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Comparisons between battery chainsaws and internal combustion engine chainsaws: Performance and safety

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Abstract

The thesis compares the features and performance of three of battery chainsaw models of two Manufacturers against two equipped with internal combustion engine and all designed for use in pruning. The cutting times for five woody species with different hardness of the wood have been examined; assessed the safety in use of the individual machines and a rough evaluation for the energy consumption. The purpose is to understand the potential of these battery chainsaws, currently used for pruning, for possible use in forest exploitation.
Contemporary Engineering Sciences, Vol. 9, 2016, no. 27, 1315 - 1337
HIKARI Ltd, www.m-hikari.com
http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/ces.2016.68133
Comparisons between Battery Chainsaws and
Internal Combustion Engine Chainsaws:
Performance and Safety
A. Colantoni, F. Mazzocchi, F. Cossio, M. Cecchini,
R. Bedini and D. Monarca
Tuscia University, Department of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences (DAFNE)
Viterbo, Italy
Copyright © 2016 A. Colantoni et al. This article is distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
The thesis compares the features and performance of three of battery chainsaw
models of two Manufacturers against two equipped with internal combustion
engine and all designed for use in pruning. The cutting times for five woody
species with different hardness of the wood have been examined; assessed the
safety in use of the individual machines and a rough evaluation for the energy
consumption. The purpose is to understand the potential of these battery
chainsaws, currently used for pruning, for possible use in forest exploitation.
Keywords: battery chainsaw, forest exploitation, safety and health
1 Introduction
Currently there is a great development of machines for the management of
portable battery-green, in a "green" development, to protect the environment and
the operator.
Currently there is a great development of portable battery machines for urban
green management, to protect the environment and the operator’s health. as we
shall see, the battery chain saws are able to decrease number of specific risks,
which makes them ideal for use in arboriculture (and other sectors such as agriculture,
1316 A. Colantoni et al.
food industries, etc.) where occupational hazards are high and it is important to
minimize (Mazzocchi et al. 2015, Cecchini et al. 2010 b, Marucci et al. 2012,
Marucci et al 2013, Di Giacinto et. al. 2012). Electric instruments technology has
been developed deeply, but is newly introduced in the urban green areas
management, because of the need to have a relatively high power but away from
the public network (Blanco et al. 2013, Blanco et al. 2014), and for all the
duration of the working day. Latterly development of batteries, has led to a
sufficiently high level of power and durability, suitable for this purpose, with
considerably reduced weights compared to older types of battery. Moreover,
Lithium-ion batteries could now be recycled with an efficiency of 97% w/w of the
valuable battery active materials (Hanisch C.et al 2015, Boubaker et al. 2014). In
this study were taken into the cordless chainsaws exam, in two different types:
with built-in battery and separate battery to take backpack.
2 Materials and methods
For comparisons, in this work, have been used different machines, which
represent the most advanced technology available for operators, provided from the
market.
Small chainsaws were selected, since light compact equipment, are necessary for
pruning with very short bars, because of the diameter of the branches cut that
rarely exceeds 10-15 cm. At the same time a discrete power is necessary, to cut
easily hard or dry wood.
They were taken into consideration:
Pellenc Selion C15- top handle backpack battery chainsaw;
Pellenc Selion C20- top handle backpack battery chainsaw;
Stihl MSA160C-BQ- battery forestry-shaped chainsaw;
Stihl MS192T- 2-stroke pruning chainsaw;
Stihl MS200T- 2-stroke pruning chainsaw;
Used battery are the following:
Pellenc Poly 5- ULiB Battery, with charger;
Stihl AP 160- Lithium ion battery, with fast charger AL 300.
2.1 Data acquisition mode.
The key parameter to judge the performance of a chainsaw is the cutting speed. A
valid machine must have a low cutting time, in relation to the diameter and to the
test species. Two operators are needed to detect this gave, the first dealt with the
cutting with the machine in question, the second fitted with chronometric table, taking
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1317
the cutting time and reported on a special grid where also write the diameter of the
branch. The cutting times are obtained with a chronometric table, equipped with
four analog chronometers, of which one is used for the relief of the total times, the
three other alternately actuated by a lever may be used for the relief of partial
rates. On the chronometric table sheets can be fixed to write rapidly the measured
times. The detection accuracy is the hundredth of a minute.
