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Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives

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... There is no single criterion to set a definitive cutoff value to make decisions about fit despite the long history of research specialized in this matter (e.g. Bentler & Bonett, 1980;Kenneth A. Bollen, 1989;Browne & Cudeck, 1993;Hu & Bentler, 1999;Kaplan, 2000;Marsh, Hau, & Wen, 2004;Sharma, Mukherjee, Kumar, & Dillon, 2005;Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). All in all, Hu and Bentler (1999) For the present study, we shall take into consideration these comprehensive criteria. ...
... Bentler & Bonett, 1980;Kenneth A. Bollen, 1989;Browne & Cudeck, 1993;Hu & Bentler, 1999;Kaplan, 2000;Marsh, Hau, & Wen, 2004;Sharma, Mukherjee, Kumar, & Dillon, 2005;Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). All in all, Hu and Bentler (1999) For the present study, we shall take into consideration these comprehensive criteria. ...
... This somehow matches Hu and Bentler (1999) configurational perspective adopted to mitigate tradeoffs between fit indices (Table 29). to the innovative nature of some variables, we also think a parsimony index is welcomed in order to control for redundant items and hence we shall also report Parsimony Comparative Fit Index (PCFI, James, Mulaik, & Brett, 1982) which has no cutoff but is recommended to be closest to 1 for indication of maximum parsimony. ...
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Competence is a core concept in HRM as it offers the possibility of being the strategic reference around which all HR practices are articulated. Competence models and profiling have been developing by integrating extant literature but are yet to fully grasp the role emotions play in daily organizational life. The present research is set to explore emotion-based competence modelling by focusing on an emotional demanding profession: that of criminal investigator, linking with recruitment and selection as well as initial training. After reviewing the institutional context in which criminal investigators work (PSP), the study starts by exploring police recruitment and selection, and initial training practices in European police forces, focusing both on officials and officers. Findings showed divergences both between police forces and careers thus showing no emergent pattern on these issues. More importantly, no emotion-driven practices was reported. The research evolved to explore how emotions could be mapped under the performance agenda conditioning the entire building of competence model as proposed by Bartram and Roe (2005). With a sample of 703 questionnaires filled in by criminal investigators we collected data on emotional commands, personality, abilities, knowledge, skills, attitudes and values to test a sequential set of relations between these constructs. Findings from SEM analysis show streams of associations linking emotional commands up to specific competences, moderated at certain level by values. The resulting syncretic model addressed both competences and emotions (at the lowest layer), following a modelling methodology in sequenced layers (interfaces) which rendered it a different composition and relation between layers. Findings suggest that it is possible to structure a competence model for criminal investigators with emotions considered at the ground layer as the emotional foundations of human personality (Davis & Panksepp, 2011) expressed as the Emotion Command Systems. A competência é um conceito central na GRH, pois oferece a possibilidade de ser a referência estratégica em torno da qual todas as práticas de RH podem ser articuladas. Os modelos e perfis de competência existentes têm sido desenvolvidos através da integração da literatura, mas ainda não integram bem o papel que as emoções desempenham nas organizações. A presente investigação pretende explorar os modelos de competências com base em emoções, concentrando-se numa profissão emocionalmente exigente: a do investigador criminal, articulando com o recrutamento e seleção, bem como com a formação inicial. Depois de caracterizar o contexto institucional em que trabalham os investigadores criminais da PSP, o estudo começa por explorar o recrutamento e seleção de polícias bem como as práticas de formação inicial nas forças de segurança europeias, focando quer oficiais quer agentes. Os resultados mostraram divergências entre forças de segurança e entre as duas carreiras, não tendo sido possível identificar qualquer padrão emergente. Adicionalmente, não foram identificadas práticas de base emocional. A investigação evoluiu para explorar como mapear as emoções numa perspectiva do desempenho, condicionando todo o modelo de construção de competências proposto por Bartram e Roe (2005). Com uma amostra de 703 questionários preenchidos por investigadores criminais, recolhemos dados sobre comandos emocionais, personalidade, aptidões, conhecimentos, habilidades, atitudes e valores para testar um conjunto sequencial de relações entre estes construtos. Os resultados de análises de equações estruturais mostram fluxos de associações que ligam os sistemas de comando emocional a competências específicas, moderados num determinado interface pelos valores. O modelo sincrético resultante incorporou quer competências quer emoções (na camada basilar), seguindo uma metodologia de modelação em interfaces, o que lhe conferiu uma composição e relação diferentes entre os interfaces. Os resultados sugerem a possibilidade de estruturar um modelo de competências para investigadores criminais assente em emoções, expressas como os fundamentos emocionais da personalidade humana (Davis & Panksepp, 2011) designados por sistemas de comando emocional.
... However, for RPA to improve business value, it must be adopted and used by organizations. Explaining organizations' adoption of new technology is often described as one of the most mature research areas in the modern information systems (IS) literature (e.g., Hu et al. 1999). ...
... TLI is equal to 0.957. While the typical range of TLI is zero to one, it is not limited to that range (Blunch, 2012;Hu & Bentler, 1999). The CFI is identical to that developed by McDonald and Marsh (1990), except that it is truncated to fall within the range of zero to one to estimate the model's non-centrality parameter. ...
... A root mean square error (RMSEA) of less than 0.06 indicates an excellent fit. According to Hu and Bentler (1999), the best results should be obtained by combining measures such as CFI > 0.95 and SRMR 0.08. The RMSEA for this study was 0.06; the GFI for this study was 0.951; the NFI for this study was 0.950; the CFI for this study was 0.978; the SRMR for this study was 0.047; the RMI for this study was 0.015; the PClose for this study was 0.999, and the RMSEA for this study was 0.035. ...
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Organizations can adapt and use RPA to automate the manual tasks associated with their financial process. The ability to automate manual tasks influences the business value, but there are few studies on the association between adopting RPA and business value. This research investigates the effects of technology-organizational-environmental (TOE) factors on adopting RPA and business value in industrial countries. This study employed the TOE framework as a determinant affecting the adoption of RPA and business value. Using the targeting audiences method, the sample was determined. The data collection strategy used an online survey with internal auditors. The survey was automatically introduced to respondents who were most likely to find it relevant, followed by adding a filter within the survey to increase the accuracy of the target sample for the field of study. The data were analyzed using SEM. The findings revealed a direct positive relationship between TOE constructs, the adoption of RPA, and business value. Furthermore, a significant favorable influence was found between RPA adoption and business value. The adoption of RPA in internal audits is driven more by organizational factors than technological and environmental factors, despite their importance and significance in the model. This study has implications for practitioners and researchers interested in investigating RPA adoption. It builds an empirical model, including several determinants that may influence the adoption of RPA, in addition to the RPA adoption effect on business value from an internal auditors perspective.
... Many EFA models exhibited values often considered acceptable (i.e., SRMR ≤ .08; Hu & Bentler, 1999) in a substantial proportion of replications. ...
... Although only few models (i.e., EFA models) exhibited SRMR values often considered indicative of good fit (i.e., SRMR ≤ .06; Hu & Bentler, 1999) in a substantial proportion of replications, we advise researchers against a lenient interpretation of SRMR values when evaluating goodness-of-fit, in particular, when working with large models comprising many manifest variables. In general, the results suggested that SRMR values ≤ .075 ...
... However, such a conclusion would be premature. Although model parsimony is an important aspect to consider, the goodness-of-fit of a model also depends on other characteristics that are differently well reflected by distinct classes of fit indices (e.g., Hu & Bentler, 1999). ...
