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Fraussen, K. & Stahlschmidt, P., 2016. Revision of the Clivipollia group (Gastropoda: Buccinidae: Pisaniinae) with description of two new genera and three new species. Novapex 17(2-3): 29-46.

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Abstract and Figures

The species placed in the heterogenous genus Clivipollia Iredale, 1929 are revised. Strong similarities in apertural morphology with Falsilatirus Emerson & Moffitt, 1988 are discussed and the genus is regarded as a sister genus of Clivipollia. Differences in protoconch morphology, apertural denticulation and sculpture serve to distinguish Speccapollia gen. nov. to harbour Ricinula recurva Reeve, 1846, a species commonly assigned to Clivipollia and Clivipollia tokiae Chino & Fraussen, 2015. Engina Gray, 1839 and Enzinopsis Iredale, 1940 are briefly discussed and compared to the new genus. The new genus Minioniella gen. nov. is described for Minioniella heleneae sp. nov. and compared to Clivipollia and Enginella Monterosato, 1917. Three new species are added to the Indo-West Pacific fauna: Clivipollia delicata sp. nov. from Austral Islands (southern French Polynesia), Speccapollia africana sp. nov. from Mozambique and Minioniella heleneae sp. nov. from Moruroa (southern French Polynesia). Ricinula pulchrum Reeve, 1846 is proposed as a nomen protectum in favor of Turbinella elegans Dunker in Küster, 1844. Peristernia elegans var. papuaensis Tapparone Canefri, 1879 from New Guinea is placed in synonymy with Clivipollia pulchra (Reeve, 1846). Peristernia paulucciae Tapparone Canefri, 1879 from East Africa is confirmed as a synonym of Clivipollia incarnata Deshayes in Laborde & Linant, 1830. Turbinella wagneri Anton, 1839 is excluded from the genus Clivipollia but no alternative is proposed, its placement being still uncertain. Engina gigas Landau & Vermeij, 2012, a fossil from the early Pliocene of the Dominican Republic, is transferred to Clivipollia based on protoconch morphology and sculpture, being the only record of Clivipollia known to us in the Atlantic.
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K.
F
RAUSSEN
&
P.
S
TAHLSCHMIDT
N
OVAPEX
17(2-3): 29-46, 10 octobre 2016
29
Revision of the Clivipollia group (Gastropoda: Buccinidae: Pisaniinae)
with description of two new genera and three new species
Koen FRAUSSEN
Leuvensestraat 25, B-3200 Aarschot, Belgium
koen.fraussen@skynet.be
Peter STAHLSCHMIDT
Institute for Environmental Sciences, Universität Koblenz–Landau
Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau, Germany
stahlschmidt@uni-landau.de
KEYWORDS. Mollusca, Gastropoda, Buccinidae, Indo-West Pacific, Pisaniinae, Clivipollia,
Falsilatirus, Engina, Enzinopsis, Enginella, new taxa.
ABSTRACT. The species placed in the heterogenous genus Clivipollia Iredale, 1929 are revised.
Strong similarities in apertural morphology with Falsilatirus Emerson & Moffitt, 1988 are
discussed and the genus is regarded as a sister genus of Clivipollia. Differences in protoconch
morphology, apertural denticulation and sculpture serve to distinguish Speccapollia gen. nov. to
harbour Ricinula recurva Reeve, 1846, a species commonly assigned to Clivipollia and Clivipollia
tokiae Chino & Fraussen, 2015. Engina Gray, 1839 and Enzinopsis Iredale, 1940 are briefly
discussed and compared to the new genus. The new genus Minioniella gen. nov. is described for
Minioniella heleneae sp. nov. and compared to Clivipollia and Enginella Monterosato, 1917.
Three new species are added to the Indo-West Pacific fauna: Clivipollia delicata sp. nov. from
Austral Islands (southern French Polynesia), Speccapollia africana sp. nov. from Mozambique and
Minioniella heleneae sp. nov. from Moruroa (southern French Polynesia).
Ricinula pulchrum Reeve, 1846 is proposed as a nomen protectum in favor of Turbinella elegans
Dunker in Küster, 1844. Peristernia elegans var. papuaensis Tapparone Canefri, 1879 from New
Guinea is placed in synonymy with Clivipollia pulchra (Reeve, 1846). Peristernia paulucciae
Tapparone Canefri, 1879 from East Africa is confirmed as a synonym of Clivipollia incarnata
Deshayes in Laborde & Linant, 1830. Turbinella wagneri Anton, 1839 is excluded from the genus
Clivipollia but no alternative is proposed, its placement being still uncertain. Engina gigas Landau
& Vermeij, 2012, a fossil from the early Pliocene of the Dominican Republic, is transferred to
Clivipollia based on protoconch morphology and sculpture, being the only record of Clivipollia
known to us in the Atlantic.
INTRODUCTION
The genus Clivipollia Iredale, 1929 comprises a
number of beautiful and brightly coloured Buccinidae.
It is one of the genera included in the Engina group
within Pisaniinae. These pretty shells unfortunately
have a small size that makes magnification needed to
study important sculptural details. In combination with
the often eye-catching pattern and colour, that
distracts our attention, this has not contribute to a
better understanding or to correct identifications in the
past. Those species are still the cause of taxonomic
confusion because only a limited number of species
appear in scientific literature, mainly in faunal studies.
A number of the species are rare or difficult to obtain
and, consequently, little material has been available
for comparative studies. The absence of an intact
protoconch in most adult specimens has contributed to
the difficulty in recognizing genera. We follow
Vermeij (2006: 71-72) who organized the pisaniine
Buccinidae into three main groups: Pisania group,
Cantharus group and Engina group. Buccinidae of the
Cantharus group became well studied by Vermeij
(2006) while the Engina group is in progress (Landau
& Vermeij, 2012; Watters & Fraussen, 2015; Fraussen
& Stahlschmidt, in preparation; …).
The present paper is a review of the known species
commonly placed in the genus Clivipollia and the
related genus Falsilatirus Emerson & Moffitt, 1988,
with brief notes about several other groups and species
within the Engina group to discus the matter in a
broader context. We currently recognize four genera
as related more closely to Clivipollia than to Engina,
all of them characterized by the weak or absent
parietal knob that, in combination with a weak anal
knob, results in a weak or indistinct anal notch and by
the apertural teeth inside the outer lip that are
separated from the weak anal knob by a moderately
broad gap or notch. While typical Engina are
distributed along all tropical seas (including Atlantic
and East Pacific), all living Clivipollia related species
are, as far as we know, restricted to the Indo-West
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Revision of the Clivipollia group.
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Pacific. A single fossil species, Clivipollia gigas
(Landau & Vermeij, 2012) comb. nov. from the early
Pliocene of the Dominican Republic is the only
Atlantic species known to us. Protoconch and
apertural morphology serve to distinguish two of those
genera as new: Speccapollia gen. nov. (type species
Ricinula recurva Reeve, 1846) and Minioniella gen.
nov. (type species: Minioniella heleneae sp. nov.). A
new species from Austral Islands (southern French
Polynesia) is compared to Clivipollia pulchra and
added to the fauna of French Polynesia as C. delicata
sp. nov. A new species from Mozambique is
compared to Speccapollia recurva and Engina
phasolina (Duclos, 1840) and added to the African
fauna as Speccapollia africana sp. nov. A third
species differs from all others and is added to the
fauna of French Polynesia as Minioniella gen. nov.
heleneae sp. nov.
