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PREVALENCE OF URINARY SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN A NORTHERN NIGERIAN POPULATION

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The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium among primary school pupil in Keffi Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A total of 360 urine samples were collected. Samples were investigated using standard World Health Organization guidelines for identification of parasite and they were analyzed macroscopically and microscopically. Out of the 360 children screened, Yelwa Primary School had a prevalence rate of 2%, ECWA Transfer Primary School had a prevalence rate of 8%, Majema Primary School had a prevalence rate of 15%, Baptist Primary School had a prevalence rate of 10%, Kofar Hausa Primary School had a prevalence rate of 12% and Saint Williams Primary School had a prevalence rate of 6% while the overall prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium in the six schools is 53%.There was no significant difference in the prevalence rate between the six primary schools (P>0.05) Children of age group (5-8year) were more infected with urinary schistosoma. Male had higher prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium (34%) than the female (19%). statistically there was significant different in prevalence infection of Schistosoma haematobium among males and females investigated. Children whose parents are farmers and fishermen had the highest prevalence infection, followed by Artisan, Civil servant and the Businessmen respectively. However, the overall total pupils infected is 88% and uninfected 511%. Conclusively, School based treatment campaign and health education should be encouraged in ensuring the prevention and control of the disease in Nigeria.
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ISSN 2320-5407 International Journal of Advanced Research (2015), Volume 3, Issue 11, 511 - 519
511
Journal homepage: http://www.journalijar.com INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
OF ADVANCED RESEARCH
RESEARCH ARTICLE
PREVALENCE OF URINARY SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL
CHILDREN IN A NORTHERN NIGERIAN POPULATION
Ezhim Moses1 , Oti Victor1 ,Goriya Kpaku 1 , Gloria Zira 2, Dlama Joseph2
1. School of Health Technology Keffi, Nasarawa State Nigeria
2. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital Bauchi
Manuscript Info Abstract
Manuscript History:
Received: 15 September 2015
Final Accepted: 22 October 2015
Published Online: November 2015
Key words:
Schistosomiasis, School, children,
Prevalence, Treatment, Keffi.
*Corresponding Author
Ezhim Moses
Mosesezhim38@gmail.com
The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma
haematobium among primary school pupil in Keffi Local Government Area
of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A total of 360 urine samples were collected.
Samples were investigated using standard World Health Organization
guidelines for identification of parasite and they were analyzed
macroscopically and microscopically. Out of the 360 children screened,
Yelwa Primary School had a prevalence rate of 2%, ECWA Transfer Primary
School had a prevalence rate of 8%, Majema Primary School had a
prevalence rate of 15%, Baptist Primary School had a prevalence rate of
10%, Kofar Hausa Primary School had a prevalence rate of 12% and Saint
Williams Primary School had a prevalence rate of 6% while the overall
prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium in the six schools is 53%.There
was no significant difference in the prevalence rate between the six primary
schools (P>0.05) Children of age group (5-8year) were more infected with
urinary schistosoma. Male had higher prevalence of Schistosoma
haematobium (34%) than the female (19%). statistically there was significant
different in prevalence infection of Schistosoma haematobium among males
and females investigated. Children whose parents are farmers and fishermen
had the highest prevalence infection, followed by Artisan, Civil servant and
the Businessmen respectively. However, the overall total pupils infected is
88% and uninfected 511%. Conclusively, School based treatment campaign
and health education should be encouraged in ensuring the prevention and
control of the disease in Nigeria.
Copy Right, IJAR, 2015,. All rights reserved
INTRODUCTION
Schistosomiasis also known as Bilharziasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of parasitic trematodes
(fluke of the genus Schistosoma)1. It is the second to malaria in human impact among tropical diseases and the third
after malaria and intestinal helminthiasis a global parasitism2,3. It is the most devastating prevalent parasitic disease
due to morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, Middle East
and Asia 4,5,6,13.
Urinary Schistosomiasis is often chronic and can cause pain, secondary infections, kidney damage and even cancer7.
It has been infecting humans for at least 4000 years and had its own specific hieroglyph in ancient Egyptian8. In the
time before treatments were widely available, it was still so prevalent in Egypt that boys were traditionally expected
to go through a “male menarche” sometimes during adolescence, it was normal for them to urinate blood 14,26.
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512
Schistosomiasis occurs in most parts of the tropics and subtropics, affecting some 200 million persons and is most
prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa 3,15. It was also observed by Alam and Okwori, 2012 that highly disease endemic
areas, prevalence rates can exceed 50% among the local population and high rates have been reported among
expatriates living in such areas and even among short term travellers to these areas15,16. The distribution of the
diseases is focal and often restricted to areas with peculiar ecology which favours its transmission17.