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Model selection is an omnipresent issue in structural equation modeling (SEM). When deciding among competing theories instantiated as formal statistical models, a trade-off is often sought between goodness-of-fit and model parsimony. Whereas traditional fit assessment in SEM quantifies parsimony solely as the number of free parameters, the ability of a model to account for diverse data patterns—known as fitting propensity—also depends on the functional form of a model. The present investigation provides a systematic assessment of the fitting propensity of models typically considered and compared in SEM, namely, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis models positing a different number of latent factors or a different hierarchical structure (single-factor, correlated factors, higher-order, and bifactor models). Furthermore, the behavior of commonly employed fit indices (CFI, SRMR, RMSEA, TLI) and information criteria (AIC, BIC) in accounting for fitting propensity was assessed. Although the results demonstrated varying degrees of fitting propensity for the models under scrutiny, these differences were mostly driven by the number of free parameters. There was little evidence for additional differences in the functional form of the compared models. Fit indices adjusting for the number of free parameters such as the RMSEA and TLI thus adequately accounted for differences in fitting propensity.
... The χ 2 /df depends both sample size and the chi-square statistic itself, and as a consequence, different researchers have recommended using ratios as low as 2 or as high as 5 to indicate a reasonable fit. Recommended thresholds to conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data are 0.95 for TLI and CFI; 0.08 for SRMR; and 0.06 for RMSEA [22]. ...
... With the initial model (M1), a relatively good fit was obtained, measured with the SRMR, according to the "rule of thumb" of the conventional cut-off value of 0.08 [22]; but the other indices did not reach the established thresholds, although they were reasonably close. When comparing M1 with more complex or simpler specifications in terms of items considered, interesting findings were observed. ...
... In view of the results obtained with the more complex model (M2), simpler models (M3 and M4) were adjusted. Interestingly, removing a few items from the M1 model (item 16 from EE; items 4 and 12 from PA) did not improve some of the goodness-of-fit indices: M3 improved all indices without reaching the minimum usually cut-offs established as thresholds of good fit [22]. ...
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Background The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is an instrument commonly used to evaluate burnout syndrome. The goal of the present study was to assess the internal reliability and the performance of the items and the subscales of the MBI-HSS (the version for professionals working in human services) by validating its factorial structure in Spanish urgency healthcare personnel. Methods Cross-sectional study including 259 healthcare emergency professionals (physicians and nurses) in the Spanish health region of Lleida and the Pyrenees. Burnout was measured using the Spanish validated version of the MBI-HSS. Internal reliability was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The sampling adequacy was assessed using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure along with the Bartlett’s test of sphericity. A principal axis exploratory factor analysis with an oblique transformation of the solution and a confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood estimation were performed. Goodness-of-fit was assessed by means of the chi-square ratio by the degrees of freedom, the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR), the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) and the comparative fit index (CFI). Results The three subscales showed good internal reliability with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients exceeding the critical value of 0.7. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors with eigenvalues greater than 1. Nevertheless, confirmatory factor analysis showed a relatively satisfactory fit of the three-factor structure (χ²/df = 2.6, SRMR = 0.07, RMSEA = 0.08, TLI = 0.87, CFI = 0.89), which was improved when several items were removed (χ²/df = 1.7, SRMR = 0.04, RMSEA = 0.05, TLI = 0.97, CFI = 0.98). Conclusions Although it is necessary exploring new samples to get to more consistent conclusions, the MBI-HSS is a reliable and factorially valid instrument to evaluate burnout syndrome in health professionals from the Spanish emergency services.
... The value for (χ 2 /df) for the hypothesized model was 1.247 indicating a good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. According to (Hu & Bentler, 1999) The results in Table 4-5 indicated that race had a significant positive relationship with the frequency of using SAVs, implying that the non-white population was more likely to use the RAPID service frequently. Moreover, service attributes had a significant positive relationship with the RAPID usage. ...
... Secondly, we observed the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation which indicates the approximation error per model degree of freedom. The RMSEA value for the hypothesized model was (0.09), which is near to the acceptable value between 0.05 -0.08 for a model to be a good fit (Hu & Bentler, 1999). Since the sample size is small, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) was checked for model fitness as it performs well with small sample size. ...
Thesis
Shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs) are a new technology that allows passengers to skip hailing a cab using a smartphone app to summon an autonomous shuttle that does not require a human operator. SAVs are anticipated to improve the efficiency, mobility, safety, and affordability of transportation systems. However, consumers will determine the success of SAV technology. Researchers have studied the associations between individuals' attitudes, preferences, and adoption of self-driving services focusing mainly on potential riders with no actual ridership experience. However, the literature lacks empirical assessments of riders' adoption and acceptance of SAVs. Therefore, this study aims to develop two models identifying the factors impacting: 1) users frequency of using SAVs; and 2) users and non-users willingness to use SAVs in the future. The first model identifies the factors impacting the users frequency of using SAVs using structural equation modeling (SEM) based on data collected from a short ridership survey distributed among the users of a self-driving pilot project. Model 1 results indicated that race, trip purpose, waiting time, and the availability of a private vehicle significantly influence the frequency of using SAVs. The second model identifies the factors impacting the users and non-users willingness to ride the SAVs based on the data collected from a comprehensive survey distributed among users and non-users. Model 2 results suggested that the frequency of using SAVs directly impacts willingness to use SAVs, and sociodemographic attributes of the SAV riders indirectly influence willingness to use SAVs through the mediators, including RAPID usage, existing modes of transportation, and vehicle ownership. Moreover, this study aims to develop an ordinal logistics regression (OLR) model to analyze the impact of users and non-users attitudes towards SAVs on their willingness to use SAVs using the data from the comprehensive survey. The result from the OLR model indicated that ease of using SAVs positively impacts willingness to use SAVs in the future, and safety concerns about SAV technology negatively impact willingness to use SAVs in the future. This study also aims to provide in-depth insights into perceptions, attitudes, preferences, and concerns of users and non-users of the SAV technology using the qualitative data collected from focus groups and personal interviews. The content analysis of the focus group revealed that participants with visual impairment anticipated that future SAV services would enhance their mobility through advanced apps, booking systems, and vehicle equipment. The content analysis of interviews indicated that waiting time, pick-up and drop-off locations, and the ability to make tight turns at the intersection are the three major concerns related to SAVs. Moreover, potential riders anticipate that SAVs will be cost-efficient, environmentally friendly, and safer than human-operated vehicles. This study provides crucial insights into individual travel behavior after integrating SAVs with existing transportation systems which will help local, state, and government transit agencies to develop policies and a transportation infrastructure that will enhance SAV operations universally. The findings of this study offer several implications for designing future SAV services in line with the needs of persons with disabilities. Moreover, this study provides insights into the perceptions and attitudes of SAV users and non-users and identifies strategies for successfully integrating an SAV service with an existing on-demand ridesharing service.
... The Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) was suggested to be in the range of 0.05 and 0.10 as acceptable, between 0 and 0.05 as good fit [39]. The Comparative Fit Index (CFI) value above 0.95 was considered as good fit, and greater than 0.90 as acceptable fit [40]. The Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) also known as the Nonnormed Fit Index (NNFI), which the value above .90 ...
... were considered as acceptable fit, and above .95 as good fit [40]. ...