The material studied in the present paper originates
partly from the BENTHAUS expedition conducted by
MNHN in deep-water along the Austral Archipelago
and partly from a dedicated team of keen collectors
collecting along the beaches of the numerous islands
of French Polynesia and another team of mainly
Portuguese collectors that are active in Mozambique.
Abbreviations
JL: collection Jean Letourneux, Tahiti, French
Polynesia
JR: collection José Rosado, Mozambique
KF: collection Koen Fraussen, Belgium
KM: collection Kevin Monsecour, Belgium
MC: collection Mitsuo Chino, Japan
MHB: collection Michel & Hélène Boutet, Tahiti,
French Polynesia
MNHN: Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris,
France
MSNG: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo
Doria”, Genoa, Italy
NHMUK: Natural History Museum, London, United
Kingdom
NHMW: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna,
Austria
NMB: Naturhistorisches Museum Basel, Switzerland
NSMT: National Science Museum Tokyo, Japan
PS: collection Peter Stahlschmidt, Germany
DW: Drague Warén (Warén dredge)
dd: empty shell, dead collected
lv: specimen collected alive
jv: juvenile or subadult specimen/shell
SYSTEMATICS
Family BUCCINIDAE Rafinesque, 1815
Subfamily PISANIINAE Gray, 1857
Genus Clivipollia Iredale, 1929
Figs 1A-B, 2A-B, 3A-K, 4A-L
Clivipollia Iredale, 1929: 347. Type species:
Clivipollia imperita Iredale, 1929 (original
designation) = Ricinula pulchra Reeve, 1846; Tropical
Indo-West Pacific.
Remarks. Clivipollia species are characterized by a
large protoconch, conical in shape, consisting of 3 ½
to 3 ¾ laterally flattened whorls, usually with a rough
surface and often with a fine suprasutural cord. A
sharp angulation between lateral side and the base of
the protoconch whorls is occasionally detectable,
appearing under the suture with the subsequent
protoconch or teleoconch whorl. The transition to the
teleoconch is usually distinct, marked by a sharp line.
Fig. 1. Apex of Clivipollia group species.
A. Clivipollia delicata n. sp., holotype, 13.0 mm, Pacific, Austral Islands, Arago Bank, BENTHAUS, stn
DW1968, 23°23’S, 150°44’W, 100-120 m, MNHN IM-2000-27908. B. Clivipollia costata (Pease, 1860), 12.9
mm juvenile, Japan, Ogasawara Islands, KF-3745. C. Falsilatirus suduirauti Bozzetti, 1995, 32.5 mm,
Philippines, Bohol, off Balicasag in deep water, KF-4374. D. Speccapollia recurva (Reeve, 1846), 10.0 mm,
Philippines, off Mactan Island, taken by lumun lumun nets, KM-22.17. E-F. Minioniella heleneae sp. nov.,
holotype, 6.7 mm, Pacific, French Polynesia, Tuamotu Islands, Moruroa Atoll, beach, MNHN IM-2000-32692,
photo by Ph. Bacchet.
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A second characteristic is the rather triangular shape
of the narrow aperture, the parietal is gently curved,
while the adapical part of the aperture with the
transition to the outer lip is moderately flattened,
forming a rather angular shape with the adapical part
of the outer lip. The parietal knob is absent or at least
inconspicuous, the anal knob is broad and low,
resulting in a weak or absent anal notch. The outer lip
is thick, with a sharp edge in fresh specimens, flared
outwards, with a moderately narrow callus along the
adapical part. The columella is straight, covered with
knobs, the adapical one situated more adapically than
the adapical knob on the outer lip. The outer apertural
lip is rather straight, inside with usually 5 knobs,
separated from the anal tooth by a moderately broad
gap or notch, the adapical one being the biggest,
gradually becoming smaller towards siphonal canal.
The aperture in Clivipollia is almost always smooth
and glossy inside. Nevertheless we could detect a few
atypical specimens (7 specimens among a hundred
ones) with fine traces of internal lirae in C. pulchra, C.
incarnata and C. fragraria. Those lirae are always
obscure and almost undetectable to the naked eye,
only feeling by moving a fine needle over the surface
of the far inside of the aperture.
The colour of many Clivipollia species is bright
orange, as seen in a number of Peristernia species
(Fasciolariidae) but not seen in typical Engina. Only
Engina mandarinoides, E. cronuchorda and E.
notabilis, all Fraussen & Chino, 2011, show an orange
colour, but not as bright. Also one of the two
Falsilatirus species, at least one Speccapollia species
and the only known Minioniella species are bright
orange too. The pattern usually consists of dark spiral
lines (on top of the spiral cords or in the interspaces)
on a vivid background. One species, Clivipollia
fragraria, has broad spiral bands.
Species of Falsilatirus differ from Clivipollia in the
much smaller protoconch, the convex columella that
results in a more bended aperture, the fewer
columellar knobs situated more abapically than the
knobs inside of the outer lip, the finer spiral sculpture,
the lower number of axial ribs and the larger adult
size.
For differences with Speccapollia gen. nov. and
Minioniella gen. nov. we refer to the comparison
under that genus.
Engina astricta (Reeve, 1846) differs from
Clivipollia species in having a smaller protoconch, a
sharp spiral cords with broad and rather smooth
interspaces and a narrower aperture often with a small
parietal knob in fully adult specimens. The shape of
the aperture and the presence or absence of a parietal
denticle and the occasional presence of radially
orientated lirae on the upper part of the parietal is
subject to strong variation. This species is often placed
in Enzinopsis Iredale, 1940 (type species Engina
gannita Hedley, 1915 = E. contracta Reeve, 1846) but
this genus differs by the presence of a parietal knob, a
moderately broad columellar callus and a broader
parietal with more obvious radially orientated lirae,
broader spiral cords consisting of several finer
secondary spiral cords and a higher spire. Enzinopsis
is similar to Engina if not a synonym. Discussing
Engina and related groups is bejond the scope of the
present publication, pending further study we
therefore tentatively keep this species in Engina.
Species of Engina Gray, 1839 [type species Engina
zonata Gray, 1839: 112-113, by subsequent
designation (Gray, 1847: 133) = Engina turbinella
(Kiener, 1835)] differ from species of Clivipollia in
having an usually smaller protoconch consisting of
about 1 ½ to 3 whorls (rather than about 4) without
subsutural angulation and by the apertural
denticulation with a sharp anal knob, by the usually
well developped parietal knob forming a distinctive
anal notch and by the broad columellar callus with
radially orientated lirae. The parietal denticle is absent
in many specimens of Engina turbinella, the type
species, however well present in many fully adult
specimens. We therefore regard it as an important
distinctive character in Engina. The broad columellar
callus with radially orientated lirae is absent, or at
least indistinct, in a number of Pacific Engina species,
which also differ by a moderately slender shape. The
spiral sculpture however is typical for Engina. The
parietal denticle may be weak in those species, or
absent if the specimen is not fully adult, but the anal
notch is always well distinct and sufficient
intermediate species are found to include them within
the variability of the genus. We therefore keep both
these morphotypes within Engina, knowing however
that further study may prove that those slender species
belong to a distinct genus, eventually Enzinopsis.