Since those chain saws intended mainly for use in pruning, it is chosen to detect
the timing of diameters from 30 to 100 mm, given that beyond this cutting
diameter is provoke major wounds to the plants and below, to obtain a good
cutting, the hacksaw or tin snips are required.
To detect the size of the branch subjected to cutting, the tree calliper, for larger
diameters (in excess of 60mm) was used, while for smaller diameters (from 30 to
60mm) the caliber was used.
A small part of the test however was extended to larger diameters, in which the
Stihl MS 200 T was used, whose scope also extends to fell small trees. The
material for the tests has been found on different work sites, where the required
size logs were identified, and taken to a square where once placed on an easel, it
started cutting and detect time. They were only used branches and green trunks.
Both operators were provided with the appropriate personal protective equipment:
chainsaw protection trousers class 1, chainsaw protection boots class 1 cut-
resistant, protective glasses and earplugs and the operator which was cutting wore
also safety helmet.
2.2 Features of the used machines (declared by the manufacturer).
Pellenc Selion C15-C20
The Selion C15 is the first electronic chainsaw introduced by
the French company in 2008, which was joined by the model
Selion C20 with more power (in 2010). Both of reduced
dimensions but with a 30cm long bar, brushless electric
motor, able to develop 1500W to 2000W for the C15 and
C20, very light because the battery is not incorporated but is
brought to backpack. The engine is connected directly to the
pinion that moves the chain and therefore the friction and the
speed reducer are absent. The chain brake has an electronic
clutch, controlled by a sensor which reacts to the machine falling or bouncing, and
is also equipped with fixed grip front protection.
The chain tension adjustment is automatic, just engage the guide on the tool head
that tends properly via a spring mechanism, while removing the chain cover is
facilitated by an integrated removable key. The oil flow is electronically controlled,
1318 A. Colantoni et al.
depending on the absorption of the motor, to avoid waste, and the start of the
engine is controlled by the double pulse trigger can only be activated if you press
the handle positioned security simultaneously. The energy delivery depends on
the absorption of torque, required at the time of the cut, thus optimizing fuel
consumption.
Table 1. Technical data: Pellenc Selion C15 e C20
Features
U.M.
Pellenc Selion C15
Pellenc Selion C20
Weight*
kg
2
2
Power
kW
1,5 at 5400 rpm
2 at 6200 rpm
Chain speed
m/s
10,3
14,4
Guide bar
cm
30
30
Saw chain
Oregon ¼ Micro
Chisel 25AP
Oregon ¼ Micro
Chisel 25AP
Measured power
sound level
dB(A)
84
84
Guaranteed sound
power level
dB(A)
96
96
Vibration level
(left)
m/s2
4,2
2,8
Oil tank capacity
l
0,25
0,25
* without guide bar, saw chain and oil
Stihl MSA 160C-BQ
The Stihl MSA C-BQ cordless chainsaw is the first
of the German House, and keeps the traditional
design with rear handle for the right hand and
tophandle for the left hand. Also here there is an
electronically controlled brushless motor. The
battery is inserted in the machine, vertically, right
behind the front handle, which is protected by hand
guards that acts as a switch for the chain block in
case of impact or kickback. The chain tension is adjusted by the rotation of a
wheel located over the drive sprocket, which also owns an integrated lever to
loosen and tighten the chain cover.
This model has supplied the chain brake Quick Stop Super, which locks the chain
not only in case of activation of the front hand guard, but also in the case of the
throttle trigger release. To work more comfortable, a belt where to place the battery is
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1319
available. Operator can connect it to the chain saw by a cable, reducing the overall
weight of 1.7 kg in order of work.
Table 2. Technical data: Stihl MSA 160 C-BQ
Features
Stihl MSA 160 C-BQ
Wheight whitout battery
3,2
Wheight with battery
4,9
Guide bar
30
Saw chain
¼ PM3
Power sound level
98
Sound power level
88
Vibration level (left/right)
2,0/2,0
Stihl MS 192 T
It is the lightest of the Stihl chainsaw for the
maintenance of the trees at the time of testing. It
is equipped with the ignition microprocessor to
minimize the bounces startup. The handle is
mounted on anti-vibration dampers to reduce the
perception of vibrations by the operator. It is
equipped with a low bounce chains and you can
mount the carving bar to work with greater precision. Mounts a 30 cm long
guidebar and with its 2-stroke engine, it develops 1.3kW. The side chain
tensioning is operated from the supplied wrench to unscrew the plug. It owns the
manual fuel pump to facilitate the start-up after a period of inactivity. The
closures of the tanks can be opened without tools, but ensure a perfect fluid seal.
