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Formulation and evaluation of natural antioxidant cream comprising methanolic peel extract of Dimocarpus longan

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Photo aging is a common problem that occurs in our community due to ongoing exposure to ultraviolet rays. The use of antioxidants is an effective approach to prevent symptoms related to photo-induced aging of the skin. Thus, the present study was to prepare and evaluate the antioxidant cream comprising the methanolic peel extracts of Dimocarpus longan for their radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity of peels and seeds methanolic extract (by continuous hot percolation-soxhletation) of D. longan was assessed by using stable 2,2 -Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The extract of the D. longan fruits contained three major polyphenolic compounds which are corilagin, gallic acid, and ellagic acid which are responsible for the antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts of both peels and seeds of D. longan exhibited high radical scavenging properties, the IC50 result revealed that peels extract were having higher antioxidant properties with 23.5 µg/ml compared to the seeds 32.13 µg/ml. Based on the higher scavenging activity the peels was chosen to prepare as formulation. Thus, the cream was formulated with 2.5% of peels extract by fusion method with incorporation of two different emulsifying agents for two formulations (F1 & F2). The evaluation of the formulations was done on different parameters like pH, spreadability, rheological study, non-volatile matter at 105 °C, physical stability of cream and microbial limit test. Both the formulations (F1 & F2) were showed good pH, homogeneity, appearance, ease to remove, good consistency, spreadability and no microbial growth. However, after four weeks of storage formulation of F1 showed cracking and phase separation. The evaluation parameters of the formulated cream F2 showed good results and are safe to use for skin. The present results indicates that the D. longan fruit peel extract has a good potential for cosmetic product development. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.
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International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2016; 8(9): 1305-1309
ISSN- 0975 1556
Research Article
*Author for Correspondence:
Formulation and Evaluation of Natural Antioxidant Cream Comprising
Methanolic Peel Extract of Dimocarpus longan
Ravindran Muthukumarasamy*, Alifah Ilyana, Nur ‘Afini Fithriyaani, Nur Ain Najihah, Nur
Asyiqin, Mahendran Sekar
Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak, Ipoh, Perak,
Malaysia, 30450.
Available Online:20th September, 2016
ABSTRACT
Photo aging is a common problem that occurs in our community due to ongoing exposure to ultraviolet rays. The use of
antioxidants is an effective approach to prevent symptoms related to photo-induced aging of the skin. Thus, the present
study was to prepare and evaluate the antioxidant cream comprising the methanolic peel extracts of Dimocarpus longan
for their radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity of peels and seeds methanolic extract (by continuous hot
percolation-soxhletation) of D. longan was assessed by using stable 2,2 -Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The extract
of the D. longan fruits contained three major polyphenolic compounds which are corilagin, gallic acid, and ellagic acid
which are responsible for the antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts of both peels and seeds of D. longan exhibited
high radical scavenging properties, the IC50 result revealed that peels extract were having higher antioxidant properties
with 23.5 µg/ml compared to the seeds 32.13 µg/ml. Based on the higher scavenging activity the peels was chosen to
prepare as formulation. Thus, the cream was formulated with 2.5% of peels extract by fusion method with incorporation
of two different emulsifying agents for two formulations (F1 & F2). The evaluation of the formulations was done on
different parameters like pH, spreadability, rheological study, non-volatile matter at 105 °C, physical stability of cream
and microbial limit test. Both the formulations (F1 & F2) were showed good pH, homogeneity, appearance, ease to remove,
good consistency, spreadability and no microbial growth. However, after four weeks of storage formulation of F1 showed
cracking and phase separation. The evaluation parameters of the formulated cream F2 showed good results and are safe to
use for skin. The present results indicates that the D. longan fruit peel extract has a good potential for cosmetic product
development.
Keywords: Dimocarpus longan, photoaging, antioxidant, evaluation, DPPH.