Species of Pollia Gray in Sowerby, 1834 (type
species: Buccinum undosum Linnaeus, 1758) belong
to the Cantharus group and differ from the species of
Clivipollia in the presence of internal lirae inside the
outer lip (Vermeij, 2006: 72, 85). For a discussion on
the taxonomic position of Pollia we refer to Vermeij
& Bouchet (1998: 472-473) and Vermeij (2006: 85-
86, 89-91).
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Revision of the Clivipollia group.
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Fig. 2. Aperture of Clivipollia group species
A. Clivipollia pulchra (Reeve, 1846), 22.5 mm, Philippines, Bohol, Balicasag Island, in tangle nets, 150-180 m
deep, KF-5409. B. Clivipollia delicata n. sp., holotype, 13.0 mm, Pacific, Austral Islands, Arago Bank,
BENTHAUS, stn DW1968, 23°23’S, 150°44’W, 100-120 m, MNHN IM-2000-27908. C. Falsilatirus suduirauti
Bozzetti, 1995, 32.5 mm, Philippines, Bohol, off Balicasag in deep water, KF-4374. D. Falsilatirus pacifica
Emerson & Moffitt, 1988, 33.7 mm, French Polynesia, Tuamotu, Makemo Atoll, 100 m, JL, photo by Ph.
Bacchet. E. Speccapollia recurva (Reeve, 1846), 8.5 mm, Philippines, Talikud Island, Davao, tangle nets, 30 m
deep, MC. F. Speccapollia tokiae (Chino & Fraussen, 2015) comb. nov., holotype, 6.9 mm, Samoa, Vaisala-
Savaii, dredged 10-20 m deep, on coral-sand, MNHN IM-2000-27916. G. Speccapollia recurva (Reeve, 1846),
10.0 mm, Philippines, off Mactan Island, taken by lumun lumun nets, KM-22.17. H. Minioniella heleneae sp.
nov., holotype, 6.7 mm, Pacific, French Polynesia, Tuamotu Islands, Moruroa Atoll, beach, MNHN IM-2000-
32692, photo by Ph. Bacchet.
Species included
Clivipollia pulchra (Reeve, 1846) – Indo-West Pacific
– type species
= Turbinella elegans Dunker, in Küster & Kobelt,
1844 – nomen oblitum
= Peristernia elegans var. papuaensis Tapparone
Canefri, 1879
= Clivipollia imperita Iredale, 1929
Clivipollia costata (Pease, 1860) – Hawaii
= Peristernia thaanumi Pilsbry & Brian, 1918
Clivipollia fragaria (Wood, 1828) – Indo-West Pacific
= Turbinella carolinae Kiener, 1840
= Ricinula bella Reeve, 1846
Clivipollia gigas † (Landau & Vermeij, 2012) comb.
nov. – Early Pliocene, Dominican Republic
Clivipollia incarnata (Deshayes in Laborde & Linant,
1830) – western Indian Ocean and Red Sea
= Peristernia paulucciae Tapparone Canefri, 1879
Clivipollia delicata sp. nov. – Austral Islands
Species excluded
Engina cumingiana Melvill, 1895 was placed in
Clivipollia (as a subgenus of Cantharus) by
Cernohorsky (1975: 207). The description by Melvill
(1895: 226) is not unambiguous but the type figure
(1895: pl. 14, fig. 13) shows a shell with a distinct
anal notch.
Turbinella wagneri Anton, 1839 became placed in
Clivipollia by Cernohorsky (1975: 205, as a subgenus
of Cantharus) and by Singer & Mienis (1995: 25-26,
as a subgenus of Pollia). The shape of the aperture
looks much typical for the Clivipollia group species
indeed, but the protoconch differs considerably from
the genus Clivipollia in having well convex whorls
with a moderately constricted suture, while the
presence of internal lirae inside the outer lip suggests a
placement in the Cantharus group. Pending further
studies we keep Turbinella wagneri tentatively in the
Cantharus group without assigning a proper genus.
However often placed in Pollia, Vermeij (2006) did
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not include this species in this genus. For a discussion
on this group and the taxonomic position of Pollia we
refer to Vermeij & Bouchet (1998: 472-473) and
Vermeij (2006: 85-86, 89-91).
Clivipollia pulchra (Reeve, 1846) nomen protectum
Figs 2A, 3A-C, 6A-D
Turbinella elegans Dunker, in Küster & Kobelt, 1844:
33; 1845: pl. 7, fig. 4, nomen oblitum.
Ricinula pulchra Reeve, 1846: pl. 3, fig. 20 a-b.
Peristernia elegans var. papuaensis Tapparone
Canefri, 1879: 325.
Clivipollia imperita Iredale, 1929: 347, pl. 38, fig. 10.
Ricinula pulchra Küster, 1860: pl. 4, fig. 3; 1862:
22.
Engina papuensis – Snyder & Callomon, 2010: 33,
fig. 16a-c.
Type locality. Ricinula pulchrum: “Island of Capul,
Philippines (on the reefs at low water); Cuming”;
(Reeve, 1846: pl. 3 [2]); Turbinella elegans: unknown
(Dunker in Küster & Kobelt, 1844: 33); var.
papuensis: “Port Dorey, Nouvelle-Guinée”
(Tapparone Canefri, 1879: 325); Clivipollia imperita:
Sydney Harbour (Iredale, 1929: 347).
Type material. Turbinella elegans Dunker, in Küster
& Kobelt, 1844: not traced. Ricinula pulchra Reeve,
1846: syntypes in NHMUK 1980129, see also:
http://data.nhm.ac.uk/object/66f37d33-7465-4d8e-
9edd-1d1368f982a4; Peristernia elegans var.
papuaensis Tapparone Canefri, 1879: one lectotype in
MSNG, selected by Snyder & Callomon, 2010: 33,
fig. 16a-c; Clivipollia imperita Iredale, 1929: not
traced.
Remarks. It is quite remarkable that a species
described by Dunker and well figured in the famous
work by Küster became overlooked by almost all later
taxonomists. Tapparone Canefri (1879: 324-325)
listed Ricinula pulchrum as a synonym of Turbinella
elegans. A second record known to us was published
by Melvill & Sykes (1899: 221). We could not trace
the record of Peristernia elegans in Museum
Godeffroy as listed by Tapparone Canefri (1879: 324).
We found no further records of Turbinella elegans (or
Peristernia elegans) until the catalogue compiled by
Snyder (2003: 89, 115, 312) where it is listed more
correctly as belonging to Engina. A placement of
Clivipollia species in Engina by recent authors
brought additional complication for one who would
detect the synonymy between Ricinula pulchrum and
Turbinella elegans because the name published by
Küster becomes, in that case, preoccupied by Engina
elegans Gray 1839 (= Engina turbinella Kiener,
1836). Clivipollia pulchra is a well established name
in recent literature and we therefore suggest to protect
the name Ricinula pulchrum Reeve, 1846 as a nomen
protectum according to ICZN 23.9 and 23.9.2 in favor
of the nomen oblitum Turbinella elegans Dunker in
Küster, 1844.
