consumption, and lower exposure of fellers to noise and hand-arm vibrations. Similar to other fields, the results confirmed a positive impact of hand toll electrification on man and environment. The development of electric tools for forestry is expected to intensify with the development of more powerful batteries which are currently still regarded as the major bottleneck.
... The sector is characterized by a high level of operator education and training and a high degree of technological innovation both in terms of techniques and in terms of tools and equipment. However, some innovations, for example, battery-powered electric tools, still struggle to fully enter the daily life of climbers, despite advantages in terms of safety and ergonomics [13]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The techniques funded for rope-based access to the tree canopy (the so-called tree climbing) have been spreading in recent years. A variety of practices, such as pruning, felling of trees, cabling, phytosanitary inspections, and others, can be carried out using these techniques, and the methods allow one to operate on trees placed in any location, proving extremely suitable for maintaining trees grown in an urban environment. In Italy, the number of arborists operating with a rope on trees is increasing significantly. They are usually highly specialized professionals, and they use specific techniques and materials. Despite the diffusion of these techniques in modern arboriculture, it is not easy to find sound ad updated information and data on them. In this work, based mainly on the answers obtained from a specific questionnaire addressed to 86 Italian professional climbers, some aspects of the applied techniques were reported. The paper shows data on professional training and formation, on the work organization, and on the utilized materials and equipment. In general, a large variety of situations are reported, a result probably linked to the fast growth of the sector in the past years.
... The vibration load of the operator, the technological forces transferred to the handles and the efficiency of the machining process depend on many factors. Because of their origin, these factors may be related to: -device (drive type, technical condition, etc.) [8][9][10][11][12], -tool (cutting set-guide bar and chain, guide bar length, pitch) [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] -workpiece material (wood species, moisture) [23][24][25][26][27], -individual characteristics of the operator (age, body structure, experience) [28]. In addition to vibration and noise, saw operators are also exposed to other harmful influences, such as: -chemical-exhaust fumes, fuel mixture and lubricant for the guide bar [29][30][31][32][33][34], -biological-molds, fungi, zoonoses [35][36][37][38], -physical-dust generated during operation [34,39]. ...
Full-text available
Chainsaws generate high levels of vibrations and noise during work. Regardless of the type of their drive (electric, combustion) chainsaws excel TLVs (Threshold Limited Values) of vibration accelerations and the A-weighted sound level specified for eight-hour working day. The intensity of a vibro-acoustic impact of chainsaws on their operators depends on many factors. One of them is the type of the drive. This is due to significant differences in chainsaw design (inter alia characteristics of the drive, rotational speed, quasi-constant for an electric drive and variable for a combustion one). For chainsaws of the same or alike power and different type of the drive levels of vibrations and noise may vary. In this article noise levels and frequency weighted vibration accelerations for different direction of cutting kerf have been compared. Tests were performed with the same interchangeable cutting set (guide bar, cutting chain). The repeatability of conditions of the cutting process was ensured.
Background: Noise has the potential to affect the comfort and health of workers. The objective of this research was to find out the effect of noise caused by the timber harvesting process using chainsaws on the concentration of workers in an industrial forest plantation. Methods: This experimental study included 20 respondents which consisted of 10 chainsaw operators/helpers and 10 non-chainsaw operators. All respondents were exposed to the sound of a chainsaw in three different conditions (idle, half gas and racing conditions) with and without personal protective equipment (PPE). The sound intensity produced by the chainsaw and the noise received by the respondents were measured using a sound level meter. Respondents’ perception toward noise was recorded using a Likert scale. Respondents’ concentration level was assessed by giving 25 math-questions to be answered within 10 minutes. Wilcoxon sign rank test was used to analysed paired data. Results: The average sound intensity received by respondents’ left and right ears were lower than the average sound intensity produced by the chainsaw. The use of earmuffs leads to better perception towards noise when compared with the use of earplugs and the absence of any PPE. The Wilcoxon test result showed that noise did not have significant impact on the concentration level of chainsaw operators, whilst the contrary result is true for non-chainsaw operators. Conclusions: The research indicated that although the noise produced by the chainsaw machine was considered noisy for both chainsaw operators and non-chainsaw operator, it did not have a significant effect on the concentration level of chainsaw operators and only affected the non-chainsaw operators. Therefore, given that the non-chainsaw operators were still affected by the noise, noise control measures are still needed to ensure occupational safety and health for the workers.