Schistosoma haematobium, the focus of the study is a very serious environmental health problem in many tropical
and sub-tropical countries with school age children usually being the most affected group 18,19,42. Schistosoma
haematobium attributes to inflammation of the genital which normally facilitate the propagation of Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)20,21,21. Studies have shown the relationship between S. haematobium infection and
the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder 19,22,23.
Methods to prevent the disease include improving access to clean water and reducing the number of snails24,25. In
areas where the disease is common entire groups may be treated all at once and yearly with the medication
Praziquantel26. This is done to decrease the number of people infected and therefore decrease the spread of the
disease26,27. Praziquantel is also the treatment recommended by the World health Organization (W.H.O) for those
who are known to be infected51,52.
In Nigeria, the prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis in both rural urban communities is within 2% and 90% and
occurring more among the poor and marginalized group 29,30,35. Radiological imaging modalities such as pelvic
ultrasonography with emphasis on urinary bladder is useful and recommended in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis.
Features such as bladder wall thickness, low level mobile internal echoes, trabecculation, polyps can be seen on
ultrasound scan .
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis among school children in Keffi
Local Government Area of Nasarawa State.
III METHODOLOGY
The study was conducted in Keffi and its environs of Nasarawa State, Nigeria..The study population comprises of
children who were five (5) to twelve (12) years old in 6 different schools at Keffi and its environs who agreed to
participate in the study from a period of June through August 2014. Their age and sex were obtained using oral
interviews in the study population.
Before the commencement of the research work, ethical approval was taken from the Nasarawa State Ministry of
Health through the Director Public Health. Meeting was held with community heads and Parent Teachers’
Association (PTA) of the schools. At these meetings consent were obtained directly from the parents, teachers as
well as the children before the collection of samples.
About 360 urine samples were randomly collected from the pupils in some selected schools from primary 1 6.
Selection of these schools was based on the high prevalence of Schistosomiasis in the study area. Each pupil was
given a clean well labelled specimen container for early morning urine sample and was transported using a cold box
to the laboratory department of School of Health Technology, Keffi for processing. Oral questions were asked to
each pupil for demographic information and source of drinking water. The standard examination and urine
microscopy method were used to detect Schistosoma haematobium according to Cheesbrough procedure34,35. Urine
sample was transferred into a glass test tube and spun for 3,000 rpm for 5 minutes. Deposit was examined for
presence of parasite. Urine samples were processed using filtration and sedimentation methods. 10 ml of well mixed
urine was transferred into a centrifuge tube, urinalysis strip (medi test combi 9) was inserted and removed
immediately, the strip was matched with the standard on the container for the presence of blood and protein. The
urine was spun for 5 minutes at 3,000 rpm to sediment the Schistosome eggs, and the supernatant fluid was
discarded and the bottom of the tube was gently tapped to mix the sediment. A drop of the sediment was put on a
clean grease free slide, covered with cover slip and examined using x10 and x40 objectives lens of the microscope.
The number of eggs on the entire slide was counted. Number of eggs counted were recorded as number of
eggs/10ml of urine and recorded as:Low infection: < 50 eggs /10ml of urine. Heavy infection: 50 eggs /10ml of
urine.The macroscopic haematuria was noted and recorded. The presence of haematuria and proteinuria were
confined using medi -test strip (Combi 9) and concentration was recorded as (+), (++), (+++) respectively.
Urine Filtration method was also used for detecting and quantifying Schistosoma haematobium eggs in the urine
samples. A blunt ended forceps was used to carefully place a filter on the filter support of the filter holder, the filter
holder was re-assembled and attached to the end of a 10ml luer syringe, the plunger was removed from the syringe,
the syringe was filled to the 10ml mark with well mixed urine, and the plunger was replaced. Holding the syringe
over a beaker or other suitable container, the urine was slowly passed through the filter; the filter holder was
removed and unscrewed. The filter was carefully removed using a blunt forceps and transferred face upwards (eggs
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513
on surface) to a clean. slide. A drop of physiological saline was added and it was covered with a cover slip and
examined with x10 and x40 objectives of microscope systematically the entire filter for S. haematobium eggs.
Numbers of eggs counted were recorded as low infection: < 50 eggs /10ml of urine, heavy infection: 50 eggs
/10ml of urine.
The data gathered were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 and Chi-
square will be used to determine the prevalence rate of Urinary Schistosomiasis among School Children with the
studied risk factors at P value (P ≤ 0.05).