The safety devices are the classic: accelerator with security, front hand guard
button that actuates the chain brake in the event of a collision, chain catcher
mounted beneath the pinion to decrease the speed of impact of the chain in case of
breakage.
Table 3. Technical data: Stihl MS192T
Features
Stihl
MS192T
Displacement
30,1
Weight*
3,1
Power
1,2
Guide bar
30
1320 A. Colantoni et al.
Saw chain pitch
3/8 P
Sound pressure level
109
Sound power level
97
Vibration level left/right
2,9/3,1
* without guide bar, saw chain and oil
Stihl MS 200 T
A lightweight and powerful precision chainsaw,
designed to work specifically for arborists. It
has good handling thanks to the top handle and
good balance. Fitted with 35 cm long guide bar
and low bounce chain for higher safety in use. It
mounts an oil pump with adjustable flow, a
compensator that maintains the fuel-air mixture
even when increased air filter dirt. It is equipped
with a damping element integrated in the tear-starting system that absorbs peak of
force generated during start-up, making them uniform and facilitating the setting
in motion (Stihl ElastoStart). The oil pump is supplied with adjustable flow, for
precision dosing of the required amount of oil depending on the type of wood and
the cutting length. The chain lock mechanism kicks in with "bump" on the
traditional protection of the left hand. The chain tensioner is lateral and operated
from the supplied wrench to unscrew the plug. The right handle locates the
throttle control with an attached security on top, and the ignition command,
shutdown and cold ignition.
Table 4. Technical data: Stihl MS200T
Features
Stihl MS200 T
Displacement
35,2
Weight *
3,6
Power
1,7
Guide bar
35
Saw chain pitch
3/8 P
Sound pressure level
109
Sound power level
98
Vibration level left/right
3,4/3,8
Chain speed
26
* without guide bar, saw chain and oil
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1321
2.3Used batteries
Pellenc Poly 5
The ULiB Poly 5 battery is designed specifically to deliver high
power as that required by chainsaws C15 and C20 and for use in
pruning climbing. The whole is structured to be carried on the
shoulders like a backpack. The lithium-polymer components are
less heated of other elements, and it allows to have a greater power
at the moment of cutting, while maintaining the reduced weight, as
well as the dimensions: thickness of only 45mm. The ergonomic
vest allows the operator to move freely while climbing. The
display autonomy expressed in percentage (1-99%) and the sockets for charging
and the cable coupling of the instrument are present.
Table 5. Technical data: Pellenc ultra lithium battery poly 5
Features
U. M.
Pellenc Ultra Lithium Battery Poly 5
Total weight
kg
3,6
Voltage
V
50,2
Amperage
Ah
10,6
Stored energy
Wh
500
Life cycle
cicli
1200
Kind
Lithium-polymer
Stihl AP 160
This is a very powerful battery with lithium ions, which must
be inserted inside the chain saw, hangs pushing it to the
bottom and can be removed by pressing two buttons on the
machine head. In the upper part of the battery there is the
indicator displays the state of charge formed by 4 LED
representing 1/4, 2/4, 3/4, 4/4 autonomy.
Table 6. Technical data: Stihl AP160
Features
Stihl AP 160
Total weight
1,7
Voltage
36
Amperage
4,5
Stored energy
160
Kind
Lithium-polymer
1322 A. Colantoni et al.
2.4 Vibration and weight
In addition to cutting performance, it is important to also consider other features
to understand the quality of these instruments and disadvantages if any. The data
are declared by the manufacturer.
Vibrations are generally low frequency wave phenomena, transmitted through a
solid medium. They become a source of noise when their frequency is within the
range of human audibility (from 20 to 20,000 Hz). The vibration measurement
unit is the frequency, expressed in number of cycles per second (Herz), but to
describe the physical characteristics the reference parameter is the acceleration
generated (m/s2). The chainsaw produces vibrations due to piston movements and
the impact of the chain with the wood that is being cut. These can cause damage
to the hand-arm system at osteoarticular level; at the level of the central nervous
system and vascular (Rottensteiner, C. 2013, Deboli et al. 2014, Proto et al. 2010,
Proto et al 2015). The perception of vibration, and the effect it can cause, it is
worse by cold, by an intense contraction of the muscles of the hands and fingers,
the pressure of the tool on the limb. These last two items depends largely on the
weight of the tool, so if that is high not only increases the muscular work for an
operator to perform, but also increases the risk of occurrence of diseases due to
vibration.