Clivipollia pulchra is characterized by the bright
orange colour ameliorated with darker, red-brown
spiral lines inside the spiral interspaces. The species is
therefore called “The Beautiful Ricinula” (Reeve,
1846: pl. 3).
Uniform yellow shells are well known from New
Guinea and became described as var. papuaensis, but
this colour form is also recorded from Vietnam,
Indonesia and the Philippines. Shells with an uniform
orange colour, thus without the brown spiral bands,
occur occasionally within populations of normally
coloured ones. The colour of the aperture is usually of
a bright pink, occasionally white. Juveniles
occasionally show a broad, pale band along the base
below the sutural line.
Clivipollia incarnata looks much similar to C. pulchra
at first glance but differs in the sharper spiral cords
separated by broader interspaces with more secondary
spiral cords, the brown spiral lines that are situated on
top of the spiral cords (rather than in the spiral
interspaces), the shorter siphonal canal and the slightly
paler upper spire whorls.
Peristernia schepmani Dekkers, 2014 looks similar in
pattern but differs by the protoconch consisting of 1 ½
whorls, the broader secondary spiral cords, the broader
axial interspaces, the ornamentaion inside the aperture
that bears a parietal knob but has a much smoother
outer lip, the absence of fine spiral cords on the tip of
the siphonal canal, the slightly longer siphonal canal
and the presence of fine internal lirae within the
aperture. Both species lives at different depths
(however some empty shells are recorded from deep
water, see Dekkers, 2014: 37).
Engina pulchra (Reeve, 1846) from the eastern
Pacific, described as Buccinum pulchrum in the same
work (1846: pl. 11, fig. 80) is occasionally confused
with Clivipollia pulchra, especially in checklists
available on the web. The identical combination of
specific name with authorship when both species are
placed in Engina without mentioning the original
combination has cause an unnecessary and confusing
synonymy.
Clivipollia incarnata
(Deshayes in Laborde & Linant, 1834)
Figs 3F-H, 6G-L
Turbinella incarnata Deshayes, in Laborde & Linant,
1834: 66, pl. 65, fig. 20-22.
Peristernia paulucciae Tapparone Canefri, 1879: 325-
327; 1880: 71-72, pl. 2, fig. 14-15.
Engina incarnataCernohorsky, 1971: 161; placed in
Clivipollia by Cernohorsky, 1975: 205, but without
new combination.
Engina paulucciae – Snyder & Callomon, 2010: 33,
fig. 17a-b.
Cernohorsky (1975: 185, fig. 17) figured the syntype
of Ricinula astricta and placed it under Engina
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incarnata. Both are distinct species and belong to
different genera. We exclude Enginaastricta from
Clivipollia. See also discussion about this species in
the remarks under the genus Clivipollia.
Type locality. Clivipollia incarnata: Red Sea; C.
paulucciae: in the original description recorded from
Mauritius Island, “Ile Maurice” (Tapparone Canefri,
1879: 226) but the figured specimen is from Aden
(Tapparone Canefri, 1880: 71).
Type material. Turbinella incarnata Deshayes, in
Laborde & Linant, 1834: in MNHN-2000-30244;
Peristernia paulucciae Tapparone Canefri, 1879: not
traced (see Snyder & Callomon, 2010: 33).
Range. Known from the Red Sea, Aden, along the
East African coast to Mauritius Island in the south and
to Oman in the East. Records from the West Pacific
belong to “Engina astricta.
Remarks. Clivipollia incarnata is characterized by
the spiral sculpture consisting of rather sharp cords
ornamented with a dark brown spiral line on an
orange-brown to reddish background.
Clivipollia pulchra looks much similar at first glance
but differs by the broader spiral cords separated by
narrower interspaces with fewer secondary spiral
cords, by the brown spiral lines that are situated inside
the spiral interspaces (rather than on top of the spiral
cords), by the brighter orange colour, by the upper
spire whorls that are slightly darker and the more
stretched siphonal canal.
Clivipollia costata (Pease, 1860)
Figs 1B, 3I-K, 4L, 6G-H
Engina costata Pease, 1860: 142.
Peristernia thaanumi Pilsbry & Brian, 1918: 101, pl.
9, figs. 6-7.
Cantharus (Clivipollia) costata Cernohorsky, 1975:
206-207.
Clivipollia costata Kay, 1979; Moretzsohn & Kay,
1995: 9.
Type locality. Engina costata: Hawaii “Sandwich
Islands” (Pease, 1860: 142); Peristernia thaanumi: off
Waikiki, 35-50 fathoms and Honolulu Harbour,
Hawaiian is. (Pilsbry & Brian, 1918: 101).
Type material. Engina costata Pease, 1860: holotype
in NHM 1961163 (see also Cernohorsky, 1975: 206,
fig. 69); Peristernia thaanumi Pilsbry & Brian, 1918:
not traced.
Range. Known from Hawaii. A single sample (1 lv
juv, 1 dd) from Osagawara Island, Japan was dived by
Mr. Hiroshi Takashige (MC, KF).
Remarks. Clivipollia costata is characterized by the
sharp spiral cords separated by broad interspaces, the
moderately broad shaped shell in combination with a
rather low number of axial ribs.
Clivipollia fragaria (Wood, 1828)
Figs 3D-E, 6M-P
Engina fragaria Wood, 1828: 11, pl. 3, fig. 27.
Turbinella carolinae Kiener, 1840: 47-48, pl. 18, fig.
4.
Ricinula bella Reeve, 1846: pl.3, fig. 15.
Cantharus (Clivipollia) fragaria – Cernohorsky, 1975:
205.
Type locality. Clivipollia fragraria: unknown;
Turbinella carolinae: unknown; Ricinula bella: Island
of Capul, Philippines (on the reefs at low water).
Type material. Engina fragaria Wood, 1828: not
traced; Turbinella carolinae Kiener, 1840: not traced;
Ricinula bella Reeve, 1846: syntypes in NHMUK
1980131, see also:
http://data.nhm.ac.uk/object/19a3f2ed-0afa-4158-
ac92-43c7e268ffa5.
Figure 3A-O
A-C. Clivipollia pulchra (Reeve, 1846). A-B. 22.5 mm, Philippines, Bohol, Balicasag Island, in tangle nets, 150-180
m deep, KF-5409. C. 19.8 mm, New Guinea, Manokwari, KF-0852.
D-E. Clivipollia fragraria (Wood, 1828). D. 16.2 mm, Guam, Orote Point, under dead coral, 10-12 m, KF-3274. E.
25.5 mm, Mozambique, Nacala Bay, KF-4874.
F-H. Clivipollia incarnata (Deshayes in Laborde & Linant, 1830). F-G. 24.9 mm, Red Sea, Eilat, on coral, 2 m, KF-
2444. H. 21.6 mm, Red Sea, Eilat, on coral, 2-3 m, KF-5101.
I-K. Clivipollia costata (Pease, 1860). I-J. 21.2 mm, Hawaiian Islands, Oahu, Waimea Beach, Aligator Rock, under
dead coral, 15-20 m, KF-5871. K. 15.9 mm, Japan, Ogasawara Islands, MC.
L-M. Falsilatirus pacifica Emerson & Moffitt, 1988, 33.7 mm, French Polynesia, Tuamotu, Makemo Atoll, 100 m,
JL, photo by PH. Bacchet.