INTRODUCTION
Malaysia’s climate is categorized as equatorial; being hot
and humid throughout the year and Malaysian folks will
expose more to ultraviolet rays. Ultraviolet rays will
facilitate the aging process and will cause the decrease in
skin elasticity. For this reason, the investigations of radical
scavenging activities are done to know the ability of the
extract to combat or delay the photo aging process.
D.longan is commonly known as dragon eye fruit or
longan, which is most prevailed fruits in Southeast Asia. It
comes from the Sapindaceae family which is the same
group as Litchichinensis L. (litchi) and Nephelium
lappaceum L. (rambutan). The extract of the D.longan
fruits contained three major polyphenolic compounds
which are corilagin, gallic acid, and ellagic acid which are
responsible for the antioxidant properties. Despite many
research is still ongoing for D.longan, however so far the
longan fruits extract have not been used as an antioxidant
formulation for skin care. Thus, the present study focused
to develop a formulation that may scavenge free radicals
and protect skin against oxidative damage. The study from
Nair et. al., concluded that it is possible to develop creams
containing herbal extracts having antioxidant property and
they can be used as the alternative as a barrier to protect
skin1. The litchi pericarps are proven to have high
antioxidant cue to its high in phenolic compounds content2.
The antioxidant activity of rambutan is due to the presence
of ellagic acid and gallic acid in the rambutan are
responsible for the antioxidant activity in the fruits3. The
longan seeds exhibited three major polyphenolic
compounds which are corilagin, gallic acid and ellagic
acid. Longan seed water extract shows the scavenging
activity as good as white tea and dried longan pulp have
the least scavenging activity4. The study conducted to
observe the ability of natural products to suppress the
production of oxidative stress and increasing enzymatic
antioxidants in tissues. The result revealed that water
extract longan pericarp can inhibit production of oxidation,
elevated antioxidant enzyme activities, and decreased
inflammatory response5. The longan seeds extracts have
the MMPIs activity which probably correlates with the
high antioxidant properties in the D. longan6.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Ravindran et al. / Formulation and Evaluation…
IJPCR, Volume 8, Issue 9: September 2016 Page 1306
Figure 1: Fruits of Dimocarpus longan.
Formulation 1
Formulation 2
Figure 2: Formulated antioxidant creams
Chemicals
2,2 -Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) was obtained
from Sigma Aldrich Co, St Louis, USA. Ascorbic acid was
obtained from S.D. Fine Chem, Ltd., Biosar, India. All
other chemicals used were of analytical grade.
Collection and Identification
10 kg of D. longan fruits was purchased from the local
market and identified. Care was taken to select healthy
fruits, the selected fruits were washed carefully with water
to remove dust and foreign materials.
Extraction
The peels and seeds of D. longan fruits were separated and
dried in the oven at 40 °C for 48 hours and grinded to
coarse powder using blender. The dried powder of peels
(250 g) and seeds (250 g) of the fruits were individually
extracted with methanol as solvent using Soxhlet
extraction method. Both the extracts were concentrated to
dryness under reduced pressure and controlled temperature
using rotary evaporator. The percentage yield of the
extracts were calculated. The collected extracts were
stored in air tight containers in refrigerator at 4 °C until
further study.
Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis6
The stock solution was prepared from the crude extract and
was dissolved in 10 ml of its own mother solvent. The
obtained stock solution were subjected to preliminary
phytochemical screening.
Test for alkaloids: Mayer’s reagent, Dragondroff’s
reagent, Hager’s reagent and Wagner’s reagent.
Test for carbohydrates: Molisch test, Fehling’s test and
Table 1: Composition of antioxidant cream.
Components
Amount (% w/w)
Active Ingredient
Formulation 2
(F2)
D.longan Peel extract
2.5 %
Oily Phase
Stearic acid
7.00 %
Cetyl alcohol
2.00 %
Mineral oil
20.00 %
Aqueous Phase
Glycerin
10.00 %
Methyl paraben
0.05%
Tween 80
-
Triethanolamine
(TEA)
2.00 %
Deionised water q.s
100 %
Benedict’s test.
