ChapterPDF Available

Portugal: a weak case for Euroscepticism.

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

"While celebrating the 30th anniversary of its EU membership, Portugal faces the European challenges ahead of 2016 with acute symbolism. With a persistently decreasing growth rate since the 2000s and the relative decline of the Union on a global scale, the model of the country’s development has been put under popular criticism. The political elites are, thus, challenged to look for alternative solutions. This has been particularly noticeable since the bailout of the country (2011–2015) by the Troika institutions. This analysis focuses on the meaning of Europe for a country whose citizens have, globally, kept positive attitudes towards the EU since the country’s accession in 1986. (...)"
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Chapter
Full-text available
The process of negotiations on EU accession implies the need for raising awareness on all kinds of impacts that membership brings for the wider community and its citizens. Stimulating and enhancing public debates and other forms of citizens’ participation in the process has proved to be very useful in former candidate countries. The same challenge faces Croatia in the process of accession. The EU communication strategy has tried to overcome communication gaps between political elites and the public. Its failures and successes should be taken into consideration in Croatia, which needs stronger support for EU accession among its citizens. A number of experts and representatives of the academic community have been actively involved in the negotiations with the EU, but there is still a lack of public debate based on in-depth analysis of the issues related to the impact of EU accession on certain areas. Education, environmental protection, consumer protection and health safety are examples showing the importance of understanding the impacts of accession.
Article
Full-text available
Across the European Union, there has always been a critisicm towards integration. Since the two decades, the debates have witnessed a widespread scepticism about the benefits of the European Union. The euroscepticism is manifested in critical practices that oppose European integration. Euroscepticism relates to the principally contested character of the European Union as a political entity. It correlates with the attempts to promote the democratic legitimacy of the European Union. Euroscepticism was seen as a British disease. But it has now spread across the continent. The scepticism could be seen in the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty, in the 2005 referendums in France and the Netherlands, and in the rejection of the Lisbon Treaty, in the 2008 Irish referendum. This paper aims to make a twofold contribution to the study of Euroscepticism in Europe. The former is to analyze the euroscepticism as an ideology. The latter is to find out the effects of the Euroscepticism on European integration in general and in particular.
Article
Suomen maa- ja elintarviketalouden toimintaedellytyksiin merkittävästi vaikuttavasta yhteisestä maatalouspolitiikasta (YMP), sen suunnasta ja sisällöstä vuoteen 2020 saakka päästiin poliittiseen yhteisymmärrykseen kesäkuussa 2013. Euroopan komissio, Eurooppa-neuvosto ja Euroopan parlamentti saivat viimein sovitettua yhteen kantansa kaksi vuotta kestäneiden ja loppua kohti yhä intensiivisemmiksi käyneiden neuvottelujen jälkeen. Neuvottelujen tuloksena syntynyt sopimus luo perustan vuonna 2015 alkavalle uudelle EU:n yhteiselle maatalouspolitiikalle, joka merkitsee suorien tukien ”viherryttämistä” sekä tukien jakamista aiempaa tasaisemmin eri jäsenvaltioiden kesken. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan minkälaisia muutoksia, haasteita ja mahdollisuuksia yhteisen maatalouspolitiikan uudistus aiheuttaa Suomen maa- ja elintarviketaloudelle. Keskeistä tutkimuksellisesti on arvioida maataloustuotannon ja –tulojen ja tilamäärän kehitysnäkymiä Suomessa vuoteen 2020 saakka. Analyysit maataloustuotannon ja -tulon tulevasta kehityksestä tehdään AGMEMOD-mallilla, joka on kehitetty osana laajempaa EU-rahoitteista hanketta jossa MTT taloustutkimus on mukana (http://www.tnet.teagasc.ie/agmemod/). AGMEMOD-malli on 28 jäsenmaata käsittävä EU:n maataloutta kuvaava ekonometrinen markkinamalli. Mallin avulla analysoidaan markkina- ja politiikkamuutosten vaikutuksia EU:n maatalous- ja elintarvikemarkkinoihin. Malli on rekursiivis-dynaaminen, ja siinä otetaan huomioon politiikkamuutosten ohella mm. tuottavuuden ja tuotannon tehokkuuden kasvu sekä muutokset kulutustottumuksissa. Tuottavuus kasvaa mallissa satotason ja eläinten keskituotosten noustessa. Vaikutusanalyysit osoittavat