ArticleLiterature Review

Job Demands-Resources Theory: Taking Stock and Looking Forward

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Abstract

The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was introduced in the international literature 15 years ago (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001). The model has been applied in thousands of organizations and has inspired hundreds of empirical articles, including 1 of the most downloaded articles of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (Bakker, Demerouti, & Euwema, 2005). This article provides evidence for the buffering role of various job resources on the impact of various job demands on burnout. In the present article, we look back on the first 10 years of the JD-R model (2001-2010), and discuss how the model matured into JD-R theory (2011-2016). Moreover, we look at the future of the theory and outline which new issues in JD-R theory are worthwhile of investigation. We also discuss practical applications. It is our hope that JD-R theory will continue to inspire researchers and practitioners who want to promote employee well-being and effective organizational functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record

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... The JD-R model is related to companies' working conditions, whether positive or negative and personal resources in job-related outcomes (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017). Every organization provides two particular types of working conditions to its employees. ...
... Job demands refer to employees' challenging work conditions such as long working hours, poor working environment, high work pressure and emotionally demanding interactions. When employees try to meet these expectations, job demands may be stressful, resulting in physical or psychological damage (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017;Yener et al., 2014). It was claimed that job demands also result in workaholism, affecting employees negatively, such as reduced happiness and lower job satisfaction in the long term. ...
... In addition to this, job demands would lead to absenteeism and employee turnover. Job demands also reduce efficacy and make employees feel depressed and anxious; thus, employees feel exhausted and burned out (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017). ...
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the association between supervisor support, servicing efficacy and job satisfaction among frontline hotel employees in Turkey. Specifically, the mediating role of servicing efficacy was examined in the link between supervisor support and job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from 421 frontline employees in 4- and 5-star hotels located in the South and South West of Turkey. The authors proposed a conceptual model in which servicing efficacy mediates the link between supervisor support and job satisfaction after controlling for demographic information. Data were analyzed through the structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. Findings – Results showed that supervisor support positively predicted servicing efficacy and job satisfaction reports of the employees. Those reporting higher servicing efficacy were more likely to report increased job satisfaction. In addition, servicing efficacy partially mediated the link between supervisor support and job satisfaction. Originality/value – The current study provides new evidence on the link between supervisor support, efficacy beliefs and job satisfaction in the hotel industry. This is the first study investigating the mediating role of servicing efficacy in the association between supervisor support and job satisfaction. Moreover, most previous studies separately focusing on supervisor support, efficacy beliefs and job satisfaction in the hospitality industry were conducted in developed, Western countries. In contrast, research examining workrelated constructs and outcomes in Turkey’s hospitality industry has been limited. Thus, both replicated and original findings would contribute to the generalizability of cumulative knowledge in tourism and hospitality.
... Furthermore, according to the proposition of the Job Demands-Resources Model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017) job resources stimulate a positive gain spiral by increasing work engagement. This positively influences motivation and energizes job crafting behaviour that leads to proactively creating new resources. ...
... The current study provides a theoretical explanation of the relationship between general environmental characteristics, work engagement as a specific, job-related variable and the training transfer process. The proposed model integrates job resources, job demands and work engagement, and examined their relationships within the transfer process by applying the Job Demands-Resources theory (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017) and the Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989). The results suggest that these theories can provide a conceptual basis for the working mechanism and antecedents of the transfer process. ...
... The results suggest that these theories can provide a conceptual basis for the working mechanism and antecedents of the transfer process. More specifically, the findings provide support for the positive gain spiral and partial support for the resource loss spiral (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;Hobfoll et al., 2018) in the training transfer context. The positive gain spiral was represented by the positive indirect relationship between job resources and training transfer through the work engagement and opportunity to transfer chain. ...
Article
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According to previous studies, general environmental characteristics and job‐related factors influence employees' transfer of learned skills to the job. However, among job‐related variables, the role of work engagement in connection with transfer motivation, opportunity and training transfer has not received much research attention. Building upon the theoretical background of the Job Demands‐Resources Model, the present study investigated the relationship between job resources/demands and training transfer through work engagement, transfer motivation and opportunity to transfer. Based on data from 311 working adults who participated in soft skill training programmes, job resources were associated with higher levels of training transfer through increased work engagement, motivation and opportunity to transfer. In contrast, job demands had negative relationships with transfer via work engagement and opportunity to transfer. The findings supported the assumption of the positive gain spiral in the transfer context. We conclude that companies should prioritize the development of job resources to provide a better environment for training transfer.
... The present study aims to address this gap, anchored in the hypothesis that company policies, in a business expatriation context, allow for conditional job resources (Biswas et al., 2021) to be provided (or not), by purposefully allocating resources to maintain and improve expatriates' working conditions, therefore playing a qualifying role in maintaining or improving employee willingness and psychological contracts under contexts perceived as being of high job demand (Bakker et al., 2007;Demerouti and Bakker, 2011). To address its goal, the study considers interaction effects, as proposed by the job demandsresources (JD-R) model (Bakker et al., 2007;Demerouti and Bakker, 2011;Rattrie and Kittler, 2014;Bakker and Demerouti, 2017), as lens to understand how expatriation-related company policies are enacted as resource pathway to ensure expatriate willingnessunderstood as the likelihood of an individual accepting an expatriation job offer (Mol et al., 2009)as well as the impact of this in terms of the psychological contract maintained with employer organizations. With this approach, the possibility to add developments or amendments to the JD-R model that may foster its use in international work contexts, namely for less cited countries and economies, such as Portugal, with significant MNC segmentation and heterogeneity (Amador and Cabral, 2014;Forte and Moreira, 2018;Silva et al., 2018;Cabral et al., 2020), was considered as subsidiary research goal. ...
... In addition to this, employment-related resource gains are suggested to be more important in the context of perceived resource losses (Halbesleben et al., 2014). As proposed by the JD-R model (Bakker et al., 2007;Demerouti and Bakker, 2011;Rattrie and Kittler, 2014;Bakker and Demerouti, 2017), job resources (such as autonomy, organizational support or job security) play an important role in preventing performance impairment, also acting as antecedents to motivation-related outcomes such as improved commitment, willingness and dedication. Two key additive effects are proposed in the JD-R model. ...
... While there is increasing empirical evidence suggesting that there are demands and resources specific to international work settings (in particular, expatriate workers) (Lazarova et al., 2010;Mahajan and De Silva, 2014;Ren et al., 2015;Biswas et al., 2021), where "(. . .) much is demanded of the individual in terms of adjusting and functioning in a new context" (Lauring and Selmer, 2014, p. 19), and it seems reasonable to recommend a reduction of job demands and an increase in job resources available to the employees embedded in the international assignment context, authors such as Rattrie and Kittler (2014) suggest that a more robust international extension or adaptation of JD-R model (Bakker et al., 2007;Demerouti and Bakker, 2011;Rattrie and Kittler, 2014;Bakker and Demerouti, 2017) still has to be developed, namely with a focus on expatriation to (or from) less researched countries (such as Portugal), to remove blind spots of under-researched regions and economies. ...
Article
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Purpose Managerial discourses tend to portray work-related mobility practices in a positive light, presenting mobility assignments as a place of stimulus and differentiation. A conception of mobility as an opportunity, may contrast, in specific economies and business settings, with lived personal experiences. This article reports the results of a three-year study, aimed to question how multinational companies (MNCs) located in a small and developing European economy (Portugal) are building talent pools for expatriate assignments. Interaction effects, as proposed by the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory, are considered as lens to understand the interplay of company expatriate policies, willingness profiles and psychological contracts of expatriates. By using a Portuguese sample, the study examines whether prior findings in mature economies and consolidated MNCs can be generalized to less developed international business settings. Design/methodology/approach A three-year study, encompassing 24 expatriate cases observed in five multinational firms born or located in Portugal. Two techniques of empirical data collection were used: statistical sources and documental analysis and in-depth interviews. A total of 37 interviews were conducted, both in-person and remotely, of which 13 were with company managers and representatives, and 24 with expatriates (as defined and referred like this by the companies under study). Findings Heterogeneous company policies, ranging from juvenile, functionalist to more dynamic and flow-based approaches, are presented as qualifying resources of willingness levels and psychological contracts of expatriates. Observed interaction effects between policies, willingness and psychological contracts, empirically mirrored in three profiles (conformist, protean and disrupted expatriates) suggest that incentive effects (emanating from company policies) and job demand-resource balance, factored as terms of social and economic trade, are non-linear and asymmetric, influencing firm propensity to succeed while using international work to support company expansion goals. As job resources, expatriate policies are presented as operating as pull or push factors: functionalist HR approaches seem to act as push factors generating more conformist or compelled willingness profiles. Research limitations/implications Generalization of study's outcomes has limitations. Future studies are encouraged to use comparative and longitudinal research designs. Furthermore, future research should include business expatriates with entry-level positions, and increase the number of interviewees, as results can also be considered as limited by sample size. Practical implications It is suggested that further strategic work is needed to present expatriation development value, formally screen and consider willingness level as selection criteria, and enlarge the pool (from internal to external) of candidates, in peripheral economic settings such as Portugal. A shift to more dynamic and job resource-dense policies are suggested as beneficial, as pathway to optimize social and economic value from expatriation assignments and work experiences. Originality/value By putting the interplay between macro and micro-level processes into perspective, the study provides empirical evidence on how company expatriate policies have come to promote unforeseen differentiation of employee willingness and psychological contracts at the heart of MNCs. This is particularly relevant in developing economies such as Portugal, challenging the need to build talent pools for international work assignments. Empirical data illustrating company policies interactive effects with different willingness profiles and psychological contracts of expatriates is provided.
... The job demands-resources model provides a theoretical foundation for why workplace variables would be related to job involvement (Demerouti et al., 2001). Under this model, workplace variables are placed into the general categories of job demands and job resources (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). Job demands require a worker to expend extra effort, hindering their job efforts and experiences (Schaufeli & Taris, 2014). ...
... Job resources are workplace variables that make the job more pleasurable, increasing the likelihood of success at work, which, in turn, allows people to feel better about themselves and increases their positive psychological feelings (Mauno et al., 2006). In addition, job resources can help reduce the occurrence of job demands, as well as help buffer officers from the negative psychological strain from job demands (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). As noted by Bakker et al. (2003), "job resources refer to those physical, psychological, social, or organizational aspects of the job that are either/or: (1) functional in achieving work goals; ...
... The job demands-resources model does not propose specific workplace job demand or resource variables that result in negative or positive outcomes, but rather that workplace variables fall into the categories of demands and resources (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). As noted by Schaufeli and Taris (2014), "the job demands-resources model does not restrict itself to specific job demands or job resources. ...
Article
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Prison officers not only affect prison operations, but correctional workplace variables also have effects on officers. Most of the past empirical research on this topic has focused on officers working in Western prisons. This study used the job demands–resources model to examine the effects of workplace variables in terms of job demands (e.g., perceived dangerousness of the job and role overload) and job resources (e.g., job autonomy, job variety, instrumental communication, and quality supervision) on job involvement among Indian prison officers using a sample of 163 prison officers from a prison in the state of Haryana in India. OLS regression indicated role overload, job autonomy, and instrumental communication all had nonsignificant effects, while job variety and quality supervision had positive effects on job involvement, as did the job demand of perceived dangerousness of the job. Similar to past research, the positive effects of job variety and quality supervision appear to be universal across prisons, as are the lack of direct effects for role overload and instrumental communication. Conversely, the effects of perceived dangerousness of the job and job autonomy appear to be contextual, varying across prisons in different nations.
... Our paper posits ten hypothesized relationships. Job demands-resources theory contributes to our job insecurity → job tension hypothesis (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017), ...
... Affective events theory is utilized to develop the hypothesis concerning the job insecurity → job tension → trust in organization relationship (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996). Finally, we develop the hypotheses regarding the job insecurity → job tension → PLE and PLW associations under the umbrella of job demands-resources theory (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). ...