Test for proteins: Biuret test.
Test for glycosides: Keller-Killiani test, Borntrager’s test
and Legal test.
Test for fixed oils: Spot test.
Test for tannins and phenolic compounds: Lead acetate test
and gelatin test.
Test for flavonoids: Shinoda’s test, test with Sodium
hydroxide solution and test with sulphuric acid.
Test for steroids: Libermann- Burchard test.
In vitro Antioxidant activity
The in vitro method is based on the inhibition. Samples are
added to a free radical generating system, inhibition of
the free radical action is measured and this inhibition is
related to antioxidant activity of the sample. Method vary
greatly as to the generated radical, the reproducibility of
the generation process, and the endpoint that is used for
determination. Both the extracts were tested for in vitro
antioxidant activity. The final concentration of the extract
and standard solutions used were 1000, 500, 250, 125,
62.5, 31.25, 15.625 and 7.812 µg/ml. the absorbance was
measured spectrophotometrically against the
corresponding blank solution.
The percentage inhibition was calculated by using the
following formula.
% Inhibition = OD control OD Sample × 100
OD control
IC50, which is the concentration of the sample required to
scavenge 50% of free radicals was calculated.
DPPH Assay
The present study on estimation of free radical scavenging
activity of peels and seeds of D. longan on 2,2-diphenyl-
1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical was determined8.
Reagents
2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl solution (DPPH, 100
µM): Accurately weighed 22 mg of DPPH in 100 ml of
methanol. From this stock solution, 18 ml was diluted to
100 ml with methanol to obtain 100 µM DPPH solution.
Preparation of Extract Solutions
Accurately weighed 21 mg of each extracts and dissolved
in 1 ml of freshly distilled DMSO to obtain solutions of 21
mg/ml concentration. These solutions were serially diluted
separately to obtain the lower concentrations.
Ravindran et al. / Formulation and Evaluation…
IJPCR, Volume 8, Issue 9: September 2016 Page 1307
Table 2: Nature, Percentage Yield of the Extracts.
Extract
Nature
Percentage
Yield
Crude methanol
extract (Seeds)
Light Yellow
semisolid
5.26
Crude methanol
extract (Peels)
Dark brown
semisolid
30.10
Table 3: Phytochemical analysis of the extracts.
Phytoconstituents
Seed extract
Peel extract
Alkaloids
A
A
Proteins
P
P
Carbohydrates
P
P
Glycosides
P
P
Fixed oils
P
P
Tannins and Phenolic
compounds
P
P
Flavonoids
P
P
Steroids
P
P
A = Absent, P = Present
Preparation of Standard Solutions
Accurately weighed 10 mg of ascorbic acid and dissolved
in 0.95 ml of freshly distilled DMSO to get 10.5 mg/ml
concentration. These solutions were serially diluted
separately to obtain the lower concentrations.
Procedure
To 2 ml of DPPH solution, 100 µl of each of the extract or
standard solution was added seperately. The solution were
incubated at 37 °C for 30 min and the absorbance of each
solution was measured at 490 nm using UV
spectrophotometer9.
Preparation of Formulation
D. longan methanolic peels extract is used to prepare the
antioxidant cream. For testing the maximum stability
between the formulations F1 and F2, two types of
stabilizers were chosen such as tween 80 and
triethanolamine. The composition of the cream were
shown in Table 1. The formulation F1 and F2 adopts the
same method to prepare the cream. The oily phase and
aqueous phase components were heated separately up to
70 °C and were mixed using homogenizer by addition of
methyl paraben, extract and perfume. Care was taken for
constant and even mixing, the remaining deionised water
is added with continuous stirring until the mixture cools
and formed as cream. Base cream is prepared in the same
method as formulation without extract. The formulated
creams were shown in Figure 2.