IV RESULTS
Figure 1: Histogram Showing the Prevalence of S. haematobium Infection in the Schools Investigated.
Figure 2: Histogram Showing the Prevalence of S. haematobium in Relation to Class of Pupils in different Schools.
Table 1: Showing the Prevalence rate of S. haematobium Infection in the Six Schools Investigated.
Schools
No. Examined
(%)
No. Infected
(%)
No. Uninfected
(%)
Yelwa Primary Sch.
60
2(3.3)
58(96.7)
ECWA Transfer Primary Sch.
60
8(13.3)
52(86.7)
Majema Primary Sch.
60
15(25.0)
45(75.0)
Baptist Primary Sch.
60
10(16.7)
50(83.3)
Kofar-Hausa Primary Sch.
60
12(20.0)
48(80.0)
St. Williams Primary Sch.
60
6(10.0)
54(90.0)
Total
360
53(88.3)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1
2
3
4
5
6
INFECTED
UNINFECTED
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
1
2
3
4
5
6
INFECTED
UNINFECTED
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514
Table 2: Prevalence of S. haematobium in Relation to Class of Pupils in different Schools.
Schools
No. Examined (%)
No. Infected (%)
No. Uninfected
(%)
1
60
10(16.7)
50(83.3)
2
60
7(11.7)
53(88.3)
3
60
7(11.7)
53(88.3)
4
60
13(21.7)
47(78.3)
5
60
8(13.3)
52(86.7)
6
60
8(13.3)
52(86.7)
Total
360
53(88.4)
307(511.6)
Figure 3: Histogram Showing the Prevalence of S. haematobium in Relation to sex distribution among School
children
Table 3: Prevalence of S. haematobium in Relation to Sex Distribution among School Children.
Sex
No. Examined
(%)
No. Infected
(%)
No. Uninfected (%)
Chi square value
X2 P value
Male
180
34(18.9)
146(81.1)
4.98
0.0256
Female
180
19(10.6)
161(89.4)
Total
360
53(29.5)
307(170.5)
Df = 1
Figure 4: Histogram Showing the Prevalence of S. haematobium in Relation to age Distribution among the School
Children
0
50
100
150
200
INFECTED
UNINFECTED
Series1
Series2
0
50
100
150
200
INFECTED
UNINFECTED
Series1
Series2
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515
Table 4: Prevalence of S. haematobium in Relation to Age Distribution among the School Children.
Age (yrs)
No. Examined (%)
No. Infected (%)
No. Uninfected (%)
Chi-square Value
X2 P value
5 8
225
29(14.2)
196(85.8)
1.6063
0.4478
9 12
135
24(20.9)
111(79.1)
Total
360
53(35.1)
307(164.9)
Df = 1
Figure 5: Histogram Showing the Prevalence of S. haematobium in Relation to Occupation of Parents among
the School Pupils.
Table 5: Prevalence of S. haematobium in Relation to Occupation of Parents among the School Pupils.
Occupation
No. Examined
(%)
No. Infected
(%)
No. Uninfected
(%)
Chi square value
X2 P value
Civil Servants
30
3(10)
27(90.0)
20.0305
0.003
Artisans
Fishing
Farmers
Businessmen
69
55
144
62
5(7.3)
18(32.7)
22(15.3)
5(8.1)
64(92.7)
37(67.3)
122(84.7)
57(91.9)
Total
360
53(35.1)
307(164.9)
Df = 4
Figure 6: Histogram Showing the Prevalence of S. haematobium in Relation to Sources of Drinking Water among
the School Children.
Table 6: Showing Prevalence of S. haematobium in Relation to Sources of Drinking Water among the School
Children.
0
50
100
150
1
2
3
4
5
INFECTED
UNINFECTED
0
50
100
150
1
2
3
4
INFECTED
UNINFECTED
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516
Sources of Drinking
water
No. Examined
(%)
No. Infected (%)
No. Uninfected (%)
Chi-square value
X2 P value
Streams
123
23(18.7)
100(81.3)
6.27
0.0909
Well
Borehole
Tap
143
30
64
18(12.6)
7(23.3)
5(7.8)
125(87.4.7)
23(76.7)
59(92.2)
Total
360
53(62.4)
307(337.6)
Df = 3
III DISCUSSION
This study showed that over 88% of school children were infected with Schistosoma haematobium and
511% were not infected in the schools investigated. There is low prevalence rate of the Schistosoma haematobium
among the school children in Keffi Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. The low prevalence rate of the
Schistosoma haematobium can be as a result of good school environment and proper medical sensitization of school
children in various schools by health personnel and health teachers.