... The health impairment process guides our hypothesis regarding the association between job insecurity (job demand) and job tension (work-related strain) (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007. Specifically, job demands are predictors of work-related strain, while job resources are predictors of work (dis)engagement (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). Accordingly, we propose that employees beset by elevated levels of uncertainty about their job in the organization due to destabilized employment arrangements and the COVID-19 pandemic experience higher job tension. ...
Article
Purpose - Our paper investigates the consequences of job insecurity among hotel employees during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach - Data were obtained from the employees of two five-star chain hotels in Turkey. The study hypotheses were tested via structural equation modeling. Findings - The research findings demonstrate that job insecurity exacerbates job tension. Job tension erodes employees’ trust in organization and aggravates their propensity to leave work early and be late for work. As hypothesized, job tension mediates the effect of job insecurity on organizational trust and the abovementioned outcomes. Originality/value - Our study adds to the hospitality literature by assessing the interrelationships of job insecurity, job tension, organizational trust, and nonattendance intentions. Keywords Hotel employees, Job insecurity, Job tension, Nonattendance; Trust in organization, COVID-19
... This study investigated the impact of spiritual resources variables on employees' emotional exhaustion and emotional ill-health across the regions of Asia, Africa, and the Pacific mainly Australia in the context of the job demands and resources (JD-R) model. The JD-R theory proposes that high job demands combined with inadequate job resources lead to burnout (emotional exhaustion) in turn lead to emotional ill health (health impairment process) while high job resources with moderate job demands lead to high productivity (motivational process) among employees (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;. ...
... The study was anchored on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;. At the core of the JD-R theory lies the premise that all job characteristics are categorized as either job demands or job resources, and the concept can be extended to different work settings regardless of the job resources and demands involved (Bakker & de Vries, 2021;Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). ...
... The study was anchored on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;. At the core of the JD-R theory lies the premise that all job characteristics are categorized as either job demands or job resources, and the concept can be extended to different work settings regardless of the job resources and demands involved (Bakker & de Vries, 2021;Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). The JD-R model possesses unique predictive properties that are differently linked to different specific job outcomes in the workplace (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;Broetje, Jenny, & Bauer, 2020). ...
... Regular feedback, rewards, control over job related tools, tasks and decision, and supervisory support are key elements of resources (Demerouti et al., 2001). Therefore, the JD-R model assesses two psychological processes: a health impairment process induced by demands and a motivational process generated by resources (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). ...
... Emotional demands proved to be an important aspect of the SDRQ, just as with the JD-R framework in the occupational context (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;Demerouti et al., 2001). Emotional demands were positively associated with student burnout, primarily with exhaustion. ...
Article
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The demand-resource framework is widely used to predict burnout in occupational context. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the links of school demands and resources to student burnout. Six hundred and ninety-six Hungarian students from secondary schools participated in the data collection using online survey method in classrooms. Independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM) were utilized during the analysis procedure. Statistical analysis revealed gender differences in student burnout, with girls scoring higher on “inadequacy” and “exhaustion” scales. Correlation analysis showed resources to be linked positively with burnout (0.24 < r < 0.57), while demands were negatively associated (− 0.15 < r < − 0.65). SEM results demonstrated school demands and student burnout to be positively related, while resources and symptoms were negatively associated. The results supported the usefulness of the school demand–resource framework in the exploration of student burnout. The findings showed demands and resources indicate two opposite processes in the development of burnout. We discuss the findings in the context of possible intervention methods which should be further investigated in future research.
... The job demands-resources model [62] represents an approach to understanding and evaluating workers' burnout risk, including that of healthcare professionals [53]. The same stressful events (demands) may find a different solution from the worker (resources). ...
... The sensemaking process occurring during compassionate interactions requires workers to acknowledge the role of other organizational actors (other colleagues, leaders, managers) and of the organization as a system in at least two processes: the perceived contribution to the suffering and the ability to sustain compassionate processes. Considering the first process, the Job Demands-Resources model [62] explains how organizations might be perceived as a source of stress and suffering by employees, for example, by setting high challenges for employees but not providing the needed resources to respond to these challenges. Although the pandemic has been an exceptional, unforeseeable event, organizational changes, whether imposed by external events or programmed by the management, are usually a source of stress and suffering for employees [12,116]. ...
Article
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Managing the COVID-19 pandemic posed several challenges for healthcare professionals, which likely heightened their risk of burnout (Amanullah and Ramesh Shankar, 2020) and, consequently , their general physical and mental health. Although it may not be possible to address and eliminate the causes of burnout, current research informs healthcare organizations about protective strategies to reduce its detrimental consequences. The promotion of compassionate interactions among healthcare professionals may play such a role. Compassion within healthcare organizations positively affects individual performance and well-being. Building on these considerations and within the framework of the Conservation of Resources theory, this study explores the relationships among burnout dimensions, received compassion at work, and general health in 711 Italian healthcare professionals (68.5% female), aged between 21 and 73 years (Mage = 36.4, SD = 11.2). Analyses were conducted to investigate the association between burnout and general well-being (H1) and between burnout symptoms and perceived compassion at work (H2); and the mediational role of compassion in the relationship between burnout symptoms and general well-being. H1 and H2 were confirmed (r < 0.01 for both), and a SEM model showed the mediating role of compassion at work in the association between burnout symptoms and general well-being (RMSEA < 0.08, SRMR < 0.08, CFI and TLI > 0.90). Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed in the paper.
... Emotional exhaustion reflects the state when individuals' emotional resources are depleted, and they feel they can no longer give of themselves at a psychological level (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). Job demands-resources (JD-R) theory argues that personal resources could buffer the impact of job demands, and thereby decrease job burnout (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). A series of meta-analytic evidence supported the JD-R theory's argument (e.g., Alarcon, 2011;Lesener et al., 2019). ...
... As a previous study suggested, CO is positively linked to career decisiveness, which confirmed that a positive career attitude (CO) could bring career decisiveness (Chatterjee et al., 2014). CO is negatively related to depersonalization and emotional exhaustion, which is in line with the argument of the JD-R theory (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). Thus, our findings provided support for the JD-R theory. ...
Article
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Purpose Given its importance, career optimism (CO) has drawn much attention from researchers. Fruitful evidence has been accumulated; unfortunately, a quantitative review is still lacking, which would limit the continuous development of this field. To address this, this paper uses the meta-analysis technology to evaluate the links between CO and its antecedents and outcomes. Design/methodology/approach This study used Hunter–Schmidt method random effect meta-analysis technology to systematically evaluate the true score correlations between CO and its antecedents and outcomes. Findings Among the CO antecedents, this study found significant links between CO and agreeableness ( ρ = 0.11), career adaptability ( ρ = 0.55), career knowledge ( ρ = 0.43), career decision self-efficacy ( ρ = 0.52), social support ( ρ = 0.30), conscientiousness ( ρ = 0.54), extraversion ( ρ = 0.38), gender ( ρ = 0.07), GPA ( ρ = 0.11), neuroticism ( ρ = −0.42), and openness ( ρ = 0.27). Moreover, among the CO outcomes, significant links have been found between CO and academic satisfaction ( ρ = 0.43), career choice satisfaction ( ρ = 0.44), career decisiveness ( ρ = 0.37), depersonalization ( ρ = −0.48), and emotional exhaustion ( ρ = −0.59). Originality/value By conducting the first meta-analysis of CO, our study contributes to the CO literature. Additionally, our study increases the knowledge of CO, which would help leaders in the school or workplace to understand the significance of CO better and thereby take actions to intervene and increase students or employees' CO.
... The seminal Job Demand-Control (JDC) model (Karasek, 1979;Karasek and Theorell, 1990), which is also one of the predecessors of the JD-R theoretical developments (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017), proves to be particularly useful when studying the configurations of job characteristics. It has explicitly classified the work environment into distinct types that converge on the so-called "strain" and "active learning" axes (see H€ ausser et al., 2014), thereby illustrating differently balanced job demands and job control (a narrower variant of job resources comprised of autonomy and skill utilization). ...
... Work engagement as an outcome Work engagement denotes a positive psychological state at work comprising vigour, dedication and absorption (Schaufeli et al., 2002). The JD-R theoretical framework considers it a key outcome of motivational processes at work, which represent optimal functioning and well-being among employees (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017;Schaufeli, 2017). The literature agrees that job crafting and work engagement are tightly interconnected and can reinforce each other (Demerouti, 2014). ...
Article
Purpose The current study inspects pathways through which job crafting relates to the quality of employees' working lives. To date, this has been mostly done either by linking job crafting to individual job characteristics or by investigating its association with separate aspects of occupational well-being (such as work engagement), whereas empirical evidence about how it may affect one's overall work situation remains scarce. Design/methodology/approach To address this question, the authors conducted latent profile analyses based on selected job resources and job demands, which allowed the authors to derive distinct work environment patterns prevailing in a heterogeneous sample of 1,064 employees. Four patterns were identified denoting a passive, high-strain, low-strain and optimally balanced work environment types. The authors then tested the hypothesis that job crafting would relate to employees' odds of exposure to these patterns and that the latter would differentiate between high and low work engagement. Findings Approach job crafting was related to higher odds of being exposed to a favourably balanced work environment, and the reverse was true of avoidance crafting. Work engagement differed as a function of the quality of the work environment. Furthermore, the results suggested a potentially indirect link between approach job crafting and work engagement via exposure to different work environment types, whereas avoidance crafting related to lower work engagement only directly. Originality/value The findings contribute to theory testing and practice by providing a holistic representation of the work environment and then interlinking its features with employee proactivity and engagement.
... From an SDT perspective, employers can focus on the antecedents of autonomy support and autonomy crafting behaviors. From a work engagement perspective, the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017) would be helpful. ...
... This work design will simultaneously promote engagement and performance (Gagné et al., 2021). Apart from autonomy, other job resources such as providing meaningful performance feedback and social support can also enhance work engagement and performance (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). ...
Article
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Managers and colleagues satisfy others’ need for autonomy, but employees can also satisfy their own need by engaging in autonomy crafting practices. Although all three sources of autonomy support can benefit employee outcomes, they may not be equally beneficial. Furthermore, their benefits may not be straightforward, but rather a psychological process unfolding. To test these assumptions, the aim of the present study was twofold: to determine whether the different sources of support explained significantly different amounts of variance in autonomy satisfaction when compared and to understand the psychological process through which autonomy support from three sources influenced performance, more specifically, whether autonomy support indirectly affected performance through perceived autonomy satisfaction and work engagement in serial. In a sample of 278 employees, autonomy support from others (especially managers) and autonomy crafting played a role in autonomy satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that autonomy support was associated with performance through its serial associations with autonomy satisfaction and work engagement. The results emphasized the importance of autonomy support for performance, enabling organizations to proactively design interventions to improve engagement and performance.
... However, higher levels of burnout are likely to be expected from data collected during the pandemic. To further explore the psychometric properties of the Italian BAT-12, its construct validity was assessed using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model [35] as a conceptual framework. According to the JD-R model, employees' well-being is determined by (1) job demands, as an aspect of one's job requiring physical and psychological effort; and (2) job resources, as "protective factors" enabling employees to meet job demands and encouraging learning and development [36]. ...
... Consistent with previous studies [22] and with Hypothesis 3, the obtained findings show job demands and resources to be positively and negatively, respectively, associated with burnout (BAT-12 total) in the expected direction. Consistent with the JD-R assumptions [35], in the current study, burnout reported a positive association with job demands (i.e., workload, pressure, and role conflict) and a negative association with resources related to one's job (i.e., job autonomy and colleagues' support) and personal characteristics (i.e., optimism, social self-efficacy, and task self-efficacy). Therefore, the psychological costs of job demands seem to contribute to a higher BAT-12 total score, whereas job and personal resources are likely protective against burnout. ...
