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“Gender and Power”: Reading Raewyn Connell in Russia

Authors:
  • Gorbachev Foundation

Abstract

Raewyn Connell’s book Gender and Power: Society, the Person, and Sexual Politics, published by the New Literary Observer Publishing House in Russian, presents a theory and the methodology of structural constructivist perspective for gender studies. Connell examines gender as a social structure that forms models of masculinity and femininity. The concept of the structure fixes constraints and limits of social organization (social institutions) that reflects “the rigidity of the social world.” At the same time, the structure may be a subject of purposeful practice. The mutual dynamics of the structure and practice determines the fundamental characteristic of gender relations, that of their historicity. The power structure seeks to provide a high degree of regulating the gender order. At the same time, numerous conflicts over gender and sexuality, formed social groups, and resistance movements have developed in the space of the practices. In discussing feminist ideas and theories, Connell raises the question of the involvement of the people involved in the transformation projects of gender relations based on equality criterion. One of Connell’s key ideas is “to understand the game of social forces in which gender plays a leading role,” cutting off any attempt to find a single or universal explanation. This approach has created prospects for Comparative Studies, which is able to describe and explain the forms of organization of gender relations in different cultures and societies. This conception sheds light on the exceptional importance of the role of gender in the “game of social forces” that determines the course and direction of social transformation in modern Russia.
«Гендер и власть»:
читая книгу Рейвин Коннелл
в России
коннелл р. (2015). гендер и власть: общество, личность и гендерная политика / авториз.
пер. с англ. т. барчуновой под ред. и. тартаковской. м.: новое литературное обозрение. 432 с.
(библиотека журнала «неприкосновенный запас».) isbn 978-5-4448-0248-9
Ольга Здравомыслова
    -
   (-),
    -  
   ( )
:  ., . . . , . ,   
E-mail: olgazdrav@gorby.ru
    «  . ,    -
»,       «  -
»,     - 
  .      ,
    .   «» -
 «,     »
( ),    «  ».   
       .
       -
   —  .    
     ,    
       , -
     .   
  ,    ,     -
         
.     — «   ,  
   » —     
  .      -
 ,       
   .      
     «  »,     -
     .
Ключевые слова: , , , , , -
 ,  
       « 
. ,    »     
©  . ., 
©   ,  : ./-X----
RUSSIAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW. 2016. VOL. 15. NO 3 213
214 СОЦИОЛОГИЧЕСКОЕ ОБОЗРЕНИЕ. 2016. Т. 15. № 3
«  »       -
    (onnell, ).
«»      ,  , , -
    .  «   »
  «    » (, : ),
     .   -
,    ,      ,
    .     -
 ( )    (  )
      ,  -
.  «  » —       
,      — ,   
 .
-  ,   -
       ,    
,   .  , ,  , -
  ,      
  «»  :    -
        
  « », « », « »;
       « -
» —    .
         
   .      -
        , «-
      » (. ).    
          «
 »,       -
   .
Происхождение теорий гендера как проблема исследования
 «»      - —   ,  -
   «Gender and Power: Society, the Person and Sexual Politics»,
          
 .     ,    -
      «   
»,  ,    (. ),  
. ,    .    
..  . .  (, , : –).    
   ..  «  :  . » (-
, : –).
RUSSIAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW. 2016. VOL. 15. NO 3 215
  ,  ,   
     «». 
,  «          -
»  «     
   » (. ),      
 —         . -
        ,  -
     .     
       ,    
  ,       
    , ,  -
.
    ,     -
,      ,   : ) -
   —     «», 
 ; )    (  )  -
  —    ,   
  ; )     . -
       
 ,       , -
   ,    « 
  ,  , ,   
» (. ).
 ,         ,
        ,   —
       ,   ,
 ,        «-
»  «» .    
         