Full-text available
Aim: The aim of the article is to identify innovative design solutions in chainsaws which are used in rescue and firefighting operations. The review concerns commercial solutions, scientific publications and patents. It enables to determine development trends of chainsaws utilised as mechanical rescue devices. Project and methods: Although chainsaw evolution analysis is available in the literature, in the greatest part it concerns only timber harvesting conditions. It lacks a review of technical solutions adapted to rescue and firefighting operations which may involve: wood impurities, the need to work on unstable ground and in limited space, the need to maintain focus in stressful and unpredictable situations. Fire protection units operations are aimed at saving people’s health and life, therefore they should be carried out with the use of machines and devices with the best properties. Conclusions: The solutions presented in the article may affect the development of rescue teams equipment, thereby increasing their efficiency and work safety. Currently, there is a trend toward the use of mobile chainsaws involving: increased durability for cutting wood with impurities, low-emission drives with limited impact on the operator, systems protecting the operator's body against the chain blade during uncontrolled and unpredictable situations, biodegradable oils for chain lubrication. It is necessary to conduct research on innovative solutions towards the usefulness of chainsaws in rescue operations.
Full-text available
A research is under development at the Department of Agro- Environmental Sciences of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro” in order to investigate the suitable solutions of a power system based on solar energy (photovoltaic) and hydrogen, integrated with a geothermal heat pump for powering a self sustained heated greenhouse. The electrical energy for heat pump operation is provided by a purpose-built array of solar photovoltaic modules, which supplies also a water electrolyser system controlled by embedded pc; the generated dry hydrogen gas is conserved in suitable pressured storage tank. The hydrogen is used to produce electricity in a fuel cell in order to meet the above mentioned heat pump power demand when the photovoltaic system is inactive during winter night-time or the solar radiation level is insufficient to meet the electrical demand. The present work reports some theoretical and observed data about the electrolyzer operation. Indeed the electrolyzer has required particular attention because during the experimental tests it did not show a stable operation and it was registered a performance not properly consistent with the predicted performance by means of the theoretical study.
Full-text available
In the agro-forestry sector, every worker is exposed to risk for security and health; these risk are due to job location and to the using of tools and machinery that are necessary in the normal agricultural activity. Without protection and prevention actions, workers can be subject to accidents and dangerous illness. The observation of I.N.A.I.L. (Italian database) statistics about the workers accidents and illness, underlines the contrast trend. The accidents are fewer, while the professional illness have increased; this difference is due to the effects at prolonged exposition to dangerous agents, with a temporal gap of 20-30 years from the exposition start. The research is focalized to noise risk. The hypoacusis is the professional illness generated from a long exposition to harmful sound event. The harmful effects of this pathology are known for time; the lawmaker tried already to limit this pathology in 1991 with Legislative Decree 227/91 (as transposition of 80/1107/CEE, 82/506/CEE, 83/605/CEE, 86/188/CEE). The hypoacusis caused by noise, is at the top of the professional illness classification from more than 20 years; nowadays these illness remains underestimate by workers, mainly because the symptoms aren't quantifiable in a short time. Laws and technical standards are available for workers. The lawmaker has determined timetables, measurement methodologies and has determined indications about the elimination, reduction, and the proper actualization of activities of prevention and protection. There is a great request to substitute the measurements in loco with values contained in the noise database; therefore we have made a study about a comparison of many agro-forestry evaluation, from 1996 to 2012, with the aim of: - studying the sound emission trend, which is due to the agricultural machinery wear during the years; - establishing the risk zone common to the some type of machinery and operating machinery; - searching for an eventual justification to use the table values overwritten.
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The manual harvest of olives is one of the most expensive operations in the table olives production, but the use of the electric hand-guided machines triples the productivity. The development of these new machines leads to changes in the harvesting methodologies and in the operator's working behavior. These items may also affect the hand-arm vibration (HAV) transmitted to the operators during the work. Aim of this study is to evaluate the hand-arm vibration transmitted to the operator using an experimental electric labor saving machine with rotary combs with teeth of different dimensions covered by silicon to minimize the damage to the drupes. Moreover, the olives removal forces have been analyzed to understand if the force necessary to detach the drupes is correlated to the vibration levels transmitted to the operator's hand arm. With this type of hand held olive harvester, it has been found that higher is the fruit removal force, higher are the measured vibration levels.
