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With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 97% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewables is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewables, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. According to the estimation, the total renewable energy reserve is about 194 GW, which equals to 4 times of national installed power capacity in 2015, e.g., 48.7 GW, so Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources indeed. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market's competition. In 2016, after the new government came to power, the Bureau of Energy (BOE) Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) set up an active promotion goal for the renewable energies (RE) in Taiwan: the total RE power capacity will be 20% share of the national power installation capacity by 2025. In the meantime, the four inherent shortcomings—low energy density, high cost of power generation, instability of power supply, and current cost of renewable energy being still higher than that of fossil energy—have to be overcome first, before renewable energy is actually formed as a main component in national energy mix. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves the benefits of economic development and environmental protection. This study reviews the current status, achievements, polices and future plans in these areas for Taiwan.
Power infrastructure including RE for 2015 Taiwan The economic realities are reflected in the status of different development strategies in Taiwan. For example, solar water heater has enjoyed successful development and achieved a strong international reputation, yet the development of PV remains very limited. On the other hand, wind power and biomass energy have been prioritized in government planning. Finally, owing to environmental considerations and the relatively high production costs, small hydro power and geothermal power projects have received little development attention. Solar Thermal Energy In Taiwan, the only commercially available solar thermal product is solar water heater (SWH), of which 98% is used for domestic purpose. Taiwan is a subtropical island located between the latitudes of 22 and 25° North and the longitudes of 120 and 121° East. Annual sunshine is in the range of 1,500~2,200 hours for most parts of the island, and even reaching 2,500 hours in the southernmost region. The average solar irradiance in Taiwan is 716~1,027 kJ/day·m 2 , and thus solar energy resources in Taiwan are so abundant as to make the development of solar energy extremely practical compared to most location around the world. To encourage more people to install solar water systems, according to " Solar Water Heaters Incentives " implemented by the BOEMOEA for 2016. The subsidizing rate is based upon type and area of collectors installed in a solar hot-water system, as follows: ■ Glazed Flat-Plate Collector: 2,000 NT dollars per square meter; ■ Evacuated-Tube Collector: 2,000 NT dollars per square meter; ■ Unglazed Flat-Plate Collector: 1,250 NT dollars per square meter; These rates are applicable to users on the main island of Taiwan. On the smaller islands there is an additional subsidy of 1,000 NT dollars per square meter owing to the additional transportation expenses. Generally, the subsidy covers 15%~20% of the total cost of a solar hot-water system (including installation cost). Since the launch of this incentive scheme, the number of SWHs installed has increased markedly. The accumulated area of solar collectors installed reached 2.37 million square meters at the end of 2013. Approximately 560 thousand families have installed SWH in Taiwan, representing an installation rate of around 6.65%; that is, 6.65% of families have installed SWH. Solar water heaters thus are the most notable success story in RE development in Taiwan. According to International Energy Agency (IEA) data for 2013, Taiwan was ranked the 19 th market with 85 MWth of annually newly installed capacity, the 19 th country with 1,082 MWth of cumulated installed capacity, and the 20 th country with glazed collector installation density of 46.4 W/p for SWH in the world [22]. According to BOEMOEA, the collector installed density is 52.63 square meters per square kilometer of land area, ranked fifth in the world. The annual energy and environmental contributions of SWH for Taiwan are 940GWh in energy generation, 101,082 toe in energy saving, and 326,767 tco2 in GHG emissions reduction [22]. Currently, Taiwan has a sophisticated SHW industry, comprising: 30 manufactures, 200 retailers, and 1,000 employees, with annual sales of 100 thousand square meters, equivalent to 20 million US dollars or ten thousand new users. Notably, 96% of qualified installers/dealers are located in western Taiwan. Out of the 241 qualified products, 148 are assembled by installers themselves. As shown in Fig. 4, metallic (stainless or copper) flat-plate
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IJESRT
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES & RESEARCH
TECHNOLOGY
A REVIEW OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN TAIWAN
Shyi-Min Lu*
* Retiree of Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung,
Hsinchu 310, Taiwan, ROC.
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.160874 ABSTRACT
With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 97% of its energy supply from foreign
countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewables is thus of priority concern for the
Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous
potential to develop various renewables, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy,
hydropower, etc. According to the estimation, the total renewable energy reserve is about 194 GW, which equals to
4 times of national installed power capacity in 2015, e.g., 48.7 GW, so Taiwan has abundant renewable energy
resources indeed. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap
electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market’s competition.
In 2016, after the new government came to power, the Bureau of Energy (BOE) Ministry of Economic Affairs
(MOEA) set up an active promotion goal for the renewable energies (RE) in Taiwan: the total RE power capacity
will be 20% share of the national power installation capacity by 2025. In the meantime, the four inherent
shortcomingslow energy density, high cost of power generation, instability of power supply, and current cost of
renewable energy being still higher than that of fossil energyhave to be overcome first, before renewable energy is
actually formed as a main component in national energy mix. The development of renewable energy not only
contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves the benefits of economic development and
environmental protection. This study reviews the current status, achievements, polices and future plans in these
areas for Taiwan.
KEYWORDS: Renewable energies; Promotion strategies; Reserves; Taiwan.
INTRODUCTION
After the industrial revolution, traditional fossil energy had been explored and adopted in great amount (Table 1), so
it is gradually depleting right now, as Table 2 shows the global reserves and remaining available years of major
energies. In the meantime, since of the impacts on environment caused by the application of traditional energies,
such as: green-house effect and environmental pollution, etc., so how to reduce the dependence on traditional energy
and the damage on our environment but, in the meanwhile, sufficient energy being able to supply to fulfill the needs
of both economics and livelihood, have become the biggest issue for human being. Renewable energies are
sustainable and clean energies, which may overcome the gradual depletion of traditional fossil energies that have
impacts on environment, and which may also solve the issues of energy sustainability, economical development, and
environmental protection, so the development and application of renewable energies had been accelerated in last
decade. Refer Table 3 and Table 4 for related analyses. Basically, low-carbon energyies, like RE and nuclear energy,
play an important role in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions in a countrys energy mix, while fossil energies, for
example, coal, oil, and natural gas, are on the contrary.
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Table 1. Energy source consumptions in major countries in 2015 (parenthesis means 2014) Unit: MTOE
Primary
energy
Coal
Oil
Natural gas
Fossil energy
ratio (%)
RE ratio
(%)
US
2,280.6
396.3
851.6
713.6
86.0 (86.3)
5.7 (5.4)
Germany
320.6
78.3
110.2
67.2
79.8 (82.2)
13.8 (11.7)
UK
191.2
23.4
71.6
61.4
81.8 (84.5)
9.8 (7.7)
China
3,014.0
1,920.4
559.7
177.6
88.2 (89.1)
10.5 (9.9)
Japan
448.5
119.4
189.6
102.1
91.7 (93.1)
8.1 (6.9)
Korea
276.9
84.5
113.7
39.2
85.7 (86.3)
0.8 (0.7)
Taiwan
110.7
37.8
46.0
16.5
90.6 (89.6)
1.8 (2.0)
Total
World
1,3147.3
3,839.9
4,331.3
3,135.2
86.0 (86.4)
9.6 (9.2)
Data sources: bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2016-full-report
Table 2. Global reserves and availability of primary energy resources (2015)
Category
Item
Oil
(billion barrels)
Natural Gas
(trillion cubic meters)
Coal
(billion tons)
Renewables
(MTOE)
Nuclear
(MTOE)
Total Reserves
1,697.6
186.9
891.5
213,337*
47,600**
Yield
33.4
3.54
7.8
1,258 (1,341)*
583.1
Available Years
51
53
114
169 (159)*
82
Data sources: BP, *REN21, **IPCC
Table 3. Global power generation structure
Electricity generation
by energy resources
Installed capacity
(2015)
Electricy generation
(2014)
Electriciy emission
coefficient (2014, IPCC)
Carbon dioxide
emission
GW
TWh
g-CO2/kWh
Mt
Coal
1,939 (2016, July)
8,726
820
7,155
Natural gas
1,311 (2010)
4,933
490
2,417
Oil
509
1,068
778
831
Hydraupower
1,064
3,769
24
90
Wind power
433
700
11
8
Geotherml
13.2
207
38
8
Solar PV
227
167
48
8
Biomass
106
429
18
8
Nuclear
390
2,417
12
29
Summary
5,992
22,416
471
10,554
Data sources: REN 21, tsp-data-portal.org, WNA, Global Coal Plant Tracker, Power Magazine
Table 4. Electricity emission coefficients in major countries (2014)
Country
Fossil fuel
electricity ratio
(%)
RE electricity
ratio** (%)
Nuclear power
ratio (%)
Average electricity
emission coefficient***
(g-CO2 / kWh)
India
80
16
3
638
China
73
24
3
602
Saudi Arabia
100
0
0
600
Japan
86
14
0
557
Taiwan
79
4
16
521
Korea
69
2
29
496
US
72
8
20
494
Germany
57
27
16
442
United Kindom
63
18
19
424
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Russia
65
17
17
381
France
6
17
76
57
Global
66
24
11
471
Notes:
*Components that make up fossil fuel electricity include: coal, natural gas, and oil.
**Components that make up RE electricity include: hydraupower, wind power, geothermal, solar PV, and biomass,
etc.
***The electricity emission coefficient (g-CO2/kWh) represents the amount of CO2 emitted per kilowatt hour (kWh)
of power generated by the country's power plants.
Data sources: http://www.tsp-data-portal.org/Breakdown-of-Electricity-Generation-by-Energy-Source#tspQvChart,
IPCC
More than 97 percent of Taiwan's energy demand imports from abroad, and most from the Middle East that is
political instable, which is indeed the biggest worry of energy independence policy. For example, in 2015, Taiwan
imported 141.9 million kiloliters of oil equivalent (MKOE) energy under the expense of US$36.7 billion, accounting
for 7 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) US$523.6 billion. These high prices of energies have enormous
impact on Taiwan’s economy, so the development of renewable energy becomes an only survival way for Taiwan.
