immersion test. These results suggest an acetylcholine
muscarinic receptors involvement in the analgesic effect
induced by EOVAC. Cholinergic system has an important
role in the pain modulation. EOVAC contains some of
terpenes such as (-)-Linalool and α-phellandrene that produce
analgesia via activation of cholinergic system. Our results
showed that the EOVAC and piroxicam (non-selective
cyclooxygenase inhibitor) as a positive control significantly
reduced writhing response. This model of visceral
nociception is a typical model of inflammatory pain and also
accepted as a screening method for the assessment of
analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory properties of new
compounds and chemicals. Acetic acid promotes the release
of prostaglandins, serotonin, and histamine in the peritoneal
fluids. Therefore, the current results suggested that the
EOVAC significantly produced inhibitory effect in this
inflammatory model of pain, and this effect may be related to
its suppressive effect on the biosynthesis pathway of pro
inflammatory substances or reduction of endogenous
pro-inflammatory substances release. We can conclude that
the EOVAC produced analgesic effect in these models of
nociception and this effect seems to be mediated by activation
of endogenous opioidergic system and muscarinergic
receptors of cholinergic system. In addition, part of
antinociceptive activity of Vitex agnus castus essential oil
may be due to its anti-inflammatory effect.
Vitex extract can reduce the number of sperms in the
epididymis and damage to the testes, which the regularly
usage can lead to infertility.
We appreciate all who helped us to exert the present study.
This paper reports a part of results selected from research
work carried out by Fereshteh Ramezanloo supervised by Dr.
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