N-O. Falsilatirus suduirauti Bozzetti, 1995, 32.5 mm, Philippines, Bohol, off Balicasag in deep water, KF-4374.
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Range. The species has a wide range, known from
East Africa (Mozambique, Somalia, Red Sea) in the
West to Polynesia in the East.
Remarks. Clivipollia fragaria is characterized by the
slender shape, the peculiar pink colour with expressive
pattern of dark bands with white or pale spot.
Clivipollia gigas
(Landau & Vermeij, 2012) comb. nov.
Figs 6E-F
Engina gigas † Landau & Vermeij, 2012: 124-125,
fig. 8-13.
Type locality. Dominican Republic, Gurabo River,
TU1215. Gurabo Formation, Early Pliocene.
Type material. Holotype in NMB H18437, 4
paratypes in NMB (H18438, H 18439, H18440,
H18441), 1 paratype in NHMW.
Range. The species is known from the Early Miocene
(Cercado Formation) to the Late Pliocene (Gurabo
Formation) along the Gurabo River in the Dominican
republic (Landau & Vermeij, 2012: 125).
Remarks. Landau & Vermeij (2012: 123, 124)
correctly remarked that the spiral sculpture consisting
of primary and secondary (and tertiary) cords may be
more typical to Engina in a broad sence than to
Clivipollia. The protoconch, however, is similar to
Clivipollia. The apertural denticulation is more similar
to Clivipollia as defined in the present paper and
differs from Engina in having a narrow columellar and
parietal callus, a weak or absent parietal denticle, a
weak anal elevation or knob that is separated from the
denticles inside the outer lip by a broad gap, a rather
long siphonal canal, the fine and sharp primary spiral
cords and a slightly larger adult size.
Assigning Engina gigas to Clivipollia has important
biogeographical implications because it becomes the
first, and until now the only, known Clivipollia
species in the Atlantic Ocean.
Clivipollia delicata sp. nov.
Figs 1A, 2B, 4A-K
Type material. Holotype, 13.0 mm, Pacific, Austral
Islands, Arago Bank, BENTHAUS, stn DW1968,
23°23’S, 150°44’W, 100-120 m, dd, juv, MNHN IM-
2000-27908.
Paratype 1, 11.7 mm, Pacific, Austral Islands, Tubuai,
BENTHAUS, stn DW1958, 23°20’S, 149°30’W, 80-
150 m, dd, MNHN IM-2000-27909.
Paratype 2, 12.0 mm, Pacific, Austral Islands,
Président Thiers Bank, BENTHAUS, stn DW1926,
24°38’S, 146°01’W, 80-90 m, dd, juv, KF-7337.
Paratype 3, 12.4 mm, Tuamotu Archipelago, Makemo
Atoll, Arikitamiro, 45 m, dd, JL.
Paratype 4, 12.2 mm, Society Islands, Tahiti, Arue
Fault, 60 m, dd, JL.
Type locality. Pacific, Austral Islands, Arago Bank,
BENTHAUS, stn BENTHAUS, stn DW1968,
23°23’S, 150°44’W, 100-120 m.
Material examined. The type material listed above.
Range. At present only known from the type material
listed above, all empty shells.
Description. Shell small, thin but solid; shape
moderately broad with low, conical spire and slightly
stretched base.
Tip of protoconch chipped, number of whorls
according to traces 3 ½, remaining whorls 2 ¾ in
number, smooth, glossy, last ¼ whorls with minute,
irregular wrickled axial ribblets. Transition to
teleoconch distinct, marked by sharp line and sudden
appearance of teleoconch sculpture.
Teleoconch consisting of 5 ¼ weakly convex whorls.
Shape biconical, with broad, fusiform spire, base
weakly prolonged. Axial sculpture dominant. Colour
pale orange-brown with pink apex; spiral cords with
fine, darker spiral line; top of axial ribs slightly paler.
First teleoconch whorl with 2 fine primary spiral cords
with broad interspace, 2 fine spiral threads on
subsutural slope, fifth spiral cord partly concealed
under suture of subsequent whorl. Interspaces
gradually broader along second whorl with 1 or 2 fine
secondary spiral threads. One spiral on subsutural
slope growing bigger along third whorl, as strong as
primary spiral cords on fourth whorl. Penultimate
whorl with 3 primary spiral cords; interspaces broad
with 7 secondary spiral cords, central one slightly
stronger. Body whorl with 10 such primary spiral
cords.
Figure 4A-L
A-K. Clivipollia delicata n. sp. A-C. Holotype, 13.0 mm, Pacific, Austral Islands, Arago Bank, BENTHAUS, stn
DW1968, 23°23’S, 150°44’W, 100-120 m, MNHN IM-2000-27908. D-E. Paratype 1, 11.7 mm, Pacific, Austral
Islands, Tubuai, BENTHAUS, stn DW1958, 23°20’S, 149°30’W, 80-150 m, MNHN IM-2000-27909. F-G. Paratype
3, 12.4 mm, Tuamotu Archipelago, Makemo Atoll, Arikitamiro, 45 m, JL, photo by P. Marti. H-I. Paratype 4, 12.2
mm, Society Islands, Tahiti, Arue Fault, 60 m, JL, photo by Ph. Bacchet. J-K. Clivipollia delicata n. sp., apex of
holotype.
L. Clivipollia costata (Pease, 1860), 12.9 mm juvenile, Japan, Ogasawara Islands, KF-3745.
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All spire whorls with 8 broad, well pronounced axial
ribs; interspaces moderately narrow. Body whorl with
9 axial ribs.
Aperture typical for genus, narrow, semi-triangular,
adapical border weakly flattened, abapical part
towards siphonal canal slightly narrower. Outer lip
thick; edge sharp, glossy, weakly curved outwards;
with weak but broad anal knob separated by
moderately broad adapical gap from other 4 internal
knobs. Columella gently curved, typical for genus
with smooth parietal; columella with 1 fine denticle
and 2 slightly stronger columellar folds running deep
into aperture. Callus thin, edge projecting. Siphonal
canal moderately long, broad, open. Aperture and
siphonal canal together slightly less than ½ of total
shell length.
Remarks. Clivipollia delicata sp. nov. is
characterized by the pale orange-brown colour with
fine reddish brown spiral lines on top of spiral
sculpture.
Clivipollia pulchra differs by the much broader
primary spiral cords and narrower spiral interspaces,
the bright orange colour and the darker spiral lines
situated in the spiral interspaces.
Clivipollia incarnata differs by the slightly broader
primary spiral cords, the slightly higher number of
axial ribs and the whorls that increase in size faster,
resulting in a larger size for shells with a same number
of teleoconch whorls.
Etymology. Clivipollia delicata sp. nov. is derived
from the Latin adjective delicatus, meaning
“delightfull, dainty”, and refers to the magnificant,
delicate sculpture on the shell that is much finer than
most other known Clivipollia species.
Genus Falsilatirus Emerson & Moffitt, 1988
Figs 1, 2, 3L-O, 5N-O
Falsilatirus Emerson & Moffitt, 1988: 43. Type
species: Falsilatirus pacificus Emerson & Moffitt,
1988: 43 (original designation); Central Pacific.