The so-called renewable energies include solar energy (further including solar photovoltaics and solar thermal
energy), wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy, ocean energies (such as: ocean thermal energy conversion,
tidal power, and wave energy, etc.), which are all natural energy resources coming from the sun or possessed by
earth, other renewable energies also including biomass energies, such as: waste energy, biogas electrification, and
biofuel, etc.
Although renewable energies are essentially exploited from nature, indigenous, and clean, and they are theoretically
inexhaustible and sustainable, in the applying characteristics of renewable energies, several drawbacks do exist, such
as: low energy density (in photovoltaic system, 9-10 m2 of installing area is needed for each kilowatt of power),
unstable supply (for example, clear day is the condition for solar electrification; for wind electrification, sufficient
wind resource must be existed, and wind turbine can only be started at a specific range of wind speed, while blades
must be stopped rotating when wind is too strong), and higher cost (for example, the installing expense for each
kilowatt of PV is 300 thousands NTD, and its electrification cost is about 15-24 NTD for each kilowatt-hour, and the
costs of other ways of RE electrification are also much higher than those of traditional ways of electrification). So,
when applying renewable energies, local conditions must be cooperated, such as: solar radiation, wind power
potential, available land area and suitable sites, etc., which must be assessed before installing any kind of renewable
energy system. Therefore, under these conditions of insufficiently economic impetus at present stage, the
development and promotion of each category of renewable energies must depend upon each individual incentive or
subsidizing scheme, by which a government may promote her corresponding RE policy in a much easier and
effective way.
THE ENERGY SUPPLY AND DEMAND SITUATION IN TAIWAN
The total energy consumption in Taiwan, R.O.C. has grown greatly over the past two decades, going from 66.11
million kiloliters of oil equivalent in 1995 to 115.03 million kiloliters in 2015, which is an average annual growth of
2.81%. Of that in 2015, 78.21% was for energy use, and non-energy uses consumed 21.79%. When classified by
consumer, the consumption of energy for each sector in 2015 was as follows: energy and industrial sectors
consumed 43.67%; transportation sector, 11.90%; agriculture, forestry and fishery sectors, 0.91%; services sector,
11.03%; residential sector, 10.69%. Classified by form of energy, coal and coal products contributed 8.43% of
consumption in 2015; petroleum products provided 38.84%; natural gas shared 3.36%; biomass and waste accounted
for 0.18%; electricity constituted 48.89%; solar thermal 0.10% and heat 0.21%.
Electricity production grew from 133.1 TWh in 1995 to 258.0 TWh in 2015, an average annual increase of 3.36%.
Of the total electricity production in 2015, the hydro power of Taiwan Power Company comprised 2.87%, thermal
power 50.74% (coal shared 22.98%, oil 4.47%, LNG 23.29%), nuclear power 14.13%, wind power and solar
photovoltaic 0.29%, cogeneration 15.24%, and IPP 16.72%. Also, the peak load in 2015 reached a record 35,248
MW.
In 2015, the dependence on imported energy in Taiwan, R.O.C. was 97.53%; the value of energy imports was
US$36.7 billion, which was 42.87% less than the previous year; the per capita energy imports cost burden in 2015
was NT$50,542, which was a decrease of 40.19% compared with NT$84,508 in 2014.
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According to the aforementioned statistics, Taiwan's current energy structure is facing following three crises:
(1) Completely dependent energy supply - Taiwan imported more than 97 percent of energy demand from foreign
countries, and mostly from politically unstable Middle East, this is indeed a biggest worry in the policy of energy
independence.
(2) Serious greenhouse gas emissions the greenhouse gas emissions per capita in 2013 Taiwan was 10.62 tonnes
carbon dioxide equivalent/person-year, 2.35 times the global per capita greenhouse gas emissions, namely, 4.52
tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent/person-year, ranking the world's top 20. The main cause is the excessive use of
fossil fuels, while fossil fuel combustion with carbon dioxide emissions is recognized as the main cause of the
greenhouse effect in the atmosphere, which in turn is the main cause of global climate change.
(3) Energy efficiency is too low - energy intensity was 0.13 thousand US dollars per tonne of oil equivalent in 2012
Taiwan, although lower than 0.22, 0.19, 0.15 of China, South Korea and the United States respectively, but still
higher than 0.11, 0.11, 0.09 of neighboring Japan, and the United Kingdom, Germany in Europe, and the more
important is that Taiwan’s energy intensity is still far higher than 0.10 of the global average. This shows the
structural mode of Taiwan’s energy supply and demand needs to be changed, at the same time, which directly
confirms the importance of energy conservation and energy efficiency to enhance the country's economic
competitiveness.
To solve the above-mentioned three major crises in Taiwan's energy mix. We recommend specific practices that
should have no more than the following 5 items, as depicted in Fig. 1, in which the responsive means for energy
saving and carbon reduction strategies are listed.
Fig. 1. Sustainable energy policy framework for Taiwan
Clean sources: For the electricity sector on the supply side, low-carbon powers, such as renewable power, gas-fired
power, high-efficiency coal-fired power, and nuclear power, are used to achieve low carbon emissions.
Thereinafter, the proposed practices focus on the emerging power generation technologies.
Consumption reduction: For major energy consumers, such as the industrial, transportation, residential and
commercial sectors, energy-saving technologies can achieve reductions in carbon emissions.
The industrial sector: This sector is comprised of six energy-intensive industries: petrochemicals; semi-
conductors; iron and steel; cement; paper and pulp; and textiles. The deployment of the Best Available
Techniques (BAT) in these industries is a focus.
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The transportation sector: The focus in this sector is on electrical vehicles, rail transport, high-efficiency vehicles,
and bio-fuels.
The residential and commercial sector: The focus is on high-efficiency appliance, such as Light-Emitting Diode
(LED) and inverter Air Conditioning (AC).
ASSESSMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESERVES IN TAIWAN
In fact, reserves of renewable energies in Taiwan should be quite rich, because there are plenty of remarkable
conditions as follows. First of all, Taiwan is located in subtropical area, in which the Tropic of Cancer passes
through central Taiwan, so the insolation time is long and the angle of daylight deflection is small, very suitable for
the development of solar energy. In addition, there are summer and winter monsoons along the western ring of
Pacific Ocean, making Taiwan Strait like a fast wind tunnel. Meanwhile, with the west coast stretching a large bank,
Taiwan has a great potential for offshore wind power generation. Particularly, with wind speed up to 7m/s and above
all year round, the area of Penghu is a wind field of high-quality. Potential of biomass energy can't be
underestimated either. Apart from wastes generated from livelihood of people, industry and agriculture, plenty of
energy crops can be used for producing biofuels. Particularly, the second generation of biomass crops, such as oil
algae and cellulose, won't lead to the food crisis. Because thousands of kilometers of coastal waters and the vast
majority of forest land can be used to farm or cultivate these energy crops, there are considerable potential with
respect to biomass energy in Taiwan. In the meantime, Taiwan located at the juncture of Eurasian Plate and
Philippine Sea Plate is also a part of the Ring of Fire series including the Philippines, Japan, Indonesia and other
countries, where geothermal energy has developed in grand occasion, so we can see that the development potential
of geothermal energy here in Taiwan should not be taken lightly. High mountain terrain and abundant rainfall
(annual average of about 90 billion tons) also provide considerable hydroelectric potential. At last, Taiwan is
surrounded by the ocean and is suitable for the development of marine energy. Not far from the east coast, the sea
water on the ocean surface is warn, but is ice-cold at the depth of thousands of meters, providing an excellent
location for ocean thermal energy conversion. With flow rate of 1 m/s and average width of 100 km, Kuroshio, part
of North Pacific circulation, turning north through the Philippines, passing by the eastern coast of Taiwan, finally
flowing north steadily throughout the year to Japan, is a huge momentum for Taiwan's ocean energy to develop
electricity generation with infinite potential.
Solar energy
Taiwan, a medium island in subtropical area, geographically located between east longitude 120 °-121 ° and north
latitude 22 °-25 °, is very in favor of the development of solar energy, due to the benefits of long duration of
insolation and small angle of daylight deflection. Solar energy not only can improve security of energy supply, but
also can immediately relieve the peak load of electricity. In Taiwan, during daytime of summer, the air conditioning
consumes a large amount of electricity, which can be supplied by PV facility powered by intensive solar radiation in
time. While natural conditions are good, land conditions are very inadequate for the installation of solar equipment
in Taiwan. Based on statistical data of Ministry of the Interior, the total population in Taiwan is about 23 million,
while the land area is approximately 36,000 km2, resulting in that the land area per capita is 1,560 m2/p. Second only
to Bangladesh, the population density of Taiwan is second highest in the world. Worse still, 2/3 of the island land is
mountain area, only 1/3 of land suitable for housing, which is concentrated in the south-west coast, making Taiwan
have great limitation in the area of land to install solar power facilities.
Regarding the mean estimates of the amount of insolation in Taiwan, first of all, under the provisions of land areas
of cities and counties by the Ministry of the Interior and the regional annual average amount of insolation by the
Central Weather Bureau , this paper adds the regional product of both the area and the amount of insolation for
hundreds of national land areas. Then, the sum is divided by the total country area; as a result, the average amount of
insolation per unit area per year in Taiwan is 1,130 kWh/m2-y = 129 W/m2 (the British average solar intensity
referred by MacKay [1] was 100 W/m2).
If large solar photovoltaic systems would be built in Taiwan, not only their equipment costs are still much higher
than the fossil energy equipment's, but also a major obstacle is incurred from the costs of a large area of land
required for the installation of PV farms (or large stand-alone systems). Therefore, in order to obtain operating
profits and value, the development of PV farm must be under the premise of no land cost.
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By the overall integration of the above types of data, the total reserve of solar energy (including solar thermal energy
2.28 GW and solar PV energy 74.2 GW) of rooftop-type in Taiwan is about 76.48 GW [2], so it can be said that the
solar energy in Taiwan is quite abundant.
Wind power
According to the investigation of NASA [3], the average density of wind power exceeds 750 W/m2 in the coastal
areas of Taiwan, so the conditions of the developments of wind power in Taiwan are fairly favorable. Although
wind power has the problem of poor stability, with the progress of storage technologies, the related issues are
expected to be addressed one by one.