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Background According to the validation literature on items of Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT), this study rephrased disputable items to improve the psychometric properties of this Chinese version of IAT and identify the presence of differential item function (DIF) among demographic and Internet use factors; detect the effect of demographic and Internet use factors on IAT after adjusting for DIF. Methods An online questionnaire was distributed to college students in Zhe Jiang province in two stage. The 1st phase study collected 384 valid responses to examine the quality of IAT items by using Rasch Model analysis and exploring factor analysis (EFA). The online questionnaire was modified according to the 1st phase study and distributed online for the 2nd phase study which collected a total of 1131 valid responses. The 2nd phase study applied confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) model to verify the construct of IAT, potential effect of covariates on IAT latent factors, as well as the effect of differential item functioning (DIF). Results Rasch model analysis in the 1st phase study indicated a 5-point rating scale was performed better, no sever misfit was found on item. The overall property of Chinese version IAT with the 5-point scale was good to excellent person and item separation (2.66 and 6.86). A three-factor model was identified by EFA. In the 2nd phase study, IAT 13 were detected with DIF for gender in MIMIC model. After correcting DIF effect, the significant demographic and Internet use factors on IAT were time spent online per day, year 3, year 2, general users. Conclusion Item improvement was efficient that the problematic items found in literature was performed good in this study. The overall psychometric property of this Chinese version IAT was good with limited DIF effect in one item. Item improvement on IAT13 was encouraged in the future study to avoid gender bias and benefit for epidemiology on PIU.
... (2) the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) value should not exceed 0.080; (3) the values of Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) and comparative fit index (CFI) should exceed 0.90 (Hu & Bentler, 1999;Marsh, Hau & Wen, 2004); thus, reaffirming the plausibility of multicollinearity issue. Consequently, the following items with high modification indices were removed: (1) Figure 2 presents the sixfactor measurement model. ...
... The items were expected to only load on the corresponding dimension but the measurement model did not meet the statistical requirements: (1) the value of the model chi-square (χ 2 ) over the degree of freedom (df) should not exceed 5; (2) the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) value should not exceed 0.080; (3) the values of Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) and comparative fit index (CFI) should exceed 0.90(Hu & Bentler, 1999;Marsh, Hau & Wen, 2004); thus, reaffirming the plausibility of multicollinearity issue. Consequently, the following items with high modification indices were removed:(1)affective image (AI): AI1, AI2, and AI8; (2) cognitive image (CI): CI3; (3) unique image (UI): UI4; (4) revisit intention (RI): RI2, RI3, RI5, and RI9; (5) perceived risk (PR): PR1, PR6, and PR8. ...
... [12,24] For the current models, the maximum likelihood estimation method was used to generate consistent estimates of parameters. [25] Before the analysis of the structural model, the measurement model was assessed for the identification of latent factors. Indicator variables for the respective latent factors had high factor loadings where all values were above 0.7 and had statistical significance such that P < 0.05. ...
... RMSEA is <0.08 and close to 0.06; and CFI is >0.9. [25] To further test for goodness of fit, the likelihood ratio test was also done for the model iterations. ...
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Introduction: Insecurities with food and economic resources, housing discontent, and mental stress were experienced by vulnerable populations, especially older adults, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This study examined the association of poverty based on resource scarcity with life satisfaction as an indicator of well-being during the COVID-19 outbreak in Thailand. It also tested the mediating effect of mental stress. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from the 2021 Survey on Housing and Support Services for Poor Older Adults which involved low-income Thais aged at least 55 years. On testing for multigroup differences, the model was applied separately to urban and rural samples. Results: Findings from the urban sample indicated that resource scarcity was associated with life satisfaction based on the direct (β = 0.686, P < 0.01), indirect (β = 0.105, P < 0.05), and total effects (β = 0.790, P < 0.001). Mental stress (β = 0.304, P < 0.05) was also associated with life satisfaction. For the rural sample, resource scarcity was associated with life satisfaction (β = 0.159, P < 0.05) only when mental stress acted as a mediator. Conclusion: This theme is important to better understand the well-being status of older people in an aging society with a developing economy. Recognizing that the physical and policy environment for urban and rural residences have an influence on the mental health and well-being of this age group can contribute to addressing their needs in times of social shocks like the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Models with a CFI above .95 and an RMSEA below .08 are generally regarded as good or moderate approximations of the given data (Hu & Bentler, 1999). In the CFA, we controlled for the nested structure of the data by using corrected standard errors and fit statistics (type = complex; cluster = professionals). ...
... The results indicate that the g-factor model does not fit the data well. The CFI is small and the RMSEA is too large to be considered a good model fit (Hu & Bentler, 1999). In contrast, the three-factor model, with willingness to communicate and interact, communication strategies, and farewell as three separate factors, fits the data better but does not adequately reflect the dimensions of interaction quality. ...
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Due to a lack of adequate measures, little is known about the quality of parent-preschool communication. The present study presents a new observational tool for measuring interaction quality between parents and professionals during child drop-off. The sample consists of 912 parent-professional dyads in 107 preschools. Results from confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence of construct validity, and results for reliability were good. Regression analyses indicate that professional-child ratio, the qualification of professionals, and the way pedagogical work is organised in the preschool are related to the interaction quality between parents and professionals. The implications of our findings will be discussed in the light of the theoretical background as well as the conceptual framework of the instrument.
... (NFI = 0.91, IFI = 0.94, GFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.61). NFI and RMSEA of the model full-filled the Goodness of fit criteria, as suggested by Hu and Bentler (1999). The table 3 shows the relation between dimensions of CBBE (brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality, and uniqueness), NFT and online purchase intention. ...
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Cite this paper: Rizwan, M., & Zaheer, N. (2020). The role of brand equity in mitigating need for touch (NFT) in online purchasing. Paradigms, SI(1), 52-56. A significant facet hindering the explosive growth of e-commerce is the absence of tactile information about the products. The absence of tactile information may lead to uncertainty in consumer purchase decisions, particularly in online settings. It has been observed that while buying products, online consumers may feel a lack of physical contact with the product that may result reducing motivation to buy the product. This study aims at addressing the influence of Need for touch (NFT) in online purchasing. The study argues that the NFT in online buying can be mitigated by the brand equity. The brands having greater brand equity may help reducing the NFT. Since buyers may stress different features of the product differently; therefore, NFT may very across the product categories. This study proposed quantitative methods to investigate the NFT mitigation in online environment. A valid sample of 210 was used for data analysis. SPSS and AMOS were used for SEM technique. Based on results, it was concluded that Brand Awareness and NFT has a negative relation, Brand Association and NFT has a negative relation, while both perceived quality and uniqueness has a positive relation with NFT which is unexpected as well. Lastly, it is found that NFT has a negative relation with online purchase intention.
... The measurement model shows good fit (χ2 = 197.094; Degrees of freedom = 71; χ2/df = 2.776; RMSEA = 0.062; SRMR = 0.0335; GFI = 0.944; CFI = 0.971) (Hu and Bentler, 1999). The average variance extracted (AVE) of all constructs is higher than 0.5 and internal reliability of all constructs is higher than 0.80. ...