From the result, a sample of 360 subjects were examined, 88% were found infected with Schistosoma haematobium
(Table 1) from the six areas investigated, subject from Yelwa Primary School had the prevalence rate of 3%, ECWA
Transfer Primary School had the prevalence rate of 13%, Majema Primary School had the prevalence rate of 25%,
Baptist Primary School had the prevalence rate of 16%, Kofar Hausa Primary School had the prevalence rate of 20%
while Saint William Primary School had the prevalence rate of 10%.
The prevalence rate of Schistosoma haematobium among school children at baseline by sex and age group
showed that males (18%) had the highest prevalence, while females (10%) had the least. Higher prevalence and
intensity of infection among the males compare with females could be attributed to swimming activities engaged by
males which exposed them to Cercariae infected water. The intensity was higher among males (18%) within the age
bracket of 5 8 years (10%) while the intensity was low among the females (10%) that are within the age bracket of
5 8 years (20%) (Table 4).
However, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the infection of Schistosoma haematobium
between the occupation groups (Table 5). Children whose parents are fishermen and farmers have the highest rate of
infection followed by Civil servants and Artisans.
The intensity was higher among males 18% and age bracket 5-8 and was low among females 10% and age
bracket 5-8 years 20%. Which is in contrast with the earlier work 49. There is no significance difference in
prevalence of infection between the age group (p>0.05).
In relation to occupation, there is higher prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium in school children who
engaged in fishing 32%, farming 15%, followed by civil servants and businessmen 8% and the artisans respectively
in Keffi Local Government Area of Nasarawa State.
IV Conclusion
The study has identified Urinary Schistosoma as endemic in Keffi Local Government of Nasarawa State Nigeria,
with a high prevalence rate of infection particularly among male teenagers. The lack of proper knowledge of the
cause of the disease and insufficient safe water supply coupled with inadequate health care facilities may have
influenced the infection rate and distribution of the disease in the area. There is need for health and hygienic
education enlightenment in the rural areas, designed to discourage the contact of pupil with water source.
Prevalence of intestinal and urinary schistosoma among school children continues to be a major public
health problem in tropical areas, especially Keffi Local Government of Nasarawa State. Although intestinal and
urinary schistosoma is among the group of neglected tropical diseases that occur predominately in rural areas. The
occurrence of intestinal and urinary tract schistosoma among school children causes chronic infection which can
negatively affect the health, nutrition and learning of the children. Schistosoma infection during childhood cause
substantial growth retardation and anaemia and also causes structural abnormalities of urinary tract.
V Recommendations
Based on the result of the study a number of possible policy recommendation that would enhance the preventives
and control measure of Schistosoma haematobium can be made to the community and relevant stakeholders.
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517
Provision of good and quality safe water source for the pupil and community, destruction of intermediate host snail
vectors by trained professionals should be done at the commencement of raining season, pupil and households
should practice good environmental health and sanitation, the government should embark on routine treatment of
infected patients both at school and community level and screening of migrants from neighbouring border town
should be encouraged before allowing them to settle down.
Also, there is need for government to provide adequate sanitary facilities and public enlightenment such as
developing participatory health education programmes with community members to effect behavioural change by
mothers who expose their children to Schistosoma haematobium infection. It also requires the involvement of the
community in providing safe water sanitary facilities which would reduce contaminations of the reservoir. Children
should be restricted from bathing or swimming in contaminated water bodies.
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... Even though schistosomiasis is still endemic in Nigeria [13,14,15,16,17], there are only few published data on the status of the infection in the current study area, where the epidemiological knowledge is rudimentary. Therefore, this study investigates the prevalence and determining factors of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in North Central Nigeria. ...
... Even though the overall prevalence of 12.0% reported in this study like other Nigerian studies [16,21,22] is almost similar to the national Nigerian average of 13.0% [23], higher prevalence of 53.0% has been reported in the same study area [15], 48.0% in Wamako, Sokoto State [5] and 58.1% in Abeokuta, Ogun State [24]. Higher prevalence has also been reported in other endemic countries such as Senegal (57.6%), ...
... as higher prevalence was recorded among those from the rural areas (12.9%) than those from the urban areas (11.8%) ( Table 1). Most Nigerian studies also reported higher prevalence among rural inhabitants [7,14,15]. This is no surprise because most Nigerian rural communities are attributed to extreme poverty, inadequate or lack of social amenities such as portable water for drinking, cooking, washing and bathing [9,10] and these put them at high risk of the infection. ...