Article
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The Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) has shown satisfactory validity evidence in several countries, with the 23-item version of the instrument reporting adequate psychometric properties also in the Italian context. This paper is aimed to present results from the Italian validation of the 12-item version of the BAT. Based on a sample of 2277 workers, our results supported the factorial validity of a higher-order model represented by 4 first-order factors corresponding to the core dimensions of burnout, namely exhaustion, mental distance, and emotional and cognitive impairment. The measure invariance of the BAT-12 between data collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic was supported. However, ANCOVA results suggest a higher score on the second-order burnout factor on data collected during the COVID-19 pandemic in comparison with earlier data. In line with the JD-R model, the BAT-12 total score reported a positive association with job demands (i.e., workload, time pressure, and role conflict) and a negative association with job resources (i.e., job autonomy, coworkers' support) and personal resources (i.e., optimism, social self-efficacy, and task self-efficacy). Additionally, the BAT-12 showed a negative association with work engagement components (i.e., vigor, dedication, and absorption) and positive job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction, affective commitment). All in all, our results identify the Italian version of the BAT-12 as a brief and reliable tool for measuring burnout among workers.
... Resiliency has also been related to work engagement through increased personal resources that are found to undo the negative effects of past job demands (Bakker & Leiter, 2010). Previous studies have shown that both job and personal resources activate the motivational process in facilitating a psychological preparedness in individuals towards overcoming the effects of their job demands and stimulating personal growth (Halbesleben et al., 2014, Bakker andDemerouti, 2017). Conceptually, Sweetman and Luthans (2010) have put forward their theory that employee PsyCap, as an indicator of POB, can be thought of as a job resource that should help individual employees to obtain goals, buffer demands and facilitate personal growth. ...
... Furthermore, depression as a result of workplace stressor, has been found to affect employees functioning leading to a multitude of complex costs for the employer (Thomas & Hersen, 2000). Promisingly, PsyCap has been identified as having a positive role in alleviating depressive symptoms in veterinary doctors and having the capacity to be developed through positive intervention programmes (Bakker, 2017). PsyCap has also been found to be a moderator between work-family conflict and depressive symptoms and a positive resource to combat depression in a sample of 824 female nurses in China (Hao, 2015). ...
Article
Background: Over the last couple of decades, psychological wellbeing at work has increasingly received research attention, particularly in light of a rise in the prevalence of mental health issues in work sectors that present with high job demand levels. High levels of stress, anxiety and depression have been documented in the banking workforce too and have been associated with personal and organizational factors that can be detrimental to psychological wellbeing at work in various Western and Eastern countries. Within a positive psychology framework, the construct of Psychological Capital (PsyCap) has become pertinent to the study and reinforcement of mental wellbeing in the workplace in terms of its focus on the development of the four dimensions it comprises of, i.e., hope, optimism, resilience, and self-efficacy. While PsyCap as a personal resource has been found to improve psychological wellbeing at work, Perceived Organizational Support (POS) has also been shown to contribute to wellbeing at work as well as to work satisfaction and performance; however, the relationship among PsyCap, POS and psychological wellbeing in the banking sector in either Western or Eastern countries has been under-researched. Aim: This is the first study aimed to investigate the role of psychological wellbeing in the banking workforce in relation to a PsyCap framework that also considers the contributing role of POS in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological wellbeing. The study will also adopt a comparative approach, aiming to explore any cultural and/or gender differences in the nature of the relationship among PsyCap, psychological wellbeing and POS in bank employees at a Western, i.e., U.K. and an eastern, i.e., India, organization site. Method: Following a systematic narrative review into the literature on PsyCap, studied along with aspects of psychological wellbeing and POS in the occupational sector (inclusive of students) that informed the aims of the current investigation, a mixed methods approach was adopted to explore the nature of the relationship among PsyCap, psychological wellbeing and POS in the U.K. and the India banking sector. In the quantitative part, validated self-report scales were distributed through an online survey or manually for completion, i.e. psychological capital (PsyCap; Luthans, Avolio, Avey, & Norman, 2007), perceived organizational support (POS; Eisenberger, 1986) and psychological wellbeing (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995); the qualitative exploration employed semi-structured interviews with a subsample of those who participated in the quantitative part to enquire in more depth into factors associated with PsyCap, wellbeing and POS as well as the nature of stressors at work and the coping strategies adopted to deal with these stressors. Results: Quantitative data findings showed PsyCap -and its dimensions to be negatively correlated with (poor) psychological wellbeing. POS was negatively correlated with (poor) psychological wellbeing and positively correlated to PsyCap & its dimensions. POS moderated the relationship between PsyCap and psychological wellbeing in the total combined sample of U.K and India based bank employees (n=475) and in the U.K. bank employee sample (n=230) per se but did not serve as a moderator in this relationship for the India bank employee sample (n=245). Further, significant gender differences were seen on the domains of hope and optimism of PsyCap as well as on POS and on the domains of stress and anxiety of psychological wellbeing, among the banking cohort at both sites. Qualitatively, emerged themes derived from thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke,2006) were common and/or site-specific and reflected: the importance of POS (e.g., support from colleagues/managers, recognition of work and well-defined work parameters) in effective work performance; the link between PsyCap (e.g., optimism) and work performance; the link between POS (e.g., recognition of work) and PsyCap (e.g., self-efficacy) in effective work performance; the link between POS (e.g., provision of wellbeing programs) and work performance as well as psychological wellbeing; the link between stressors and various coping strategies with psychological wellbeing; and the importance of positive psychology approaches in stress reduction and improved work performance. Notably, managerial support and wellbeing program provision were found lacking at the India bank site. Conclusion: The combined pattern of findings suggests that PsyCap can be a vital personal resource for improving wellbeing at work as well as work performance that can be further developed, along with take-up of organizational support. Future research needs to further investigate the synergistic contribution of PsyCap and POS as personal and organizational sources for improving psychological wellbeing at work while Western practice can potentially inform India bank sites on the implementation of beneficial organizational support sources at work.
... In line with this assertion, perceptions of agile teamwork have been related to social job resources, such as feedback (Tripp et al., 2016) and peer support (Rietze & Zacher, 2022). A limitation of these prior studies on agile work design is their use of individuallevel data for inferring relationships between constructs that are theorized at the team-and job-level, respectively (for why this matters, see, Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;Bliese et al., 2018). Therefore, to increase theory-method fit (Edmondson & McManus, 2007), we formulate and test hypotheses on teamlevel work design mechanisms of AWPs. ...
... The present study addresses calls for more generalizable theory (Niederman et al., 2018) and broadly applicable measures of agile work practices (AWPs; Junker et al., 2021;Rietze & Zacher, 2022). Building on the routine dynamics (Feldman & Pentland, 2003;Kremser & Schreyögg, 2016), team process (Fisher, 2014;Mathieu et al., 2020), and work design literature (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;Parker, 2014), we defined AWPs as clusters of team planning routines that aim to facilitate changeoriented action (i.e., agility; Doeze Jager-van Vliet et al., 2022;Doz, 2020;Grass et al., 2020;Petermann & Zacher, 2021). We introduced four AWPs that are (a) practiced across a broad range of organizations (Tripp & Armstrong, 2018), (b) potentially enable continuous change (Brown & Eisenhardt, 1997), and (c) are distinguishable on a taskwork-teamwork continuum (Crawford & LePine, 2013). ...
... Scholars have also used a wide variety of theoretical foundations to explain the negative effects of job insecurity which become apparent when examining the topic groupings. One of the most prominent perspectives is the so-called stressor perspective (Sverke et al., 2002), which groups contributions based on resources theories (topic 25; Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;Hobfoll, 1989;see e.g., De Cuyper et al., 2012), and appraisal theory (topic 7; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; see e.g., Klandermans et al., 2010). While these theories predict differential outcomes, they share the assumption that job insecurity is a stressor. ...
... Before then, the most accredited stress theories were either psychophysiological or appraisal-based, while Hobfoll (1989) published his seminal paper arguing for the study of individual resources. Ten years later, another resource-based theory (the JD-R model; Bakker & Demerouti, 2017) was developed. Similar to the occupational health psychology topic (14), this topic has also seen steady incremental interest over the years, defining the last period of job insecurity research, i.e., Current Trends. ...
Article
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We collected the abstracts of manuscripts examining job insecurity published between 1984 and 2019 and carried out a textual analysis to investigate the defining clusters, their development over time, and whether there was evidence of siloed knowledge. Results suggested that job insecurity research seems to be fragmented into disciplinary foci (organizational psychology, public health, economics, and sociology). Further analyses on the organizational psychology corpus, revealed 25 topics with distinct temporal trajectories: some were increasing (analytical advances and differentiation between cognitive and affective job insecurity) while other were decreasing (scale development). The remaining abstracts revealed 15 topics with more stable trajectories. Based on these results, we identified five areas for future organizational research on job insecurity: the changing labor market, the need to better understand the experiences of marginalized workers and non-work outcomes of job insecurity, the added-value of qualitative research, and the need to critically evaluate our assumptions as researchers.
... According to previous studies, employees of different gender, age, and education tend to have different working and personal resources (Xanthopoulou et al., 2007). These resources directly influence people's experience of their role and their level of psychological detachment (Seibert et al., 2011;Bakker and Demerouti, 2017). Thus, gender, age, and education were included as dummy variables and control variables in this paper. ...
Article
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After experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic, the status and mechanisms of leadership, and the challenges for medical workers in terms of family–work conflicts, have caused widespread concern. In the post-pandemic era, based on role theory and the stressor-detachment model, this paper seeks to break the “black box” of negative effects that can be caused by leadership, research the mechanism and boundary conditions of those negative effects, and explore factors to reduce those negative effects. We recruited 1,010 Chinese medical workers fighting COVID-19 on the frontline. Our study results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between empowering leadership and work–family conflict, and this relationship was completely mediated by role stress, while psychological detachment moderated the relationship between role stress and work–family conflict. Moreover, psychological detachment moderated the mediating effect of empowering leadership on work–family conflict through role stress. Therefore, higher levels of psychological detachment were less conducive to medical workers' family–work conflict. This study has important theoretical significance and practical value for revealing the negative effects and mechanisms of empowering leadership and for medical workers to better deal with work–family relations.
... While autonomy-supportive leadership (resources) was associated with the development of teachers' creativity and efforts to find and share efficient ways of teaching in new conditions, autonomy-thwarting leadership (demands) was associated with emotional exhaustion of teachers. She cites Job Demands -Resources (JD-R) Theory (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017) which explicates the roles of job demands, job resources, and personal resources in predicting employees' functioning at work. ...
Conference Paper
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The image of the city acquires special prominence in Modernist literature. The urban cityscapes simultaneously serve as real geographical areas and universal symbols in works of great modernist authors. This is especially true about James Joyce’s Dublin - the permanent setting of the works by the great Irish modernist. A collection of short stories “Dubliners” belongs to the early period of James Joyce’s creativity and its title highlights the importance of Dublin for the collection- the capital of Ireland is not a mere setting, but the unifying factor, the main image of the collection. Joyce represents the capital city as the centre of paralysis, or hemiplegia, affecting its citizens, despite their age. The paper discusses the importance and symbolic meaning of the city in the text. Joyce manifests naturalistic precision while mapping his city. The meandering of the characters around the streets of Dublin acquires symbolic importance - circular routs and the characters’ futile attempts of breaking the circle demonstrate the inability of Dubliners to escape the paralysis of their physical, cultural, religious existence. I try to explore the role of Dublin in shaping the fates of its citizens and the methods, used by Joyce to depict the main city of Ireland, which is just “wearing the mask of capital,” remaining deeply provincial in every aspect of its existence. Key Words: Dublin, paralysis, capital, chronotope, inability
... We used the theoretical lens of job demands-resources (JD-R) model proposed by Demerouti et al. (2001) to explain the proposed conceptual framework. The model predicts that there are primarily two perspectives, namely energy depletion perspective and motivational perspective, to explain high job demands and low job resources, causing job burnout and disengagement from work (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). Consistent with energy depletion perspective of JD-R model, we therefore contend that carrying a desired status in workgroup drives members to fulfill the job demands and complete the assigned tasks efficiently, while team status conflict creates a non-conducive work environment and will deplete an employee's psychological resources (Schneider et al., 2017), constraining the exchange of ideas with other members that are essential for doing creative work. ...
