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Anatomy of a beautiful face and smile

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A thing of beauty is a joy for ever'' is a common saying. But what is beauty ? It is that which gives the highest degree of pleasure to the mind & suggests that object of delight approximates to one's conception of an ideal. Standards for measuring beauty are actually comparison of everything you have experienced. In the era of so many beauty peagants, involvement of anatomists and esthetic dentists in defining the beauty is well understood. The authors in the present article have reviewed the various anatomical parameters for assessing a beautiful face and a beautiful smile. These may be of help to anatomists, dentists and of course to aspirants.
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74
J. Anat. Soc. India 52(1) 74-80 (2003)
J Anat. Soc. India 52(1) 74-80 (2003)
Anatomy of ‘A Beautiful Face & Smile’
Patnaik, V.V.G; * Singla Rajan, K; **Bala Sanju.
Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Patiala. * Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical college, Amritsar **Department
of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, SGRD Dental Collage, Amritser. INDIA.
Abstract. — ``A thing of beauty is a joy for ever’’ is a common saying. But what is beauty ? It is that which gives the highest degree
of pleasure to the mind & suggests that object of delight approximates to one's conception of an ideal. Standards for measuring beauty are
actually comparison of everything you have experienced. In the era of so many beauty peagants, involvement of anatomists and esthetic
dentists in defining the beauty is well understood. The authors in the present article have reviewed the various anatomical parameters for
assessing a beautiful face and a beautiful smile. These may be of help to anatomists, dentists and of course to aspirants.
Key words : Beauty, Beautiful face, Smile, Anatomy
J. Anat. Soc. India 51(1) 3-5 (2003)
Introduction :
Beauty is that ‘‘which gives the highest degree
of pleasure to the senses or to the mind and
suggests that the object of delight approximates
one’s conception of an ideal.’’ (Webster, 1988) Ever
since primitive people first smeared their faces and
bodies with pigments from the earth and admired
the result, the quest for beauty has been expressed
by every human culture.
Standards of Beauty :
The human brain works much like a computer,
storing information and recalling it at a later time.
Standards for measuring beauty are actually a
compilation and comparison of everything you have
seen or experienced. When you look at a flower and
think. ‘‘That’s beautiful,’’ in your mind’s eye you are
comparing your response to this flower in relative
terms to every other flower you have seen. The
same is true when you look at a smile.
It is true that standards of beauty change over
time and across cultures. Members of some African
tribes, for example, perforate their lips, ears, or
noses in order to insert shells, colored stones, or
gems. Among the Chinese nobility, the tiny bound
feet of females were an important standard of
beauty and status. Classical cultures of Greece and
Rome based their standards of beauty on set rules
of proportion and composition.(Goldstein, 1998)
While the various cultures of the world, past
and present may differ widely in their standards of
beauty, the response to beauty is universal and
spans all time.
The Response to Beauty :
Psychologists have amassed considerable
evidence that society places a great amount of
importance on appearance. Various studies show
that attractive people have more success in
obtaining everything from dates to jobs to
favourable jury verdicts. A report by Langlois et al
(1987) found that infants respond more positively to
attractive faces than to unattractive ones, and prefer
faces with soft curves to those with sharp angles.
Research also demonstrates that attractive men and
women tend to have higher paying and more
prestigious jobs. Criminologists report that good-
looking criminals are treated more leniently by juries
and, in general, are more likely to receive lighter
sentences than their less attractive counterparts.
Teachers tend to be less harsh when disciplining
attractive children, while both students and teachers
perceive good-looking children to be smarter and
more likely to succeed. Thus, there should be no
question that it is advantageous in our society for
individuals to make every effort to optimize their
appearance.(Goldstein, 1993)
Proportions of Beauty :
Many factors influence the perception of
beauty, including makeup, clothing, jewelry and
facial expressions. However, it is the relational
proportion of our physical features that is the
primary factor in determining the perception,
conscious or subconscious, of beauty.