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Aims: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and analyze risk factors for urinary schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in North Central Nigeria. Study Design: The study was a cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Keffi, Nasarawa State, between March and June 2019. Methodology: 300 urine samples (100 from each of the 3 selected primary schools) were collected from the pupils and information about them were obtained by structured questionnaires. The eggs of S. haematobium were microscopically detected from the samples using standard filtration technique. Data collected were analyzed using Smith's Statistical Package (version 2.8, California, USA) and P value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of the 300 pupils screened, 36(12.0%) were positive for urinary schistosomiasis. Ahmadu Maikwato primary school had the highest prevalence (61.1%) followed by Nurudeen (27.8%) and Model Science (11.1%) primary schools. In relation to socio-demographics, the rate of Original Research Article Mohammed et al.; SAJP, 4(3): 38-45, 2020; Article no.SAJP.61175 39 the infection was higher among pupils aged ≥16 years (28.6%), males (15.9%), in rural areas (12.9%), from polygamous family (16.7%) and whose parents were farmers (18.8%). Location of the pupils was found to be associated with the rate of the infection (P=0.02). However, all other risk factors considered in this study were not significantly associated with the parasitic infection (P>0.05). Conclusion: This study indicates the presence of urinary schistosomiasis in Central Nigeria and therefore, intensified control efforts are recommended towards the elimination goal by 2025.
... The overall prevalence of 37% has shown that the disease is endemic in the study area. The prevalence observed in this study is higher than the national Nigerian average of 13% [14]. This high prevalence and intensity can be attributed to the presence of stream in the area, which has made the inhabitant to engage in such activities like fishing, irrigation, agriculture and swimming which are predisposing factor to infections. ...
... This high prevalence and intensity can be attributed to the presence of stream in the area, which has made the inhabitant to engage in such activities like fishing, irrigation, agriculture and swimming which are predisposing factor to infections. The results are comparable to other findings from several endemic regions in Nigeria [14,15] and some endemic countries like Senegal, Madagascar and Tanzania [16,17]. However, the results obtained here is in contrast with the findings of Akinneye et al. [18] and Damen et al. [19]. ...
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Background: Bilharzia is a parasitic disease caused by the trematode worms (schistosomes). It is the most important and prevalent of water-borne parasitic disease.Schistosomiasis affects between 200 million and 300 million people in 77 countries throughout the world and is a significant cause of disease in areas of endemic infections especially among children. Aims: The study was aimed to determine the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis among people in Goronyo and taloka communities in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Study Design: Investigative study. Place and duration of study: The samples were collected from Goronyo and Taloka communities of Goronyo local government Area of Sokoto State between October and December, 2020. Methodology: 300 water samples were obtained from domestic water sources. 175 of the samples were collected from river, 77 from borehole and 48 from well. Samples were investigated for the presence of parasites using standard parasitological techniques. Samples were subjected to macroscopy, filtration, centrifugation and microscopy. Results: Findings reveals total prevalence of 37%. The prevalence in Taloka was higher (47%) than Goronyo (27%)(P<0.05). Males were found to be more infected (52%) than their females counterparts (12%). The age group 16-20 had the highest prevalence rate of 45% compared to age group 5-10 (34%). Fishermen had the highest prevalence rate of 71% while civil servants is least (14%). Conclusion: Findings revealed that the source of water in the study area constitute an epidemiological threat to public health. However, inhabitants of the communities should boil or treat water before consumption while we solicit for government intervention so that the control of the infestation can be achieved through the integration of complementary strategies such as disease surveillance, chemotherapy, health education, alternative water supplies and public sanitation in the study area.
... The variation in the results could be due to differences in study time and study population. Our result is lower than 53% but higher than 3.97% reported by Moses et al. (2015) and Nwachukwu et al. (2018) in Ebonyi and Keffi respectively. The differences in the prevalence could be as a result of variation in study area. ...
... The infection was higher among children belonging to age group 10-12 years (41.9%) which may be due to their frequent exposure to water bodies because they may have some freedom to indulge in water activities such as swimming, fishing and washing clothes. This disagrees with the findings of Moses et al. (2015) and Nwachukwu et al. (2018) ...