Article
Status – one’s position and influence within a social network – is a psych-social resource which fulfills one’s need for social esteem. Striving to gain status in a social setup, including organizational settings, can cause conflict and reduce employees’ positive work behavior. This study is aimed at discussing two questions: first, how status conflict in team, a newly established type of conflict, poses a threat toward individual wellbeing and affects team creativity; and second, to what extent organizational awareness, an individual characteristic, might act as buffer against the negative effects of status conflict. The data was collected from 245 healthcare professionals from 55 teams and analyzed through multilevel analysis, after achieving the model fit. The counterintuitive findings at team level revealed that status conflict does not impede team creativity but causes depersonalization that could undermine the overall team creativity. This multilevel study serves to widen the literature, responding to the recent call for new research by investigating the effects of depersonalization caused by status conflict on team creativity. Likewise, from a practical standpoint, it also emphasizes social competency as a moderator that can reduce the negative feelings caused by status conflict. Additionally, the study extends the job-demand resource model by introducing status as an individual requirement in organizational context, arguing that depletion of status creates negative feelings which are ultimately able to lower creativity.
... Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) developed by Arnold Bakker and WilmarSchaufeli is the tool most frequently used to measure work engagement(Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). Systematic literature reviews show the UWES was almost exclusively applied as a valid basis for developing work engagement interventions(Knight et al., 2017). ...
Thesis
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Leading a team effectively is a very important factor for any leader or organization that wants to achieve success and its goals. The thesis research was conducted in order to investigate and understand the relationship between leadership styles and organizational outcomes, employee engagement, and generational differences through three specific studies. Bass and Avolio’s (2004) multifactorial leadership questionnaire (MLQ) and the Utrecht labor involvement scale (UWES-17) were used for the global research. The study sample consisted of 167 respondents. The results of the thesis made important and original contributions to validate and expand the evidence of the benefits of the transformational leadership style. The thesis concludes that transformational behaviors are the ones that have the most positive impact on organizational outcomes, employee engagement, and millennial job satisfaction. Each leader who wishes to manage teams successfully may benefit from analyzing their inner style and implement transformational behavioral approaches towards their teams.
... Altogether, academics must work hard and fast to accomplish their numerous and complex tasks within a restricted time span (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;Ingusci et al., 2021), hence, to accomplish their work, academics often work long hours and overtime (Houston et al., 2006). Working for extended periods to get work done may be more pronounced and impactful when employees are compelled to work from home, which could deplete their resources and lead to negative work-related outcomes (Listau et al., 2017;Van Tonder & Fourie, 2015), including work-home conflict (Bell et al., 2012) and potentially other negative work-related outcomes (Hakanen et al., 2008). ...
Article
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As COVID-19 pandemic made its incursion into the world of work in early 2020, many employees were compelled to work from home to slow down the transmission of the disease. Since then, it has been asked whether working from home is a blessing or a burden. We respond to this question by building on the Affective Events Theory to examine whether work engagement is related to work-life balance (WLB), and whether home demands mediate this relationship, using data from 219 knowledge workers drawn from universities in the South-eastern region of Nigeria primarily working from home when they were surveyed. Results of regression analysis using PROCESS macro showed that work engagement related positively to home demands; in turn, home demands related negatively to WLB. The results further revealed that work engagement related negatively to WLB and that home demands mediated the negative work engagement-WLB connection. Theoretical as well as practical implications of the study are discussed, limitations are highlighted, and suggestions for future research are outlined.
... If the choice of work environment in the context of remote work is made strategically to align with personal needs and goals (e.g., working in a café because the feeling of having people around is liked), this can be understood as structural job crafting [34]. Job crafting reduces work stress and can thus further enhance the positive experience of work [35]. ...
Article
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1) Background: In view of the advancing digitalization of the German banking sector, offering remote work can be an opportunity for banks to meet changing customer and employee needs at the same time. It allows flexible consultations at changing locations and, due to the high degree of autonomy, it also increases motivation, meaningfulness, happiness at work, and commitment. (2) Methods: This study used a quasi-experimental design to investigate how remote work affects happiness at work and affective commitment among employees in a German public bank. Therefore, two groups of customer advisors were examined, who work either remotely (N = 32) or stationary (N = 110) at similar tasks. (3) Results: The group comparisons show significantly higher values overall on three of the investigated four happiness dimensions ("meaningfulness", "self-ac-tualization", and "community professional") for employees in the remote group. Commitment also differs, as employees in the remote group show significantly stronger commitment. The quantitative results were confirmed by qualitative interviews. (4) Conclusions: By investigating the positive effects of remote working, this study shows new findings on what is likely to be a growing design form of New Work in the future. The study provides evidence that self-selected work environments and working hours offer an opportunity to make work more conducive to happiness-even in a sector that still undergoes significant shifts.
... For example, Maslach's model of BO and MBI scale have been heavily criticized, particularly on its dimension of depersonalisation [132]. Today, the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R; [133]) is increasingly recognized. Therefore, either the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT; [134]) or the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI; [135]) could replace the MBI in a future study. ...
Article
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Police officers are frequently exposed to highly stressful situations at work and have an increased risk to develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and burnout (BO). It is currently not well understood which officers are most at risk to develop these disorders. The aim of this study was to determine which coping strategies and personality traits could act as protective or risk factors in relation to PTSD and BO. The second aim, in the interest of designating preventive and therapeutical measures, was to determine whether certain profiles of police officers could be identified as high risk for developing mental disorders. Herein, 1073 French-speaking police officers in Switzerland reported in an online survey about their PTSD and BO symptoms, anxiety, depression, suicide ideation, coping strategies, occupational stress, and personality factors. The cluster analysis highlighted three principal profiles of police officers: those who are not at risk of developing pathologies because they are not exposed or insensitive to these stressors, and those who are, among which personality and coping strategies oriented the risk of developing PTSD or BO. These same protective and risk factors were also corroborated in the linear and logistic regression analyses. These results may suggest that a crucial opportunity for mitigating mental health issues in the force could consist of screening recruits for risk-related personality traits and orienting them towards psychological training programs for the development of functional coping strategies.
... The JD-R model thus encompasses a wide range of factors that can affect, either negatively (demands) or positively (resources), a worker's well-being. Although the JD-R model has received empirical support [16], there are no specific tools that allow the assessment of its dimensions, as research has always used scales from other instruments. ...
Article
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Existing measures of the impact of job characteristics on workers’ well-being do not directly assess the extent to which such characteristics (e.g., opportunity to learn new skills) are perceived as positive or negative. We developed a measure, the Work Annoyance Scale (WAS), of the level of annoyance that workers feel about certain aspects of the job and evaluated its psychometric properties. Using archival data from two cohorts (n = 2226 and 655) of workers that had undergone an annual medical examination for occupational hazard, we show the usefulness of the network psychometric approach to scale validation and its similarities and differences from a traditional factor analytic approach. The results revealed a two-dimensional structure (working conditions and cognitive demands) that was replicable across cohorts and bootstrapped samples. The two dimensions had adequate structural consistency and discriminant validity with respect to other questionnaires commonly used in organizational assessment, and showed a consistent pattern of association with relevant background variables. Despite the need for more extensive tests of its content and construct validity in light of the organizational changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic and of an evaluation of the generalizability of the results to cultural contexts different from the Italian one, the WAS appears as a psychometrically sound tool for assessment and research in organizational contexts.
... Building upon the above argument, the current research assumes that the role of ES in this context enhances the connection between a firms' SMO and OCB of employees as well as providing a moderation effect on the relationship between SMO and EI. Referring to Job Demands-resources Model (JD-R) [68,69], engagement, OCB, and involvement of employees are affected by resources from both individual (e.g., optimism) and the organization (autonomy and support). If resources are depleted, individuals are less likely to be able to exhibit positive extra role behaviors and have higher involvement with their jobs. ...
Article
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In recent years, environmental consideration and notion of sustainability has gained extensive attention on global scale from political aspect to businesses and social means. It has been the core concept of development for organizations in different industries in an increasing manner. As tourists tend to be more aware regarding environment and impact of human activity on nature, it becomes more important to include sustainable measures so that firms can remain competitive in the market and attract new customers. The current research examines the relationship between sustainable marketing orientation deployed by organizations operating in tourism sector (i.e., hotels) and employees’ extra-role behavior in form of organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, indirect effects of employees’ socialization and involvement are examined to provide a better understanding on related factors. Gathering data from hotels of Beirut, 218 employees participated in the research and PLS-SEM yielded significant results, stating that the variables are vital for positive behavioral outcomes within the hotel industry. The results can be beneficial for scholars and practitioners in tourism sector alike.
... Therefore, it is necessary to explore how personal psychological factors and sociocultural factors affect teachers' well-being. Scholars have found that job burnout was influenced by job factors (e.g., social support, work-family conflict) and personal factors (e.g., emotional labor, self-esteem) [4][5][6][7]. The cultural context (e.g., cultural values) might also impact the straining process [8]. ...
Article
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Using Grandey’s model of emotional labor, this study attempted to reveal the effects of cultural and social factors on teachers’ emotions. Specifically, taking a sample of 3312 Chinese teachers, we examined the effects of power distance (PD) and emotional labor on emotional exhaustion, focusing on the mediating role of emotional labor with different interactive partners. The results showed that Chinese teachers used surface acting (SA) the most with parents, and the least with students; they used the expression of naturally felt emotions (ENFE) the most with students, and the least with colleagues and leaders. They also used deep acting more when working with students and parents. In addition, PD negatively influenced ENFE and positively influenced SA with the three interactive partners. Only SA mediated the relationship between PD and exhaustion. These results improve our understanding of teachers’ emotions in terms of power and suggest that we should consider personal psychological factors (i.e., emotional labor), social factors (i.e., interactive partners), and national culture (i.e., PD) to promote teachers’ well-being.
... It also suggests that psychological needs in the personal sphere are critical resources that facilitate work-to-family and family-to-work balance. Research using the Job Demand-Resource theory (JDR-e.g., Bakker & Demerouti, 2017) supports these claims. According to the JDR theory, psychological needs are resources that individuals can use to fulfill their work-related demands. ...
Article
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Research has suggested that sacrifices are made to manage the work-home interface. They have been however, related to various deleterious effects. Drawing from self-determination theory, we argue that the sacrifice of psychological needs is worse than the sacrifice of activities such as maintenance and leisure in terms of personal functioning. The present two studies investigate whether sacrifices made in one life sphere to attend matters in another are negatively related to well-being and satisfaction, through enhanced work-family conflict, and whether all sacrifices are created equal. One transversal (n = 141) and one three-wave prospective (n = 78) study were conducted among convenience samples of workers who answered online surveys. Results revealed that personal psychological need sacrifices were negatively related to well-being via family to work conflict (FWC) and work to family conflict (WFC), over and beyond other types of sacrifice. In addition, personal psychological need sacrifices led to decreased life and professional satisfaction over 3 months, via FWC and WFC. Hence, need sacrifices, especially those made in the personal sphere, come at a cost and may not be the best long-term strategy to manage one’s work-home interface.
... The study conducted by Mérida-López et al. (2019) revealed that teachers' emotional intelligence can boost the correlation between self-appraised stress and job involvement. They used Bakker and Demerouti's (2017) JD-R theory, and Cote's (2014) emotional intelligence model in order to explain the buffering effect of emotional intelligence in the relationship between selfappraised stress and teachers' work engagement. They argued that emotional intelligence plays the role of personal resource, contributing teachers to cope with the harmful influences that self-appraised stress has on work engagement, but it does not diminish the impacts of affective strains on teachers. ...