With fewer and fewer areas available in land, the development of offshore wind farm on the sea is inevitable. Setting
up offshore wind farm on the sea can keep the people from the affects of noise or visual impact and avoid the high
land cost. At the same time, due to fewer obstructions, the wind on the sea surface has higher speed than the inland
area’s, in addition to smooth airflow and stability, so the overall availability of offshore wind farm is higher than
that of terrestrial wind farm. But, since involving marine works, the erection cost of the former is higher than that of
the latter. The cost of constructing offshore wind turbine is proportional with the sea depth. In waters less than 30 m
depth, pile- or gravity-typed base can be used as a wind turbine platform to reduce costs; in 30-60 m deep waters,
the three-legged truss is generally used as the pile or foundation of the wind turbine; while in the water depth of 60
m and above, a floating platform should be used as the wind turbine base. Although the United States has developed
a technology of deep-sea floating platforms for offshore wind turbine, making wind turbine able to be installed in
water area with depths of more than 200 m, there is still no actual measurement data seen in the open literatures yet.
To sum up, the potential installation capacity of wind power in both areas of land and sea in Taiwan is 4 GW and
73.5 GW respectively. The electricity generation per year is about 251.01TWh/year, which is not far off 258.02
TWh [4], the total electricity generated in 2015 Taiwan. Although wind still can not provide stable power under
current technology, with the advances of nano-materials technology to develop energy storage device in small
volume and with high energy density, the stability of wind power can be improved significantly in the future.
Biomass energy
In addition to wastes of industry, agriculture, forestry, urban and others, there is a wide range of biomass, and so are
the biomass crops of first generation, such as the sugar cane for ethanol and the rapeseed for biodiesel. The
population of Taiwan is so dense that the development potential of biomass can't be put on par with those of large
countries, such as Brazil, China and the United States. However, in addition to the global turmoil of energy saving
and carbon reduction at present, under the predicament of a large number of abandoned farmland in Taiwan, the
development of biomass not only can significantly enhance the security of energy supply and revitalize the
agricultural economy, but also can boost the technology of energy industry. The benefits are so rich that it is worthy
of careful assessment and planning.
As shown in Table 5, the total reserves of biomass energy can be obtained by orderly aggregating the energies from
the three categories: first generation of biomass crops, urban waste, and wastes of agriculture and forestry. The
reserves of biomass in Taiwan can provide Taiwanese with energy of 38,197.25 GWh/year, equivalent to the electric
power of 15,278.90 GWh/year. Among these three kinds of biomass, the wastes of agriculture and forestry possess
the highest amount of thermal energy, but also have relatively low cost, unlike biomass crops needing a huge
cultivation land. However, in order to be benefitted from economic effectiveness, the most important prerequisite is
that the power plant of high performance should be located in the vicinity of waste collection field, where the wastes
come from industry, agriculture, forestry or urban.
Table 5. Assessment of the total reserves of biomass energy in Taiwan
Reserves (GW)
Equivalent Power (GWh/year)
Biomass Crops
0.86
3,022.2
Urban waste
1.07
1,208.88
Wastes of Agriculture and
Forestry
3.15
1,1047.82
Total Potential
5.08
15,278.90
Source: [2]
Ocean energy
Taiwan is surrounded by sea and has coastline of 1,500km or more. Therefore, lots of wave energy or tidal energy
may be reserved. This section assesses the reserves of these two kinds of energies.
Wave energy
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To be converted into electricity, the wave energy requires appropriate machinery. If Pelamis is considered as the
machinery to convert wave energy into electricity, in accordance with its operating curve, it is known that for waves
with period less than 5, the wave height of start must be greater than 1 m, and for waves with period between 5 and
13, the wave height of start must be greater than 0.5 m. Similarly to the distribution of the above calculation, if a
Weibull Distribution is adopted, then the total available power is 8,200 MW. If the generation efficiency of Pelamis
is supposed 50% [1], then the maximal electricity generated in one day is 100 GWh.
Tidal energy
The coasts in main island of Taiwan are mostly flat and sandy (e.g., the western coast) or rocky and straight (e.g.,
the eastern coast). In lack of the bay like Severn Estuary in the UK, it is not easy to build tidal pools in Taiwan. In
the meantime, the areas of abandoned or less-used harbors are too small to reserve large potential of tidal energy.
Although the tide in Penghu is not much (its average tide is 1.96 m), if Harbor Magong, a bay of rocky coast, is built
dam at the exit to intercept tide, then the reserve of tidal energy might have sufficient potential to explore, due to
economic benefit.
The detailed assessment is as follows.
The calculation of tidal energy is available in equation (1).
tAgHPttt /)
2
1
(2
(1)
where Ht is the tidal difference, At is the area of tide accommodated by reservoir, and t is the upping (or lowing)
time of tide (about 6 hours or 21,600 seconds in Penghu).
According to the calculation of equation (1), the tidal power provided by Harbor Magong during a high tide or low
tide is about 9 MW, where Ht is 1.958 m and At is 10 km2, and then the total energy reserved in one day is about
0.22 GWh. If the conversion efficiency of tidal generator is 0.9 (which is the highest efficiency only owned by
hydro-turbine of dam type) [1], then the available electricity generated in one day is 0.20 GWh.
If the tidal reservoir area further includes the periphery of Penghu Bay (i.e., Penghu Bay, Harbor Magong and Inner
Harbor Magong), the total area is expanded to about 70 km2. The generated power can be increased to 62 MW
during a high tide or low tide, and the produced energy in one day is up to 1.49 GWh. If the mechanical power
conversion efficiency is assumed 0.9, then the electricity generated in one day is 1.34 GWh.
In addition to Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu also have potential to develop tidal energy. According to the analysis of
literature [5], the tides of Kinmen and Matsu are about 3.8 m and 4.3 m respectively. If tidal dams are built at
southern outside of Liaoluo Bay of Kinmen and Beigan of Matsu, the areas of tide accommodated in the reservoirs
are approximately 40 km2 and 10 km2 respectively. And then from equation (1), the tidal power reserved in Kinmen
and Matsu are approximately 131 MW and 43 MW, and the energies produced in one day are about 3.14 GWh and
1.03 GWh. If the mechanical power conversion efficiency is supposed 0.9, then the electricity generated in one day
are 2.83 GWh and 0.93 GWh respectively.
To sum up the foregoing analyses, the total power reserved in above-mentioned three tidal waters in outer islands of
Taiwan is approximately 240 MW. The totally largest energy generated in one day is approximately 5.76 GWh. If
the mechanical power conversion efficiency is supposed 0.9, then the greatest sum of electricity produced in one day
is 5.10 GWh.
Geothermal energy
In the geological point of view, Taiwan is located on orogenic collision belt between Philippine Sea Plate and
Eurasian Plate, so the geology is easy to squeeze and collide, making the occurrence of earthquake be particularly
frequent. Meanwhile, the formation is also prone to faults and folds, so that rock layers are constantly uplifted and
broken. Furthermore, since rock is a material of low thermal conductivity, heat dissipation is not easy. With the
constant uplift of formation and geothermal accumulation in the long term, there is high geothermal gradient
resulted in the area of Central Mountain Range. Additionally, in northern Taiwan and eastern islands, large-scale
volcanic activity had been occurred; at present, although the volcanic activity is suspended, the hot magma is still
reserved under volcano.
In the view point of climate, since Taiwan is located at the edge of West Pacific Ocean, with the influences of
northeast monsoon in winter and the southwest monsoon and typhoons in summer, the average rainfall in one year is
2,500 mm and above. After rain falls down to ground, water flows along fissures or broken rock into ground and is
heated by geothermal gradient or hot magma, resulting in rich geothermal resources, so hot spring is an important
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feature of a geothermal system. From the present geothermal development of grand occasion in other neighboring
countries with the same geological and climatic conditions, such as the Philippines, Japan and Indonesia, we can see
that the development potential of geothermal in Taiwan should not be underestimated.
Based on the long-term survey data [6] of Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), we organize the energy
reserves of the above six shallow geothermal areas, as listed in Table 6. Since the detailed data required in the
analysis of geothermal reserves are unavailable (e.g., temperature gradient of formation, distribution of rock geology
and groundwater hydrology changing with the seasons), this article directly uses the data [7] for the assessment.
Overall, the installation capacity of the possible development in these six main geothermal sites in Taiwan is
714MW. We adopt 90% as the utilization of geothermal power plants, then the annual geothermal power generation
potential in Taiwan is 714 MW × 8,760 h/y × 90% = 5.63 TWh/year.
Table 6. List of installation potential of geothermal power in six main sites of Taiwan.
Geothermal Sites
Temperature Range
()
Installation
Potential (MWe)
Power Potential
(GWh/year)
Chinsuei, Ilan
180-220
61
503.7
Tuchang, Ilan
160-180
25
167.9
Lushan, Nantou
150-210
41
335.8
Chihpen, Taitung
140-200
25
167.9
Kinglun, Taitung
140-180
48
419.8
Mt. Tatun, Taipei
200-290
514
4,029.6
Total Potential
714
5,624.65
Source: [7]
Hydro power
The average annual rainfall of Taiwan is about 800 million tons (or 2,500 mm) with hydro-power potential of about
22,725 MW [8]. Compared to the existing total installed capacity of 2,081.4 MW, the development proportion of
hydro power in Taiwan is very low. Most people believe that the development of reservoirs in Taiwan has reached
saturation, and it is unlikely that there will be any new reservoirs going to be developed. But in fact the
development of water resources should not be limited to the traditional large-scale reservoirs and should be extended
to various types of rivers capable of being set up small and medium sized turbines. This article will follow the
analytical methods of MacKay [1] in the hydro aspects of Taiwan. By combining the drainage area and rainfall data
[9] of 76 major rivers with terrain data of Taiwan [10], the information on the intersection of these two areas is
obtained. By cutting the entire Taiwan into dozens of regions, and under a grid computing precision of 800 m × 800
m, the averages of topography height and annual rainfall in each region are calculated. Finally, the products of each
two averages are summed up to get the estimated potential of hydro power.