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Increasing single-use plastic consumption has caused tremendous consequences for the ecosystem; therefore, consumers are being encouraged to reduce this. Despite numerous research about single-use plastics, we still have little understanding into how individuals' intrinsic motivation for less single-use plastics can be developed. This study extends the self-determination theory about human motivation and the functioning of basic psychological needs which are essential for behavior change to study how three basic psychological needs can influence intrinsic motivation for reducing single-use plastics. Also, the negative interaction effects of each pair of basic psychological needs on intrinsic motivation were examined in this study. A sample of 468 responses collected in a stated preference survey was used to test the theoretical framework. Findings reveal that intrinsic motivation for reducing single-use plastics can be influenced by the satisfaction of basic psychological needs. Interestingly, the research has extended the self-determination theory by highlighting compensation effects among the fulfillment of basic psychological needs on intrinsic motivation for reducing single-use plastics.
... The overall fit of the model was evaluate by the χ 2 /df ratio, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR). TLI and CFI > 0.95, RMSEA <0.06 and SRMR <0.08 suggest an excellent model fit (Hu & Bentler, 1999;Kline, Kline, & Kline, 2011). The total and specific indirect effects were estimated through bootstrapping set at 5000 samples, and the values and 95 % confidence interval were presented. ...
Article
Objective To investigate the prevalence of probable antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) among prisoners, and further examine the mediating effect of difficulties in emotional regulation (ER) between childhood trauma and symptoms of ASPD and BPD. Methods A total of 1491 male participants (35.4 ± 9.69 years) were recruited from a prison in Guangdong, China. The symptoms of ASPD and BPD, childhood trauma, difficulties in ER, and suicidal behaviors were measured by self-administered structured questionnaires. Logistic regressions were performed to investigate the associations of ASPD and BPD with suicidal behaviors. Path analysis was used to examine the mediating effects of difficulties in ER between childhood trauma and symptoms of ASPD and BPD. Result Approximately, 21.2 % and 11.2 % of the participants were screened as ASPD and BPD, respectively. Probable ASPD and BPD were associated with higher risk of suicidal behaviors. Childhood trauma and difficulties in ER were significantly associated with suicidal behaviors in prisoners with probable ASPD and BPD. Path analyses showed that partial mediating effects of difficulties in ER were significant in the dimensions of clarity and strategies on ASPD, and in the dimensions of clarity, impulse, and strategies on BPD. Conclusion ASPD and BPD are two of the common personality disorders in prisoners. Difficulties in ER are key to understanding the relationships between childhood trauma and personality disorders.
... Several criteria such as Chi-square test of overall model fit, Root mean square error of approximation (RMSE), Comparative fit index (CFI) and Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) were used to assess goodness of fit of the CFA model. A non-significant chi-square value where the null hypothesis is that the model fits well, RMSEA ≤0.08, CFI ≥ 0.90 and TLI ≥ 0.90 were considered as indication of acceptable model fit [15,16]. Standardized path coefficients were presented. ...
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Background Responsiveness of Physicians (ROP) is defined as the social actions by physicians aimed at meeting the legitimate expectations of healthcare users. Even though patients’ expectations regarding ROP have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, the psychometrically-validated ROP-Scale is difficult to apply in hospital settings. The goal of this study is to validate the existing ROP-Scale to measure the responsiveness of hospital physicians during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional phone survey involving 213 COVID-19 hospital patients, randomly selected from the government database. We applied the Delphi method for content validity, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses for construct validity, Cronbach’s alpha and corrected item-total correlation for internal consistency reliability, and Pearson’s correlation between the scale and overall patient satisfaction for concurrent validity. Results After removing survey items based on data sufficiency, collinearity, factor loading derived through exploratory factor analysis, and internal consistency, the final version of the COVID-19 ROP-Scale consisted of 7 items, grouped under Informativeness, Trustworthiness and Courteousness domains. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the three domains with acceptable model fit [Root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.028, Comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.997, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.994)]. The corrected item-total correlation ranged between 0.45 and 0.71. Concurrent validity was ascertained by the high correlation (0.84) between patient satisfaction and the COVID-19 ROP-Scale. Based on the mean domain score, the highest- and the lowest-scoring responsiveness domains were ‘Trustworthiness’ (7.85) and ‘Informativeness’ (7.28), respectively, whereas the highest- and the lowest-scoring items were ‘Not being involved in illegal activities’ (7.97), and ‘Service-oriented, not business-like attitude’ (6.63), respectively. Conclusions The 7-item COVID-19 ROP-Scale was demonstrated to be feasible, valid, and internally consistent. Therefore, its application can help amend past mistakes in health service provision and improve care for the hospitalised COVID-19 patients or other patients suffering from similar conditions. This study can contribute to the national decision-making regarding hospital care, open up further avenues in the health policy and system research, and eventually improve the quality of care provided to Bangladeshi patients seeking hospital services. Moreover, findings yielded by this study can be incorporated into doctors’ medical education and in-service training.
... The acceptable cut-off scores for CMIN/DF are close to or lower than 3(Kline, 2005) and close to or higher than 0.90 for both GFI and AGF(Hooper et al., 2008;Hu and Bentler, 1999).Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
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This study examines the mediating role of two types of employee related behaviour, creativity and collegiality, in the association between the use of Snell’s (1992) three control types (i.e. input, behaviour, and output) with individual employee job performance and organisational performance. An online survey questionnaire was used to collect data, with 203 responses received from Australian lower-level managers. The findings reveal that while output controls influence both individual employee job performance and organisational performance directly, creativity and collegiality play significant roles in mediating the associations between input and behaviour controls with both individual employee job performance and organisational performance. Overall, the findings contribute to the MCS literature by providing an empirical insight into how the use of different types of controls can enhance specific aspects of performance, i.e. individual employee job performance, and organisational financial and non-financial performance, via employee related behaviour (creativity and collegiality). Such findings have important implications for practice.
... Before EFA, the data's amenability to factor analysis was examined using the Kaiser-Meyer- for CFI. 42,43 After the CFA, the factors were evaluated to ensure that they accounted for a sufficient amount of the variance in the responses (≥10% of the variance within the abbreviated CBI). Reliability for the EFA and CFA initial cohorts used Cronbach's alpha. ...
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Objective: The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) is an open-access, valid, and reliable instrument measuring burnout that includes 19 items distributed across the following 3 domains (factors): personal burnout, work burnout, and patient burnout. The primary objective of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of an abbreviated CBI to assess burnout in emergency medicine residents. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the CBI that followed the 2021 American Board of Emergency Medicine In-training Examination. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: Of the 8491 eligible residents, 7225 (85.1%) completed the survey; the EFA cohort included 3613 residents and the CFA cohort included 3612 residents. EFA showed 2 eigenvalues ≥1, an internal factor and an external factor. There were 6 CBI items that contributed to the 2 factors. The first factor was related to personal burnout and work-related burnout and the second factor was related to working with patients. There were 4 CBI items that contributed to the internal factor and 2 CBI items that contributed to the external factor. Using the abbreviated CBI, the incidence of a resident having 1 or both types of burnout was 34.1%. Conclusions: This study provides validity evidence and reliability support for the use of a 6-item, 2-factor abbreviated CBI. A shorter, reliable, valid, and publicly accessible burnout inventory provides numerous advantages for burnout research in emergency medicine.
... Root Mean-Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). The model fit criteria were χ 2 /df < 2, RMSEA < 0.1 [48], SRMR < 0.08 [49], CFI > 0.9, and TLI > 0.9 [46]. ...