Article
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Teachers' work engagement is regarded as a critical issue in educational contexts, so the emotional factors and personality traits, and their effects on teacher engagement have drawn the attention of investigators. This study seeks to investigate the relationship between teachers' emotional intelligence, ambiguity tolerance, and work engagement. Moreover, this study tries to investigate the contribution of emotional intelligence and ambiguity tolerance to teachers' work engagement. To do so, 322 teachers (96 males and 226 females) participated in this study. Schutte's Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT), Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale-II (MSTAT-II), and Self-report engagement Questionnaire were used in this study. The statistical techniques used in this study are the Spearman Rho test and ANOVA. The findings showed that there are significant correlations between work engagement, emotional intelligence, and ambiguity tolerance. Comparing the predictability power, teachers' emotional intelligence (B = 0.611) proved to have a higher index compared to their index of ambiguity tolerance (B = 0.2). This study concluded that emotionally intelligent teachers and teachers with higher levels of ambiguity tolerance are more engaged in the EFL contexts. Moreover, the study has some pedagogical implications and suggestions for different teacher educators, policy-makers, and advisors. The ideas can improve their awareness of teachers' emotional intelligence, ambiguity tolerance, and work engagement in educational environments.
... The present study investigated the explanatory underlying mechanisms in the JD-R theory and helped address the call to further explore the mechanisms involved in the health impairment process (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017). Specifically, the results indicated that coping strategies can explain part of this process. ...
Article
Based on a longitudinal survey of K-12 teachers in Switzerland (N = 533), a conditional effects model was used to analyze the relationships between teachers' work overload, prolonging working hours as a coping strategy, autonomy, and exhaustion. The findings showed that the effect of work overload on exhaustion was fully mediated by prolonging working hours. Autonomy moderated the longitudinal effects of work overload on exhaustion. Simple slope analyses demonstrated that autonomy buffered the negative effects of work overload on exhaustion.
... The JD-R model offers a framework for the explanation of workers' attitudes and behaviors. The basic assumption is based on the relationship, and balance, between job demands and job resources (Bakker and Demerouti 2017). Every work or task presents challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome in order to obtain results. ...
Article
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Temporary workers already represent a relevant percentage of the total workforce in several European countries. This type of employment is usually associated with more precarious contractual and working conditions. This situation can lead to several negative outcomes in terms of workers’ physical and mental health. According to Job Demands-Resources (JD-R), the precarious situation of temporary workers can reduce the number of available resources and lead to mental health problems. This research aims to examine the importance of personal resources—in the form of resilience—with burnout and its three dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal fulfillment), as a consequence of the job strain generated by this employment. The empirical study follows a quantitative, correlational, and cross-sectional approach. A sample of 2050 individuals participated in the study. Responses were collected through an online questionnaire for Portuguese temporary workers in March 2021. The questionnaire was sent to active temporary workers registered in temporary agencies The hypotheses established through a structural model were tested by the Partial Least Square method. The results show that resilience, as a personal resource, is related to the three dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal fulfillment). As such, personal resources can be considered an important aspect to take into account when managing temporary agency workers’ burnout levels. Theoretically, this research contributes to understanding the role of personal resources, especially resilience as an important inhibitor of negative effects on workers’ mental health, such as burnout. Empirically, this study contributes to the discussion of the mental health challenges of temporary agency workers, reinforcing the importance of developing strategies to strengthen personal resources as a way to improve mental health.
Article
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Social work is a rapidly developing occupation in China. In the early 2000s, there were merely a few hundred thousand social workers, but by 2020 there were over 1.5 million social workers in the field. However, research has indicated these social workers are also experiencing record high burnout and turnover rates. Thus, researchers have started to question the work engagement and task performance factors that could be contributing to these increasing rates. This study uses the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) Theory to understand how 537 social workers from Guangzhou, China are impacted by burnout and how it influences work engagement and task performance. The results show JD-R directly affect task performance through burnout and work engagement via a dual process. First, job demands were associated with high burnout and low work engagement, which both were found to lead to low task performance. Second, job resources were related to low burnout rates and high work engagement, both of which were associated with high task performance. These findings call for healthcare interventions to reduce burnout and workplace policy changes to promote work engagement to support task performance in social workers in China. These factors can each have a crucial impact on the public health of both the affected social workers and the vulnerable clients these social workers serve.
Article
Older adults’ smartphone use has been shown to be a double-edged sword, linked to health and social benefits but also creating vulnerabilities. Similarly, the use of smartphones and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) in organizations also affords workers advantages, such as increased flexibility, while exposing them to risks such as exhaustion and distress. This research examines older workers’ smartphone use and identifies a contextual characteristic that may buffer the negative implications of smartphone use for work purposes. Following the job demands–resources (JD-R) model, we hypothesized that older workers’ daily work-related smartphone use is positively related to their experienced stress and negatively related to their mood, and that these relationships would be attenuated by work scheduling autonomy. We conducted an experience sampling method (ESM) study with a sample of 38 workers (ages 50–64) who completed daily measures over 8 days, and tracked their smartphone use objectively using screenshots of time spent using various apps. Contrary to our expectations, smartphone use was not significantly related to stress or mood. There were significant cross-level interactions, such that smartphone use for work was negatively related to experienced stress and positively related to a positive mood for those with lower levels of scheduling autonomy. We interpret these findings and discuss the effects that technology use for work may have on older workers’ well-being through the lens of the JD-R model. Our results suggest that ICT use in the workplace combined with work scheduling autonomy may not be advantageous for workers’ well-being.
Article
Purpose Drawing on job demands and resources theory and the challenge-hindrance stressor framework, this study aims to investigate the effect of team knowledge complexity on team information sharing and information searching and examine whether team learning goal orientation mediates these effects. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted two studies. Study 1 used a field survey study conducted among 374 employees positioned in 68 new product teams. Study 2 used a three-wave online survey study conducted among 208 leaders to investigate the teams they managed. Findings The findings of the two studies reveal that team knowledge complexity has a positive direct effect on team information sharing and information searching. Furthermore, team learning goal orientation mediates these two relationships. Practical implications The findings indicate that team knowledge complexity is generally beneficial for the team information process. Therefore, instead of fearing an increase in the knowledge complexity of the projects, organizations should dare to present challenge demands to team members to enhance their engagement in information processing. Organizations could also pay attention to team member selection during team composition processes. For example, selecting team members with a high level of learning goal orientation is helpful in facilitating team information processing. Originality/value Although previous studies have found that knowledge complexity is beneficial for team output, less is known about how knowledge complexity influences team processes. This study clarifies the relationships between team knowledge complexity, information sharing and information searching and examines team learning goal orientation as a vital mediator.
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine the mediating role of audit seasonality on the association between audit fees and audit quality in Nigerian deposit money banks. Design/methodology/approach The sample comprises 14 banks with annual financial statements between 2008 and 2020. The modified Baron and Kenny’s (1986) causal mediation model by Iacobucci et al. (2007) through the use of bootstrapped partial least square structural equation modelling and Sobel’s (1986) z -test is adopted to achieve this study’s objective. Findings The results of the causal mediation analysis show evidence of a fully mediating role of c between audit fees and audit quality in the Nigerian banking industry. Research limitations/implications This study extends the body of knowledge by demonstrating how audit fees influence audit quality through audit seasonality as a mediator in line with the job demands-and resources and conservation of resources theories. Regulatory authorities should be wary of policies that will further increase the workload of already burdened personnel of audit firms as the uniform fiscal year-end of 31 December introduced in the Nigerian banking system has unintended consequences on audit fees and audit quality. Originality/value To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is one of the first studies to provide evidence on the indirect association between audit fees and audit quality.
Article
PURPOSE: Work engagement is among the most influential constructs in human resource management, but work engagement's current understanding overlooks what employees consider as engagement. The author aims to advance the human resources theory and practice by discussing the need for understanding engagement from the employee point of view, and the author explores the properties of a self-anchoring work engagement scale – the measure capturing the personal perspective on work engagement. APPROACH: The author has presented a conceptual discussion providing a rationale for capturing employee personal perspective on work engagement as supplementary to multi-item measures capturing researcher perspective. Based on empirical evidence, the author tests convergent and discriminant validity of self-anchoring work engagement in relation to job resources, job demands and burnout; the author confronts the nomological network of self-anchoring scale with previous work engagement meta-analysis. FINDINGS: The obtained results provided preliminary evidence supporting convergent and discriminant validity of self-anchoring work engagement. The analysis of the nomological network of self-anchoring work engagement in comparison to the previous meta-analysis revealed that self-anchoring work engagement might be more strongly related to challenging job demands than the multi-item researcher perspective work engagement. ORIGINALITY: The author's findings provide a modicum of evidence that asking employees about self-assessment of employees' work engagement on a 0–10 scale provides researchers with access to a freely available measurement method of the personal perception on work engagement.
Article
To examine the mediating effect of basic psychological needs on the relationship between perceived organizational support and work engagement among nurses. The satisfaction of basic psychological needs is crucial for breeding and sustaining individuals’ intrinsic motivation. Little is known about the underlying motivational mechanisms that explain the relationship among perceived organizational support, basic psychological needs, and work engagement in a nursing context. This was a cross‐sectional online survey. A sample of 858 nurses from 12 hospitals was surveyed on their perceived organizational support, basic psychological needs, and work engagement. Structural equation models and bootstrapping methods were used to examine the hypotheses. STROBE reporting guidelines were utilized. Perceived organizational support was positively associated with basic psychological needs and work engagement. Basic psychological needs were positively associated with work engagement. Basic psychological needs mediated the relationship between perceived organizational and work engagement. Perceived organizational support may enhance work engagement by fulfilling the basic psychological needs of nurses. Basic psychological needs deserve more attention in nursing organizations. Managers should seek optimal strategies to fulfill nurses’ needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness to stimulate their intrinsic motivation to enhance work engagement.
Research
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Digitaler Wandel, ökonomische Krise und Vertrauensverlust als Herausforderungen der medialen Transformation führen zu noch größerem Stress sowie zu Zukunftssorgen unter Journalist:innen. Insbesondere Jüngere denken verstärkt daran, ihren Job aufzugeben. Ein großer Teil der Interviewten hält die Publikumskritik an einseitiger oder zu unkritischer Berichterstattung für bedingt richtig. Die Studie zeigt deutliche Hinweise auf psychosoziale Belastungen am Arbeitsplatz mit erhöhtem Risiko für Erkrankungen wie Burn-out. Journalist:innen beklagen in diesem Zusammenhang mangelnde Unterstützung durch ihre Arbeitgeber. Medienunternehmen und Interessensvertretungen sollten gemeinsam Maßnahmen des psychologischen Gesundheitsmanagements entwickeln.
Article
Background: Presenteeism, which means attending work while feeling unhealthy or ill, is a serious risk behavior that reduces the employees' productivity and performance. Employees who are treated appreciatively by their work environment show less presenteeism. Investigating the mechanisms behind the relationship between appreciation and presenteeism can help to understand how presenteeism can be reduced even more in the workplace. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the impact of two forms of appreciation (supervisor appreciation and general appreciation from the work environment), on presenteeism and includes the moderating effects of resources and stress. This will help to answer the questions a) which form of appreciation is more beneficial for employees and b) whether appreciation counteracts presenteeism by building up resources. Method: 1077 Austrian workers were invited to fill-in an online survey about work-related issues. The data was analyzed with structural equation modelling (SEM). Results: The results showed that both forms of appreciation increase the resources of the employees. Through this increase of resources employees experience less stress, which consequently lowers presenteeism. Additionally, general appreciation is more beneficial than supervisor appreciation. Conclusion: The findings indicate that appreciative behavior builds resources at the workplace with are essential for showing less presenteeism at work.