Cunningham (1986) attempted to
mathematically assess physical beauty. In a study
rating the attractiveness of 50 females, more than
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J. Anat. Soc. India 52(1) 74-80 (2003)
half of whom were finalists in an international beauty
pageant, he concluded that :
1. The width of an eye (AB) should be three-
tenths that of the face (CD) as measured
at eye level (Fig 1)
3. The vertical distance from the center of
the eye to the bottom of the eyebrow (AB)
should be one-tenth the height of the face
(CD) (Fig. 3)
4. The height of the visible eyeball (EF)
should be one-fourteenth the height of the
face (CD) (Fig. 3).
2. The chin length (AB) should be one-fifth
the total height (CD) of the face (Fig. 2)
5. The total area of the nose should be less
than five percent of the total area of the
face (Fig. 4).
Fig-4Fig-2
Fig-1 Fig-3
Patnaik, V.V.G. et al
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J. Anat. Soc. India 52(1) 74-80 (2003)
6. The ideal mouth (AB) is 50 percent of the
width of the face (CD) measured at mouth
level (Fig.5).
(ii) Midline relationship of teeth (Central
incisor) to face (philtrum). In the most
Cunningham’s findings suggest that large eyes,
a small nose and chin, high cheekbones, and a
large, balanced smile are considered to be the
physical attributes of a beautiful female face.
Likewise, the handsome male face will have these
same attributes but with the modifications of a
relatively small nose, bushy eyebrows, and
prominent chin.
These mathematical calculations reveal a
harmony of proportion between features. When any
one of these features is out of harmony, we tend to
perceive that person as deviating from normal. If the
features are brought into harmony and symmetry,
the person is then viewed as attractive.
Beautiful Smile :
A beautiful smile is an added asset to a
beautiful face. Former lies in the domain of an
esthetic dentist. Key to the successful results in
esthetic dentistry lies in a saying by Dawson (1995)
i.e.'' If you know where you are & you know where
you want to go, getting there is easy'' Goldstein
(1998) described certain parameters of a beautiful
smile which are described below :—
(A) Facial Analysis :
1. Full Smile : Following parameters judge the
beauty of a face in full smile.
(i) Relationship between interpupillary line
(AB) & occlusal plane of teeth (CD) :
Ideally these should be parallel to each
other (Fig. 6) but may be canted to right or
left side.
beautiful face, this relationship would be
symmetrical; in others it may be to right or
left of centre.
(iii) Lip symmetry (Relationship of lips to face)-
A symmeterical relationship adds to beauty
while asymmetry subtracts.
2. Lips at Rest : The lips play an important part in
facial beauty whether these are full or thin or
average, whether prominent or retruded, height
of the upper & lower teeth exposed at rest, all
these constitute vital parameters for gauging a
beautiful face & smile.
3. Profile. Following parameters are considered in a
profile
(i) Nasolabial angle-This is the angle between
columella of nose & anterior surface of
upper lip. (see fig. 7). The Normal angle
Fig-5
Fig-7
Beautiful Face and Smile
Fig-6
AB
CD
Nasolabial
Angle
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J. Anat. Soc. India 52(1) 74-80 (2003)
should be 90°. If it is <90º, the maxilla of
that person is prominent & the profile is
known as convex. It the angle is > 90º, the
maxilla is said to be retruded & the profile
concave.
(ii) Rickets E-Plane - It is drawn from tip of the
nose to the chin. Then the distance
between this plane & the lips is measured
Ideally the upper lip should be at a
distance of 4mm & lower lip at a distance
of 2mm from this plane.
(B) Dentofacial Analysis (Fig 8) :— A beautiful
and esthetic smile has following vital parameters.