In the estimation of terrain height, since current terrain map [9] is only divided into three regions, the resolution is
somewhat insufficient. In order to reduce the error of the estimation of average height, this paper adopts the data of
The Total Hydro-Census Report for Taiwan [8] to estimate the average height of the two regions of "100m~1,000m"
and "above 1,000m" to be 454m and 1,838 m, respectively. According to the data of literature [10], the average
height of the regions with height "below 100m" is about 25m (the heights of most regions of the western half are
between 0-50m). Regarding the estimates of the rainfall in various regions, this paper adopts the mean value of
variation amounts (for example, in rainfall range of 1000-2000mm, 1750mm is taken). In the regions with total
rainfall of 4,000 mm or more, because the upper limit is unknown and the area is very small, the upper limit of 4,000
mm is chosen.
From the results of calculation, it is known that the reserves energy of hydro power in Taiwan in one year is about
25,700 MW; namely, the energy available in one day is 6.17 × 108 kWh. If the mechanical efficiency of water
turbine is supposed 90 % [11], then the maximal electricity available per year is about 202,618.8 GWh. Since the
population of Taiwan is mostly concentrated in the region with height between 0-100 m, if this area is deducted
from the calculation procedure, then the annual maximum of hydro energy available in Taiwan is 201,396.05 GWh
and is then reduced to 140,952.05 GWh, if the evaporation of about 30% [12] is considered.
Summary of Taiwan’s RE reserve
According to the results of this assessment (as shown in Table 7), the reserves of renewable energies in Taiwan are
76.48 GW of solar energy, 77.5 GW of wind power, 5.08 GW of biomass, 8.44 GW of ocean energy, 0.7 GW of
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geothermal and 25.7 GW of hydro power. The total RE reserve is 193.9 GW, which is 4 times of 48.7 GW, the
national power capacity in 2015, so we can say that the reserves of renewable energies in Taiwan are quite abundant.
Table 7.Statistics of power potential of the (commercial) renewable energies reserved in Taiwan (unit: GW)
Solar*
(Thermal)
Solar*
(PV)
Wind**
(land)
Wind
(offshore)
Biomass
Marine (Wave
+ Tide)
Geothermal
(shallow)
Hydro
Total
Reserves
2.28
74.2
4
73.5
5.08
8.44
0.7
25.7
193.9
Proportion
39%
40.0%
2.6 %
4.4 %
0.4 %
13.2%
100%
*rooftop-type only.
**open space on land, including rooftop and onshore.
Comparison of renewable energy reserves in all major countries
We search related sites for the relevant information of the reserves of renewable energy around the world and
organize them in Table 8, Table 9 and Table 10. The referred countries and regions are Denmark, Britain, Germany,
China, India, four states of the United States, and the world. We take kWh/d/p (the energy available per person per
day) as a unit of comparison, in order to avoid the loss of reasonability caused by differences of size of land area or
national population. Table 8. Global renewables electricity generation status and potential
Electricity
generation by
energy
resources
Installed
capacity (2015)
Electricity
generation
(2014)
Global
reserves
Electric
generation
potential
Installed
capacity
potential
GW
TWh
EJ
TWh
GW
Hydropower
1,064
3,769
50
5,768
1,586
Wind power
433
700
401
24,057
12,716
Geothermal
(2013)
12
76
45
9,037
1,427
Solar PV
227
167
1,693
50,652
53,685
Biomass and
Waste
106
445
344
48,061
10,908
CSP
5
7
992
49,600
31,456
Total
1,847
5,164
3,525
187,175
111,778
Data sources: REN 21, tsp-data-portal.org
Table 9. List of the reserves of renewable energy of the countries or regions around the world in term of installed
capacity of electricity generation.
Item
Country (or region)
Renewable energy reserves density
(W/p)
Description
1
Denmark [13]
3,386.0
Population: 5.4 million
2
The U.K.
A.[14]
1,438.6
Population: 5.4 million
East Region, England
B.[1]
7,318.3
Population: 60.9 million
The U.K.
3
Germany [15, 16]
788.1
Population: 82 million
Excluding ocean energy
4
China [13]
1,644.2
Population: 1321.29 million
5
India [17]
126.7
Population: 1,200 million
Potential of total installation
capacity: 152,000 MW
6
California [18]
635.6
Population: 38 million
Potential of total installation
capacity: 24,153 MW
(including 9,153 of pump
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storage)
7
Massachusetts
[19]
2,581.2 (theoretical value)
548.8 (technically feasible)
Population: 6.5 million
8
Florida [20]
287.3
Population: 14.6 million
9
Arizona [21]
458.7
Population: 3.6 million
Consider the technical
feasibility of 2025’s target
10
Taiwan
8,430.4
Refer Table 7
11
World
18,629
Population: 6 billion
Global reserves: 111,778
GW (Table 8)
Table 10. List of the reserves of renewable energy of the countries or regions around the world in term
ofelectricity generation (kWh) per person per year.
Item
Country (or
Region)
Renewable Energy Reserves
(kWh/d/p)
Description
1
Denmark [13]
81.2
Population: 5.4 million
2
The U.K.
A.[14]
34.5
Population: 5.4 million
East Region, England
B.[1]
175.5
Population: 60.9 million
The U.K.
3
Germany [15,16]
18.9
Population: 82 million
Excluding ocean energy
4
China [13]
39.43
Population: 1321.29 million
5
India [17]
1.22
Population: 1,200 million
Biomass: 19,500 MW
Solar: 20,000 MW
Wind: 47,000 MW
Small hydro: 15,000 MW
Marine: 50,000 MW
Total: 152,000 MW
6
California [18]
6.1
Population: 38 million
Potential of the total installation
capacity: 24,153 MW (including 9,153
of pump storage)
7
Massachusetts
[19]
61.9 (theoretical value)
13.16 (technically feasible)
Population: 6.5 million
Installation potential:
41,900 MW(theoretical value)
8,700-12,900 MW(technically feasible)
8
Florida [20]
9.89
Population: 14.6 million
Installation potential: 52700 GW
(Consider the technical feasibility of
2020’s target)
9
Arizona [21]
11.0
Population: 3.6 million
Consider the technical feasibility of
2025’s target
10
Taiwan
78.03 kWh/d/p
Table 14
11
World
85.47 kWh/d/p
Population: 6 billion
Global reserves: 187,175 TWh (Table 8)
TAIWAN’S CURRENT STATUS OF RE DEVELOPMENT
Taiwan, Republic of China, with land area of 36,190 km2 and population of 22.6 millions, has the world 2nd highest
population density, i.e. 625 capita per km2. Over the last two decades, the rapid economic growth has created
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substantial changes in the economic structure: GDP rose from US$52.4 billion to US$295.9 billion, and per capita
BNP increased from US$2,832 to US$13,157, with average growth rate of 6%. 67% of GDP is now from service
sector vs. 48% in 1983.
According to the data of BOEMOEA [4], also as shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the installing status of renewable
energies in Taiwan for 2015 is described as followings: 2,084.9 MW (4.29%) for hydropower generation; 646.7
MW (1.33%) for wind power generation; 842 MW (1.73%) for photovoltaic system; 740.4 MW (1.52%) for
biomass/waste electrification; the aforementioned data summation is 4,318.6 MW, share of which is 8.87% of the
national power capacity in 2015. In the meantime, during 19952015, as Fig. 2 shows, the average annual growth
rate for total installed power capacity is 3.59%, while average annual growth rate for power peak load is 3.2%. It is
obvious that rapid economic progress is followed by higher energy demand during the last two decades in this
country.
Compared the rest of Southeast Asia, Taiwan equals Southeast Asian nations in terms of developing biomass energy
and hydropower. Notably, hydropower is the most popular renewable energy in the region. Geothermal energy
enjoys high application in certain countries as well, such as the Philippines, Indonesia, and Japan (not shown in the
table), all of which are located at fault-lines along the Pacific Rim, Taiwan should share the same geographic
advantage in terms of developing geothermal energy. Furthermore, significant potential also exists in Taiwan to
develop solar energy and wind power, respectively, given that it is a subtropical island adjacent to a famous “wind
tunnel” in the form of the Taiwan Strait.
Fig. 2. Power generation installed capacity in Taiwan from 1995 to 2015
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Fig. 3. Power infrastructure including RE for 2015 Taiwan
The economic realities are reflected in the status of different development strategies in Taiwan. For example, solar
water heater has enjoyed successful development and achieved a strong international reputation, yet the
development of PV remains very limited. On the other hand, wind power and biomass energy have been prioritized
in government planning. Finally, owing to environmental considerations and the relatively high production costs,
small hydro power and geothermal power projects have received little development attention.
Solar Thermal Energy
In Taiwan, the only commercially available solar thermal product is solar water heater (SWH), of which 98% is used
for domestic purpose. Taiwan is a subtropical island located between the latitudes of 22 and 25° North and the
longitudes of 120 and 121° East. Annual sunshine is in the range of 1,500~2,200 hours for most parts of the island,
and even reaching 2,500 hours in the southernmost region. The average solar irradiance in Taiwan is 716~1,027
kJ/day·m2, and thus solar energy resources in Taiwan are so abundant as to make the development of solar energy
extremely practical compared to most location around the world.
To encourage more people to install solar water systems, according to “Solar Water Heaters Incentives”
implemented by the BOEMOEA for 2016. The subsidizing rate is based upon type and area of collectors installed in
a solar hot-water system, as follows:
Glazed Flat-Plate Collector: 2,000 NT dollars per square meter;
■ Evacuated-Tube Collector: 2,000 NT dollars per square meter;
■ Unglazed Flat-Plate Collector: 1,250 NT dollars per square meter;
These rates are applicable to users on the main island of Taiwan. On the smaller islands there is an
additional subsidy of 1,000 NT dollars per square meter owing to the additional transportation expenses. Generally,
the subsidy covers 15%~20% of the total cost of a solar hot-water system (including installation cost). Since the
launch of this incentive scheme, the number of SWHs installed has increased markedly. The accumulated area of
solar collectors installed reached 2.37 million square meters at the end of 2013. Approximately 560 thousand
families have installed SWH in Taiwan, representing an installation rate of around 6.65%; that is, 6.65% of families
have installed SWH. Solar water heaters thus are the most notable success story in RE development in Taiwan.