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Urinary schistosomiasis is a major public health problem particularly in developing countries and is associated with high morbidity. The study aimed at determining the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among Qur’anic school pupils in Zaria, Kaduna State. One hundred and fifty-five (155) urine samples were collected from Qur’anic school pupils in Zaria. The samples were immediately transported to the laboratory of the Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U), Zaria and processed using sedimentation technique. The ova of Schistosoma haematobium were detected in fifty-eight (58) samples giving a prevalence of 37.4%. The infection was highest in age group 10-12 years with 41.9%, followed by those in age range 13-15years (41.0%) while the least was observed among pupils between the ages of7- 9years (27.5%). Risk factors observed to be associated with schistosomiasis include; swimming in river or dam, fishing and place of laundry. The infection was associated with clinical signs and symptoms including abdominal pain, haematuria, painful and frequent urination. Regular community-based treatment should be conducted using anti-helminthic drugs to reduce urinary schistosomiasis. Key words: Prevalence, Schistosoma haematobium, Qur’anic school pupils, Zaria, Kaduna State
... The overall prevalence of 37% has shown that the disease is endemic in the study area. The prevalence observed in this study is higher than the national Nigerian average of 13% [14]. This high prevalence and intensity can be attributed to the presence of stream in the area, which has made the inhabitant to engage in such activities like fishing, irrigation, agriculture and swimming which are predisposing factor to infections. ...
... This high prevalence and intensity can be attributed to the presence of stream in the area, which has made the inhabitant to engage in such activities like fishing, irrigation, agriculture and swimming which are predisposing factor to infections. The results are comparable to other findings from several endemic regions in Nigeria [14,15] and some endemic countries like Senegal, Madagascar and Tanzania [16,17]. However, the results obtained here is in contrast with the findings of Akinneye et al. [18] and Damen et al. [19]. ...
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Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a major public health problem in developing and developed countries worldwide. It is responsible for liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronically-infected patients. This study therefore aimed to identify the strain of HCV among HCV seropositive subjects in Niger State. A total of 44 HCV seropositive blood samples which consisted of 27 males and 17 females were analyzed (after Viral RNA extraction) for the presence of HCV-RNA by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Nine (20.5%) of the samples were positive for HCV RNA. HCV-RNA positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing at 5’UTR region genomes; sequences were aligned on MEGA 6.0 and confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. HCV genotype 1b was the only one distributed among the participants. The findings are relevant as predictors for using antiviral therapy in this population because the response to treatment varies according to the genotype.
... These activities expose male children more to the intermediate hosts (snails) in the river. The high infection in males observed are similar to reports by Oniya and Jeje [13] and Ozowara et al [14] and Ezhim et al [15]. In assessing the age group at risk of infection, the study reported that age-group 9-12 years had higher prevalence rates for S. haematobium (72.88%) followed closely by the age group 13-16 years. ...
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Schistosomiasis which causes a great pathological effects in human especially during teenage years is still a major public health problem with deepen economic consequences particularly in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the level of Schistosoma haematobium infection among the residence of Gwong and Kabong areas, Plateau State. A total of two hundred and forty two urine samples were examined for S. haematobium ova using the Sedimentation Method. Of all the samples examined, 5 (2.07%) all from Gwong area were infected. Male had a high prevalence and mean intensity of ova compared with female. Infection was observed only in age groups 10-14 and 35-39 years. The prevalence was highest among those that obtained water from rivers/stream than in those who used well water while there was no infection among those that obtained water from borehole. The study showed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between infection and the study area, sex, age and occupation. However, there was a significant (p<0.05) relation between the infection and the source of water. Though there was low prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium in the study areas, there is need to intensified integrated control measures to reduce or completely eradicate the disease.
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African trypanosomiasis, are also being targeted for elimination. Unfortunately, other NTDs have not fared so well in terms of coverage. Today it is believed that fewer than 10% of eligible populations living in endemic regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas are receiving annual treatments for their schistosomiasis, intestinal helminth infections, and/or trachoma [2]. The World Health Organization (WHO) and several leading public private partnerships and non-governmental development organizations are actively working to correct this situation and to steadily increase global coverage to the levels of LF and onchocerciasis. Of these, we believe that the single largest gap in mass drug administration for a serious NTD has to be the almost nonexistent global coverage for schistosomiasis.
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Background and Objective: Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections in the world, and continues to be a global public health concern in the developing world. The main objective of the article is to study the various clinicopathological features of Chronic schistosomiasis in different anatomical sites; also emphasizing on the need to suspect this parasitic disease even in non-endemic or low-endemicity areas. Material and methods: Ours was a prospective study, conducted at King Faisal Hospital (Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) from year 2001 to 2005. The study included 32 cases of schistosomiasis involving various organs. Background and Objective: Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections in the world, and continues to be a global public health concern in the developing world. The main objective of the article is to study the various clinicopathological features of Chronic schistosomiasis in different anatomical sites; also emphasizing on the need to suspect this parasitic disease even in non-endemic or low-endemicity areas. Material and methods: Ours was a prospective study, conducted at King Faisal Hospital (Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) from year 2001 to 2005. The study included 32 cases of schistosomiasis involving various organs. Results:32 cases of schistosomiasis affecting various organs were reported. Appendix was the most common organ involved with 16 cases, while ureteric involvement was seen only in 1 case. Urinary bladder involvement was seen in 5 cases while 4 cases affected intestinal tract. Liver, gall bladder and prostate involvement was seen in 2 cases each. All cases were completely cured on treatment with Praziquantel except 2 cases of urinary bladder which developed squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment of the infection results in complete cure without any complication, and therefore high level of suspicion is required in persons visiting or residing in highly endemic areas.