  «   »,  «
  »      ,
 «   :   ,   -
  » (, : ).
 ,   ,   -
 , —      -
     ,    
   ,    «» 
«».
  ,   ,   , 
  ,    , « 
   ,      »
(. ),    «»    «
216 СОЦИОЛОГИЧЕСКОЕ ОБОЗРЕНИЕ. 2016. Т. 15. № 3
»   .   ,   
        -
     .
      , ,  -
 ,    « »,    ,
      -  -
- ,      -
  .   ,  ,  -
    « ,   ,
  » (. ),    
      , « 
     » (. ).
     — «   , 
    » (. ) —   
    .  «  » -
     ,      -
 ,    --
 ,       
, «    » (. ).
Идея и логика концепции
      -  
      :  — « -
»,   ,    «»?  -
,    ,    «-
», «»,  «   », 
      .  , 
     «    -
» —     ,   
        
.          — -
,      ,  «,  
- » (. , ).
   « »     -
  ,     
 , ,  ,    -
  .  ,    -
  ,     —     
        -
       .
RUSSIAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW. 2016. VOL. 15. NO 3 217
    ,  , 
       «  -
,    » (. ),    
         -
  (. ).    ,  , -
,   .  ,     
  :   -   
   ,      -
    (, : –).
        -
 стандартного нормативного случая,     ,
   .       -
   -  
  «    »   
  —       
   .      « -
   »,  ,   -
   (. –).    ,  -
     «,  
  »,     
«  ».   «   
  ,    »,    -
     , «  »
(. –).  ,    
,       -
 .  ,      -
,     ,   
       (, 
 ,  ) (. –).  
 ,  ,  
     —  -
 ,       ,  
«     » (. ).
         
   ,      -
,  ,       
- «  ».     ,
  :     , -
        «-
» ()  «» (  ) 
?
218 СОЦИОЛОГИЧЕСКОЕ ОБОЗРЕНИЕ. 2016. Т. 15. № 3
 ,   структура  «, -
    » ( ),
   «  ».   «
 …      -
» (. ).      .   . ,
       ,  -
   ,  « ,   -
» (. ).  ,     
     —  ,
   « ,    »
(. ).    ,      -
 ,        -
 («     ,  »)  
    (. ).
      
  ,  ,   , 
     .  
  ( )     -
 ,     (. ).
       «   
  » (. ),    -
    . ,    -
      -
 — «    »,  
       
(.).
    ,   -
: труд (      ,  
 ,       
); власть ( , ,    -
 —    );     -
    (  -
  «катексис») (. –).
   —     -
   ,    -
  «   —   
 » (. ),   .    
  —     ,
      
     . «   -
   » (. ),   
,    ,   , 
RUSSIAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW. 2016. VOL. 15. NO 3 219
,   ,      -
  .
      -
  ,       -
   ,  «  » — «
     » (. ).  -
         
,        
   ,      —
      .
  (  ,   ) 
        
 (. , ),   . 
,  гегемонная маскулинность      ( -
   ),    ,     -
,    .   ,   ,
    ,  «
 »,   «»    
(.).   ,    «-
» ,      
   :  утрированная женственность  
   ,        -
.      ,    -
     (. –).
Логика «консервативных поворотов» и роль теории гендера
         -
,   « ».    -
       ,   , -
 ,      , 
 ,       -
  («»,  )   -
.   ,  ,  ,    «-
»        
     .      
  ,    ,  , 
        
  ,         -
 .
« »       -
 ,    ,     («-
220 СОЦИОЛОГИЧЕСКОЕ ОБОЗРЕНИЕ. 2016. Т. 15. № 3
»,  ) .   ,    -  -
  ,     
        «-
»,   ,       
.      «»  -
  —    гендер       
    .
  ,   ,    -
,      « , 
:  ,   ,     ?».  
,     —  
«»  «     
 ,   „“,   ,     
 ».    «»   -
 «»      -
 ,        
 .
         . -
     ,    ,
         