Evaluation of Antioxidant Cream
The following parameters were used to evaluate the
antioxidant cream. The standard procedure was followed
to evaluate all the parameters10.
Physical Properties
The cream was observed for colour, odour and appearance.
Determination of pH
The pH meter was calibrated using standard buffer
solution. About 0.5 g of the cream was weighed and
dissolved in 50 ml of distilled water and its pH was
measured.
Determination of Emulsion Type (Dye test)
The emulsion type was determined by using dye test. The
scarlet red dye is mixed with the cream. Placed a drop of
cream on a microscopic slide covers it with a cover slip
and examined it under a microscope. If the disperse
globules appears colourless the ground is red, the cream is
oil in water type. The reverse condition occurs in water in
oil type cream. i.e. the disperse globules appear red in the
colourless ground.
Homogenecity
The formulations were tested for the homogeneity by
visual appearance and by touch.
After Feel Effect
Emolliency, slipperiness and amount of residue left after
the application of fixed amount of cream was checked.
Loss on Drying
1 g of cream was taken in china dish and kept in an oven
at 105 °C for 2 hours.
Rheological Studies
The formulated cream was found to be non-newtonian.
Take a fixed quantity 10 g of cream in a 10 ml beaker.
Keep it impact for 1 hr. The beaker was inclined to one
side see whether consistency has changed or not. The
beaker was again tilted and checked for pourability of the
cream.
Stability Studies
To assess the formulation stability, stability studies were
carried out as per ICH guidelines. The cream filled bottle
was kept in humidity chamber maintained 30 + 2 °C with
65 + 5 % RH for two months. At the end of the studies,
samples were analysed for the physical properties.
Test for Microbial Growth in Formulated Creams
The formulated creams were inoculated on the plates of
Muller Hilton agar media by streak plate method. The
plates were placed in the incubator and are incubated at
37 °C for 24 hours. After the incubation period, plates were
taken out and check the microbial growth by comparing it
with the control.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Extraction and Qualitative Phytochemical studies
The percentage yield and nature of the extracts were given
in Table 2. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of
seeds and peels extracts showed the presence of
glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds,
carbohydrates, proteins, fixed oils and steroids as shown in
Table 3.
DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity
The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of peels and
seeds from D. longan were assessed using DPPH radical
scavenging activity. The results were shown in the Table 4
and 5. The highest radical scavenging activity was
recorded in the peels extract. Peels extract had the lowest
concentration to exhibit 50 % of the percentage inhibition
when compared to that of seeds extract. Moreover, when
compared to ascorbic acid, the ascorbic acid had higher
antioxidant properties with 11.50 µg/ml compared to peels
23.50 µg/ml and 32.13 µg/ml of seeds as shown in Table
6. However, the extracts were found to be less active
compared to the standard ascorbic acid. Thus the result can
conclude that the present study proposed that the D. longan
Ravindran et al. / Formulation and Evaluation…
IJPCR, Volume 8, Issue 9: September 2016 Page 1308
Table 6: IC50 value of standard vs sample extracts.
Extracts
IC50g/ml)
Ascorbic acid
11.50
D. longan seeds extract
32.13
D. longan peels extract
23.50
peels methanolic extracts possess high potential of
antioxidant properties. The observed antioxidant effects
can be attributed majorly to the presence of polyphenolic
compounds in the D. longan. A comparison graph of
DPPH radical scavenging activity of peels and seeds is
presented in the Figure 3.
Evaluation of Cream
The methanolic extract of D. longan peels were chosen to
formulate the cream because of its higher antioxidant
activities when compared to seeds. The dye test confirms
that the formulated creams were o/w type of emulsion
cream. The pH of the formulated creams was found to be
4.6 to 6.2. The formulated antioxidant cream were
evaluated for several physicochemical tests and the results
were shown in Table 7. The formulated F1 and F2 creams
showed pleasant odour and yellowish and light brownish
coloured creams respectively. The formulated cream was
not greasy after application to the skin. The formulated
creams were easily removable by washing with tap water.