Patnaik, V.V.G. et al
Fig-8
Dentofacial Analysis
q Average
q Convex Curve
q6
qRight
(i) Upper Lip
(ii) Incisal edge to lower lip
(iv) Full smile ....... number of teeth exposed
(v) Midline ....... relationship of central incisors to philtrum
(vii)Bilateral negative space
q Lowq High
q Straight q Concave Curve
q Touching q Slightly Covered
q8q10 q16
q Center q Right of center q Left of center
qLeft qStraight
qIncreasedqNormal
(vi) Midline ....... skewing to left or right
(iii) Tooth-Lower lip position
q Note Touching
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J. Anat. Soc. India 52(1) 74-80 (2003)
(i) Position of upper lip – while smiling, upper
lip should be neither too high so that to expose the
upper gums, nor too low so as to cover more than
half of upper teeth. It should be ideally covering not
more than ¼th of teeth.
(ii) Alignment of upper incisal edge to lower lip–
The best position is a convex curve downwards, but
it may be straight or even concave downwords.
(iii) Tooth-lower lip position The teeth may be
just touching the lower lip or there may be a slight
gap.
(iv) Number of teeth exposed during full smile –
The smile may be canine to canine (6 teeth
exposed); premolar to premolar (8-10 teeth
exposed); molar to molar (16 teeth exposed).
(v) Midline relationship of central incisors to
philtrum – A midline through philtrum should ideally
pass through the centre of two central incisors.
Howerver, it may pass right or left of the centre of
central incisors.
(vi) Midline skewing to left or right – Ideally,
there should be no skewing. But there may be left or
right skewing.
(vii) Bilateral negative space – under normal
conditions, there is little space visible between
angles of mouth & teeth while smiling.
(C) Dental analysis :—
(i) Proportions of central incisors – Height &
width of central incisors is measured with
calipers. The most ideal width to height
ratio is 80%.(Fig-9).
(ii) Proportion of central incisor to lateral
incisor to canine-Width of central & lateral
incisors & canine is measured with
calipers. The ideal ratio of cent : lateral :
canine should be 1. 6 : 1 : 0. 6. (Fig.-10)
(See Golden proportion vide infra).
(D) Other Parameters for a Beautiful Smile :
Following parameters, if present, carry a negative
effect on the beauty of smile & need management.
(i) Gingival Height Asymmetry
(ii) Dark triangles.
(iii) Discoloured Gingiva.
(iv) Over contoured crowns
(v) Poor crown margins.
(vi) Active periodontal problems.
(vii) Mobility and / or furcation.
(viii) Endodontic lesion.
(ix) Occlusion-wear facets / incisal wear.
(x) Flared teeth
(xi) Diastema
(xii)Overlapped teeth
(xiii) Chipped teeth
(xiv) Discoloured teeth.
(xv)Smoothness of surface texture.
Concept of Golden or Divine Proportion - It
is a concept incorporated by the restorative dentist
into arch and tooth evaluation for determining tooth
Fig-10
Fig-9
Beautiful Face and Smile
Height
Width
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J. Anat. Soc. India 52(1) 74-80 (2003)
Patnaik, V.V.G. et al
size. This theory states that for any two objects to be
in esthetic harmony, they should exist in the ratio of
0.618 to 1.0 (Ricketts, 1982 a, b.)
In dentistry, certain groups of teeth are
theoretically proportionate to each other in this ratio.
According to Levin (1978) ‘‘the [perceived width of the
[maxillary] central incisor is in golden proportion to the
width of the lateral incisor.’’ Similarly, ‘‘the width of the
[maxillry] lateral incisor is in golden proportion to the
width of the canine.’’ Research by Preston (1993)
states that these proportions are derived from the
apparent size of the teeth as viewed directly from the
anterior aspect. Preston concludes that ‘‘although the
advocated ratios may provide a result that is
esthetically pleasing, they are not the ratios found in
nature.’’ For many patients, this theory and the ratio of
the golden proportion can be quite useful, especially
as a starting point in achieving a harmonious and
esthetic anterior segment.
Proportions of a Beautiful Nose : A beautiful &
proportionate nose adds to beauty of face. The most
ideal proportions of a beautiful nose are given below
(a) Generally the columella-lip angle is :
l90 degrees in a man
lBetween 105 and 110 degrees in a woman
lIn younger age the angle is larger, but
decreases as the age advances.
(b) The angle at the bridge of the nose should
occur near the eyelashes..