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Schistosomes are parasitic trematode that live in the bloodstream of both humans and animals. S. haematobium, mansoni and S. japonicum account for the majority of human infections. Schistosomiasis occurs in 74 countries, where over 600 million people are at risk and 200 million are currently infected. Adult worms do not multiply in the body but live there for several years, producing eggs, which are either released into the environment or become entrapped in a variety of organs (depending on the species of worm), ultimately causing disease. Serious manifestations of schistosomiasis are limited to the most heavily infected individuals, and cancer is a relatively rare but important outcome. There is good evidence that S. haematobium can cause squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and that S. japonicum can cause colorectal cancer and possibly also liver cancer. Much less is known about the impact of S. mansoni in relation to cancer risk. Safe, effective treatment is available, and the impact of control measures in preventing schistosomiasis has been demonstrated. However, changes in patterns of land use and population demographics have ensured that schistosomiasis remains the second most important parasitic disease of man, after malaria.
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Football is the world's most popular sport. According to the International Football Federation (FIFA), there are more than 200 club members in its 203 affiliated nations. The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) has 23 members in 51 countries while the Italian Football Association (FIGC) estimates that there are 1 million players in Italy, including more than 3,000 professionals. Many players are obviously young, and the number of women footballers is constantly growing. The greater frequency of accidents in recent years in professional and amateur football [1-3], youth football [4-6], and women's football [7, 8] has been the subject of several researches and publications.Many footballers have had to stop playing and undergo medical treatment and surgery followed by rehabilitation periods before being able to resume playing. Those who have been able and lucky enough to take part in professional soccer know that a second, or even a tenth of a second, is time enough for the occurrence of an accident that may require days, weeks, or months to put right and which results in considerable physical and mental distress. While it is true that markedly improved medical knowledge now ensures faster, more accurate, and more precise diagnosis, it is equally true that little is known about how to prevent injuries and little, indeed, is done to prevent them. Today's professionals must be on their guard against two great threats to their health and their career, namely, doping and accidents. In both cases, an understanding of preventive measures and the timely acquisition of clear, scientifically validated information constitute the first line of defence. Many accidents are unforeseeable, as they are the natural consequences of a sport in which speed, strength, and explosive action are accompanied by physical contact, tackling, and collisions with an opponent.Many others, however, could be avoided because they stem from mistakes, underestimation of risk factors, or insufficient consideration of the ways in which they can be prevented. The current opinion is that while improvements are continually sought in a player's physical, technical, and tactical performance, little is being done to prevent and contain the number of accidents.
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Up to date, schistosomiasis is still prevalent worldwide. It is estimated that more than 200 million individuals are infected, and 120 million suffer from clinical morbidity. Facing such huge cases of schistosomiasis, only heavy reliance on a single praziquantel for schistosomiasis control does not adapt and may promote the selection and spread of drug-resistant parasites. Therefore, it is an urgent need to develop the new antischistosomal drug. In 2008-2009, the antimalarial drug mefloquine, an arylaminoalcohol compound, has been found to be effective against schistosomes. According to the experimental studies, the deepest impression on the antischistosomal properties of mefloquine can be summarized as following points: (1) single dose of mefloquine possesses potential effect against three major species of schistosomes (Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma japonicum) infecting humans; (2) the drug displays similar effects against developing stages of juvenile and adult schistosomes, which are superior to that of artemisinins and praziquantel; (3) in vitro mefloquine exerts direct killing effect on juvenile and adult schistosomes, while in vivo, the efficacy of the drug is independent to host immune response, (4) mefloquine causes extensive and severe morphological, histopathological, and ultrastructural damage to adult and juvenile schistosomes, particularly, the worm tegument, musculature, gut, and vitelline glands of female worms are the key sites attacked by the drug; (5) combined treatment with mefloquine and praziquantel, or artemisinins shows synergistic effect against schistosome in experimental therapy,while in initially clinical trial, mefloquine in combination with artesunate also exhibits higher cure rates against schistosomiasis hematobia and schistosomiasis mansoni, and (6) several mefloquine-related arylmethanols exhibit potential effect against schistosomes in vivo, which is a useful clue helpful for development of new antischistosomal compound. In the present review, we have summarized the major results published in recent years, and the significance as well as the prospect for the future study of mefloquine have been discussed briefly.