Article
BACKGROUND: Work in the industrial sector underlies deep structural changes triggered by demographic and societal transformations. These developments require tailored measures for maintaining employees’ work ability by reacting to new demands and overcoming barriers in organizational implementation. Previous research lacks in considering practitioners’ perspective in terms of tailoring effective interventions to the workplace conditions of blue-collar employees. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to enrich the understanding of work ability by using the job-demands-resources (JDR)-theory and the work ability house concept as basis and considering aspects of organizational measures’ feasibility. METHODS: Data results from observations of the collaboration between occupational health professionals and supervisors on the shop-floor and n = 18 semi-structured interviews with different occupational health stakeholders. A participatory and qualitative approach characterizes this study. RESULTS: The study participants report on how increasing organizational demands of efficiency and uncertainty affect workability promotion of blue-collar employees. Furthermore, the findings imply aspects regarding feasible interventions. For designing effective interventions, specifically psychosocial aspects such as work intensification, job uncertainty, work-life-conflicts, and inter-personal trust need to be addressed. Measures need to be aligned better to the industrial setting with specific focus on decision-makers’ interests and intra-organizational collaboration. CONCLUSION: Further research should investigate interrelationships between relevant psycho-social job demands and resources. Moreover, additional aspects, which are related to measures implementation in the organizational sphere, need to be identified. Practical implications connect organizational sciences with the workability theory and the job-demands-resources (JDR)-theory by focusing more on psychological work design and intra-organizational collaboration.
Article
Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effects of new work-related stressors on psychological distress and absenteeism and the role of recognition in these relationships. Methods: Moderated path analyses were carried out on a sample of 1,128 healthcare workers. Results: Increased workload related to COVID-19 (β = 1.511; p ≤ .01) and fear of COVID-19 (β = 0.844; p ≤ .01) were directly associated with a higher level of psychological distress and indirectly (β = 2.306; p ≤ .01 and β = 1.289; p ≤ .05 respectively) associated with a higher level of absenteeism. Recognition (β = 0.260; p ≤ .001) moderated the association between teleworking and psychological distress. Furthermore, this significant moderation effect had a significant impact on absenteeism (β = 0.392; p ≤ .05). Regardless of the workplace (on-site or teleworking), high recognition was beneficial for psychological distress. This effect seems more important when working on site. Conclusions: The results propose that specific new work-related stressors should be addressed in the context of organizational change (e.g., a pandemic). Keywords: new work-related stressors, recognition, psychological distress, absenteeism, organizational changes, COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers, moderated mediation analysis.
Article
Even though a longitudinal relationship between self-efficacy and work engagement has been investigated rather extensively, previous studies rarely considered their dynamic nature by separating stable trait-like effects from fluctuating state-like ones. In the present three-wave longitudinal study involving 3010 teachers (82% women), the random-intercept cross-lagged panel modeling (RI-CLPM) approach was used to explore whether: (1) stable parts of TSE and work engagement are related to each other, (2) higher than expected levels of TSE are associated with higher than expected levels of work engagement at a given time point, and (3) higher than expected levels of TSE at a given time point are associated with future higher than expected levels of work engagement. Results showed a positive correlation between stable parts of TSE and work engagement, a positive time-specific correlation between TSE and work engagement, and spill-over effects from work engagement to TSE implying that teachers with higher than usual levels of work engagement, also experience higher than usual levels of TSE at subsequent assessment. Unlike previous findings and theoretical expectations, reciprocal relationship was not confirmed as only work engagement predicted TSE and not vice versa.
Chapter
Rapid progress of digital technologies and their increasing spreading into the work domain have been the subject of turbulent discussions for the last decade. The adaptation and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) led to redefinition of organisational structures and the way employees work, making it possible to connect anytime, anywhere and deliver data in real time. Recently, the use of ICTs for working purposes has increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The spread of COVID-19 has been changing working habits around the world with employers encouraging or even insisting that employees work remotely. As such, work is mainly based on ICT use while experiencing some technology-related job demands, which are generally named techno-stressors or technostress creators. Previous research provides some evidence that the ubiquity of technologies can add to employees experiencing technostress because of the increased workload, excessive technology dependence, demands for enhanced productivity, and a constant need to adapt to emerging ICT applications, functionalities, and workflows. There is still a gap in the literature about the impact of technology use on employee well-being while working remotely during the COVID-19 lockdown. This chapter aims at revealing the relationship between the construct of technostress creators, including its five dimensions, and employee well-being in terms of work-life balance and job burnout. In doing this, quantitative data were collected in Lithuania. The results support the idea that technostress creators have a negative effect on employee well-being. Moreover, the findings suggest that techno-overload and techno-invasion reduce work-life balance and lead to job burnout. The chapter has strong practical implications seeing that the results are in line with the idea that organisations should create and implement policies and practices for reducing the impact of technostress creators.
Article
Purpose Guided by the job demands-resources model, this study aims to investigate the underlying mediation mechanisms through which vertical relationship conflict between employees and their supervisors and horizontal relationship conflict between employees and their colleagues escalate into work disengagement. It proposes exhaustion and workplace social isolation as the mediators and explores the relative importance of vertical and horizontal relationship conflicts in influencing work disengagement through the distinct impacts of the mediators. Design/methodology/approach Data collected from a three-wave study of 181 online-questionnaire respondents are used to test the research model using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Findings Vertical relationship conflict has an indirect effect on work disengagement via exhaustion, whereas horizontal relationship conflict has an indirect effect on work disengagement via workplace social isolation. Compared with horizontal relationship conflict, vertical relationship conflict exerts a stronger effect on work disengagement. Originality/value This study addresses a void in the literature on relationship conflict by investigating work disengagement from the perspective of both vertical and horizontal relationship conflict as well as from the perspective of both strain- and resource-centric mediators (i.e. exhaustion and workplace social isolation, respectively), providing a comparatively detailed analysis.
Article
Background: Recruiting and retaining managers has become increasingly difficult in recent years, primarily because of a pressured work situation. A better understanding of managers' work situation is required, and of the support they need. Objective: The purpose of the study is to increase the understanding of managers' psychosocial work environment and health by investigating individuals as they enter or leave a managerial position. Methods: Longitudinal questionnaire data from 1971 individuals distributed across four groups were used: individuals who 1) entered or 2) left a managerial position between measuring points, and those who remained employed as 3) managers or 4) non-managers at both measuring points. Results: Demands increased between the measuring points for those who entered a managerial position. Their resources and health were, however, rated higher than non-managers already before the transition. Demands decreased for those who left a managerial position, while their resources remained higher than non-managers. Health did not change by changing position. Conclusion: This study contributes to knowledge of what happens when someone enters or leaves a managerial position and increases the understanding of differences between managers and non-managers. Organizations should develop supportive strategies through talent management programs to help build resources in employees and future managers. Support should also aim to reduce the increased level of demands in newly hired managers.
Article
This paper aims at investigating how leadership style can enhance workplace climate in the setting of virtual teams. Drawing from the theories of authentic leadership (AL) and social penetration (SPT), this study aims at investigating the role of IT usage of telework communicating tools in building and shaping the relationship between a subordinate (follower) and his or her supervisor at workplace. Variables of trust, identifications with leaders, intentions of knowledge sharing (self-disclosure, knowledge sharing and online voice behavior) are introduced in this research framework. Valid samples of 351 subjects of full-time workers reveal that the social penetration theory applies not only to face-to-face interactions but also to online interactions amongst members of virtual teams. It is projectsed that supervisors' transparency contributes to subordinates’ self-disclosure and consequently leads to better working cohesion and relationship quality. Further, our study demonstrated that the disclosure of work-related knowledge and opinions related to workplace improvements in the computer-mediated communication (CMC) manner that are common at workplaces could positively influence the building of a constructive relationship between authentic leaders and their subordinates. This paper confirmed that the cohesion engaged amongst members of virtual teams and the relationship at work can be enhanced based on reciprocal information disclosure behavior. Especially in the season of epidemic prevention season, enterprises should quickly adopt the changing business environment and encourage staff to work from home. The self-disclosure behavior including online voicing should be promoted. Discussion and implications for theory and practices are given.
Article
Purpose Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model (Demerouti et al. , 2001), the authors posited that concealment of one's transgender identity (a demand) would be negatively associated with work effort and commitment and that coworker support (a resource) would be positively related with those outcomes. In addition, the authors tested whether coworker support buffered the demand of maintaining secrecy as predicted by the JD-R model. Design/methodology/approach Relying on survey data from 89 transgender employees, the authors used Hayes' Process Model 1 to test the model. Findings Concealment was significantly related to both organizational commitment and work effort, but coworker support had no direct effect on either outcome. However, coworker support interacted with concealment, such that there were significant coworker support effects among trans employees who were out to none or some of their coworkers, but no significant effect among those who were out to all of their coworkers. Originality/value While prior studies have examined the importance of coworker support and outness, the authors add to the literature by examining the joint effect of these variables on transgender employees' work experiences. In addition, as prior research has been slow to examine behavioral work outcomes, the authors expand the criterion space by examining the simple and joint effects of outness and support on a previously ignored variable, work effort.
Article
The aim of the present study was to identify profiles of elite athlete mental well- and ill-being and study how the profiles (i.e., subgroups of athletes) differed in sport-related demands and resources. A total of 259 Finnish elite athletes ( n = 170 active and n = 89 retired) completed quantitative self-report inventories. Through cluster analysis, four profiles of mental well- and ill-being were identified. Profile 1 was overrepresented by retired, older, and male athletes, and characterized by good mental well-being. Profile 2 consisted mainly of active athletes who reported mild risk for alcohol abuse. Profile 3 consisted mainly of women who displayed possible presence of an eating disorder. Profile 4 was typical of young athletes with mental ill-being. The balance between sport-related demands and resources appeared to be the healthiest in Profile 1 and worst in Profile 4. The present findings are beneficial for those who work with and/or provide psychological support to athletes.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss relationships between transformational leadership and job crafting. Using the job demands-resource (JD-R) theory, this study investigates the mediating role of work engagement in the relationship between transformational leadership and job crafting. The author has also tested the moderating roles of personal values. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on data from 450 knowledge workers representing companies of various sizes from the knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) sector in Poland. The questionnaires were completed using the computer-assisted telephone interview method. The statistical verification of the mediation and moderation analyses was conducted using macro PROCESS (ver. 3.3). Findings The findings show that transformational leadership was positively related to job crafting. Statistical analysis also confirmed the research hypothesis that as a personal resource, self-enhancement values moderate relationships between transformational leadership and work engagement, thus strengthening them. The study integrated research on leadership and personal and organisational resources to examine the collective impact of these variables on employee job crafting. Originality/value The study is the first to explore the mediating mechanism (through work engagement) between transformational leadership and job crafting in the context of KIBS companies in Poland.
Article
Objective. It is important to evaluate the long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the intention of midwives to leave their jobs. The study examined the relationship between burnout and the intent to leave work among midwives who worked at Ayatollah Mousavi Hospital of Zanjan, one year after the COVID-19 outbreak. Method. In a descriptive-analytical study, the intention of 88 midwives to leave their jobs was evaluated, one year after the outbreak of COVID-19 disease in 2021. The midwives were selected using convenience sampling methods. Data were collected using the Maslach burnout questionnaire and the Anticipated Turnover Scale (ATS). Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression model with the stepwise method at a 95% confidence level. Results. The mean intention to leave the job was 29.71 ± 6.75. Most of the midwives reported a moderate level of intention to leave the job (47.7%). There was a significant positive correlation between the intention to leave the job and all three components of burnout. The stepwise regression analyses indicated that emotional exhaustion (β = 0.344) and working rotational shifts (β = 0.276) were significant predictors of intent to leave the job. Conclusions. It can be concluded that the intention to leave the job of midwives was moderate. Given the relationship between emotional exhaustion and the intent to leave the job, interventions to increase the mental strength and resilience of midwives during the COVID-19 pandemic seem necessary.