We agree with the assignment of Falsilatirus to the
Engina group by Vermeij, 2001. A relationship
between Falsilatirus and Clivipollia is discussed by
Landau & Vermeij, 2012: 123.
Included species
Falsilatirus pacificus Emerson & Moffitt, 1988
central West Pacific – Figs 2D, 3L-M
Falsilatirus suduirauti Bozzetti, 1995 Philippines
Figs 1C, 2C, 3N-O, 5N-O
Falsilatirus pacificus Emerson & Moffitt, 1988: 43-
44. Type locality: Off Arkana Reef, Northern Mariana
Islands, 15°38.4’N, 142°46.2’E, 123-503 m, NOAA
ship Townsend Cromwell, cruise TC 83-05, stn. 167,
in shrimp traps.
Falsilatirus suduirauti Bozzetti, 1995: 27-28. Type
locality: Balut, Mindanao Island, Philippines, 140-180
m.
Remarks. Species in Falsilatirus are characterized by
their small protoconch in combination with a rather
large adult size and by the shape and denticulation of
the aperture. The protoconch consists of about 1 ½
well convex whorls. The transition to the teleoconch is
distinct, marked by the sudden presence of 3 spiral
teleoconch cords. The parietal side of the aperture is
flattened, the rectangular shape of the transition to the
adapical part of the outer lip is accentuated by a weak
anal notch; both the parietal and anal knobs are absent
or weak. The outer lip is thick, with a sharp edge,
flared outwards, rather narrow along the adapical part.
The columella is weakly convex, covered with two
columellar knobs, the adapical one situated more
abapically than the adapical knob on the outer lip (Fig.
2D). Outer lip weakly concave, forming a moderately
bended suboval aperture, inside with usually 2 big
adapical knobs and a number of smaller abapical
knobs (Fig. 2C-D).
Figure 5A-O
A-D. Speccapollia africana n. sp. A-B. Holotype, 10.0 mm, Mozambique, Nacala Bay, 3-5 m, MNHN IM-2000-
3191. C-D. Paratype 1, 11.4 mm, same locality, KF-4879.
E-F. Speccapollia tokiae (Chino & Fraussen, 2015) comb. nov. E. Holotype, 6.9 mm, Samoa, Vaisala-Savaii,
dredged 10-20 m deep, on coral-sand, MNHN IM-2000-27916. F. Paratype 1, 8.1 mm, same locality, MC.
G. Speccapollia recurva (Reeve, 1846), 8.5 mm, Philippines, Talikud Island, Davao, tangle nets, 30 m deep, MC.
H-I. Speccapollia sp., 10.1 mm, French Polynesia, atoll de Takapoto Tuamotu, Okukina, beach, MB.
J-K. Minioniella heleneae sp. nov., holotype, 6.7 mm, Pacific, French Polynesia, Tuamotu Islands,
Moruroa Atoll, beach, MNHN IM-2000-32692, photo by Ph. Bacchet.
L. Speccapollia tokiae, Samoa, Vaisala-Savaii, dredged 10-20 m deep, on coral-sand, apex of paratype 2, 8.4 mm,
collection KF-3744.
M. Speccapollia recurva (Reeve, 1846), 10.0 mm, Philippines, off Mactan Island, taken by lumun lumun nets, KM-
22.17.
N-O. Falsilatirus suduirauti, Bozzetti, 1995, 32.5 mm, Philippines, Bohol, off Balicasag in deep water, KF-4374.
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Species in Clivipollia differs by the larger protoconch,
the more triangular shaped aperture with moderately
straight sides, the presence of a broad but weak anal
knob, the columellar knobs that are situated more
adapically than the knobs inside the outer lip (Fig.
2B), the absence of a gap in between the adapical and
abapical apertural knobs inside the outer lip (Fig. 2A-
B), the finer spiral sculpture with fine and sharp
primary spiral cords and the larger adult size.
Genus Speccapollia gen. nov.
Figs 1D, 2E-G, 5A-I, 5L-M
Type species. Ricinula recurva Reeve, 1846, here
designated (Figs 1D, 2E, 2G, 5G, 5M, 6S) from
French Polynesia in the east, the Philippines and Japan
in the north, to eastern Indonesia in the west.
Diagnosis. Shell small, shape broad with short,
conical spire, base broad. Colour usually yellowish,
orange or brown with fine or broad spiral lines or dots
on top of the spiral sculpture.
Protoconch small, consisting of 1 ¼ to 2 whorls.
Transition to teleoconch indistinct or marked by fine
line followed by teleoconch sculpture.
Teleoconch consisting of 4 to 5 ¾ whorls, upper spire
whorls weakly flattened. Axial sculpture dominant.
All spire whorls with 3 or 4 rather broad spiral cords
with smooth top; interspaces moderately narrow along
apex, gradually growing broader along later whorls.
Secondary spiral cords absent or obscure along spire
whorls but present in interspaces along last whorl.
Aperture narrow, adapical part semi-oval, columella
running parallel with outer lip, abapical part growing
narrower. Obscure internal lirae present inside the
outer lip, running from behind outer lip to far inside
aperture. Columella gently curved, usually with 2 to 4
columellar folds or knobs, callus rather narrow.
Parietal smooth, callus narrow, parietal knob weak or
obscure, parietal denticle absent or obscure. Anal
notch weak, anal knob big, without denticle. Outer lip
thick; edge sharp, glossy; anal knob separated by
moderately broad adapical notch from 3 or 4, rarely 5,
internal knobs. Adapical columellar knob situated in
front of adapical knob at outer lip (Fig. 2F-G).
Siphonal canal short, broad, open, bended towards
dorsal side.
Remarks. Speccapollia gen. nov. is characterized by
the small protoconch consisting of 1 ¼ to 2 whorls, by
the absence of a parietal knob in combination with the
absence of a broad columellar and parietal callus, by
the low number of knobs on both the columella and
outer lip, knobs of which the adapical ones are
situated in front of each other, by the presence of
obscure internal lirae inside the outer lip, the spiral
sculpture consisting of a moderately big primary spiral
cords with rather broad interspaces with secondary
spiral cords absent on the spire whorls but present on
the last whorl. Species of Clivipollia differ from
species of Speccapollia gen. nov. in having a larger
and papilliform protoconch consisting of 3 or 4
whorls, a more triangular shaped aperture, a rather
narrow anal notch with a rather well developped anal
knob that is situated more adapically inside of the
aperture, an usually larger number of apertural knobs
both on the columella and inside of the outer lip, a
columellar knobs situated more adapically than the
knobs inside of the outer lip, a narrow parietal callus,
a sculpture that consists of broader spiral cords with
narrower adapical spiral interspace and a larger adult
size.
Species of Falsilatirus differ from species of
Speccapollia gen. nov. in having a broader, more
triangular shaped aperture with curved sides, a broader
anal notch without parietal or anal denticle, a
columellar knobs situated more abapically than the
knobs inside of the outer lip, a narrow parietal callus,
a sharper spiral sculpture and a much larger adult size.
Engina astricta (Reeve, 1846) differs from
Speccapollia gen. nov. in having broader spiral
interspaces and a more Engina-alike aperture usually
with a parietal knob in well adult specimens and a
callus with radially orientated lirae. For a brief
discussion about the generic placement of this species
we refer to the comparison under Clivipollia.