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After malaria, schistosomiasis (or bilharzia) is the second most prevalent disease in Africa, and is occurring in over 70 countries in tropical and subtropical regions. It is estimated that 600 million people are at risk of infection, 200 million people are infected, and at least 200 000 deaths per year are associated with the disease. All schistosome species are transmitted through contact with fresh water that is infested with free-swimming forms of the parasite, which is known as cercariae and produced by snails. When located in the blood vessels of the host, larval and adult schistosomes digest red cells to acquire amino acids for growth and development. Vaccine candidates have been unsuccessful up to now. Against such devastating parasitic disease, the antischistosomal arsenal is currently limited to a single drug, praziquantel, which has been used for more than 35 years. Because the question of the reduction of the activity of praziquantel was raised recently, it is thus urgent to create new and safe antischistosomal drugs that should be combined with praziquantel to develop efficient bitherapies.
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The first comprehensive study on the global burden of disease and risk factors was commissioned by the World Bank in 1992. A follow-up study was performed in 2005, and another iteration was commissioned by the World Health Organization in 2010, due for publication in 2011. The author suggests that the global burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has been seriously underestimated. The way forward is the integration of control efforts, with programmes coming together to deliver a package of drugs against NTDs. Barriers to continent-wide coverage of drugs against NTDs are political will (missing in those countries with poor governance), funding (approximately half of the $1.5-2 billion is needed) and human resources. However, if the donors who give so much to malaria, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus would share just 10% of the amount allocated to the big three, the most common NTDs could become diseases of the past. This could well happen within 7 years, and the targets of GET2020 (Global Elimination of Trachoma by 2020) to eliminate trachoma and GAELF (the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis) to eliminate lymphatic filariasis by 2020 are achievable.
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The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Ikpeshi, a rural community of Edo State, Nigeria showed that 195(65%) out of 300 volunteers harboured Schistosoma haematobium ova in their urine. Eosinophiluria was markedly significant > 5 eosinophilic leucocyturia/hpf and reported among 250 (83.3%) inhabitants. Of these, ova were absent in 55 (22.0%) of urine samples but had other associated urinary symptoms namely; proteinuria or haematuria or both. Eosinophiluria among the inhabitants with light infections as described by < 50 ova/10ml was 15.83 ± 15.98 x 109/L while heavy infections (≥50 ova/10ml of urine) was 107 ± 76.20 x 109/L. In all, the eosinophiluria showed a positive correlation with the S. haematobium ova excreted in their urine (r = 0.40046, p < 0.05). The sensitivities of the urinary symptoms are eosinophiluria (100%), proteinuria (56.0%), haematuria (80.0%), specific gravity (84.0%) and turbidity (76.0%). The eosinophiluria with the a relatively highest sensitivity can complement the use of ova in urine as a diagnostic marker especially in sub clinical cases and other periods when egg laying capacity of this fluke are suppressed or absent.
Article
A cross sectional survey of schistosomiasis, intestinal parasite infections and pattern of schistosomiasis transmission was undertaken in four rural villages around the Erinle dam, Nigeria. The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium ranged from 10% to 60%. 30% of infected school children excreted over 50 eggs/10 ml urine and high rates of haematuria, proteinuria, leucocyturia and nitrites in urine were observed in infected children and the villagers. Prevalence of infection with S. mansoni ranged from 11.4% to 36.8%. Intensity of infection based on geometric mean eggs/gram of faeces ranged between 100 and 545.7 eggs/g. Malacological surveys showed that Biomphalaria pfeifferi was the predominant potential snail hosts recovered at all the contact sites. Higher infections with schistosome parasites were also recorded for B. pfeifferi than Bulinus globosus. The pattern of transmission of schistosomiasis by the snails is consistent and makes incorporation of community-based focal application of a molluscicide such as Tetrapleura tetraptera in integrated control of schistosomiasis feasible in the area. Prevalence and intensity with Ascaris lumbricoides was high. The highest prevalence was 68.9% while the highest intensity of infection was 2,440.9 eggs/gram of faeces. Multiple infections occured with various combinations of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, S. haematobium, Fasciola gigantica, S. mansoni, and Entamoeba histolytica (as double, triple or quadruple infections). The results suggest an integrated approach to the control of schistosomiasis and intestinal parasites in this part of the country.