     , «  
»  «  ,    »
(.).          ,     -
      ,  « 
 »      « -
 » (. ),          
    .
  «      »:   «-
»  ,       -
 , « ,     -
 »,     
  « »    
   (. –, , ).  , -
,    ,   ,   -
    -,     «  ».
         -
       , -
.  .    «      
 »   .  : https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=PVznPcgQwc.
.  . «„ (a)“:      » (http://
www.colta.ru/articles/literature/).
RUSSIAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW. 2016. VOL. 15. NO 3 221
    «    ,
    » (. ).   —  
    , «  
  » (. ).
 ,        -
,   , —       
  ,     
.
Литература
Бурдье П. ().   / .  . . .   . .:
.
Гаспаров Б. М. (). , , :   .
.:   .
Гидденс Э. ().  :    / .  .
.. .:  .
Здравомыслова Е. А., Темкина А. А. ().     .
: - .
Здравомыслова О. М. ().   :   
. .: .
Соловьев В. С. ().    // Соловьев В. С.   -
. . . .: . . –.
Тартаковская И. Н. ().   :  .  // Здраво-
мыслова Е. А., Темкина А. А. (.).   : -
 . .: - . . –.
Connell R.W. (). Gender and Power: Society, the Person and Sexual Politics. Cam-
bridge: Polity Press.
“Gender and Power”: Reading Raewyn Connell in Russia
Olga Zdravomyslova
Executive Director, International Foundation for Socio-Economic and Political Studies (Gorbachev Foundation)
Leading Research Fellow, Institute of Socio-Economic Studies of Population of the Russian Academy of
Sciences (ISESP RAS)
Address: Leningradsky Prospekt, 39/14, Moscow, Russian Federation 125167
E-mail: olgazdrav@gorby.ru
Raewyn Connell’s book Gender and Power: Society, the Person, and Sexual Politics, published by
the New Literary Observer Publishing House in Russian, presents a theory and the methodology
222 СОЦИОЛОГИЧЕСКОЕ ОБОЗРЕНИЕ. 2016. Т. 15. № 3
of structural constructivist perspective for gender studies. Connell examines gender as a social
structure that forms models of masculinity and femininity. The concept of the structure xes
constraints and limits of social organization (social institutions) that reects “the rigidity of the
social world.” At the same time, the structure may be a subject of purposeful practice. The mutual
dynamics of the structure and practice determines the fundamental characteristic of gender
relations, that of their historicity. The power structure seeks to provide a high degree of regulating
the gender order. At the same time, numerous conicts over gender and sexuality, formed social
groups, and resistance movements have developed in the space of the practices. In discussing
feminist ideas and theories, Connell raises the question of the involvement of the people involved
in the transformation projects of gender relations based on equality criterion. One of Connell’s
key ideas is “to understand the game of social forces in which gender plays a leading role,” cutting
o any attempt to nd a single or universal explanation. This approach has created prospects for
Comparative Studies, which is able to describe and explain the forms of organization of gender
relations in dierent cultures and societies. This conception sheds light on the exceptional
importance of the role of gender in the “game of social forces” that determines the course and
direction of social transformation in modern Russia.
Keywords: gender, structure, practice, femininity, masculinity, gender order, conservative turn
References
Bourdieu P. (2001) Prakticheskij smysl [Practical Sense], Saint Petersburg: Aleteia.
Connell R. W. (1987) Gender and Power: Society, the Person and Sexual Politics, Cambridge: Polity
Press.
GasparovB.(1996) Iazyk, pamiat’, obraz: lingvistika iasykovogo suschestvovania [Language, Memory,
Image: Linguistics of Language Existence], Moscow: New Literary Observer.
Giddens A. (2003) Ustroenie obshhestva: ocherk istorii strukturacii [The Constitution of Society:
Outline of the Theory of Structuration], Moscow: Akademicheskij proekt.
Solovyov V. (1989) Chteniia o bogochelovechestve [Reading about God-manhood]. Sochineniia. T.2
[Works, Vol. 2], Moscow: Pravda, pp. 3–172.
Tartakovskaya I. (2007) Gendernaia teoriia praktik: podkhod R. Konnell [Gender Theory of Practice:
R.Konnell’s Approach]. Rossiyskiy gendernyy poriadok: sotsiologicheskiy podkhod [Russian Gender
Order: A Sociological Approach] (eds. E. Zdravomyslova, A. Temkina), Saint Peterburg: EU Press.
Zdravomyslova E., Temkina A. (2015) 12 lektsiy po gendernoy sotsiologii [12 Lectures on the Sociology
of Gender], Saint Petersburg: EU Press.
Zdravomyslova O. (2003) Sem’ia i obschestvo: gendernoie izmereniie rossiyskoy transformatsii [Family
and Society: The Gender Dimension of the Russian Transformation], Moscow: URSS.