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The aim of the present study was to investigate job resources and demands and their relatedness to work flow. In line with the three-dimensional model of flow, absorption, work enjoyment and intrinsic work motivation were explored as separate outcomes. Our predictions were tested using a sample of 293 higher education teachers in Slovenia. The participants indicated their levels of flow, job demands (e.g., workload) and job resources (e.g., variety and autonomy) using the Slovenian version of the work flow inventory and job demands-resources scales. Our hypotheses were tested using moderated multiple regression where main as well as interactive effects between job resources and demands were examined. Autonomy and variety were found to enhance absorption, work enjoyment and intrinsic work motivation. Furthermore, autonomy was found to be the most important predictor of all the work flow dimensions. In contrast, workload was not significantly related to any of the outcomes. We also found interactive effects of variety and workload as well as variety and autonomy on absorption.
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Many job redesign interventions are based on a multiple mediator-multiple outcome model in which the job redesign intervention indirectly influences a broad range of employee outcomes by changing multiple job characteristics. As this model remains untested, the aim of this study is to test a multiple mediator-multiple outcome model of job redesign. Multilevel analysis of data from a quasi-experimental job redesign intervention in a call center confirmed the hypothesized model and showed that the job redesign intervention affected a broad range of employee outcomes (i.e., employee well-being, psychological contract fulfillment, and supervisor-rated job performance) through changes in 2 job characteristics (i.e., job control and feedback). The results provide further evidence for the efficacy and mechanisms of job redesign interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record
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This longitudinal study examined the consequences of job crafting on two important employee outcomes: psychological capital (PsyCap) as a work-related personal resource and work engagement as an indicator of employee well-being. The study also tested the reverse causation effects of PsyCap and work engagement on job crafting. It used a three-wave, three-month panel design to survey 940 employees from three European countries working in a broad range of economic sectors and occupations. The results of the cross-lagged longitudinal structural equation modelling demonstrated that job crafting predicted PsyCap and work engagement over time. No reverse causation effects were found. Overall, this study shows that when individuals proactively build a resourceful and challenging work environment for themselves, it can lead to diverse positive outcomes that are crucial to employee health and well-being. Employees should therefore be encouraged and be given the opportunity to craft their own jobs.
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The present study among 65 civil engineers investigates the impact of organizational support for strengths use on weekly work engagement and proactive behaviour. Positive psychology postulates that strengths use makes people feel authentic and efficacious. We argue that employees use these positive psychological states as resources that fuel work engagement and proactive work behaviour. Participants completed a general questionnaire regarding strengths use support, and a weekly quantitative diary questionnaire regarding their strengths use, self-efficacy, work engagement, and proactive behaviour over a period of five consecutive workweeks. In line with the hypotheses, the results of multilevel structural equation analyses showed that organizational strengths use support was positively related to weekly strengths use. Furthermore, the results indicated that weekly strengths use was positively related to weekly work engagement and proactive behaviour, through weekly self-efficacy (sequential mediation). Although strengths use support contributed indirectly to work engagement (mediated by strengths use and self-efficacy), there was no significant indirect relationship with proactive behaviour. Our study indicates that strengths use is associated with employees’ levels of self-efficacy, work engagement, and proactive behaviour and that organizations can help employees to use their strengths more often by giving them the opportunity to do what they are good at. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1359432X.2015.1089862#.VgpAUTYVj-s
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As societal concern shifts from financial survival towards quality of life issues, both in and outside of the workplace, scholarly interest in employee well-being too has risen greatly in recent years. This greater attention to the antecedents and outcomes of employee well-being, such as job satisfaction, work engagement, and job burnout amongst others, is reflected in the proliferation of theories, constructs, and studies seeking to describe and explain why employees flourish or become exhausted at work, and the effect of employee well-being on individual behaviours and the organization at large. In this article, we provide a selective review of the current state of research in employee well-being, as well as key theories that have been employed in its study, with the aim of providing a critical assessment of the current state of employee well-being research as well as suggest future directions for the field. In particular, we discuss how research adopting intraindividual perspectives in the study of employee well-being can not only add value to our understanding of well-being but also complement the findings from between-individual studies, and offer suggestions for the development of a comprehensive theoretical model that integrates the two perspectives.
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This quasi-experimental field study examines the effects of an intervention designed to boost job resources, affective well-being, and self-efficacy via job crafting behaviour. Employees (n = 39) in a Dutch police district received a 1-day training, after which they worked towards self-set crafting goals for a period of 4 weeks. The intervention concluded with a half-day reflection session in which learning points were consolidated. Participating in the intervention was expected to boost job resources such as opportunities for development and leader–member exchange (LMX), as well as enhance self-efficacy and positive affect and to reduce negative affect. Repeated measures ANOVAs did not yield significant results. However, pre–post comparison tests showed that the intervention group reported less negative affect as well as increased self-efficacy, developmental opportunities and LMX in the post-measure compared with the premeasure. The control group (n = 47) showed no significant changes from pre- to postmeasure. In addition, in weeks during which individuals sought more resources, they also reported more developmental opportunities, LMX, and positive affect. Although further research is needed, the job crafting intervention seems to have potential to enable employees to proactively build a motivating work environment and to improve their own well-being.
Conference Paper
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This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
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Statistical mediation methods provide valuable information about underlying mediating psychological processes, but the ability to infer that the mediator variable causes the outcome variable is more complex than widely known. Researchers have recently emphasized how violating assumptions about confounder bias severely limits causal inference of the mediator to dependent variable relation. Our article describes and addresses these limitations by drawing on new statistical developments in causal mediation analysis. We first review the assumptions underlying causal inference and discuss three ways to examine the effects of confounder bias when assumptions are violated. We then describe four approaches to address the influence of confounding variables and enhance causal inference, including comprehensive structural equation models, instrumental variable methods, principal stratification, and inverse probability weighting. Our goal is to further the adoption of statistical methods to enhance causal inference in mediation studies.
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This study evaluated the effectiveness of a large-scale job stress reduction program implemented in the Dutch domiciliary care sector. The employees of 81 organizations were interviewed twice (only nurses in executive jobs; total sample size exceeded 26,000). Organizations that implemented many interventions were expected to be more successful in reducing job stress than were other organizations. It was found that (a) levels of job stress decreased during the observed interval; (b) organizations with many suboptimal scores on selected work characteristics took, on average, more measures to reduce job stress than others; (c) organizations usually implemented a wide variety of measures; and (d) work-directed (but not other) interventions were linked to job stress reduction. The effects of these interventions, however, were weak. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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Whereas burnout refers to a state of exhaustion and cynicism toward work, engagement is defined as a positive motivational state of vigor, dedication, and absorption. In this article, we discuss the main definitions and conceptualizations of both concepts used in the literature. In addition, we review the most important antecedents of burnout and work engagement by examining situational and individual predictors. We also review the possible consequences of burnout and engagement and integrate the research findings using job demands– resources theory. Although both burnout and work engagement are related to important job-related outcomes, burnout seems to be more strongly related to health outcomes, whereas work engagement is more strongly related to motivational outcomes. We discuss daily and momentary fluctuations in burnout and work engagement as possibilities for future research.
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This study aimed to deepen our understanding of the motivational mechanisms involved in the relationship between transformational leadership (TFL) and employee functioning. Drawing on the TFL literature, the job demands–resources model and self-determination theory, we propose an integrative model that relates TFL to employee psychological health (burnout and psychological distress), attitudes (occupational commitment and turnover intention) and performance (professional efficacy, self-reported individual and objective organizational performance) through two explanatory mechanisms: perceived job characteristics (job demands and resources) and employee motivation (autonomous and controlled). This research was conducted in two occupational settings (nurses and school principals), using a distinct variable operationalization for each. Results of both studies provide support for the hypothesized model, suggesting that TFL relates to optimal job functioning (psychological health, job attitudes and performance) by contributing to favourable perceptions of job characteristics (more resources and less demands) and high-quality work motivation (more autonomous motivation and less controlled motivation) in employees. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications as well as directions for future research are presented.
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Background and Objectives: The challenge-hindrance framework has shown that challenge stressors (work characteristics associated with potential personal gain) tend to have positive outcomes, while hindrance stressors (those which obstruct goals) have negative outcomes. However, typical research methods assume that stressors allocated to these categories are appraised consistently by different people and across different situations. We validate new measures of challenge and hindrance appraisals and demonstrate their utility in stress research. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey of American employees (Study 1, n = 333), a diary survey of Australian employees (Study 2, n = 241), and a survey of Australian college students whose performance was evaluated independently (Study 3, n = 350). Results: Even after accounting for the effects of stressors, challenge and hindrance appraisals consistently explained unique variance in affective states, with indications that stressors have indirect effects via appraisals. Such effects were seen within- as well as between-participants (Study 2). Appraisals also had expected associations with specific coping behaviors (Study 1), while challenge appraisal was associated with task performance (Study 3). Conclusions: The scales of challenge and hindrance appraisals were psychometrically sound across multiple contexts. Results highlight the merit of considering appraisal in stress research. Searle, B. J., & Auton, J. C. (2015). The merits of measuring challenge and hindrance appraisals. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 28, 121-143. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2014.931378. Online article available at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10615806.2014.931378.
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In this article, we discuss the individual employee's role in the development of his/her job burnout. We review the antecedents and consequences of burnout, and propose a model with chronic burnout as a moderator of daily functioning in the workplace. Specifically, we argue that chronic burnout strengthens the loss cycle of daily job demands, daily exhaustion, and daily self-undermining. Additionally, we argue that chronic burnout weakens the gain cycle of daily job resources, daily work engagement, and daily job crafting. We conclude that employees with high levels of burnout need help in structurally changing their working conditions and health status.
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This study assessed the extent to which a recently developed measure of burnout extended the concept of burnout as developed among human service providers to people in other occupations. The study replicated a factor structure derived from a study of aircraft maintenance workers, computer programmers, and administrators with staff in various occupations across two health care settings: a tertiary care hospital (N=3,312) and a residential mental health facility (N=417). Within the larger setting the analysis replicated the factor structure with four occupational groups: clerical/maintenance workers, technical personnel, nurses, and managers. The study found support for the validity of the scale through its consistency with the issues that participants raised in an open-ended questionnaire. Conceptual issues in burnout theory and suggestions for further research are presented.
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We extend the job demands–resources model to explain how and when rural migrants who work far from their families and provincial hometowns are more likely to leave jobs. Through two studies, we found that the geographical distance between employees' workplace and home village, representing a proxy for a wide range of migration demands and resources, may engender higher turnover intentions under some conditions. Specifically, employees' psychological contract fulfilment diminished positive associations between geographical distance and turnover intentions. Moreover, we demonstrated emotional exhaustion as an explanatory mechanism underlying the relationship between geographical distance and turnover intentions. Our investigation thus yielded greater insight into rural migrants' quit propensity by identifying geographical distance (a proxy for migration-based demands and resources) as a key driver whose influence is mediated by emotional exhaustion and moderated by psychological contract fulfilment.
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The article examines the role of proactive personality in predicting work engagement and job performance. On the basis of the literature on proactive personality and the job demands–resources model, we hypothesized that employees with a proactive personality would be most likely to craft their own jobs, in order to stay engaged and perform well. Data were collected among 95 dyads of employees (N = 190), who were working in various organizations. The results of structural equation modeling analyses offered strong support for the proposed model. Employees who were characterized by a proactive personality were most likely to craft their jobs (increase their structural and social job resources, and increase their job challenges); job crafting, in turn, was predictive of work engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) and colleague-ratings of in-role performance. These findings suggest that, to the extent that employees proactively adjust their work environment, they manage to stay engaged and perform well.
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The key features which influence mental health both in jobs and unemployment are brought together within a single perspective. Three principal axes of affective well-being are identified as warranting investigation, and it is suggested that nine environmental features are of primary importance. The impact of these features on mental health is viewed as analogous to the influence of vitamins on physical health, with an explicit non-linearity in the relationship. This ‘vitamin model’ is extended to permit examination of individual differences (for example, in terms of baseline values and specific matching characteristics), and empirical evidence is summarized. It is concluded from previous research that job features do not interact synergistically in relation to employee well-being, although this possibility may not yet have been adequately tested. The framework is suggested to be adequately comprehensive, but, as is the case with other models, it requires development in respect of the specific mechanisms operating between environmental features and mental health.