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Background Gaming disorder was added to the 11th version of the international classification of disease by the world health organization in early 2019. Adolescents are the most vulnerable group in this area. Thus, a screening tool for this age range is essential. This study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the gaming disorder scale for adolescents (GADIS-A) in an Iranian male sample. Methods 260 male students-7th to 12th grade-from Isfahan city in the academic year 2020–2021 were selected using convenience sampling. The participants responded to the Farsi version of the GADIS-A and problematic online game questionnaire (POGQ). Thirty participants answered the scale again to assess the validity of the retest. Pearson’s correlation analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, and confirmatory factor analysis were used. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 24 and R software packages psych and lavaan. Results Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the two-factor model, which included cognitive-behavioral symptoms and negative consequences, had good fitness indices. The GADIS-A convergent validity is confirmed by the scale’s significant correlation with the POGQ. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to determine the scale’s validity, which was 0.85 for the full scale and 0.70 and 0.75 for two factors. The validity of the retest after two weeks also showed a correlation of 0.88. Conclusion The Farsi version of the gaming disorder scale for adolescents has a two-factor structure and is valid for use in Iran.
... The goodness of fit was assessed using the chi-square index, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) [22], the Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) [23] and a Comparative Fit Index (CFI) [24]. These measures indicate an acceptable model fit if CFI values are above 0.90 [25] and if RMSEA is below 0.08 [26]. This sample of 86 dyads, assuming a ICC of 0.3 (between the summary score of eating behaviors at 4 and 7 years old), and a significance level of 5% one-tailed, allowed a power of 89%. ...
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Studies based on twins are ideal to disentangle the relative contribution of different factors in the development of eating behaviors. This study aims to evaluate if changes in problematic eating behaviors from 4 to 7 years old are more influenced by the genetics, the shared environment of twins, or by individual characteristics of each twin. A total of 86 caregivers (mostly mothers) of twins from the Generation XXI birth cohort provided information on eating behaviors at 4 and 7 years of age. A score of problematic eating behaviors was developed. The Common fate model and the ACE model were used to estimate the effect of shared, individual, and genetic characteristics on changes in eating behaviors. At the dyadic level (shared), the eating behavior score at 4 years old was significantly and positively associated with the eating behavior at 7 years of age (β = 0.402, 95% CI 0.063;0.657). At the individual level, no significant association was observed (β = 0.020, 95% CI −0.078;0.125). The ACE model also showed the shared environment as the major responsible for the changes in eating behaviors from 4 to 7 years old. It also showed that genetic characteristics decreased their relevance overtime. This study supports that changes in eating behaviors from 4 to 7 years of age are mostly associated with the shared environment rather than individual characteristics of each twin. These results are important to improve future strategies to promote healthy environments.
... In this model, the standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) equaled 0.065 and the coefficient of determination (CD) equaled 0.39. An acceptable range for the SRMR index is between 0 and 0.08 (Hu and Bentler, 1999). This means our result is acceptable. ...
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Land tenure security perceived by farmers is generally considered an important precondition for rural development. In this paper, we first propose a holistic framework of land tenure security that integrates Van Gelder’s tripartite view of tenure security with Ho’s credibility thesis. Following this framework, we empirically investigate the interrelation between the cognitive and the affective components of tenure security perceptions, and analyze how these perceptions are influenced by psychological factors, such as personality traits and economic preferences. We apply the generalized structural equation modeling to a dataset collected in 2019 among 1359 rice farmers in three provinces in eastern China. We found that the cognitive component shows an inverse “U-shape” relationship with the affective component, indicating farmers are not necessarily worried about the possible future land reallocation even if they think it is very likely to take place and that the widely used indicator, i.e., estimated probability of land reallocation, is thereby not sufficient to reflect a farmer’s overall perceived tenure security. We also found that individual differences in personality traits (e.g., neuroticism) can help explain observed variations in perceived tenure security. The results showing perceived land tenure security of rural farmers also comprises nonequivalent “feeling” and “thinking” components and their influencing psychological factors have important implications for future research and policy making on rural institutional development.
... Previous studies are validated through the results obtained .027 < 0.06 (Hu and Bentler, 2009) * Using maximum likelihood estimation method in the present investigation, and hypotheses H4 and H5 are confirmed. Last, although previous studies have shown that COMP has a positive effect on FP (González-Rodríguez et al., 2018;Turner et al., 2017;Wilke et al., 2019), this relationship was not shown to be significant in the present study. ...
Article
Interest in sustainability and service quality practices in hospitality is increasing in professional and academic communities. Most of the existing literature about hotel companies is focused on a single practice at a time and does not combine service quality and environmental practices in the same study. Drawing upon the resource-based view theory of the firm, this study investigates the effects of service quality and environmental practices on the competitiveness and financial performance of hotels. The research population consisted of 148 hotel managers from Catalonia. The impacts between the dimensions were analysed using structural equation modelling. The investigation revealed that there is a positive impact on the financial performance and competitiveness of the hotels that have adopted these practices. A correlation between service quality and environmental practices was also demonstrated. The implications and recommendations stemming from the research are exposed.
... Main analyses are conducted with structural equation modeling (SEM) in AMOS 22.0. The model-data fit is assessed with these indices: χ 2 /df ratio (< 3), TLI (> 0.90), CFI (> 0.95), SRMR (< 0.08) and RMSEA (< 0.08) (Hu & Bentler, 1999). Additionally, mediation effects are tested using the bootstrap method in SEM. ...
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China has become one of the leading study abroad destinations worldwide. Recent research also indicates that international students encounter diverse life challenges and mental health issues in China. Therefore, scholars have shown increasing interest in their adjustment in Chinese social and academic settings. Seeking theoretical guidance from the Job Demands-Resources Model with mediation and moderation assumptions, our study aimed to test the dual processes (i.e., the health impairment process and the motivational process) leading to academic, sociocultural, and psychological adjustment, among international students sojourning in China. Using a convenience sampling method, our study recruited 1,001 participants (535 males and 466 females; Mage = 22.73; SD = 1.62) who completed an online survey including scales of perceived cultural distance (contextual demands), social support from local members (contextual resources), coping self-efficacy (personal resources), acculturative stress, intercultural engagement, as well as three types of cross-cultural adjustment (academic, sociocultural, and psychological adjustment). Results based on the structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that perceived cultural distance had indirect relationships with the three types of adjustment through the mediator of acculturative stress. Social support from locals had indirect relationships with the three types of adjustment through the mediators of acculturative stress and intercultural engagement. Coping self-efficacy had indirect relationships with academic and sociocultural adjustment through the mediator of intercultural engagement. Additionally, social support from locals was revealed as a moderator that buffered the relationship between perceived cultural distance and acculturative stress. These mediated and moderated relationships not only confirmed the dual processes underlying international student adjustment, but also added new knowledge of how demands and resources can interplay to predict the dual processes.
... The goodness of fit of CFA models was based on the Chi-square test, TLI, RMSEA, the comparative fit Index (CFI > 0.95), and the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR < 0.05). 79,80 Models were compared according to the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and BIC (the smaller values, the better). 35,81 Modification indices were inspected to identify sources of poor fit. ...