The cream showed homogenous distribution of extract in
the cream which was confirmed by visual examination.
There was no change in colour of formulated cream upon
keeping for long time. After feel test showed that the
formulated cream were emollient and slipperiness. The
loss on drying of the formulated cream was found to be
within the limit to standard procedure. All the
physicochemical parameters were well maintained during
the period of accelerated stability studies at temperatures
80 C ± 0.1°C in refrigerator and at 25°C ± 1°C, 40 °C ± 1 °C
Table 4: DPPH radical scavenging activity of seeds extract.
Concentration(µg/ml)
S.D.
Mean of % inhibition
% inhibition ± SEM
7.818
0.162
37.31
37.31 ± 0.162
15.625
1.613
39.87
39.87 ± 1.613
31.25
0.911
48.77
48.77 ±0.911
62.5
0.433
74.05
74.05 ±0.433
125
0.491
79.26
79.26 ±0.491
250
0.583
90.97
90.97 ±0.583
500
0.285
92.05
92.05 ±0.285
1000
0.162
94.98
94.98 ±0.162
Table 5: DPPH radical scavenging activity of peels extract.
Concentration (µg/ml)
S.D.
Mean of % inhibition
% inihibition ± SEM
7.818
1.58
40.91
40.91 ±1.58
15.625
0.783
46.88
46.88 ±0.783
31.25
0.483
53.41
53.41 ±0.483
62.5
0.629
73.58
73.58 ±0.639
125
0.624
94.6
94.6 ±0.624
250
1.206
97.16
97.16 ±1.206
500
0.505
96.59
96.59 ±0.505
1000
0.412
92.61
92.61 ±0.412
Figure 3: DPPH scavenging activity of peels and seeds.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Percentage of Inhibition (%)
Concentration (µg/ml)
DPPH Scavenging Activity
Seeds
Peels
Linear (Seeds)
Linear (Peels)
Ravindran et al. / Formulation and Evaluation…
IJPCR, Volume 8, Issue 9: September 2016 Page 1309
in incubator for 8 weeks for both the formulations.
However, the formulation 1 (F1) showed cracking and the
globules of the disperse phase become coalesced and
showed separation between oil and water phase. The
formulation 2 (F2) showed good stability in colour and
consistency until the end of accelerated study period.
CONCLUSION
The D. longan is commonly known as longan or dragon
eye fruit in Malaysia and widely used for its medicinal
value in the traditional system of medicine. The extract of
the longan fruits contained three major polyphenolic
compounds which are corilagin, gallic acid, and ellagic
acid which are responsible for the antioxidant properties4.
The antioxidant creams are widely used today as it appears
to be an interesting way to safeguard the skin against
oxidative stress caused by various extrinsic sources. To
maintain the effectiveness of antioxidants against free
radicals, it is important to stabilise the final formulation on
its antioxidant properties. As a part of synergistic effects
the current practice moves towards in the formulation of
different combinations of antioxidants instead of single
antioxidant products. The present study revealed that the
peels were having higher radical scavenging activity
compared to that of seeds extract in DPPH method. The
evaluation test reveals that the formulated cream from
peels extract showed that it is safe to be used in the skin to
protect from extrinsic oxidation sources. Moreover, our
study presented that formulation of F2 is more stable
during the shelf storage. The research work suggests that,
to ensure the quality and purity of the cream it must have
the consistency and uniformity in the ingredients of the
herbal antioxidant cream. The trend of using herbal skin
cream is becoming in demand since it is proven that topical
application of anti-oxidant cream will be effective against
UV radiation and protect the skin from major consequence
of UV damage. In conclusion, the topical application of the
formulated cream from D. longan extract will help in
reducing oxidative damage and give the antioxidant effect
to our skin due to its high antioxidant values. In
conclusion, the topical application of the formulated cream
from D. longan extract will help in reducing oxidative
damage and give the antioxidant effect to our skin due to
its high antioxidant values.