According to the Legislative Decree no. 81/2008 Title VIII Chapter III, an
operator should not be exposed beyond a daily value limit of vibration (as far as
5m/s2 hand-arm), while the value daily exposure is set at 2.5 m/s2, remaining
allowable exposure for short periods up to 20 m/s2. Beyond these values the
operator is considered at risk and must be subjected to surveillance by a
competent physician.
Table 7. Levels of vibrations and weight of models tested
Model
Vibration L/R (m/s2)
Weight (kg)
Pellenc Selion
C15
4,2/4,2
2
Pellenc Selion
C20
2,8/2,8
2
Stihl MSA 160C-
BQ
2,0/2,0
4,9
Stihl MS 192T
2,9/3,1
3,1
Stihl MS 200T
3,4/3,8
3,6
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1323
Chart. n° 1 Average value of the vibration level and weight, for all chainsaw
tested
Electric chainsaws C20 and MS160C-BQ value less than 3 m/s2, with the absolute
minimum of MS160C-BQ that generates only 2m/s2. To counter this last model
turns out to be the heaviest (almost 5kg) even more of chainsaws equipped with
endothermic motor under test. The model Pellenc Selion C20 combines a low
level to a low weight vibration to sustain in hand, since the batteries for a
backpack on the operator's back with a special harness, avoiding to highlight the
harmful effects of vibration due to the tension muscle that must be applied with
higher weights.
From the graph it can be seen that the motor machines endothermic develop more
vibration, up to 3.8m / s2. The C15 electric model is not generating little vibration
as other electric models. Probably the C15 being an older model and advanced
than the C20 is built with less advanced techniques.
2.5 The noise
Noise is an acoustic phenomenon arising from vibration frequencies of between
20 and 20,000 Hz, which is unpleasant, or even may cause damage to health. The
hearing damage may occur remaining exposed to noise levels between 90 and 130
dB (A), or at lower levels but with prolonged exposure. Hearing loss due to noise
exposure in the workplace is a significant health problem with economic
consequences (Lie A. et al. 2016). In addition to hearing loss phenomena it can
undergo numerous collateral damage, such as stress, increased heart rate, blood
pressure, respiratory rate, vascular tone, gastric secretion, sweating, muscle tone,
pupil size. It is very important to wear ear protectors (headphones or inserts) when
working with machines that generate noise during use, but it is also very important
1324 A. Colantoni et al.
that these machines are made to minimize this type of disorder (Cecchini et al.
2010 a; Riccioni et al. 2015).
Table 8. Test models’ sound pressure level
Model
Sound pressure level dB(A)
Sound power level dB(A)
Pellenc Selion C15
84
96
Pellenc Selion C20
84
96
Stihl MSA 160C-BQ
99
88
Stihl MS 192T
109
97
Stihl MS 200T
109
98
We can note that models equipped with endothermic motor, generating high
acoustic pressures, 109 dB (A), making it essential to use by the operator of PHPE
for not incurring the problems mentioned above. The Stihl MSA160C-BQ
develops a lower noise, 99 dB (A), which is already appreciate the benefits of the
electric motor, decreasing considerably.
Electric models Pellenc C15 and C20 generate an even lower sound pressure level
84 dB (A), and the M12 model generates 89 dB (A), all lower than the
endothermic motor models. In any case it is compulsory to work with the auditory
protection to ensure a better working comfort and the maintenance of the hearing
ability of the operator.
2.6 Safety
Many studies shows the dangers of chainsaw. Even workers experts are involved
in serious injury and death (Cividino S.R.S. et al. 2013; Proto and Zimbalatti
2010; Proto and Zimbalatti 2015). Pruning chain saws are designed to be used
both on land and climbing inside the tree canopy, where it has less room to
maneuver, so they are compact machines with the right grip positioned over. This
gives greater maneuverability, but makes the machine less controllable in the
event of inadvertent collision of the tip of the guide bar during cutting. To avoid
this kind of inconvenience Stihl mounts specially designed chains to limit the
rebound and bounce (Picco Micro Mini Comfort 3 for MS192T, Picco Micro
Comfort 3 for MS200T and Picco Micro 3 for MSA160C-BQ) but ensure high
cutting capacity, especially for the PMMC3 model in which the cutting edge of
the tooth thickness is less. MS 200T, MS192T and MSA160C-BQ come standard
with a safety trigger to avoid unintentional acceleration, and the chain brake
which comes into operation only if the operator drive. The models C15, C20 and
M12 are equipped with Pruning chains Oregon Micro Chisel specifications and
low bounce. These models have supplied the electronic brake of the chain, which
enters into action instantaneously, automatically (so 10 times more sensitive than
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1325
a traditional chain brake) whenever the sensor senses an abnormal movement of
the machine that can be originated from a phenomenon of kickback or tool failure.