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Objective Assessing the level of eHealth literacy in a population is essential to designing appropriate public health interventions. This study aimed to assess eHealth literacy among adult internet users in Lebanon, recruited through social media and printed materials. The study examined the relationship between internet use, perceived eHealth literacy, and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study based on a web-based questionnaire was conducted between January and May 2020. The survey assessed internet use and eHealth literacy using the homonymous scale (eHEALS) in English and Arabic. Cronbach's alpha and factor analyses were used to evaluate eHEALS’ psychometric properties. A generalized linear model was used to identify factors predicting the eHEALS. Results A total of 2715 respondents were recruited mostly through Facebook (78%) and printed materials (17%). Most respondents completed the survey in English (82%), were aged 30 ± 11 years, female (60%), Lebanese (84%), unmarried (62%), employed (54%), and with a graduate-level education (53%). Those who completed the eHEALS questionnaire ( n = 2336) had a moderate eHealth literacy ( M = 28.7, SD = 5.5). eHEALS was significantly higher among older females with a high education level, recruited from Facebook, Instagram, or ResearchGate, and perceived the Internet as a useful and important source of information. Conclusions Future internet-delivered public health campaigns in Lebanon should account for moderate-to-low levels of eHealth literacy and find ways to engage older males with low education levels representing neglected segments (e.g. Syrians). To be more inclusive, campaigns should reach neglected population segments through non-digital, community-based outreach activities.
... Aşağıdaki tabloda DFA analizinden elde edilen uyum iyilik değerleri verilmiştir. Yukarıdaki Tablo 5 incelendiğinde uyum iyilik değerlerinin kabul edilebilir düzeyde oldukları ifade edilebilir (Hu ve Bentler 1999;Kline, 2015). Faktörler arasındaki korelasyonlara ilişkin tablo aşağıda sunulmuştur. ...
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ÖZ Kültürel farklılıkları bilme ve anlama, yaşam kalitesi ve sosyal kültürel iyi oluş hali için çok önemlidir. Çünkü bu süreç farklı kültürlerden insanların kültürlerarası diyalog vasıtası ile toplumsal anlama ve kabul perspektifinin gelişimine katkıda bulunmalarına yardımcı olur. Bu kültürlerarası anlamayı geliştirmek için gerekli olan becerilerden birisi de kültürlerarası duyarlılıktır. Bu çalışmanın amacı kültürlerarası duyarlılık ölçeğinin Türkçe diline uyarlamasına yönelik geçerlilik ve güvenirlilik çalışmalarını gerçekleştirmektir. Faktör analizi ve güvenirlik çalışmaları için 375 üniversite öğrencisinden veri toplanmıştır. Yapılan çalışmalarda 35 maddeden oluşan altı faktörlü bir yapı elde edilmiştir. Uyarlanan ölçme aracının iç tutarlılık katsayısı tüm ölçek için .82 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ölçeğin alt faktörlerine ilişkin güvenirlik değerlerinin .50 ve .69 arasında değiştiği görülmektedir. Güvenirlilikle ilgili çok yüksek değerler ortaya çıkmamasına rağmen ölçeğin alt faktörlerine ilişkin güvenirlilik değerlerin kabul edilebilir sınırlarda olduğu ifade edilebilir. Başka bir deyişle ölçekteki maddelerin birbirleriyle ilişkili (homojen) olduğu ve aynı yapıyı ölçtüğü söylenebilir. Bunun yanında yapılan doğrulayıcı faktör analizinden elde edilen uyum iyilik değerleri (CFI, TLI, RMSA, SRMR) uyarlanan ölçeğin bu yapıda Türkçe dili kontekstinde de kullanılabileceğini göstermiştir. ABSTRACT Knowledge and comprehension of cultural differences are vital for life quality and sociocultural well-being since it allows people from different cultures to contribute to the development of the community from a perspective of understanding and acceptance through intercultural dialogue. One of the skills to develop this understanding is intercultural sensitivity. This study aims to conduct validity and reliability studies for adapting the intercultural sensitivity scale to The Turkish language. Data were collected from 375 university students for factor analysis and reliability studies. In the studies, a six-factor structure consisting of 35 items was obtained. The internal consistency coefficient of the adapted measurement tool was calculated as .82 for the whole scale. It is seen that the reliability values of the subscales of the full scale varied between .50 and .69. Although high values for reliability did not emerge, it can be stated that the reliability values for the subscales were within acceptable limits. In other words, it can be said that the items in the scale are related (homogeneous) and measure the same structure. In addition, the goodness of fit values (CFI, TLI, RMSA, SRMR) obtained from the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the adapted scale could also be used in the Turkish language context in this structure.
... The CFA findings showed that the measurement model met Hu and Bentler (1999) requirements for model fit, with X 2 = 146, df = 87, X 2 /df = 1.68, p < 0.001 CFI = 0.978, GFI = 0.950, TLI = 0.974, and RMSEA = 0.043. The scales' reliability and validity were next assessed. ...
Article
Sustainable development of tourism symbolises a type of business activity that satisfies the requirements of both the tourists and the receiving communities. The paper aims to unearth the impact of community empowerment on the sustainable tourism development. Further, local support is incorporated as a mediating variable between the relationship of community empowerment and sustainable tourism development. For data collection, an onsite survey method is employed and the dataset of 368 respondents was analysed to test the theoretical work. The fit of the framework is evaluated using structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM confirms that all four hypotheses have a statistically significant relationship. The study findings indicate that community empowerment has a positive impact on local support and sustainable tourism development. Further, the study shows local support completely mediates the relationship between the two variables. There is a dearth of empirical research regarding the empowerment of the community, the paper findings will contribute a substantial part to the existing literature on sustainable tourism.
... Aşağıdaki tabloda DFA analizinden elde edilen uyum iyilik değerleri verilmiştir. Yukarıdaki Tablo 5 incelendiğinde uyum iyilik değerlerinin kabul edilebilir düzeyde oldukları ifade edilebilir (Hu ve Bentler 1999;Kline, 2015). Faktörler arasındaki korelasyonlara ilişkin tablo aşağıda sunulmuştur. ...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge and comprehension of cultural differences are vital for life quality and sociocultural well-being since it allows people from different cultures to contribute to the development of the community from a perspective of understanding and acceptance through intercultural dialogue. One of the skills to develop this understanding is intercultural sensitivity. This study aims to conduct validity and reliability studies for adapting the intercultural sensitivity scale to The Turkish language. Data were collected from 375 university students for factor analysis and reliability studies. In the studies, a six-factor structure consisting of 35 items was obtained. The internal consistency coefficient of the adapted measurement tool was calculated as .82 for the whole scale. It is seen that the reliability values of the subscales of the full scale varied between .50 and .69. Although high values for reliability did not emerge, it can be stated that the reliability values for the subscales were within acceptable limits. In other words, it can be said that the items in the scale are related (homogeneous) and measure the same structure. In addition, the goodness of fit values (CFI, TLI, RMSA, SRMR) obtained from the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the adapted scale could also be used in the Turkish language context in this structure.
... In addition, the following fit indexes and thresholds were used to assess the model fit. GFI (Goodness of Fit) ≥ 0.90, CFI (Comparative Fit Index) ≥ 0.90, SRMR (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual) ≤ 0.08 and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation) ≤ 0.06 [21]. The CFA and SEM analyzes were performed using AMOS 25.0. ...
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Background To examine the role of dental pain, sense of coherence (SOC) and social support on the relationship between dental caries and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children aged 12 years. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren selected from public schools in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region in the city of Manaus, Brazil was carried out. The predictors of OHRQoL were selected according to the Wilson and Cleary theoretical model, including number of decayed teeth and its clinical consequence (component D of the DMFT index and PUFA/pufa index), dental pain (symptom status), and SOC and social support (individual and environmental characteristics). Statistical analysis was conducted through structural equation modelling and multivariable negative binomial regression. The significance level established for all analyses was 5%. Results Number of dental caries was indirectly linked with OHRQoL (β = 0.19, 95% CI 0.11/0.29) through dental pain, SOC and social support. Clinical consequences of untreated caries directly predicted poor OHRQoL (β = 0.12, 95% CI 0.01/0.23). Dental pain, SOC and social support did not moderate the effect of dental caries measures on OHRQoL. Conclusion Our findings suggest the role of dental pain, SOC and social support as mediator factors on the link between dental caries and OHRQoL. Tackling dental caries along with psychosocial factors may attenuated the impact of oral health on OHRQoL in children.