(c) The line of the nose usually breaks a little above
the tip, especially in women. Men's noses tend
to be straighter.
(d) The usual ratio between the distance the nose
projects from the face (A) and the length of the
upper lip (B) is 1 : 1 (Fig. 11)
(e) A line drawn from the tip of the chin to the tip of
the nose should extend about 2mm from the
upper lip (Fig.7)
Beautiful Eyes. The eyes are one of the main
focal points of the face. Proper highlighting of the
eyes can enhance one's overall appearance.
Ideal eyebrow shape can be determined with
simple guidelines :
Fig-11
Fig-12
1. A vertical line extending from beside the
nostril to be forehead will indicate where the brow
should begin, unless the nose is overly broad
(Fig. 12).
Beautiful Face and Smile
2. A line extending from beside the nostril to the
outside of the eye determines brow length (Fig. 13).
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J. Anat. Soc. India 52(1) 74-80 (2003)
Fig-13
3. The arch of the brow normally occurs
immediately above the center of the pupil when the
patient is looking straight ahead.
References :
1. Cunningham, M. (1986) : Measuring the physical in physical
attractiveness : Quasi-experiments on the sociobiology of
female facial beauty. Journal of Personal & social
Psychology. 50 : 925-35.
2. Dawson, P.F.: Evaluation, diagnosis & treatment of occusal
problems. Mostry. St-Louis (1995).
3. Goldstein, R. E. (1993) : Esthetic Dentistry-a health service ?
Journal of Dental Research. 72 : 641-642.
4. Goldstein, R.E. Esthetics in Dentistry 2nd Edn. Vol-1.
Decker, toronto (1998).
5. Langlois, J.H.; Roggman, L.A.; Casey, R.H. et al. (1987) :
Infant preferences for attractive faces: Rudiments of a
stereotype ? Developmental Pyschology. 23 : 363-369.
6. Levin, E.I. (1978): Dental esthetics & golden proportion,
Journal of prosthetic dentistry. 40 : 244 - 52.
7. Preston, J. (1993) : The golden proportion revisited Journal of
esthetic dentistry. 5 : 247-51.
8. Ricketts, R.E. (1982 a): The biological significance of the
divine proportion. American Journal of orthodontic 81:
351-70.
9. Ricketts, R.E. (1982 b) : The divine proportion in facial
esthetics. Clinical & Plastic Surgery. 9 : 401-22.
10. Webster (1988) : New world dictionery of American English.
3rd Edn.
... The golden ratio is thus the ratio of the larger sub segment to the smaller. 39 This is a geometrical proportion in which a line AB is divided at a point C in such a way that CB/AB = AC/CB. That is, the ratio of the shorter section to the longer section of the line is equal to the ratio of the longer section to the whole line. ...
... As the golden proportion is a frequent ratio in symmetry, it has a foremost role in esthetic dentistry. It is a formula for evaluating the horizontal against the vertical [7]. ...
... The orthodontic literature contains more studies on skeletal structure than on soft-tissue structure, and the smile still receives relatively little attention (Farkas et al.,1984). The way in which patients perceive their own smile while watching themselves in the mirror differs a great deal from the way in which the orthodontist analyses the position of teeth in occlusion using mouth spreaders (Patnaik et al., 2003). This is why, for a proper aesthetic analysis it was proposed that, when taking a photograph with the smile of the patients, the head of the patient has to be in a normal position, looking in front, towards a distant point (Moore et al., 2005;Flores Mir et al., 2003;Ackerman et.al, 2002). ...
... Several parameters interfere and are assessed in the esthetics of smile, such as the extent of gingival exposure, midline, buccal corridor, ratio between width and height of incisors, inclination of incisor crown, gingival contour and the smile arc aspect, among others [3][4][5]. ...
... Works of art from centuries ago reflect this fascination with the lips. Beautiful lips are often associated with fame, fortune, status, sexual desire and health 1 . This and various other theories can explain the high demand for lip enhancement procedures that does not seem to fade despite changes in fashion, economy and other social changes. ...
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