Species belonging to Engina differ from Speccapollia
gen. nov. in having a broad columellar callus running
along the whole columella and parietal to the adapical
part of the aperture, sculptured with radially orientated
lirae that are usually well distinct in typical
specimens; in having a distinct, usually equally sized,
parietal and anal denticle forming a deep and narrow
anal notch; a larger number of knobs on both
columella and outer lip, with a narrower adapical
notch inside the outer lip and in having spiral cords
consisting of several sharp spiral keels rather than
consisting of a single big cord with smooth, rounded
top.
Virtually all typical Engina species have a sharp
parietal knob forming a well defined anal notch. The
type species, Engina turbinella, however, has a
moderately small similar parietal denticle that is
usually absent in not fully adult specimens. The
radially orientated lirae are present on the parietal
callus of most Engina species, but not all (Landau &
Vermeij, 2012: 122), and are occasionally found in
specimens of Speccapollia recurva.
Many Pacific species belonging, or assigned, to
Engina or Enzinopsis differ in the multispiral, rather
papilliform protoconch; the usually slender shape with
higher spire; the presence of a number of lirae on the
parietal part of the columella in fully adult specimens;
the usually narrow anal notch bordered by moderately
develloped knobs and the narrower adapical notch
inside the outer lip.
Species of Pollia Gray in Sowerby, 1834 (type
species: Buccinum undosum Linnaeus, 1758) belong
to the Cantharus group and are characterized by the
presence of internal lirae inside the outer lip (Vermeij,
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2006: 72, 85). The inside of the outer lip in Clivipollia
is almost always smooth and glossy (see remarks
under Clivipollia for a few exceptions). Also
Speccapollia gen. nov. has fine traces of internal lirae
inside the outer lip, but those are much finer than in
Pollia and obscure.
For a discussion on the taxonomic position of Pollia
we refer to Vermeij & Bouchet (1998: 472-473) and
Vermeij, (2006: 85-86, 89-91).
Species belonging to Morula Schumacher, 1817
(Muricidae) differ in having a more strongly ovate
aperture with two strong denticles within the outer
apertural lip and in having most of the time a conical,
multispiral protoconch.
Etymology. Speccapollia is derived from the Old
English specca, meaning “a speck, a small spot,
stain”, or as in the Old Dutch expression speckel
meaning “speckle, to sprinkle”, refering to the small
size of the species; in combination with -pollia,
meaning “a small Pollia” or “a small Clivipollia”.
Included species
Speccapollia recurva (Reeve, 1846) comb. nov.
West Pacific and Indonesia – type species
Speccapollia tokiae (Chino & Fraussen, 2015) comb.
nov. – Samoa
Speccapollia africana sp. nov. – Mozambique
Speccapollia species – Austral Islands
Speccapollia recurva (Reeve, 1846) comb. nov.
Figs 1D, 2E, 2G, 5G, 5M, 6S
Ricinula recurva Reeve, 1846: pl. 6 , fig. 53.
Cantharus (Clivipollia) recurva – Cernohorsky, 1975:
205, fig. 67-68.
Type locality. “Lord Hood’s Island” = southern
Marurea Island, SE end of Tuamotu Archipelago.
Type material. Two syntypes in NHMUK 1968465
(see also Cernohorsky, 1975: 205, fig. 67-68).
Range. Known from French Polynesia in the east, the
Philippines and Japan in the north, to eastern
Indonesia in the west.
Remarks. Speccapollia recurva is characterized by
the small adult size, the broad shape, the broad spiral
cords separated by narrow interspaces with a single
secondary spiral cord and the pale brownish colour
with white dots on top of the sculpture.
Speccapollia tokiae differs from Speccapollia recurva
in having a narrow spiral cords separated by broader
interspaces, by the usually darker colour and by the
absence of a paler spiral band along the body whorl.
For differences with Speccapollia africana sp. nov. we
refer to the comparison under that species.
Speccapollia tokiae
(Chino & Fraussen, 2015) comb. nov.
Figs 2F, 5E-F, 5L
Clivipollia tokiae Chino & Fraussen, 2015: 108-109,
figs 1-8.
Material examined. The holotype and both paratypes
are the only specimens known to us.
Type locality. Pacific, Samoa, Vaisala-Savaii,
dredged 10-20 m deep, on coral-sand, 1988.
Type material. Holotype in MNHN IM-2000-27916.
Paratype 1 in MC. Paratype 2 in KF-3744.
Range. At present only known from the type locality.
Comparison. Speccapollia tokiae is characterized by
the orange-brown colour with fine white or yellowish
spiral lines on top of the spiral cords.
Speccapollia recurva differs by the broader spiral
cords separated by narrower interspaces, the usually
paler colour and the presence of a white or pale spiral
band along the body whorl.
For differences with Speccapollia africana sp. nov. we
refer to the comparison under that species.
Speccapollia africana sp. nov.
Figs 5A-D
Type material. Holotype, 10.0 mm, Mozambique,
Nacala Bay, 3-5 m, MNHN IM-2000-31691.
Paratypes 1-5, 8.5-11.4 mm, same locality, KF-4879.
Paratype 6, 9.9 mm, Mozambique, Mozambique
Island, 3-4 m, JR.
Paratypes 7-9, 8.9-9.2 mm, Mozambique, Praia do
Wimbe, Pemba, 2-3 m, JR.
Paratype 10, 10.2 mm, Mozambique, Fernão Veloso
Bay, Melala, 2-4 m, JR.
Type locality. East Africa, Mozambique, Nacala Bay,
3-5 m.
Material examined. The type material listed above.
Range. At present only known from northern
Mozambique.
Description. Shell small, thick, solid; shape broad
with low, conical spire and broad base.
Protoconch with 1 2/3 convex, smooth whorls;
yellowish. Transition to teleoconch indistinct, marked
by sudden appearance of teleoconch sculpture.
Teleoconch consisting of 5 ¾ weakly convex whorls,
upper spire whorls slightly flattened. Axial sculpture
dominant but obscured by spiral band. Colour reddish
brown with white dots on top of axial sculpture, dots
on base smaller, periphery with continuous white
spiral band on top of spiral cord.
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All spire whorls with 3 fine primary spiral cords;
interspaces narrow on first whorl, gradually growing
broader, along second and third whorls with a single
fine secondary spiral thread. This fine secondary
thread growing stronger along penultimate whorl.
Body whorl with 11 or 12 primary spiral cords,
interspaces broad with 1 to 3 secondary spiral cords,
adapical interspace broader; spiral interspaces on
siphonal canal broad but usually smooth without
secondary spiral cords.
All spire whorls with 9 or 10 broad axial ribs,
interspaces narrow. Body whorl with 9 such axial ribs.
Aperture typical for genus, adapically part semi-oval,
abapical part towards siphonal canal narrower. Outer
lip thick; edge sharp, glossy; anal denticle separated
by moderately broad adapical notch from 4 (holotype)
or 5 (paratype) internal knobs. Obscure internal lirae
present inside the outer lip, running from behind outer
lip to far inside aperture. Columella gently curved,
parietal smooth with narrow callus; columella with 2
(holotype) to 4 (paratype) columellar folds. Parietal
smooth, callus narrow, parietal knob weak with
obscure, almost invisible parietal denticle. Anal notch
weak, anal knob big, without denticle. Siphonal canal
short, broad, open, curved towards dorsum. Aperture
and siphonal canal together slightly more than ½ of
total shell length.