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In Italy, one of the main agricultural crops is represented by the cultivation of olive trees. Olive cultivation characterizes the Italian agricultural landscape and national agricultural economics. Italy is the world's second largest producer of olive oil. Because olive cultivation requires the largest labor force in southern Italy, the aim of this research was to assess the risk of biomechanical overload of the workers' upper limbs. The objective, therefore, was to determine the level of risk that workers are exposed to in each phase of the production process. In Calabria, the second most important region in Italy for both the production of olive oil and cultivated area, there are 113,907 olive farms (83% of all farms) and 250,000 workers. To evaluate the risk of repetitive movements, all of the work tasks performed by workers on 100 farms in Calabria were analyzed. A total of 430 workers were interviewed over the four-year research period. To evaluate the level of exposure to repetitive movements, the OCRA (occupational repetitive actions) checklist was adopted. This checklist was the primary analytical tool during the preliminary risk assessment and in a given working situation. The analysis suggested by the OCRA checklist starts with pre-assigned scores (increasing in value with intensification of risk) for each of four main risk factors and additional factors. Between 2010 and 2013, surveys were conducted using the OCRA checklist with the aim of verifying musculoskeletal risks. The results obtained from the study of 430 workers allowed us to identify the level of exposure to risk. This analysis was conducted in the workplace to examine in detail the repetitive movements performed by the workers. The research was divided into two phases: first to provide preliminary information on the different tasks performed in olive growing, and second to assign a percentage to each task of the total hours worked in a year. Based on the results, this method could well become a tool for implementing prevention measures for all workers involved in farming, not just those in olive production. Exposure to work-related musculoskeletal risks (extreme posture, repetition, high muscle loads) appears to be significant for workers in olive production. In the cultivation of olive trees, many tasks require prolonged and intense physical efforts that can increase risk. The most problematic work tasks were pruning and harvesting, while fertilization showed the lowest risk. The survey showed the need for a suitable study of olive growing to adapt prevention measures to specific aspects of agriculture as compared to other employment sectors.
Full-text available
The chainsaw is a portable machine used for multi-purpose operations and can be used by professional and non-professional workers. Forestry and related tree operations represent one of the most hazardous working sectors of human activity. At the moment operations with chainsaws are conducted by all persons and are not solely restricted to professional lumberjacks. Serious or lethal lesions, due to the use of manual or electric chainsaws, are often encountered by emergency doctors or forensic pathologists. Such serious accidents often occur during occupational activities and are essentially due to kickback, uncorrected use of the tool and in case of lost implement control due to falling or slipping of the operator. We developed and adopted an innovative safety device able to stop an electric chainsaw when needed. The device is based on a Wiimote controller (Nintendo™) which includes two accelerometers and two gyroscopes for detection of rotation and inclination. A Bluetooth wireless technology is used to transfer data to a portable computer. Collected data about linear and angular acceleration are filtered by an algorithm based on the Euclid norm which differentiates between normal and dangerous chainsaw movements. The results showed a good response of the safety device which sent an alarm signal when a dangerous situation occurred in order to stop the cutting chain. The device demonstrated correct behavior in all tested dangerous situations. We encourage extending its use to chainsaws with combustion engine, as well as to other portable equipment used in agriculture and forestry operations. For these applications the safety device was also patented.
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This paper proposes the use of the multibody approach to evaluate the severity of the injuries to the driver associated with rollover of an agricultural tractor. A simple rollover accident of a narrow-track wheeled tractor was simulated in the multibody-FEM Madymo environment and the biomechanical damage to the operator with and without 2-point pelvic restraint was analysed. The structure of the tractor was considered to be unbendable, whereas i) infinitely rigid, ii) clay-based and iii) sand-based soils have been studied. The obtained results highlight the important role played by the seat belt in confining the farm operator within the safety volume maintained by the rollover protective structure (ROPS) of the tractor so that the injuries are reduced. The deformation of the soil produces lower acceleration and velocity values than those obtained with a rigid soil. On the other hand, as soil plastic deformations increase, the penetration of ROPS into the soil also increases, thus reducing the safety volume of the tractor and increasing the probability of interactions between the operator and the soil.