REFERENCES
1. Nair SS, Mathew M, & Sreena K. Formulation and
evaluation of herbal cream containing Curcuma longa.
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2. Li W, Liang H, Wei Zhang M, Fen Zhang R, Yuan
Deng Y, Cheng Wei Z, Zhang Y, Jun Tang X. Phenolic
profiles and antioxidant activity of litchi (Litchi
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commercially available cultivars. Molecules. 2012, 17,
14954-967.
3. Chiaw Mei WS, Ismail A, Esa NM, Akowuah GA, Wai
HC, Seng YH. The Effectiveness of Rambutan
(Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of
Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions.
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Table 7: Physicochemical Evaluation of the formulated cream.
Parameter
F1
F2
Homogeneity
Homogenous
Homogenous
Appearance
Yellowish semisolid cream
Light brown semisolid cream
Odour
Good
Good
Loss on drying
0.25 %
0.11 %
Spreadability
Good
Good
After feel
Emollients and slipperiness
Emollients and slipperiness
Removal
Easily removed
Easily removed
Stability
Unstable
Stable for two months
Microbial limit test
< 100 colonies
< 100 colonies
F1 = Formulation 1, F2= Formulation 2
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... Shows the distribution of materials in the formula [135]. Touch and visual appearance were used to check for homogeneity [70]. ...
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Background Dimocarpus longan is a tropical tree that produces edible fruit. It is a neglected plant species that is listed as near threatened. In spite of its economic value, the propagation of longan cultivar using conventional methods is extremely difficult. The goal of this research is to produce and conserve this plant through in vitro propagation. Results In order to form new shoots, sterilized shoot tip explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzyl adenine (BA) or 2-isobentenyl-adenine (2ip). For direct organogenesis, young leaves of new shoots were cultured on MS medium fortified with various concentrations of Thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-(4-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enylamino purine) (Zeatin). Gibbrellic acid (GA 3 ) at different levels alone or in combination was used for shoot elongation. Also, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were used for root formation. MS medium supplemented with 1.00 mg/l 2ip was suitable for inducing axillary shoots from shoot tips (4.0 axillary shoots/explant). The highest significant 76% and numbers of adventitious buds from leaf base were achieved on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l TDZ. These buds developed into the longest plantlets on GA 3 at 3.0 mg/l and rooted well in ½MS containing 1.50 mg/l IBA plus 0.50 mg/l (NAA). About 70% in vitro plants were successfully acclimatized. The AFLP profile illustrated the genetic stability of gene expression action. The amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) profile illustrated the progenies were extremely similar to the mother plants. According to our findings, MS medium containing 25 ppm salicylic acid (SA) and 5 ppm methyl jasmonate (MeJA) produced the highest percentage of apigenin in longan calli (77.09 and 2.637%, w/w). Conclusion A successful and efficient micropropagation protocol has been developed and described here for the first time, and it will be very useful for the clonal propagation and conservation of the near-threatened Dimocarpus longan plant. Micropropagated plants are genetically identical to the donor plant using the AFLP technique. The usefulness of salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate as elicitors for increasing in vitro production of secondary metabolites in plants is demonstrated in this work.
... The need for cosmetic antioxidants increases especially for the elder because our skin becomes old due to physiological changes [11]. Currently, the urge to use natural ingredients as a source of antioxidants such as plant extracts is increasing to meet the antioxidant needs of the cosmetic industry [12,13]. ...
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... Furthermore, the current trend in cosmetics has reverted to nature, where the use of natural extracts has become very popular [6,7]. Moreover, natural material so have great potential in cosmetics because they are safer [8,9] when used with in an appropriate concentration and composition [10]. Essential oils are natural ingredients that represent a functional group with antioxidant activities [11], which are effective in reducing health risks. ...