According to International Energy Agency (IEA) data for 2013, Taiwan was ranked the 19th market with 85 MWth
of annually newly installed capacity, the 19th country with 1,082 MWth of cumulated installed capacity, and the 20th
country with glazed collector installation density of 46.4 W/p for SWH in the world [22]. According to BOEMOEA,
the collector installed density is 52.63 square meters per square kilometer of land area, ranked fifth in the world. The
annual energy and environmental contributions of SWH for Taiwan are 940GWh in energy generation, 101,082 toe
in energy saving, and 326,767 tco2 in GHG emissions reduction [22].
Currently, Taiwan has a sophisticated SHW industry, comprising: 30 manufactures, 200 retailers, and 1,000
employees, with annual sales of 100 thousand square meters, equivalent to 20 million US dollars or ten thousand
new users. Notably, 96% of qualified installers/dealers are located in western Taiwan. Out of the 241 qualified
products, 148 are assembled by installers themselves. As shown in Fig. 4, metallic (stainless or copper) flat-plate
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solar collectors account for 78% of SWHs, with the remaining 22% being evacuated-tube collectors. Almost all
metallic flat-plate solar collectors are produced domestically, while some evacuated tube absorbers are imported.
Most SWHs are permanently connected to an auxiliary electric heater.
Fig. 4. Solar hot-water systems in Hualien County Hualien Academy for 115 students (Metallic collector
installation area: 77 square meters)
Solar Photovoltaics
Taiwan is located in a subtropical region. Sunlight can be considered one of the most abundant resources in the
country. The Tropic of Cancer passes through Central Taiwan; therefore, with long hours of sunlight and a small
angle of sunlight deflection, sunshine is plentiful.In recent years, the standard of living of the Taiwanese people has
increased, and the peak load during summer months has been increasing annually. This has caused a potential supply
shortage crisis in Taiwan's power market, leading to policies of brownouts or rolling blackouts. If the power
generation characteristics of PV systems could match the peak demand in the Taiwan area, this would assist in
alleviating peak loads.
In recent years, the requirements for reducing CO2 emissions and ensuring energy security have driven Taiwan
government to move forward in promoting the development of renewable energy. Relying on the unquestionable
benefits of solar PV systems and Taiwan's geographical location in a low-latitude zone, Taiwan's government is
strongly promoting the development of solar PV energy. In particular, Taiwan's government has actively
implemented a variety of policies, laws, regulations, projects, and subsidy operations for promoting solar PV energy
development since 2000.
"Nuclear-free Homeland" is the primary energy policy of the new government in Taiwan. It is estimated that the
installed capacity of solar energy will be as high as 20GW(73%) in the plan of 20% renewable energy power
generation in 2025. The PV installation capacity target was established as 842MW, 1,342MW, 8,776MW, and
20,000MW in 2015, 2016, 2020, and 2025, respectively, as shown in Table 11.
Table 11.Actively promote the objectives of installed capacity (MW)
Energy sources/year
2015
2016
2020
2025
Solar PV
842
1,342
8,776
20,000
Wind power (on shore)
647
747
1,200
1,200
Wind power (off shore)
0
8
520
3,000
Geothermal
0
1
150
200
Biomass
741
742
768
813
Hydropower
2,089
2,089
2,100
2,150
RE in total
4,319
4,929
13,514
27,363
Data source: BOEMOEA
In order to promote PV installation capacity and foster the development of PV industry, Taiwan's government has
actively implemented a variety of policies, laws, regulations, projects, and subsidy operations. In the late 1990s,
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Taiwan's government started to subsidize the application of PV and large applications of PV in public infrastructural
projects (Fig. 5, Fig. 6), with tax exemptions, financial assistance and subsidies for purchasing electricity.
To cooperate with local governments to promote solar photovoltaic (PV) cluster system in the community, MOEA
released the "MOEA Subsidy Directions for the development of Solar Community" on March 5, 2013. This program
aims to stimulating local government to develop solar PV community with local characteristics by providing cables,
grid connection and promotion subsidies, and building up PV cluster demonstrations to achieve the vision of the
“Million Rooftop PVs project."
Fig. 5 Installed capacity of solar PV for Taiwan from 2000 to 2015
Fig. 6 Presidential Hall demonstration system (10.5 kW)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Solar PV installed capacity (MW)
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Fig. 7. Global market share of PV cells by major countries
Sources: IEA-PVPS and Earth Policy Institute
Since Taiwan has a strong foundation in semiconductor production, it was not surprising when the government
announced that it would prioritize the development of solar power, which utilizes semiconductors in its solar cells.
Regarding the PV industry, there are several internationally famous companies focused on different products in
Taiwan, including Sino-American Silicon Products Inc. for silicon wafer, Gintech (660MW), Motech (470MW), E-
Ton Solar (320MW), and Neo Solar Power (240MW) as the top 4 solar cell manufactures based on capacity in 2015,
and Photonic Energy Semiconductor Co. Ltd. for modular packagee. The global maket shares of PV cells by major
countries are shown in Fig. 7. These companies have constructed a complete manufacturing chain for the PV
industry in Taiwan.
Fig. 8. Breakdown of production volume by Taiwanese solar cell manufacturers in 2014.
From data of Energy Trend [23], Taiwan PV industry ranks number two worldwide with PV solar cell production
volume over 10GW with 20% annual growth rate in 2014. Taiwan has a complete PV industry supply chain.
Developing high efficiency and low cost technology is the key strategy to increase competiveness. As shown in Fig.
8, the top 3 solar cell manufactures account for 53% of Taiwan production volume in 2014. The important indicators
of Taiwan PV industry is shown in Table 12.
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Table 12. The important indicators of Taiwanese PV industry (2012-2016)
Item
Unit
2012
2013
2015
Number of manufacturers
Manufacturer
92
90
86
Output value
Million USD
3,255
4,598
5,332
GDP Contribution
%
0.03
0.19
0.16
Number of employees
Employee
12,500
17,000
18,500
Data sources: IEK, ITRI, Taiwan.
Wind Energy
As described in Table 7, Taiwan is estimated to have wind power potential of 4,000 megawatts on land and 73,500
megawatts at sea. Wind energy has been aggressively promoted in Taiwan since 2000. Through resource survey,
technical guideline, research and investigation, demonstration and subsidies, both the Taipower and IPPs had
invested onshore wind farms construction in the last decade. As depicted in Fig. 9, by the end of July 2016, with 30
windfarms on land, a total of 341 large-scale onshore wind turbines had been erected with a total installed capacity
of 670.6 MW (BOEMOEA, http://www.twtpo.org.tw/).
Fig. 9. Installed capacity of wind power for Taiwan from 2000 to 2015.
To accelerate the development of offshore wind power industry in Taiwan, MOEA announced the “Directions for
Encouraging Offshore Wind Power System Demonstration Measures” in July 2012. Two IPPs (Fuhai Wind Farm
Corp. and Formosa Wind Power Co. Ltd.) and a state-owned power company (Taipower, Fig. 10) were selected as
main forces to execute the measures in January 2013. The output value of Taiwanese wind power industry was
increased to 515.6 million USD in 2016 from 247.9 million USD in 2012. After years of development, the industrial
chain in Taiwan’s wind power industry has been gradually completed with about 70 suppliers from up- to down-
streams. There are dozens of raw materials and parts/components suppliers. TECO is the only large-scale wind
turbine manufacturer in the domestic, while a dozen or so manufacturers supply small and medium wind turbines.
The important indicators of Taiwanese wind power industry is shown in Table 13.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
Wind power installed capacity (MW)
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Fig. 10. Taiwan Power Company Penghu wind power (Installed capacity: 600kW x 8)
Table 13. The important indicators of Taiwanese wind power industry (2012-2016)
Item
Unit
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016-e
Number of manufacturers
Manufacturer
47
50
55
65
70
Output value
Million USD
247.9
289.2
366.5
476.0
515.6
GDP Contribution
%
0.007
0.009
0.01
0.018
0.018
Number of employees
Employee
700
750
780
800
820
Data sources: IEK, ITRI, Taiwan.
After the government began promoting offshore wind power development since 2013 as shown in Fig. 11, an
increasing number of enterprises have been planning and involving in the offshore wind power services, including,
wind farm development, submarine cable and offshore infrastructure construction, and wind turbine installation and
maintenance.
Fig. 11. Planned locations for the offshore wind farms along the western costs of Taiwan.
Looking into the future, under the execution of “Thousand Wind Turbines Project”, a market scale up to 500 billion
NTD is expected in 2030. The strategies to develop Taiwanese wind energy including the short-, medium-, and
long-term targets: (1) introduce foreign technology to complete a first demo offshore wind power system in Taiwan
Strait; (2) implement the wind power system independently developed by Taipower to establish the local marine
engineering capacity and accomplish the demo offshore wind farm; (3) with a cumulative 1,200 MW and 520 MW
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installed wind power capacity respectively for onshore and offshore by 2020; (4) by 2025 with accumulated
installed capacities of 3GW and 1.2GW respectively for offshore and onshore wind farms, and over 1,000 wind
turbines installed with 4.2GW capacities, by then, more than 15.35% of Taiwan’s renewable energy installation will
be shared by wind turbine; and (5) build Taiwan’s wind power manufacture and service industries to construct the
down-, middle-, and up-stream chain by 2030.
Biomass Energy
Biomass energy is widely used in Taiwan, including biogas (methane) from animal waste and fuel energy from the
burial, gasification, breaking-down, and fermentation of household, industrial and agricultural garbage. Since
biomass energy makes a dual contribution to energy supply and environmental protection, it is generally recognized
as one of the most popular renewable energies in the world, comprising approximately two thirds of total renewable
energy use. The development potential of biomass energy in Taiwan is approximately 3 Mtoe, representing
approximately 40% of total RE potential.