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Lithium-ion batteries will play a crucial role in the development of mobile consumer devices, stationary energy storage systems, and electric mobility. The growth in these fields will bring about a surge in the lithium-ion battery market. This leads experts to agree that more effective recycling processes are needed in conjunction with the recycling of lithium. This calls for an entirely revolutionary recycling process which we here have attempted to develop. Our approach uses thermal decomposition of the polyvinylidene fluoride binder to lessen the cohesion of coated active material particles and weaken the adhesion between coating and foil. Then, an air-jet-separator is able to detach the coating powder from the current collector foils while stressing remaining particulate agglomerates. This separation process named ANVIIL (Adhesion Neutralization via Incineration and Impact Liberation) was tested on a laboratory scale with electrode rejects. We compared this to the widely used mechanical recycling process that utilizes a cutting mill to separate the current collector and coating. Intermediates and products were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, tape adhesion tests, atomic absorption spectroscopy, particle size analysis, and gravimetric sieve analysis. We found that 97.1% w/w of the electrode coating can be regained with aluminum impurities of only 0.1% w/w, 30 times purer than the comparative process. This demonstrates a more effective recycling process than is currently available that also enables the recapture of lithium from the electrode coating.
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To give a systematic review of the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in working life. A literature search in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Health and Safety Abstracts, with appropriate keywords on noise in the workplace and health, revealed 22,413 articles which were screened by six researchers. A total of 698 articles were reviewed in full text and scored with a checklist, and 187 articles were found to be relevant and of sufficient quality for further analysis. Occupational noise exposure causes between 7 and 21 % of the hearing loss among workers, lowest in the industrialized countries, where the incidence is going down, and highest in the developing countries. It is difficult to distinguish between NIHL and age-related hearing loss at an individual level. Most of the hearing loss is age related. Men lose hearing more than women do. Heredity also plays a part. Socioeconomic position, ethnicity and other factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, vibration and chemical substances, may also affect hearing. The use of firearms may be harmful to hearing, whereas most other sources of leisure-time noise seem to be less important. Impulse noise seems to be more deleterious to hearing than continuous noise. Occupational groups at high risk of NIHL are the military, construction workers, agriculture and others with high noise exposure. The prevalence of NIHL is declining in most industrialized countries, probably due to preventive measures. Hearing loss is mainly related to increasing age.
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This paper reports the results of spray application trials in a tendone trained vineyard in order to evaluate the influence of forward speed and air volume on the foliar deposition of plant protection products (PPPs), maintaining roughly constant the volume applied. The trials used an air-assisted sprayer with a centrifugal fan and 4+4 adjustable fan-shaped diffusers, each with a nozzle-holder group. A full factorial experimental design was implemented, with three forward speeds and two airflow rates, organised with a randomised complete block design including three replicates. In order to consider the influence of canopy development, the tests (one spray application for each replicate of a mixture containing a water-soluble food dye as a tracer) were replicated during two phenological stages: i) the end of flowering; and ii) berry touch. Leaves were picked at random from the canopy after each spray treatment, and foliar PPP deposition was evaluated using a spectrophotometer. This analysis of foliar deposition showed that the airflow rates produced by the fan were unsuitable for the dense canopy typical of this type of vineyard. However, the special shape of the diffusers may make this sprayer effective if the main objective of pesticide applications in tendone trained table grape vineyards is to control bunch diseases.
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A research is under development at the Department of Agro- Environmental Sciences of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro” in order to investigate the suitable solutions of a power system based on solar energy (photovoltaic) and hydrogen, integrated with a geothermal heat pump for powering a self sustained heated greenhouse. The electrical energy for heat pump operation is provided by a purpose-built array of solar photovoltaic modules, which supplies also a water electrolyser system controlled by embedded pc; the generated dry hydrogen gas is conserved in suitable pressured storage tank. The hydrogen is used to produce electricity in a fuel cell in order to meet the above mentioned heat pump power demand when the photovoltaic system is inactive during winter night-time or the solar radiation level is insufficient to meet the electrical demand. The present work reports some theoretical and observed data about the electrolyzer operation. Indeed the electrolyzer has required particular attention because during the experimental tests it did not show a stable operation and it was registered a performance not properly consistent with the predicted performance by means of the theoretical study.