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... as conclusion the maximum percentage of inhibition was shown by concentration of flower extract showed maximum percent inhibition. Results obtained were in substantiation with the earlier reports of Nagaich, Gulati and Chauhan [21] , for apple extract loaded gel and Muthukumarasamy, Ilyana, Fithriyaani, Najihah, Asyiqin and Sekar [28] for Dimocarpuslongon gel. ...
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... The emulsion test confirmed that prepared creams were oil/water emulsions. The previous findings showed that oil/water emulsions are stable for creams [38]. The pH of skin creams is an important parameter for the indication of their efficiency. ...
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... Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to evaluate the total phenolic content of the extract using Gallic acid as standard [11]. The standard curve of Gallic acid was prepared by taking 500, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.25, and 15.625 µg/ml concentrations [12]. The procedure for determining the absorption of various concentrations is the same as follows for Katha powder. ...
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To determine the in vitro free radical scavenging property and in vivo diuretic effect of Triglize™ , a marketed polyherbal formulation in experimental models. The aqueous extract of polyherbal formulation (PHF) triglize was used for the experiment. The free radical scavenging property and antioxidant effect of PHF were studied by LPS-induced free radicals in rat macrophages cells and DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) methods, respectively. The diuretic effect of a PHF was studied with Lipschitz model using male Wistar rats. PHF significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide -induced free radicals in rat macrophages and it showed moderate antioxidant potential in DPPH model. Polyherbal formulation at 50, 200 and 400 mg/ kg significantly increased potassium excretion in urine at 0-5 h and 5-24 h. The diuretic effect of PHF was as similar as furosemide. The PHF has significant diuretic effect and free radical scavenging properties.
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The present study was to prepare and evaluate the polyherbal cosmetic cream comprising extracts of natural products such as Aloe vera, Cucumis sativus and Daucus carota. Different types of formulations oil in water (O/W) herbal creams namely F1 to F7 were formulated by incorporating different concentrations of stearic acid and cetyl alcohol. The evaluations of all formulations (F1 to F7) were done on different parameters like pH, viscosity, spreadibilty and stability were examined. Formulations F6 and F7 showed good spreadibilty, good consistency, homogeneity, appearance, pH, spreadibilty, no evidence of phase separation and ease of removal. The formulation F6 and F7 shows no redness, edema, inflammation and irritation during irritancy studies. These formulations are safe to use for skin. These studies suggest that composition of extracts and base of cream of F6 and F7 are more stable and safe, it may produce synergistic action.
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Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of some chronic diseases including various forms of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The health-promoting potential of these foods may be due, in part, to the phytochemical bioactive compounds present in the plants. Fruit of Euphoria longana Lam. (longan) are consumed throughout Asia and are a major crop in Thailand. In the present study phytochemicals were extracted with 70% methanol from peel, pulp, and seed tissues of longan fruit, and the major components were identified as gallic acid, corilagin (an ellagitannin), and ellagic acid. A high-through-put reversed phase HPLC method was developed to determine the content of these three compounds in different parts of the longan fruit and among different cultivars. The analyses showed that there was a large variation in the contents of gallic acid, corilagin, and ellagic acid in different plant tissues and cultivars. Seed contained the highest levels of the three phenolics, and pulp contained the lowest. Among commercial cultivars, Biewkiew and Edor contained the highest levels of gallic and ellagic acid while Srichompoo contained the highest content of corilagin. These three cultivars may be used in directed breeding and cultivation programs and to develop concentrated longan seed extracts to promote good health. Utilization of this byproduct material will support the use of thousands of tons of waste longan seeds after the production of canned longan pulp.
Formulation and evaluation of herbal cream containing Curcuma longa
  • S S Nair
  • M Mathew
  • K Sreena
Nair SS, Mathew M, & Sreena K. Formulation and evaluation of herbal cream containing Curcuma longa. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences, 2012, 4, 1362 -68.