Such electronic system is more performing than manual, as seen with other
electronic systems (Cividino et al. 2015, Pascuzzi 2015, 2013; Proto and
Zimbalatti 2016). This improvement of the reaction of the chain brake is very
important because of the great number of injuries which happens every year
(Dąbrowski, A. et al. 2015) and which could be avoided. Arnold (2015) has also
seen that gasoline-powered saw showed the same propensity to kickback as those
with the battery-powered saw; however, the rotational velocities during a
kickback were greater, approximately double ( 1,000°/s for gasoline chainsaw
against 600 °/s for battery chainsaw). Moreover, the instrument has a self-
diagnosis function that allows the ignition only in the case in which this sensor is
functioning, otherwise it is not allowed. Additional security comes from the
ignition trigger double pulse: it is necessary to double click to start the engine.
3. Results and discussion
3.1 Castanea sativa Mill.
The chestnut wood has a density variable fresh from 700 to 1180kg / m3 and is
moderately hard: 18N / mm2 Brinell hardness. In this test, there have been
available models: Stihl MSA160C-BQ, Pellenc Selion C15 and C20, and Stihl
MS192T MS200T.
The available material has been primarily used to test the performance of the
electric chain saws, and the chain saw is equipped with a combustion engine
specific for pruning (MS192T) to have a valid term of comparison. The MS200T
has had so less material to work on to which the curve that represents the cutting
time was generated by the software using a trend line on the basis of a smaller
number of observations. The working times were measured on diameters from 30
to 100mm, and at least 60 tests for each diameter, and then averaged. The times
shown in red in the table are processed on the basis of the trend line generated
with the available data, that gives the lowest value of R2.
For the detected times of the C15 it is used an exponential curve with an R2 of
0.8977, while for the MS200T a power curve, having an R2 of 0.9984. R2 values
next to 1 have a high correlation coefficient between the actual data and the trend
line.
1326 A. Colantoni et al.
Table 8. Average cutting times obtained in tests with five different chainsaws on
chestnut wood
C20
MSA160C-BQ
MS192T
C15
MS200T
Diameter
(mm)
Average time
(hundredth of
a minute)
Average time
(hundredth of a
minute)
Average time
(hundredth of
a minute)
Average time
(hundredth of
a minute)
Average time
(hundredth of
a minute)
30
1,15
1,12
1,08
2,11
0,95
40
1,27
1,52
1,1
2,74
1,60
50
1,63
1,67
1,12
3,68
2,33
60
2,06
2,27
1,5
4,56
3,31
70
2,25
2,55
2,05
7,07
4,38
80
2,71
3,05
2,8
5,84
5,39
90
3,6
3,33
3,24
9,57
6,86
100
4
3,38
3,5
15,16
8,30
From the data and from the chart n°2 we can note that the cutting times of Pellenc
Selion C15 are higher than the others, this is clearly due to the lack of available
power (1.5kW) and the low speed of the chain (10,3m/s). The cutting times of the
other two battery chainsaws C20 and MSA160C-BQ are very close to each other
and also to MS192T which is one of the best models on the market for pruning.
Chart. n° 2. Cutting times on chestnut wood with five chainsaws
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1327
With the values obtained was processed a second chart (chart n°3), the line of the
x-axis has been set to act as a benchmark and represents the cutting time of the
saw which obtained the best performance in this test cutting: Stihl MS192.
Assuming this, the positive values indicate a lower performance, while negative
values represent a superior performance compared to the benchmark machine.
The differences of the measured average times were made for each diameter. The
trend lines that best express the trend of gap, are 5th order polynomial lines, with
R2 value for C20, respectively, 0.956 and 0.967 of MSA160C-BQ.
By the MSA160C-BQ trend line you notice that the gap positively increases up to
60mm in diameter, and then down and become negative over the 90mm diameters
and achieve better performance than the MS192T. The C20 trend is less linear,
tends to increase up to 60mm, to go down until it becomes negative at the 80mm,
then becomes positive.