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Research on work engagement has mainly focused on the role of job and personal resources and has ignored the possible impact of personal demands workers develop with regard to their work. The aim of our study was to test the reciprocal relationships that job resources, personal resources, and personal demands, operationalized as performance expectations, share with work engagement. Three-wave longitudinal data were collected in a Belgian public institution (N = 473). Results confirm the causal effects of job resources, personal resources, and performance expectations on work engagement. Reciprocal relationships are not significant. Results are discussed with regard to the impact of changes in job and personal resources and performance expectations on work engagement. Practical implications including reinforcement of Human Resources practices such as appraisal interviewing and career management are also discussed.
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In this paper, I discuss strategic (top-down) and proactive (bottom-up) approaches to work engagement. Organizations that follow a top-down approach may implement strategic human resource management (HRM) systems to facilitate employee work engagement, or make their leaders aware of the importance of providing job resources to their employees. Organizations may also facilitate their employees in proactively mobilizing resources themselves. I will discuss four possible bottom-up approaches to work engagement, namely (a) self-management, (b) job crafting, (c) strengths use, and (d) mobilizing ego resources. Whereas strategic HRM initiatives and transformational leadership are expected to have an important structural impact on employee work engagement through an enriched work environment, employees may also influence their own levels of work engagement by being proactive –— from day to day. I will argue that employee work engagement is most likely in organizations with a clear HR strategy, in which leaders provide resources to their employees, and in which employees engage in daily proactive behaviors such as job crafting and strengths use.
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This study examined the impact of a job crafting intervention based on job demands-resources (JD-R) theory. We hypothesized that the intervention would influence participants’ job crafting behaviours, as well as their job demands, job resources, and personal resources. In addition, we hypothesized a positive impact of the intervention on work engagement and self-rated job performance. The study used a quasi-experimental design with a control group. Teachers (N = 75) participated in the job crafting intervention on three occasions with 9 weeks in-between the first and second measurement, and 1 year in-between the second and third measurement. Results showed that the intervention had a significant impact on participants’ job crafting behaviours, both at time 2 and time 3. In addition, the results showed a significant increase of performance feedback, opportunities for professional development, self-efficacy, and job performance 1 year after the job crafting intervention. Participants’ levels of job demands, resilience, and work engagement did not change. We discuss the implications of these findings for JD-R theory and practice.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a job demands-resources (JD-R) intervention on psychological capital (PsyCap), job crafting, work engagement, and performance. Design/methodology/approach – This study used a quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test design with a control group. Healthcare professionals ( n =67) were assigned to the JD-R intervention or a control group and filled out questionnaires before and after the intervention. To test the hypotheses, multivariate analyses of covariance were conducted. Findings – Results showed that participants’ PsyCap, job crafting, work engagement, and self-ratings of job performance significantly increased after the JD-R intervention. Research limitations/implications – Only healthcare professionals participated in the intervention study, which restricts the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications – The results illustrate that organizations can foster work engagement and improve performance by offering a JD-R intervention aimed at increasing PsyCap and job crafting at work. Organizations should acknowledge the importance of facilitating and stimulating a resourceful and challenging work environment. Originality/value – This is the first study that examined a JD-R intervention. The results contribute to JD-R theory by offering a first causal test. For the first time, a significant increase of job crafting behaviors after an intervention was found.
Article
This daily diary study among 55 dyads of co-workers working within the same unit examined the crossover of expansive job crafting which, framed within the Job-Demands Resources Model, consists of two distinct behaviours: seeking challenges and seeking resources. We hypothesized that seeking resources and seeking challenges are transferred from one employee (actor) to the other (partner) on a daily basis and that there is more crossover of job crafting from actor to partner when the partner is high in empathy. Moreover, job crafting was expected to relate positively to daily adaptation to changes as measured both by self-reports and peer-reports. Multilevel analyses confirmed the crossover of seeking challenges and partly confirmed the crossover of seeking resources. Empathy of the partner acts as a moderator in this latter crossover process: there is more crossover of seeking resources from actor to partner when the partner is high in empathy. Moreover, day-level seeking resources and seeking challenges were both positively related to self-rated day-level adaptivity. Day-level seeking resources was also positively related to other-rated day-level adaptivity. These results imply that stimulating job crafting within organizations is valuable because it spreads around and can help in the adaptivity to changes.
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There is an increasing amount of evidence that during mental fatigue, shifts in motivation drive performance rather than reductions in finite mental energy. So far, studies that investigated such an approach have mainly focused on cognitive indicators of task engagement that were measured during controlled tasks, offering limited to no alternative stimuli. Therefore it remained unclear whether during fatigue, attention is diverted to stimuli that are unrelated to the task, or whether fatigued individuals still focused on the task but were unable to use their cognitive resources efficiently. With a combination of subjective, EEG, pupil, eye-tracking, and performance measures the present study investigated the influence of mental fatigue on a cognitive task which also contained alternative task-unrelated stimuli. With increasing time-on-task, task engagement and performance decreased, but there was no significant decrease in gaze toward the task-related stimuli. After increasing the task rewards, irrelevant rewarding stimuli where largely ignored, and task engagement and performance were restored, even though participants still reported to be highly fatigued. Overall, these findings support an explanation of less efficient processing of the task that is influenced by motivational cost/reward tradeoffs, rather than a depletion of a finite mental energy resource. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Based on the Job Demands-Resources literature and social exchange theory, this study examines the lagged effects of job resources and job demands at the agency level on organizational commitment at the individual level, with these effects mediated by individual-level demands and resources. Using hierarchical linear modeling to analyze data obtained from federal government employees (agency N = 38, employee N = 295,851), this study found that aggregated job resources (empowerment, cooperation, feedback) were related to higher employee commitment over time, with this effect mediated by lower levels of perceived workload. Furthermore, aggregated workload was negatively related to commitment over time, with this effect mediated by lower levels of perceived job resources. This study provides further empirical evidence for the lagged effect of job resources and job demands in predicting employee commitment. Furthermore, this study found interrelations among demands and resources across levels of analysis, addressing theoretical relationships that have remained largely unexamined in the context of job attitudes and commitment research.
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Background: Prior studies suggest that high workload among attending physicians may be associated with reduced teaching effectiveness and poor patient outcomes, but these relationships have not been investigated using objective measures of workload and safety. Objective: To examine associations between attending workload, teaching effectiveness, and patient safety, hypothesizing that higher workload would be associated with lower teaching effectiveness and negative patient outcomes. Design, setting, and participants: We conducted a retrospective study of 69,386 teaching evaluation items submitted by 543 internal medicine residents for 107 attending physicians who supervised inpatient teaching services from July 2, 2005 to July 1, 2011. Measurements: Attending workload measures included hospital service census, patient length of stay, daily admissions, daily discharges, and concurrent outpatient duties. Teaching effectiveness was measured using residents' evaluations of attendings. Patient outcomes considered were applicable patient safety indicators (PSIs), intensive care unit transfers, cardiopulmonary resuscitation/rapid response team calls, and patient deaths. Mixed linear models and generalized linear regression models were used for statistical analysis. Results: Workload measures of midnight census and daily discharges were associated with lower teaching evaluation scores (both β = -0.026, P < 0.0001). The number of daily admissions was associated with higher teaching scores (β = 0.021, P = 0.001) and increased PSIs (odds ratio = 1.81, P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Several measures of attending physician workload were associated with slightly lower teaching effectiveness, and patient safety may be compromised when teams are managing new admissions. Ongoing efforts by residency programs to optimize the learning environment should include strategies to manage the workload of supervising attendings.
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The Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R model) became highly popular among researchers. The current version of the model proposes that high job demands lead to strain and health impairment (the health impairment process), and that high resources lead to increased motivation and higher productivity (the motivational process). This chapter reviews the assumptions and development of the JD-R model and presents an overview of important findings obtained with the model. Although these findings largely support the model's assumptions, there are still several important unresolved issues regarding the JD-R, including the model's epistemological status, the definition of and distinction between demands and resources, the incorporation of personal resources, the distinction between the health impairment and the motivational processes, the issue of reciprocal causation, and the model's applicability beyond the individual level. The chapter concludes with an agenda for future research and a brief discussion of the practical application of the model. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights are reserved.
Article
The aim of this chapter is to zoom in on the process through which organizations can improve the working conditions for their employees by offering them the opportunity to do so themselves. This process is called job crafting and can be seen as a specific form of proactive behaviour in which the employee initiates changes in the level of job demands and job resources to make their own job more meaningful, engaging and satisfying. Our basic premise is that job crafting can be used next to top-down approaches to improve jobs in order to overcome the inadequacies of job redesign approaches. Job crafting can also be used to respond to the complexity of contemporary jobs and to deal with the needs of the current workforce. Job crafting. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284680321_Job_crafting [accessed May 04 2018].
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This chapter outlines the building blocks of the job demands–resources (JD-R) theory, a theory that has been inspired by job design and job stress theories. Whereas job design theories have often ignored the role of job stressors or demands, job stress models have largely ignored the motivating potential of job resources. JD-R theory combines the two research traditions, and explains how job demands and (job and personal) resources have unique and multiplicative effects on job stress and motivation. In addition, JD-R theory proposes reversed causal effects: whereas burned-out employees may create more job demands over time for themselves, engaged workers mobilize their own job resources to stay engaged. The chapter closes with a discussion of possible JD-R interventions.
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In this commentary, I respond to Ilies, Aw & Pluut’s (Intraindividual models of employee well-being: What have we learned and where do we go from here?, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, in press) call for a theory that distinguishes between traits and states of employee well-being. I use Job Demands–Resources theory to illustrate how we may integrate within- and between-person approaches and findings to design an overall multilevel model of employee well-being. My perspective builds on Ilies et al. and recent findings of research combining relatively stable “traits” with fluctuating states of employee well-being. My goals with this commentary are three-fold: (1) give more insight into possible differences between variables at different levels of analysis; (2) use research to show how trait and state levels of (predictors of) employee well-being may interact; (3) propose a multilevel model that may stimulate future research on the topic.
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Transformational leadership is associated with a range of positive outcomes. Yet, according to substitutes for leadership theory, there may be circumstances under which it is difficult, if not impossible, for leaders to inspire and challenge their employees. Therefore, we hypothesize that transformational leadership behaviors as well as employee self-leadership strategies contribute to employee work engagement and job performance. Furthermore, we hypothesize that transformational leadership behaviors are more effective when employees have a high need for leadership, whereas self-leadership strategies are more effective when employees have a low need for leadership. A sample of 57 unique leader–employee dyads filled out a quantitative diary survey at the end of each week, for a period of five weeks. The results of multilevel structural equation modeling showed that employees were more engaged in their work and received higher performance ratings from their leader when leaders used more transformational leadership behaviors, and when employees used more self-leadership strategies. Furthermore, we showed that transformational leadership behaviors were more effective when employees had a high (vs. low) need for leadership and that the opposite was true for employee self-leadership. These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of employees in the transformational leadership process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Burnout represents a syndrome that is related to demanding job characteristics combined with the absence of resources or motivational job characteristics. The aim of this position paper is to present strategies that individuals use to minimize burnout and its unfavorable effects. The paper focuses explicitly on strategies that individuals use to (1) deal with diminished resources that come with burnout, (2) change their job characteristics such that the job becomes less demanding and more motivating, and (3) manage the interplay between the work and non-work domains. Individuals seem to use coping, recovery, and compensation strategies to reduce the impact of work stressors by changing the stressor or their responses to the stressor. Moreover, they use job crafting to alter the characteristics of the job such that it becomes less hindering and more motivating. Finally, individuals create boundaries between their work and non-work domains to experience less work-family and family-work conflicts by actively detaching from work. Finding bottom-up strategies that individuals use to minimize burnout or its unfavorable effects may be essential to complement the top-down interventions initiated by organizations. This article is protec