maataloustuotteiden tuotannon pysyvän Suomessa keskimäärin nykyisellä tasolla vuoteen 2020, mikäli maataloustuotteiden hintakehitys vastaa tuotantopanosten hintakehitystä ja maatalouden tukijärjestelmä säilyy ennallaan. Kotimainen maidontuotanto jää AGMEMOD-mallin ennusteessa jonkin verran nykyistä alemmaksi. Jo aiemmin tehdyt politiikkauudistukset heikentävät maidon tarjontaa Suomessa. Maitokiintiöistä luopuminen vuonna 2015 on siten kohtuullisen hyvistä kysyntä- ja markkinanäkymistä huolimatta haasteellinen Suomen maitosektorille, mikä korostaa maidon hintatason ja kansallisen tuen merkitystä Suomen maitosektorille. Naudanlihantuotannon, joka on Suomessa erittäin riippuvainen lypsylehmien lukumäärästä, ennustetaan säilyvän nykyisellä noin 80 milj. kg tasolla vuosina 2013–2020. Sianlihantuotannon ennustetaan alenevan ja laskevan alle kotimaisen kulutuksen tason. Siipikarjanlihantuotanto sitä vastoin nousee edelleen kasvavan kulutuksen tahdissa. Maatalouden rakennekehitykseen ja sitä kautta tuottavuuskehityksen nopeuteen maatalouspolitiikan muutoksilla arvioidaan olevan hyvin vähän vaikutusta. Maatalouden rakennekehitys jatkuu tulevina vuosina nopeana yksikkökokojen kasvaessa ja tilalukumäärän pienentyessä.
Chapter
This book explains what ‘small’ states are and explores their current security challenges, in general terms and through specific examples. It reflects the shift from traditional security definitions emphasizing defence and armaments, to new security concerns such as economic, societal and environmental security where institutional cooperation looms larger. These complex issues, linked with traditional power relations and new types of actors, need to be tackled with due regard to democracy and good governance. Key policy challenges for small states are examined and applied in the regional case studies. The book deals mainly with the current experience and recent past of such states but also offers insights for their future policies. Although many of the states covered are European, the study also includes African, Caribbean and Asian small states. Their particular interest and relevance is outlined, as is the connection between their security challenges and their smallness. Policy lessons for other states are then sought. The book is the first in-depth, multi-continent study of security as an aspect of small state governance today. It is novel in placing the security dilemmas of small states in the context of wider ideas on international and institutional change, and in dealing with non-European states and regions.
Chapter
Finland’s EU membership in 1995 is often seen as one of the watersheds in the country’s history, at times equated with some of the most fundamental events that have shaped Finland’s destiny. These include the end of Swedish rule in 1809, and the ensuing new status as an autonomous Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire; and full independence in 1917. While the former took place in the context of the Napoleonic Wars, the latter was linked to the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. Finland’s accession to the EU was also linked to broader European developments, namely the end of the Cold War and the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union. During this transformative period, Finland repositioned itself firmly in Western Europe through full participation in European economic and political integration.
Article
With a focus on governmental institutions, this book explores the ways in which EU membership has altered the balance of power among key political actors. The authors discuss cultural adaptation to integration, as well as examining the views of the elite and voters. The transformation in national identity, sovereignty and neutrality are also examined. © 2003 Tapio Raunio and Teija Tiilikainen. All rights reserved.
Article
In the two decades since the emergence of the European Union at Maastricht there has been a concerted attempt to build a European political space, typified by the debates on constitutionalization and democratization. Much less noticed, but no less important, has been the mobilization of publics, interest groups and political parties against the integration process. In the light of the failure to realize the Laeken objectives, the stabilization of an anti-integration bloc in the European Parliament, recurrent ‘no’ votes in national referendums and the emergence of an increasingly co-ordinated movement of critical interest groups, it is argued in this article that this opposition has become embedded and persistent, at both European and national levels. This will have considerable consequences for the Union itself and the way it has chosen to largely ignore sceptical voices to date.