Chart. n° 3. Difference in cutting times compared with MS192T (Castanea sativa
Mill.).
The greatest torque generated by the electric motors helps chainsaws to maintain a
constant engine speed as the cutting diameter, contributing to the improvement in
the detected timing.
As for the consumption, the three models mentioned above were used for 480 cuts
each, for which the C20 has consumed 28% of the battery, the MSA160C-BQ has
consumed over 80% of its accumulator (a flashing diode on the display), the
MS192T has consumed less than a full tank of mixture.
3.2 Picea abies Dietr.
The spruce has a light wood (fresh mass density of 860 kg / m3) and tender (11N /
mm2 Brinell hardness).
1328 A. Colantoni et al.
In this site we used the models Stihl MSA160C-BQ, Pellenc Selion C20 and Stihl
MS192T.
Table 9. Average cutting times obtained in tests with three different chainsaws on
spruce wood
C20
MS192T
MSA160C-BQ
Diameter
(mm)
Average time
(hundredth of a
minute)
Average time
(hundredth of a
minute)
Average time
(hundredth of a
minute)
30
1,13
1,03
1,34
40
1,71
1,05
1,74
50
1,82
1,5
2,56
60
1,88
1,92
2,71
70
2,05
2,15
3,18
80
2,45
2,42
3,56
90
2,8
2,97
3,79
100
4,37
3,8
4,18
Chart. n° 4. Cutting times for the three chainsaws tested on Picea abies Dietr., in
function on diameter
From the obtained data it is noted that also in the case of spruce, cutting times of
the three machines are very close to each other. In an absolute sense are very short
times, which highlight the high performances of the three models. The best results
are registered with the MS192T and C20 with slightly better values. MS192T gets
better times with a diameter of up to 60 mm, while C20 gets better times, even if
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1329
only slightly, from 60 to 90 mm. In this test the MSA160C-BQ pointed Rates of
the highest compared to the other two machines, up to more than 1 hundredth of a
minute.
Also in this case the line of the x-axis has been set to act as a benchmark and
represents the cutting time of the saw which obtained the best performance in this
test cutting: Stihl MS192.
In the graph, the positive times show a worse performance than the comparison
machine, while negative values indicate a better performance and hence better
productivity defined as the ability to cut a given diameter in less time.
Chart. n° 5. Difference in cutting times compared with MS192T (Picea abies
Dietr.)
The trend lines express the trend of deviations from the benchmark time, are 4th
order polynomial lines, with R2 value respectively 0.7894 for C20, and 0.8243
forMSA160C-BQ.
From the graph you can see that the scraps of cutting times of MSA160C-BQ than
the comparison chainsaw tend to increase up to 80mm in diameter and then
decreased but always remaining above the reference time. The trend of the C20
line instead has positive values up to 50mm in diameter, while does record
negative deviations and thus superior performance to the reference machine; from
60 to 90mm in diameter. Besides this diameter the times and the scraps return
again to increase.
As for the consumption, the three models mentioned above were used for 480 cuts
each, for which the C20 has consumed 21% of the battery, the MSA160C-BQ has
consumed over 80% of its accumulator (a flashing diode on the display), the
MS192T has consumed less than a full tank of mixture.
1330 A. Colantoni et al.
3.3 Fagus sylvatica L.
The beech is a heavy wood (fresh mass density of 1050 kg / m3) and quite hard
(34N / mm2 Brinell hardness).
The machines used were the three previously used: Stihl MSA160C-BQ, Pellenc
Selion C20 and Stihl MS192T.
Table 10. Average cutting times obtained in tests with three different chainsaws
on beech wood
C20
MS192T
MSA160C-BQ
Diameter
(mm)
Average time
(hundredth of a
minute)
Average time
(hundredth of a
minute)
Average time
(hundredth of a
minute)
30
1,13
1,04
1,56
40
1,6
1,32
1,87
50
1,98
1,63
2,21
60
2,38
1,7
2,25
70
2,89
2,21
2,5
80
3,31
3,21
3
90
4,29
3,96
3,76
100
5,85
4,22
4,7
Chart. n° 6. Difference in cutting times compared with MS192T (Fagus sylvatica
L.).
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1331
The graph shows the similarity in performance between the three chainsaws
without the predominance of one over the other. In particular it is noted that the
performance of the C20 are in no case the best MS192T, while for diameters from
80 to 90 mm of the Stihl cordless model manages to be more powerful than that
provided with endothermic engine.