As described in Table 7, the total reserves and equivalent power generation of Taiwan’s biomass are 5.08 GW and
15,278.90 GWh/year. Both energy productions account most supply of the national renewables. As shown Fig. 12,
the main biomass energy resources are landfill gas and waste incineration, which have total electricity generation
capacity of 629.1 MW (at the end of 2015) in more than 70 installed sites. A “Waste Energy Application
Technology Development and Promotion Project” was initiated from 1999, in which the priorities of RD&D are
waste energy applications, such as landfill gas, gasification, liquefaction and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Currently,
the installed biomass power is total 740 MW in Taiwan, with municipal solid waste incineration 625 MW, biogas
19MW, and waste from industry and agriculture 97MW, as shown in Table 14. Meanwhile, the technical
development of RDF is gradually matured. Solid RDF (Fig. 13) made from waste has the following advantages: high
thermal value, uniform-and-stable property, ease of control and low pollution when burning, ease of transportation
and storage, able to be used in boilers of power generation and co-generation, small environmental impact, high
energy recycling efficiency, etc. RDF technology currently has been transferred from ITRI to industry to establish
factories to convert ordinary waste into useful fuel. Furthermore, a demonstration urban RDF system was
established in ITRI for the purposes of research and promotion. On the other hand, technologies of waste
liquefaction and gasification have also been developed to convert waste into compound fuel or syngas (e.g., H2, CO,
and CH4, etc.) that may be provided as the fuels of boiler and generator to generate steam and electricity, such that
the goals of environmental protection, waste self-management and clean production may be fulfilled. Presently,
specific technologies of solid waste energy have been developed successfully in ITRI, for example rice husk
gasification and waste Styrofoam liquefaction, which have been granted as patents and transferred to industry.
In the future, more aggressive promotion of goals will focus on developing more advanced technologies, including
alcohol gasoline, organic hydrogen production, energy crop, forest resource, bio-diesel, etc. As shown in Fig. 14, the
current biomass power capacity in Taiwan is about 111.3 MW.
Fig. 12. Installed capacity of waste for Taiwan from 1994 to 2015.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
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Waste power installed capacity (MW)
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Table 14.Agricultural and livestock wastes in 2014
Total production
Unit of waste
Total waste
Rice
1,600 tonnes
86 kg/tonne
137.6 tonnes
Sugar
500 tonnes
250 kg/tonne
125 tonnes
Pig
8 millions
2.4 kg/head/day
7 million tonnes
Poultry
370 millions
0.15kg/head/day
20.2 million tonnes
Source: [24]
Fig. 13.Solid waste derived fuel manufactured by ITRI
(1 cm in diameter, 5 cm long; calorific value of approximately 6,200 kcal / kg)
Fig. 14. Installed capacity of biomass for Taiwan from 1994 to 2015.
Geothermal Energy
Taiwan lies on a major geological fault-line along the Pacific Rim, and has abundant geothermal resources. A
comprehensive exploration estimates that Taiwan has total geothermal potential of up to 714 MW. However, most
of the geothermal resources in Taiwan are located in remote areas, making their exploitation difficult. The
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
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2011
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2014
2015
Bio-power installed capacity (MW)
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economically and technically feasible exploitation potential is only about 150 MW. The target for geothermal
utilization is 200 MW by 2025.
Unlike solar energy and wind power, the application of geothermal energy is not influenced by weather conditions
and its stable output can provide a base load for power generation. Nowadays, the main application of geothermal
energy is electricity generation, the cost of which is still higher than that of traditional generation methods.
However, following electricity generation, the remaining hot water may be further utilized for multiple functions,
including recreational spas, swimming pool, greenhouse horticulture and agriculture, air conditioning and so on,
thus extracting additional economic value from the process. On the other hand, to avoid the gradual depletion of
geothermal resources due to excessive extraction, most hot water after being used may be injected back to
geothermal reservoirs, thus prolonging the operating life of the resource.
Geothermal resources can be classified into volcanic and non-volcanic types, with the former being hotter but more
acid than the latter. Domestic geothermal resources are mostly non-volcanic, and are located in mountains and on
small islands, making access difficult. Geothermal resources with easy access and high potential will be prioritized
for development. The most promising one is the Chinsuei geothermal energy project (located at Yi-Lan County, as
shown in Fig. 15), which will be developed by the local government using a BOT (Build, Operate, and Transfer)
method, and for which technical planning and research will be provided by experienced R & D groups authorized by
BOEMOEA. Besides electricity generation, the hot water will be further utilized to make the project become a
demonstration system with multiple functions. The project has planned capacity of 1,000 kW, sufficient to supply
electricity for about 340 families.
Fig. 15. Chinsuei geothermal energy project, 3MW, single flash-steam
Hydropower
Presently, most hydropower plants with large water dams are operated by the Taiwan Power Company. At the end
of 2015, the total installed capacity of hydropower in Taiwan was approximately 2,089.4 MW, of which 1,745 MW
is contributed by plants with capacity exceeding 20 MW (excluding 2,602.0 MW pump storage hydropower).
According to a survey, Taiwan has about 5,160 MW of technically feasible hydropower potential, about half of
which is considered economically viable. Hopefully around 2,502 MW can be exploited by 2030, with
approximately 300 MW being small hydropower (SHP) plants, each with capacity of less than 20 MW; that is, they
can be considered renewable energy, for example, flow-through type hydropower, as shown in Fig. 16. Currently,
the total installed capacity of operational SHP plants is around 166 MW.
In Taiwan, the application of large-scale dam is concentrated in agricultural irrigation and domestic water supply,
with electricity generation generally regarded as an auxiliary use. For example, in 2015, the total generation output
of hydropower in Taiwan was just 7,505.1 million kWhs, equivalent to 1,603 hours of full-loading time. That is, the
full-loading efficiency of hydropower in Taiwan is only 18.3%, much lower than the 60~70% average efficiency of
nuclear or fossil fuel electrification. Most of the cost of hydro plant establishment goes to civil engineering for dam
construction. Furthermore, most plants are located in remote mountain areas, which have high development costs
and investment risks. However, a large-scale hydropower plant may have a useful lifetime of over 30 years,
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something unachievable by other generation methods. Considering the benefits in terms of both water supply and
electricity generation, large-scale hydropower plants are actually the cheapest renewable energy option.
Hydropower is a clean, indigenous energy resource. However, due to disputes involving the ecological and
environmental issues created by large-scale dam construction, the development of large-scale hydropower is
inevitably difficult. However, SHP plants are also worth developing, and besides having less environmental impact
also offer such advantages as short set-up time, easy maintenance, and low investment and operational costs. In
Taiwan, most SHP resources are located in national parks, so careful evaluation is necessary and solutions must be
sophisticatedly prepared before exploring and exploiting these resources.
Fig. 16. Low head flow-through hydro power demonstration plant in Houli, Taichung
(Photo Source: Taiwan Provincial Taichung Irrigation Association)
PROMOTION STRATEGIES FOR REWABLE ENERGIES IN TAIWAN
Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four
inherent shortcomings-low energy density, high cost of power generation, instability of power supply, and current
cost of renewable energy being still higher than that of fossil energy-have to be overcome first, before renewable
energy is actually formed as a main component in national energy mix. The measures executed by government to
break through these barriers further include the upgrade of the technological level, the formulation of the necessary
policies, and the work together from all levels for the overall promotion.
Based on Energy Statistics Manual in 2015 published by Bureau of Energy of Ministry of Economic Affairs, the
national energy structure in supply side is still mainly comprised of fossil fuels, such as coal and coal products
(29.33%), crude oil and petroleum products (48.18%), natural gas (13.29%), etc. Produced by burning fossil fuels,
greenhouse gases (mainly carbon dioxide) have been identified as the main cause for global climate change, while
emissions in Taiwan in 2015, a total of approximately 250.50Mt (million tonne) of carbon dioxide, accounting for
about 0.78% of global emissions, with annual growth rate of 3.37% since 1990, is really shocking. Renewable
energy is considered non- or less-polluting sustainable energy, but the proportion of renewable energy on supply
side in Taiwan is still very low only 1.92%, in which, 1.39% for biomass and waste, 0.29% for conventional hydro
power, 0.16% for PV and wind power,and 0.08% for solar thermal. In addition, since most of fossil fuels are
imported from abroad, and mostly from the political instable countries in the Middle East or Southeast Asia, security
of energy supply is a major worry for Taiwan. To solve above problems, the development of renewable energy may
be the necessary measures.
Prior to the Renewable Energy Development Bill enacted in 2009, the central competent authority in Taiwan has
adopted subsidiary incentives to promote renewable energy development. However, accelerating the sustainable
energy in a time-table way is the vital aim of the Bill, which mandates the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) policy for renewable
electricity generated from specified sources, especially in solar PV power and wind power. The FiT policy
prescribed by the Bill contains four implementation elements, including subsidy target for renewable electricity, FiT
rate setting mechanism, government procurement by state-owned power company, and mandatory grid connection.
In Taiwan, the calculation formula of FiT for renewable electricity are based on the relative factors of generation
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equipment, including installation cost, operation and maintenance (O&M) cost, operating years, annual power
generation, capital recovery factor, reasonable profit rate, and other factors such as inflation rate and insurance fee.
Based on the levelized cost approach, the central competent authority announced the calculation formula for setting
FiT rates in each year:
FiT= Initial installation cost × Capital reduction factor + Annual operation and maintenance cost
Annual electricity sale
wherein:
      
    
Annual operation and maintenance cost = Initial installation cost ×
ratio of annual operation and maintenance cost in initial installation cost
In Table 15, the feed-in tariffs (FiT) for various categories of renewable electricity production in Taiwan effective in
2016 was listed.
Table 15. RE FiT for 2016 Taiwan
RE category
Classification
Capacity grade
FiT (Yuan1/kWh)
Solar photovoltaic
Roof type
Between 1 kW and 20 kW
6.4813
Between 20 kW and 100 kW
5.2127
Between 100 kW and 500 kW
4.8061
More than 500 kW
4.6679
Ground type
1 kW or above
4.6679
Wind
Land type
Between1 kW and 20 kW
8.5098
20 kW or above
With LVRT2
2.8099
Without LVRT
2.7763
Offshore type
Without distinction
Fixed 20 Years FiT
5.7405
Cascade
FiT
First 10
Years
7.1085
Last 10
Years
3.4586
Stream-type
hydraulic
Without distinction
Without distinction
2.9078
Geothermal energy
Without distinction
Without distinction
4.9428
Biomass
Without anaerobic
digestion equipment
Without distinction
2.7174
With anaerobic
digestion equipment
3.9211
Waste
Without distinction
Without distinction
2.9439
Other
Without distinction
Without distinction
2.7174
1. 32.5 NTD = 1 USD
2. LVRT (Low Voltage Ride Through)
Source: organized by the study.