... Furthermore, to assess the data-model fit, the present study examined the values of the Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR). As proposed by Hu and Bentler (1999), the RMSEA value of 0.06 or less shows a close fit. RMSEA between 0.06 and 0.08 indicates an acceptable fit, and between 0.08 and 0.10 indicates a mediocre fit. ...
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Purpose The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak thrust a spotlight on organizational leaders and the challenges that employees face during periods of organizational change. The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of empathetic supervisor communication on employee turnover intention and the mediating role of affective trust toward supervisors and employee–organization relationship (EOR) quality. Informed by the social exchange theory and EOR literature, the authors develop a model in which affective trust toward supervisors and EOR quality mediates the relationship between empathetic supervisor communication and employee turnover intention. Design/methodology/approach This study recruited 417 employees based in the USA through an online panel operated by a professional survey company. Data collection that followed a quota sampling procedure lasted for about three weeks in October 2020. The authors used structural equation modeling to test the study hypotheses. Findings The findings of this study indicated that the extent to which supervisors adopted empathetic communication during organizational change had considerable repercussions on their supervisees' affective trust toward supervisors, relationship perception toward their organizations, and ultimately, their turnover intention. Originality/value This study is among the first that identifies empathetic communication as a pivotal force in driving employees' positive relational and behavioral reactions, reinforcing the growing expectation of supervisors in fulfilling communication functions during organizational change. Moreover, the authors contribute to understanding change management as an activity rooted in and enacted through communication between supervisors and subordinates. In addition, this study contributes to the organizational research of empathy during change.
... and CFI of over .90 (Hu & Bentler, 1999;Schermelleh-Engel et al., 2003). We were particularly interested in which individual tasks significantly loaded together at each age to help inform task choice in future studies. ...
Article
Executive function (EF) is difficult to measure in young children because of its heterotypic profile and the rapid development that occurs from infancy through late childhood. To examine EF development, we created age-specific latent factors of EF at ages 5 months, 10 months, 24 months, 36 months, 48 months, and 9 years and used structural equation modeling to create an autoregressive model from infancy through late childhood. Although EF remains difficult to measure due to task constraints, toddler EF as measured by these behavioral tasks is a relatively stable predictor of later EF. Understanding this construct and its developmental trajectory is necessary for creating appropriate experimental designs and interventions to address EF in early childhood.
... The fit statistics of both models indicate a good fit. 24, 25 Fig. 3 The structural equation model 24 The CFI should be greater than 0.9, ideally above 0.95, whereas RMSEA should be less than 0.06 and 0.08, respectively (Hu and Bentler 1999). 25 We have also run models where we test for indirect effects from past donations to altruism and the other way around. ...
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Altruistic preferences have been found to be important for explaining the substantial non-use values identified in numerous stated preference surveys. However, studies analysing the effect of altruism on willingness to pay (WTP) have underestimated the challenges of measuring altruism by stated measures. We exploit a naturally occurring decision domain to investigate the role of altruism in stated preference studies. We employ a novel dataset, collected from an Internet survey panel, that contains respondents’ past donations of earned survey coins to charities and use these data to analyse the effect of donation behaviour on the same respondents’ WTP. We analyse donation behaviour across two contingent valuation surveys on environmental topics. Donators are proven givers in an anonymous and unrelated setting, much like decision-making in a dictator game. We find that respondents’ past donations are associated with higher WTP, even after controlling for stated measures of altruism, ecological, and environmental attitudes. The results suggest that measures of stated altruism fail to capture important aspects of altruism, implying that previous studies of altruism based on such measures may be questioned. The results also support research demonstrating that altruistic behaviour in one decision domain is a good predictor of altruistic behaviour in other domains.
... df=577, GFI 0.82, CFI 0.93, SPMR 0.04, and RMSEA .073, TLI=0.92 and P of close fit 0.00) which suggested a good model fit consistent with the sample size (Hu & Bentler, 1999;Kline, 2010). The model ( Figure. ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... Any low-or cross-loading items were removed one-by-one, and EFA procedures were repeated until such issues were resolved. The following statistics were used to assess adequate model fit: Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) < 0.05; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) > 0.90; Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) > 0.90; and, Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) < 0.08 [75][76][77][78]. Final EFA model selection was based on the number of strongly-loading items per factor, interpretability, parsimony, and fit indices. ...
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Cisgender gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mexico experience disparities in sexual health outcomes, perhaps most notably in HIV prevalence, HIV testing and status awareness, and condom use. Sexual behavior stigma, underpinned by socio-structural factors specific to Mexico (e.g., machismo), uniquely shapes these sexual health disparities. However, few reliable, valid measures are available to document, track, and ultimately mitigate sexual behavior stigma in this context. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on responses to a 13-item sexual behavior stigma scale from 15,681 MSM recruited online across Mexico. Associations with extracted factors were tested to assess construct validity. Three subscales were identified in exploratory factor analysis and validated in confirmatory factor analysis: “stigma from family and friends” (α = 0.65), “anticipated healthcare stigma” (α = 0.84), and “general social stigma” (α = 0.70). External construct validity was indicated through each subscale’s strong association (all p < 0.001) with perceived community intolerance of MSM and perceived community discrimination toward people living with HIV. These subscales show promise as reliable, valid measures for assessing sexual behavior stigma among MSM in Mexico, and as tools for documenting and tracking sexual behavior stigma trends, comparing regional burdens of sexual behavior stigma, and tracking the progress of stigma-mitigation interventions among MSM in Mexico. Future research is needed to understand the extent to which each subscale is differentially associated with sexual (and other) health outcomes, which can inform the development and implementation of uniquely tailored stigma-mitigation, HIV-prevention, HIV-care, and other needed interventions for MSM in Mexico.
... and Chi-square statistics (χ 2 /df ) were used to assess models' goodness-of-fit. An acceptable model for these data should be satisfied with the following criteria: RMSEA value <.06 and CFI and TLI values >.95 (Hu & Bentler, 1999). Chi-square difference tests were used for model comparisons . ...
Article
Objective: This study examined the bidirectional relationships between sleep quality, loss of control (LOC) eating, and night eating in Chinese adolescents using longitudinal data over an 18-month study period. Method: Four-waves of data measurement (Waves 1-4), at 6-month intervals, were conducted with 2566 adolescents aged 11-17 years at baseline. A set of questionnaires were used to assess night eating, LOC eating, and sleep quality at each wave of data collection. Cross-lagged models were applied to analyze the bidirectional relationships between night eating, LOC eating, and sleep quality. Results: Results indicated that higher night eating scores consistently predicted poorer sleep quality and higher LOC eating scores at Waves 1, 2, and 3. Furthermore, poorer sleep quality predicted higher night eating scores at Wave 1 and Wave 3, and higher LOC eating scores predicted higher night eating scores at Wave 1 and Wave 2. Discussion: These findings highlight that night eating, LOC eating, and sleep quality were interrelated across time in Chinese adolescents. Improving sleep quality and reducing LOC eating might be promising in the prevention of night eating in adolescents. Similarly, reducing night eating might be promising in improving sleep quality and reducing LOC eating in adolescents. Public Significance: This study explored the bidirectional relationship between night eating, LOC eating, and sleep quality in Chinese adolescents using cross-lagged models. Findings indicate bidirectional relationships between these variables and highlight the potential utility in incorporating sleep, LOC eating, and night eating interventions in eating pathology prevention designs for adolescents.