... It should be noted that the passage of a man's military service on conscription, as well as caring for a child by a woman, is included in the insurance experience taken into account when calculating the insurance pension. However, labor legislation sees the legal regulation of these situations differently (Zdravomyslova, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article is devoted to the analysis of Russian legislation from the point of observance of gender symmetry and the identification of norms that infringe on the rights of one of the genders and thereby hinder the exercise of rights on equal footing. The starting point in the research methodology is the study of the concept of a gender-neutral norm, which should proceed from the position of ensuring equality of conditions and opportunities for men and women to the same extent. Also, a gender analysis of Russian legislation was used as a methodology, as a result of which it can be concluded that the Russian state, as an institution to which society has delegated power, is not fully consistent in the political measures and steps taken to resolve this issue. The final conclusion that was reached during the study, in a number of cases, seems advisable to revise the provisions of Russian legislation beforehand with sociological research, which makes it possible to reveal the real effectiveness and possible side negative consequences of the application of certain legal norms and thereby minimize the procedural problems that arise in this regard.
Book
Full-text available
С приходом коронавируса и введением мер безопасности одни россияне старшего возраста замкнулись и ограничили контакты и активность. Другие, напротив, включились в практики заботы, взаимопомощи, творчества, обучения, социальной активности и участия с учетом происходящих изменений. В центре внимания монографии находятся социально активные люди в возрасте старше 65 лет. Формы, мотивы и результаты их участия в практиках самоорганизации и активности рассматриваются через призму эмпауэрмент(empowerment)-подхода - расширения возможностей. Результаты исследования показывают, что люди старшего возраста обладают потенциалом, который продуктивно реализуется ими в социальной практике. Этот потенциал складывается и развивается в течение всей жизни, что требует внимания к поддержке активной стратегии самореализации человека на протяжении всей жизни (lifelong). Монография может представлять интерес для исследователей старения, практических специалистов социальной сферы и социально-ориентированных некоммерческих организаций, органов государственной власти, людей старшего возраста.
Ustroenie obshhestva: ocherk istorii strukturacii [The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration
  • A Giddens
Giddens A. (2003) Ustroenie obshhestva: ocherk istorii strukturacii [The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration], Moscow: Akademicheskij proekt.
Chteniia o bogochelovechestve
  • V Solovyov
Solovyov V. (1989) Chteniia o bogochelovechestve [Reading about God-manhood].
Prakticheskij smysl [Practical Sense], Saint Petersburg: Aleteia
  • P Bourdieu
Bourdieu P. (2001) Prakticheskij smysl [Practical Sense], Saint Petersburg: Aleteia.
Gendernaia teoriia praktik: podkhod R. Konnell [Gender Theory of Practice: R. Konnell's Approach
  • I Tartakovskaya
Tartakovskaya I. (2007) Gendernaia teoriia praktik: podkhod R. Konnell [Gender Theory of Practice: R. Konnell's Approach]. Rossiyskiy gendernyy poriadok: sotsiologicheskiy podkhod [Russian Gender Order: A Sociological Approach] (eds. E. Zdravomyslova, A. Temkina), Saint Peterburg: EU Press.
Iazyk, pamiat' , obraz: lingvistika iasykovogo suschestvovania [Language, Memory, Image: Linguistics of Language Existence]
  • B Gasparov
Gasparov B. (1996) Iazyk, pamiat', obraz: lingvistika iasykovogo suschestvovania [Language, Memory, Image: Linguistics of Language Existence], Moscow: New Literary Observer.
Sem'ia i obschestvo: gendernoie izmereniie rossiyskoy transformatsii [Family and Society: The Gender Dimension of the Russian Transformation
  • O Zdravomyslova
Zdravomyslova O. (2003) Sem'ia i obschestvo: gendernoie izmereniie rossiyskoy transformatsii [Family and Society: The Gender Dimension of the Russian Transformation], Moscow: URSS.
12 lektsiy po gendernoy sotsiologii
  • E Zdravomyslova
  • A Temkina
Zdravomyslova E., Temkina A. (2015) 12 lektsiy po gendernoy sotsiologii [12 Lectures on the Sociology of Gender], Saint Petersburg: EU Press.