To meet aforementioned targets set for the development of RE in Taiwan in both near and long terms (Table 11),
BOEMOEA has addressed three executive principles as following:
(1) Building up the framework for renewable energy development
Establishing a sustainable environment based on the enactment of “Renewable Energy Development Bill”.
Adjusting the premium tariffs for renewable energies and rationalizing prices of fossil fuels by counting
their external costs.
Removing the obstacles in grid connection and power transmission to promote the power generation from
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renewable energy sources.
(2) Assisting the development in renewable energy industries
Enlarging the renewable energy market to encourage related industries and improve technology capability.
(3)Strengthening R&D
Accomplishing the targets by improving renewable energy technologies.
According to the framework and contents of “Renewable Energy Development Bill” enacted by Executive Yuan, the
essence of promotion strategies for renewable energies in Taiwan can be summarized as follows.
(1) In the medium term, the renewable energies shall contribute 20%, in terms of national power by 2025.
(2) Wind and solar PV technologies are relatively mature and will be the major renewable energies in the near
and long terms. Meanwhile, the government shall continue to promote other renewable energies such as
geothermal, biomass, hydropower and ocean energy to utilize renewable resources in all aspects.
(3) Solar photovoltaic (PV) product is booming in current energy market worldwide. The promotion of PV shall
focus on strengthening R&D capability and developing related industries for cost reduction.
(4) Taiwan has greatest potential in developing offshore wind power. Its capacity will be established from zero
to 3GW in the next 10 years.
(5) In the long term, the ratio of renewable energy to total power supply is projected to increase from 5.24% in
2015 to 20% in 2025.
Since 2000, sustainable power generation in Taiwan remarkably increased in response to the trends of global
warming mitigation and renewable electricity development. One of the significant milestones in the reform of the
electricity industry in Taiwan could be said to have been implemented in 2009 when the central government
promulgated the Renewable Energy Development Bill. Under the authorization of the Bill, the FiT scheme was
adopted to encourage the deployment of renewable electricity systems for the purpose of selling their surplus
electric power at a profitable rate to the local power company. During the period of 20002015, the renewable
electricity from PV power and wind power systems in terms of total installed capacity in Taiwan have rapidly
increased from 2.7 MW in 2000 to 1,488.7 MW in 2015.
However, the growth rate of renewable electricity systems in terms of total installed capacity seemed to show a
steady increase since 2008, mainly due to the decreasing trend in domestic investments by the industrial and energy
sectors. As a result, the central competent authority in Taiwan has adopted subsidiary programs starting from 2013
to promote the development of renewable electricity technologies, including rooftop-type PV power, off-shore wind
power and biogas-to-power.
To encourage the investment in renewable electricity system as an emerging industrial development and a measure
for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, and also achieve the government goal (i.e., total installed capacity
reached 27,363MW in 2025, as compared to 4,319MW in 2015), the following measures are recommended and
enhanced:
(1) Actively promote renewable energy development, serve to enhance energy independence, reduce carbon
dioxide emissions, and enhance energy supply resiliency. Set more aggressive targets, including specific
measures to promote "Thousand Wind Turbines" and "Million Rooftop PVs", to achieve the goal of 27,363
MW installed capacity of renewable energy by 2025, accounting 20.0% of national total power generation from
5.24% in 2015.
(2) Learn from Japan's Fukushima nuclear disaster experience, and examine the domestic nuclear safety and energy
policy by increasing the amount of renewable energy and reducing dependence on nuclear power. Forecast to
2025, renewable energy power generation will be increased to 20.0% national power generation by 2025 from
5.24% in 2015.
(3) The promotion of all types of renewable energy depends on the ministries that will actively assist the relevant
regulations and administrative procedures, simplify administrative operations, improve overall system and
create a favorable environment for RE development.
(4) Continue to carry out research and development of renewable energy to enhance the development of renewable
energy technologies and reduce set-up costs; and develop large-scale smart grid and energy storage systems,
strengthening the power grid building, to reduce the impact of energy on the grid of the regeneration setting.
(5) Establish a review mechanism from the implementation date of renewable energy development regulations up
to 20 years, a review every two years, depending on the technology development process, and regularly adjust
the percentage of each class of renewable energy development goals.
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SUMMARY
All in all, the theoretical reserves, current status, and promotion strategies for RE in Taiwan are summarized in Fig.
17, Table 16, and Table 17. In Table 16, the corresponding electric energy reserves are listed, wherein the total
reserved power generation 655.06 TWh/year is 2.54 times of 258.02TWh, the national power generation in 2015 [4].
Table 16.Statistics of power potential of the renewable energies reserved in Taiwan (unit: TWh/year).
Solar*
Wind
Biomass
Marine
Geothermal
Hydro
Total
Reserves
203.75
251.01
15.28
38.45
5.62
140.95
655.06
Proportion
31.3 %
38.3 %
2.3 %
5.9 %
0.8 %
21.5 %
100%
*include: rooftop, 1% public land, reclamation land.
Solar (76.48)
Hydro (25.7)
Garbage
incineration (0.21)
Agricultural and
forestry waste (3.15)
Algae oil
(13.8)
Wind (77.5)
Kuroshio (30)
Ocean thermal
(10.0)
Wave (8.2)
Geothermal (15.54)
Biomass crop
(6.38)
Tide (0.24)
(Unit: GW)
Fig. 17 Distributions of various types of renewables reserves in Taiwan area (including 2nd generation biomass,
deep geothermal, algae oil, ocean thermal, Kuroshio, etc.)
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Table 17. Current status, targets and promotion strategies for RE in Taiwan
Current status
(2015)
Targets
Promotion strategies
1.Solar PV
842 MW (1.73%)
8,776MW(2020),
20,000MW (2025)
“Million Rooftop PVs Project”
Gradual expansion/incentivizing roof-
tops prior to ground installations;
Set target each year through FiT to
promote and guide various types of PV
construction.
2.Wind power
647 MW (1.33%)
1,720 MW (2020),
4,200MW (2025):
Land: 1,200 MW
(2020)
Offshore: 520 MW
(2020), 3,000MW
(2025)
“Thousand Wind Turbines Project”
Complete 520 MW shallow water
windfarms by 2020;
Complete 3,000 MW offshore wind
farms between 2021-2025; and
No case and experience in offshore;
economic incentives and financial risk
reduction are needed.
3.Biomass
111.3 MW
(0.23%)
According to "Renewable Energy
Development Bill", "the use of fallow land
for energy crops as incentives and subsidies
for the production system of biomass fuels"
has been drafted.
4.Waste
629.1 MW
(1.29%)
925 MW (2020)
1,369 MW (2030)
Municipal waste (622.5 MW): use waste
heat to generate electricity;
Agricultural and industrial waste (167.5
MW): on the bases of electricity
generation and thermal applications; and
Biogas thermoelectric applications (8.5
MW): on the bases of landfill gas power
generation.
5.Hydro power
2,089 MW
(4.29%)
2,150 MW (2025)
The currently planned projects are the
priorities of development, approximately
168 MW (Taipower); and
Encourage private industry and irrigation
and water conservancy to develop
running-through-typed hydropower,
about 100 MW.
6.Geothermal
0 MW
200 MW (2025)
Short-term: establish 1 MW
demonstration plant in Chinsuei
geothermal area.
Mid-term: expand geothermal plant
capacity of Chinsuei plant, and develop
Mt. Tatun volcanic area and other
geothermal area.
Long-term: continuously develop Mt.
Tatun volcanic area, and begin to
develop deep geothermal power in 2025.
7.Ocean energies
0 MW
600 MW (2030)
According to the potential of ocean
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energy, marine energy target and volume
are planned;
Based on the maturity and international
development trend, the development
schedule of ocean energy is planned; and
Build 4 MW demonstration plant by
2016; and,
Build commercial-type power plant by
2020.
8.Solar water
heating system
Installed
collector area:
2.37 million
square meters
(2013)
Installed collector area:
4.09 million square meters
(2025)
Expand the scope of incentives to building
integrated solar water heating systems and
large-scale application technology.
Source: organized by the study.
CONCLUSIONS AND PROSPECTS
Since Taiwan relies on imports for 97% of energy supply, energy security constitutes the most important topic of
national energy policy. The development of renewable energy resources not only can contribute the independence
and autonomy of energy supply, but also can achieve the effectiveness of economic development and environmental
protection-the so-called "3E".
According to the estimation, the reserve of wind energy, up to 251.01 TWh/year, is the largest one among all kinds
of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 203.75 TWh/year of solar energy, 38.20 TWh/year of biomass, 38.45
TWh/year of ocean energy, 0.56 TWh/year of geothermal energy and 140.95 TWh/year of hydro power. If
regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy
into electricity, the total power of the all kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 655.06 TWh/year, which is
equal to 2.54 times of 258.02 GWh, the national power generation in 2015, so we can say that the reserves of
renewable energies in Taiwan are quite abundant. However, if intending to fully develop these reserves of energies,
in addition to the requirement to overcome the various difficulties of technique and implementation, the most
optimistic time for the completion will be as late as 2050. However, by then, the energy supply needed may be four
folds of the present's, based on the estimation of ETP 2008 of IEA, and the total reserves of renewable energies still
importantly account for about 70% of national energy supply then.
Based on the latest national energy policy, "Nuclear-free Homeland", the RE power installed capacity in 2025 will
reach 27,363 MW. With the promotion policies of carbon reduction and energy diversification, while in response to
energy security issues, Taiwanese government accelerates the development of renewable energy potential and
expands various types of renewable energy promotion goal from 4,929MW in 2016 to 13,514MW in 2020, ten years
ahead to achieve the ordinance goal of 12,502 MW for 2030 set by BOEMOEA in 2012. Further, a goal of 27,363
MW in 2025 is set to show determination of actively promoting the policies.
Under suitable planning and promotion, significant growth in new and renewable energy utilization can be expected.