Chart. n° 6. Difference in cutting times compared with MS192T (Fagus sylvatica
L.)
The chart took, like its predecessors, the MS192T as a comparison. It has been
calculated that the difference between the cutting times obtained with the other
two chainsaws. To chart the trend lines have been added that best express the
trend of deviations from the benchmark time. They are 5th order polynomial lines,
with R2 value for C20 respectively 0.9616 and 0.9854 MSA160C-BQ. In the
cutting test on beech, the MSA 160 C-BQ continues to show an improvement of
cutting times more than the diameter of 60mm, compared to the 2-stroke model.
The C20 obtains performance close to those of comparison, only between 80 and
90mm but never best. As for the consumption, the three models mentioned above
were used for 480 cuts each, for which the C20 has consumed 26% of the battery,
the MSA160C-BQ has downloaded more than 80% of its accumulator (a flashing
diode on the display), the MS192T has consumed less than a full tank of mixture.
3.4 Quercus pubescens Willd.
The oak wood is heavy and hard (fresh density 1080 kg / m3, Brinell hardness of
34 N / mm2). For this test we were used C15 and MS200T models, the first great
1332 A. Colantoni et al.
for a work of pruning, the other for the sawing and small felling work. The cuts
were made on the available diameters, trying to increase the maximum diameter
also to better highlight the features of MS200T.
Table 11. Average cutting times obtained in tests with three different chainsaws
on oak wood
C15
MS200T
Diameter
(mm)
Average time (hundredth of
a minute)
Average time (hundredth of
a minute)
60
4,05
3,79
80
14,76
3,94
130
15,67
10,25
170
33,04
17,30
Chart. n° 7. Graphical representation of a function cutting times of diameters on
the two chainsaws tested on Quercus pubescens Willd
Obviously the results are quite different from each other. The cutting times are
similar only for the minimum measured diameter (60 mm), while the diameter
increases the performance difference tends to increase. This is due not only to the
increased power of MS200T (1,7kW) but above all to the high chain speed: 27
m/s against the C15 10,3 m/s).
3.5 Pinus pinea L.
Il legno di pino domestico è un legno pesante (massa volumica fresca 900kg/m3).
Anche in questa prova sono stati utilizzati i modelli C15 e MS200T.
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1333
Table 12. Average cutting times obtained in tests with three different chainsaws
on pine wood
C15
MS200T
Diameter (mm)
Average time (hundredth of
a minute)
Average time (hundredth of
a minute)
40
2,36
1,89
50
3,29
2,11
60
4,23
2,14
70
5,00
3,12
80
5,83
2,96
90
7,27
3,35
100
8,43
3,35
110
11,47
4,00
120
13,97
4,96
130
17,97
5,18
The values in the table highlighted in red, are values generated by the equation of
the exponential curve that best approximates the trend of the values of the
MS200T cutting times. This was necessary because the available material was not
enough to test all diameters.
Chart. n° 8. Graphical representation of a function cutting times of diameters on
the two chainsaws tested on Pinus pinea L.
1334 A. Colantoni et al.
As in the case of tests with oak, even for this species there are differences in
cutting times ranging increasing proportionally to the diameter, highlighting the
vocation of MS200T more for cutting large branches and trunks of true and proper
pruning, where it is more appropriate to use the saw.
In the graph constructed based on the difference between the times of the MS200
taken as a reference, placed on the horizontal axis, and the C15, we see that the
trend line has a fairly linear up to 60mm, and then have an exponential trend. This
means that despite the performance of the C15 are lower than those of the
MS200T, they are in a contained manner for the case of smaller diameters, while,
conversely, become increasingly large with the increase of the cutting dimensions.
This difference in results confirms the different areas of use for which the two
machines are designed.
The trend line used is a 2nd order polynomial with R2 of 0.9853.
Chart. n° 9. Difference in the cutting times for model C15 greater than those
associated with MS200T
4 Conclusions
Battery chainsaws have achieved good results in the absolute sense, and in some
cases have been able to achieve higher cutting performance than the reference
model with internal combustion engine. The first case is the test with the chestnut
wood (Pellenc C20 and MSA160CBQ Vs MS 192T) to the diameter 80 mm for
Pellenc and 100 for Stihl.