... Cut-offs of fit indices include; Q; acceptable criteria vary from under 2 [32] to less than 5 [33]; CFI: ≥ 0.90 and 0.95 reflect acceptable and excellent fit to the data, respectively [34]. RMSEA and SRMR; values between 0.05 and 0.09 indicating adequate model fit and values < 0.05 indicating a very good fit [35]. Modification indices available in CFA have been used to identify misspecification in the model. ...
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Background Death literacy includes the knowledge and skills that people need to gain access to, understand, and make informed choices about end of life and death care options. The Death Literacy Index (DLI) can be used to determine levels of death literacy across multiple contexts, including at a community/national level, and to evaluate the outcome of public health interventions. As the first measure of death literacy, the DLI has potential to significantly advance public health approaches to palliative care. The current study aimed to provide the first assessment of the psychometric properties of the DLI in the UK, alongside population-level benchmarks. Methods A large nationally representative sample of 399 participants, stratified by age, gender and ethnicity, were prospectively recruited via an online panel. The factor structure of the 29-item DLI was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency of subscales was assessed alongside interpretability. Hypothesised associations with theoretically related/unrelated constructs were examined to assess convergent and discriminant validity. Descriptive statistics were used to provide scaled mean scores on the DLI. Results Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original higher-order 8 factor structure, with the best fitting model including one substituted item developed specifically for UK respondents. The subscales reported high internal consistency. Good convergent and discriminant validity was evidenced in relation to objective knowledge of the death system, death competency, actions relating to death and dying in the community and loneliness. Good known-groups validity was achieved with respondents with professional/lived experience of end-of-life care reporting higher levels of death literacy. There was little socio-demographic variability in DLI scores. Scaled population-level mean scores were near the mid-point of DLI subscale/total, with comparatively high levels of experiential knowledge and the ability to talk about death and dying. Conclusions Psychometric evaluations suggest the DLI is a reliable and valid measure of death literacy for use in the UK, with population level benchmarks suggesting the UK population could strengthen capacity in factual knowledge and accessing help. International validation of the DLI represents a significant advancement in outcome measurement for public health approaches to palliative care. Pre-registration https://osf.io/fwxkh/
... This is determined by several fit criteria used in latent variable analyses. Hu and Bentler (1999) provide guidelines for the fit indices, including comparative fit index (CFI) and Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) greater than .95, a standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) less than .08, ...
Article
The five-factor model of personality (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience) is an empirically based personality model that has been utilized in multiple psychological assessments. Recent works have found Block & Block’s (1980) three personality profiles (resilient, overcontrolled, undercontrolled) within the context of the five-factor model. This study performed a latent class analysis using a short FFM assessment from the SAPA project, a free online personality test. The intention of this study was to replicate the three personality profiles within the five-factor model. Four latent classes were included in the final solution. Two of the three personality profiles emerged in the latent class analysis. For the other two classes, one was found in other works and the other has not been found before to this author’s knowledge. Three other covariates were included in the analysis: gender, age, and educational attainment. Implications of the findings are discussed. Advisor: Rafael J. de Ayala
... RMSEA value of < 0.06 indicates a good fit and < 0.08 suggests a reasonable model-data fit, CFI and TLI values larger than 0.95 suggest relatively good model-data fit, and values around 0.90 depict a reasonable fit. Finally, SRMR below 0.08 suggests a reasonable modeldata fit (Hu & Bentler, 1999). ...
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... Bu değerler veri setinin normal dağılımla ilişkili bir probleminin olmadığını göstermiştir. Ölçeğin yapı geçerliliği için altı faktörlü ikincil düzey doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yukarıdaki Tablo 5 incelendiğinde uyum iyilik değerlerinin kabul edilebilir düzeyde oldukları ifade edilebilir (Hu ve Bentler 1999;Kline, 2015). Faktörler arasındaki korelasyonlara ilişkin tablo aşağıda sunulmuştur. ...
... Tucker Lewis index (TLI) where a good fit is TLI ≥ .95, Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) where a good fit is SRMR < .08 and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) where a good fit is also when RMSEA < .08 [29]. ...
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Student's satisfaction – measurement, models, implications Some changes in the environment that contemporary societies struggle with determine the level of quality of their life, make forecasting the future more complicated, and generate unprecedented challenges. The sources of the greatest threats and challenges for contemporary universities are related to international competition in the higher education sector, student mobility and the growing popularity of non-formal and informal learning paths. These and many other conditions for the functioning of modern universities imply the need for a holistic approach to students, and focus not only on educational aspects, but also are related to their personal and social development, and provide them with a sense of care and support from the university during their studies. It should result in students' satisfaction with their studies and a sense of conviction about making the right decision related to education at the higher level as the best path of education. The main purpose of the monograph is to identify determinants and consequences of students’ satisfaction, measure its level and develop models. The theoretical part of the work presents, inter alia, the current situation of Polish higher education, controversy related to the contemporary face of Polish universities, demographic and technological determinants of forecasts for universities, the most relevant aspects related to the quality of education, with particular emphasis on modern teaching methods, as well as the features and expectations of generation Z. The attention is also paid to contemporary concepts connected with managing university relations with students as the key group of their stakeholders. Due to the significant role of students’ satisfaction as the subject of this monograph, various ways of interpreting this concept, its determinants and consequences, methods of measurement and models, as well as benefits for the university resulting from the satisfaction of this group of its stakeholders are presented. The empirical part of the work features the assumptions, results and conclusions of the author's qualitative and quantitative research. The first, exploratory one, was carried out using the in-depth individual interview (IDI) and focus group interview (FGI) methods. The purpose of the qualitative studies was to identify the factors and consequences of students’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The objective of quantitative research was primarily to determine the level of students’ satisfaction with their studies, determinants and successors of this phenomenon, as well as to create models of students’ satisfaction. An attempt was also made to define the causes and consequences of dissatisfaction and post-purchase dissonance among students related to their studies. The research was carried out on a sample of 1,600 students from four universities, by means of the method of an auditorium survey. In the research such specialized methods of measuring satisfaction and loyalty of respondents as CSI, NPS, and IPA analysis were applied. The author's research has confirmed many of the research results presented in the theoretical part of the monograph, especially those relating to the factors of students’ satisfaction and its consequences. The most important differences between the research results presented in the literature and those obtained by the author concern the timetable, which turned out to be the most important factor for the author's respondents, and did not appear in any of the studies presented in the theoretical part. The most significant satisfaction factors in the author's research was also the majors offer (not present in the research of other authors). The main conclusions resulting from the secondary and primary research carried out by the author focus on the need to meet the expectations of students with regard to the quality of education that will enable them to undertake satisfactory work, as well as in the scope of such organization of studies, with particular emphasis on the timetable, so that they can take up a job while studying at the same time. As the author's research shows, the precise expectations of students denote maturity of most of them, expressed in responsible planning of their education, with a view to maximize the resulting benefits in their professional and personal life. 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