The promotion of renewable energies would, however, require breakthrough in various regulations (e.g. land-use,
building codes, grid-connection standards etc.), which require inter-agency coordination mechanism to overcome
multiple barriers. To speed up the utilization of RE and deregulation of electric utilities, and the commitment on the
execution of “Renewable Energy Development Bill” and revision to the “Electricity Law” are among the most
important actions to be undertaken by the government. In today, a clear and definite commitment to RE
development has been given, with good progress. Taiwan is hoping that by actively implementing these action plans
mentioned above, the energy diversity shall be promoted, the environmental quality shall be improved and the
development of industries shall be triggered. The ultimate goal is to achieve environmental protection, energy
security and economic growth, namely the so-called “triple-win” situation.
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... As 16 of the world's 20 most optimal wind farms are located in the Taiwan Strait, Taiwan is rated as one of the most popular countries for wind farms in the world by 4C Offshore, an international offshore wind power project consulting company [2]. According to studies of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States, in the coastal area of Taiwan, the wind speed is over 7 m/s throughout the year and the average wind power density is over 750 W/m 2 [3], which attracts investors in wind energy from many countries to build wind farms on the west coast of Taiwan. The total generating capacity is expected to reach 5.7 GW by 2025 in order to achieve the goal of generating 20% of Taiwan's total electricity from renewable energy [4]. ...
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There are excellent offshore wind resources in the ocean off the west coast of Taiwan, and renewable offshore wind power has been actively developed in recent years. This study intends to establish a cost-effectiveness assessment model to compare the pollutant emissions and cost benefits of traditional fossil fuel and fuel cells used as the propulsion force of working vessels in Taiwan’s offshore wind farms. According to MARPOL, vessels should use very-low-sulfur fuel oil (VLSFO) with sulfur content of less than 0.5 wt. %. Therefore, this study proposes two strategies: changing marine power from VLSFO to ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The emission reduction and cost benefit were analyzed in comparison with the original condition when VLSFO was used. The results show that compared with the total cost of VLSFO, the total costs of Strategy ULSD and Strategy PEMFC increase by 7.5% and 51.2%, respectively, over five years. Strategy PEMFC brings environmentally friendly benefits primarily by reducing SOx, NOx, HC, PM, and CO2 emissions by 100%, 97.4%, 91.8%, 81%, and 81.6%, respectively, as compared with VLSFO. The cost–benefit ratio (CBR) of Strategy ULSD was higher than that of Strategy PEMFC in the first three years after improvements were made, and then the trend reversed. Strategy PEMFC is suitable as an alternative marine power source for the medium- and long-term (more than three years), while Strategy ULSD is suitable as a short-term investment for less than three years.
... The core of sustainable energy development is energy security [4], and biomass can significantly enhance energy-supply security, revita- lize agriculture economy, and boost the technology of energy industry [5]. Biofuels are an environmentally sound alternative to reducing the use of fossil fuels [6] and show similar performance to fossil fuels and engines do not require adjustments [7]. ...
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Crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst) is a Brassicaceae crop with high potential for biofuel production without conflict with food industry and with similar energy performance to fossil fuels, but there is almost no information on soil conditions affecting crop grain and oil production. We studied the spatial correlation between soil porous space, soil resistance to penetration, and bulk density of a clayey Oxisol (Ferralsol) with crambe grain yield and oil content. Four states of compaction were generated by using a roller compactor, in a 1-ha field, and 133 georeferenced sampling points were selected. In two consecutive years, these positions were used for soil physical characterization, and crambe harvesting for grain yield and oil content determinations. Soil resistance to penetration, bulk density, and pore space properties showed spatial dependence structure over time in three soil layers. After two years of crambe cultivation, soil bulk density and soil resistance to penetration values increased, and soil porosity decreased in all soil layers, showing that crambe root system was not able to improve soil physical composition properties. Soil bulk density up to 1.3 Mg m⁻³ reduced grain yield and increased oil content of crambe. Increased soil bulk density and resistance to penetration, caused by additional soil compaction, changes crambe source/sink relationship, resulting in lower crambe grain yield, but in grains with higher oil content.
... Fossil fuel resources are finite and non-renewable, catalysing the efforts of employing biomass as a source for the production of renewable energy. Environmental pollution and global energy crisis, caused by the massive use of conventional fossil fuels, have triggered to a move towards sustainable, clean energies and cost-effective energy sources with less pollution and also overcome the gradual depletion of traditional fossil energies [2]. ...
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The environmental impact of global warming, caused by greenhouse gases has also fuelled the needs to utilise biomass, as its energy utilisation creates less environmental pollution and fewer health risks than fossil fuel combustion. Liquefaction of biomass using hydrogen donor solvents is a promising route to obtain clean biofuel using various solvents at moderate to high temperature (250–460 °C) and pressure (150–320 bar). Solvents such as sub-and supercritical water, alcohol, decalin, glycerol and tetralin can be used as potential hydrogen donor to enhance liquid oil yield with a reduced of oxygen content. Supercritical water with its excellent transport properties as well as hydrogen donor capability leads to hydrothermal decomposition of biomass and enhancing various compounds depending upon operating parameters. The selection of alcohol as a solvent related to the action of hydrogen donor and to its alkylating ability. The hydrogen donor solvents provide an alternative to hydrogen gas as a reducing gas. The advantage of using hydrogen donor solvent is to stabilise the free radical in the biomass liquefaction and yielding a higher product conversion. Compared with non-hydrogen donor solvents, hydrogen donor solvents such as tetralin and decalin show significant improvement not only in conversion and product distribution to liquid but also on the quality of bio-oil (oxygen content) due to the improvement of hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions with inhibition of polycondensation. The advantage of hydrogen donor solvents over the molecular hydrogen due to a lower strength bonding of C-H as compared to H-H bond. A review on performances of water, alcohols and other hydrogen donor solvents in liquefaction of biomass has been made. The yield of hydrogen donated in the reaction has also been reported.
... Most widely used is the technical potential [9][10][11][12][13]. However, the producers and owners of these data do not account for the impact of environmental restrictions to the hydropower potential. ...
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As a result of the growing global demand for energy, together with the depletion of resources and the growing emphasis on mitigating climate change and greenhouse gas emissions, an urgent need for an evolution of the renewable energy resources has emerged. On the architectural scene, we have become accustomed to seeing buildings incorporated with photovoltaics and wind turbines. Despite the great contribution of biomass as a clean energy producer, the integration of biomass into architecture is quite modest and still in its initial phases. Microalgae, as a plant-based biomass, can outperform other renewable resources with their potential to absorb CO2, recycle wastewater, and release O2. The limited experience regarding building-integrated microalgae photobioreactors (PBRs) requires shedding light on some issues. So, this paper aims to explore the following: 1) the proper types of PBRs for integration with buildings, 2) the overall bioprocess and the design considerations regarding PBRs and their technical requirements, 3) the environmental and energetic performance of PBRs, 4) their challenges, and 5) their prospects. Thus, the paper's methodology consists of 1) reviewing the promulgated literature concerning microalgae and PBRs, 2) reviewing and analyzing three building-integrated PBRs and three urban-integrated PBRs, and 3) reviewing the environmental and energetic performance of building-integrated PBRs. The paper has concluded that the symbiosis between PBRs and façades encounters some challenges, including 1) the biorefinery infrastructure, 2) the provision of a source of CO2, and 3) the high initial cost. On the other hand, the multifaceted environmental prospects of building-integrated PBRs are represented in 1) energy savings; 2) GHG emissions reduction; 3) oxygen and hydrogen release; 4) biofuel production; and 5) wastewater treatment. The unique benefits of the bio-façades through the combination of the technical and biological cycles within buildings inaugurate an innovative approach to sustainability by integrating environmental, energetic, and iconic values.
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With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 97% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market competition. Consequently, numerous promotional and subsidy programs have recently been proclaimed by the Taiwanese government, focused on the development of various renewables. This study reviews the achievements, polices and future plans in this area.
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This paper compares the potential of renewable energy sources in Denmark and China and analyses renewable energy solutions in the two countries. Denmark is one of the leaders in the renewable energy sector and represents a remarkable transformation. Even through lacking almost entirely in hydroelectric resources, Denmark has built up one of the biggest renewable energy sectors in the world. Today, more than 20% of the electricity demand in Denmark is supplied from wind power and, in 2007, renewable energy accounted for approximately 27% of the total gross electricity production. Meanwhile, China is the biggest developing country in the world and endowed with abundant renewable energy sources. Along with the high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption of the country, the government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand as well as to reduce environmental pollution. To ensure energy security and mitigate climate changes, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. In the past few years, more attention has been paid to the development of renewable energy laws and policies and planning initiatives have been implemented to support the development of renewable energy in China. A comparative analysis shows that, in terms of renewable energy sources per capita and per area, the overall potential is almost equal in Denmark and China, but differences can be found in the types of renewable energy sources of the two countries. The advantages and experiences of Danish renewable energy solutions have been identified and some proposals have been put forward also for renewable energy development in China.
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Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion.
Chapter
We have an addiction to fossil fuels, and it’s not sustainable. The developed world gets 80% of its energy from fossil fuels; Britain, 90%. And this is unsustainable for three reasons. First, easily-accessible fossil fuels will at some point run out, so we’ll eventually have to get our energy from someplace else. Second, burning fossil fuels is having a measurable and very-probably dangerous effect on the climate. Avoiding dangerous climate change motivates an immediate change from our current use of fossil fuels. Third, even if we don’t care about climate change, a drastic reduction in Britain’s fossil fuel consumption would seem a wise move if we care about security of supply: continued rapid use of the North Sea Photo by Terry Cavner. oil and gas reserves will otherwise soon force fossil-addicted Britain to depend on imports from untrustworthy foreigners. (I hope you can hear my tongue in my cheek.) How can we get off our fossil fuel addiction? There’s no shortage of advice on how to “make a difference,” but the public is confused, uncertain whether these schemes are fixes or figleaves. People are rightly suspicious when companies tell us that buying their “green” product means we’ve “done our bit.” They are equally uneasy about national energy strategy. Are “decentralization” and “combined heat and power,” green enough, for example? The government would have us think so. But would these technologies really discharge Britain’s duties regarding climate change? Are windfarms “merely a gesture to prove our leaders’ environmental credentials”? Is nuclear power essential? We need a plan that adds up. The good news is that such plans can be made. The bad news is that implementing them will not be easy.
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