Comparisons between battery chainsaws… 1335
The second case is the test with the spruce wood (Pellenc C20 to the diameter 60-
70-80-90 mm.
The third case is the test with the beech wood (Stihl MSA160CBQ) to the
diameter 80-90 mm.
In the fourth and fifth case (with oak and pine) the cordless chainsaws did not get
superior performance to homologous with combustion engine. Thanks to the high
power of the electric motors in relation to its own weight, it is conceivable to
obtain a battery chain saw for forest use, increasing the performance and the
length of the bar. The only current limitation is the battery, which for models that
included lead in the body to find the right balance with the weight, it has a very
limited life span, while for models that lead separate, a backpack, forcing to have
a connecting cable to the machine that makes it less maneuverable than its
competitors.
Further developments in this technology would lead to having chainsaws cleaner,
eliminating the carcinogenic risk of forest workers (Kawachi I. 1989) after
removing the combustion of the mixture. Furthermore, the electric motors, do not
develop inside them alternating motions, thanks to the rotation of the rotor, the
vibrations are substantially reduced, as well as noise, much lower than the
endothermic engines.
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Received: August 1, 2016; Published: October 3, 2016
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... The vibration load of the operator, the technological forces transferred to the handles and the efficiency of the machining process depend on many factors. Because of their origin, these factors may be related to: -device (drive type, technical condition, etc.) [8][9][10][11][12], -tool (cutting set-guide bar and chain, guide bar length, pitch) [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] -workpiece material (wood species, moisture) [23][24][25][26][27], -individual characteristics of the operator (age, body structure, experience) [28]. In addition to vibration and noise, saw operators are also exposed to other harmful influences, such as: -chemical-exhaust fumes, fuel mixture and lubricant for the guide bar [29][30][31][32][33][34], -biological-molds, fungi, zoonoses [35][36][37][38], -physical-dust generated during operation [34,39]. ...
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Background: Noise has the potential to affect the comfort and health of workers. The objective of this research was to find out the effect of noise caused by the timber harvesting process using chainsaws on the concentration of workers in an industrial forest plantation. Methods: This experimental study included 20 respondents which consisted of 10 chainsaw operators/helpers and 10 non-chainsaw operators. All respondents were exposed to the sound of a chainsaw in three different conditions (idle, half gas and racing conditions) with and without personal protective equipment (PPE). The sound intensity produced by the chainsaw and the noise received by the respondents were measured using a sound level meter. Respondents’ perception toward noise was recorded using a Likert scale. Respondents’ concentration level was assessed by giving 25 math-questions to be answered within 10 minutes. Wilcoxon sign rank test was used to analysed paired data. Results: The average sound intensity received by respondents’ left and right ears were lower than the average sound intensity produced by the chainsaw. The use of earmuffs leads to better perception towards noise when compared with the use of earplugs and the absence of any PPE. The Wilcoxon test result showed that noise did not have significant impact on the concentration level of chainsaw operators, whilst the contrary result is true for non-chainsaw operators. Conclusions: The research indicated that although the noise produced by the chainsaw machine was considered noisy for both chainsaw operators and non-chainsaw operator, it did not have a significant effect on the concentration level of chainsaw operators and only affected the non-chainsaw operators. Therefore, given that the non-chainsaw operators were still affected by the noise, noise control measures are still needed to ensure occupational safety and health for the workers.
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Aim: The aim of the article is to identify innovative design solutions in chainsaws which are used in rescue and firefighting operations. The review concerns commercial solutions, scientific publications and patents. It enables to determine development trends of chainsaws utilised as mechanical rescue devices. Project and methods: Although chainsaw evolution analysis is available in the literature, in the greatest part it concerns only timber harvesting conditions. It lacks a review of technical solutions adapted to rescue and firefighting operations which may involve: wood impurities, the need to work on unstable ground and in limited space, the need to maintain focus in stressful and unpredictable situations. Fire protection units operations are aimed at saving people’s health and life, therefore they should be carried out with the use of machines and devices with the best properties. Conclusions: The solutions presented in the article may affect the development of rescue teams equipment, thereby increasing their efficiency and work safety. Currently, there is a trend toward the use of mobile chainsaws involving: increased durability for cutting wood with impurities, low-emission drives with limited impact on the operator, systems protecting the operator's body against the chain blade during uncontrolled and unpredictable situations, biodegradable oils for chain lubrication. It is necessary to conduct research on innovative solutions towards the usefulness of chainsaws in rescue operations.
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