Remarks. Speccapollia africana sp. nov. is
characterized by the rather smooth upper section of
the aperture; the few secondary spiral cords and the
rather dark colour with snow-white dots on top of the
axial ribs and the presence of a narrow, white spiral
band along the periphery.
Speccapollia recurva differs from S. africana sp. nov.
in the number of secondary spiral cords and their
strenght: up to 5 in the adapical spiral interspace and 3
in the other interspaces that are slightly finer (while S.
africana sp. nov. only has 3 secondary spiral cords in
the adapical spiral interspace, a single or occasionally
3 in the other interspaces on the last whorl and usually
smooth interspaces on the siphonal canal); in having a
slightly broader aperture with slightly shorter siphonal
canal; a weakly narrower callus near the anal notch; a
weak but still stronger parietal knob; the presence of a
weak anal knob; and the paler colour with a broader
white spiral band along the periphery of the last whorl.
Speccapollia tokiae differs from S. africana sp. nov. in
having narrow spiral cords separated by broader
interspaces, an usually paler colour with fine white
spiral lines on top of the spiral sculpture and by the
absence of a paler spiral band along the body whorl.
Engina phasinola (Duclos, 1840) differs from S.
africana in the slightly broader shape, the deeper and
broader subsutural concavity, the slightly broader
callus along the parital part of the columella, the
presence of a weak parietal denticle and an anal knob,
and the stronger apertural denticles inside the outer lip
(Figs 6T-Y).
Etymology. Speccapollia africana sp. nov. is named
after the African continent where the species is the
only member of the genus, as far as we know today.
The combination with the generic name conjures up a
strong contrast between the minute size of this species
and the vast continent.
Figure 6A-Y
A. Type figure of Turbinella elegans Dunker in Küster & Kobelt, 1844, taken from Küster & Kobelt,
1845: pl. 7, fig. 4. B-C. Type figure of Ricinula pulchra Reeve, 1846: pl. 3, fig. 20 a-b. D. Type figure of
Clivipollia imperita Iredale, 1929: pl. 38, fig. 10. E-F. Holotype of Engina gigas Landau & Vermeij,
2012, from Landau & Vermeij, 2012: fig. 8-13.
G-H. Type figure of Turbinella incarnata Deshayes, in Laborde & Linant, 1834: pl. 65, fig. 20-22. I-J.
Syntype of Turbinella incarnata Deshayes, in Laborde & Linant, 1834, 21.8 mm, MNHN-IM-2000-
30244, image courtesy of MNHN and Manuel Caballer MNHN, Project E-RECOLNAT: ANR-11-INBS-
0004. K-L. Type figure of Peristernia paulucciae Tapparone Canefri, 1879, from Tapparone Canefri,
1880: pl. 2, fig. 14-15.
M. Type figure of Engina fragaria Wood, 1828: 11, pl. 3, fig. 27. N. Type figure of Ricinula bella Reeve,
1846: pl. 3, fig. 15. O-P. Type figure of Turbinella carolinae Kiener, 1840: pl. 18, fig. 4. Q-R. Type
figures of Peristernia thaanumi Pilsbry & Brian, 1918: pl. 9, figs. 6-7.
S. Type figure of Ricinula recurva Reeve, 1846: pl. 6, fig. 53. T-W. Type figures of Columbella
phasinola Duclos, 1840: pl. 8, fig. 13-16. X-Y. Syntype of Columbella phasinola (one of three syntypes),
12.8 mm, MNHN-IM-2000-6405, photo courtesy of MNHN and Manuel Caballer MNHN, Project E-
RECOLNAT: ANR-11-INBS-0004.
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Revision of the Clivipollia group.
44
Speccapollia species
Figs 5H-I
A specimen from Okukina, Takapoto Atoll, Tuamotu
and a second from Motu Roa, at Rangiroa Atoll,
Tuamotu, both collected by Hélène Boutet at the
beach, are strongly eroded but are still possessing the
apertural characteristics of Speccapollia gen. nov. The
protoconch, however, is not suitable for description or
comperative study. We therefore do not describe this
species.
Genus Minioniella gen. nov.
Figs 1E-F, 2H, 5J-K
Type species. Minioniella heleneae sp. nov., here
designated (Figs 1E-F, 2H, 5J-K), from French
Polynesia, Tuamotu Islands, Moruroa Atoll.
Diagnosis. Shell small, shape biconical, moderately
broad with low, conical spire; base constricted with
weakly stretched base. Protoconch high, consisting of
1 ½ laterally flattened whorls that are typical for
genus. Transition to teleoconch distinct, marked by
fine line. Shell ornamented with dominant axial ribs
crossed by fine spiral cords, interspaces covered with
fine but sharp incremental lines. Aperture rather oval,
columella weakly concave, parietal concave, anal
notch broad but shallow, parietal knob absent or weak,
anal knob weak, the whole forming a smooth running
curve along columella and adapical part of aperture.
Columella with a single columellar knobs, on
transition to siphonal canal with 2 small columellar
folds. Outer lip concave; inside with knobs. Siphonal
canal short, straight, open, narrow.
Remarks. Minioniella gen. nov. is characterized by a
peculiar protoconch morphology with a high shape,
consisting of angular whorls and by the semi-oval
aperture with a limited number of denticles.
Species of Clivipollia differ by the larger protoconch,
the narrower, more triangular shaped aperture, the
presence of a broad but weak anal knob, the larger
number of apertural knobs both on the columella and
inside the outer lip and the larger adult size.
Species of Speccapollia gen. nov. differ in having a
narrow aperture, a deep anal notch, a broad parietal
callus and a sculpture that consists of broader spiral
cords.
Enginella Monterosato, 1917 [type species: Murex
bicolor Cantraine, 1835 = E. leucozona (Philippi,
1844)] has a protoconch with somewhat similar
shaped, moderately angulated whorls but differs
considerably in shape and pattern. The aperture differs
in the well defined anal notch with sharp parietal and
anal denticles. The Indo-West Pacific species placed
in this genus by Cernohorsky (1975: 201) belong to
Engina or Enginella, thus far this genus is not
recorded from the Indo-West Pacific. Species
belonging to Morula Schumacher, 1817 (Muricidae)
could be confused with Minionella but they constantly
differ in having a narrower and more strongly ovate
aperture with strong denticles within the outer
apertural lip and in having most of the time a conical,
multispiral protoconch attesting of a planktotrophic
larval development.
Etymology. Minioniella is derived from the English
minion (neuter), in French mignon, meaning a
favorite, a darling” or when used as an adjective
meaning “pretty, favorite, attractive, gracious, …”,
refering to the pretty shape and colour of this shell,
with the diminutive suffix ella (Latin) to evocate the
small size.
Minioniella heleneae sp. nov.
Figs 1E-F, 2H, 5J-K
Type material. Holotype, 6.7 mm, Pacific, French
Polynesia, Tuamotu Islands, Moruroa Atoll, beach,
MNHN IM-2000-31692.
Type locality. Pacific, French Polynesia, Tuamotu
Islands, Moruroa Atoll, beach.
Material examined. The holotype is the only known
specimen, leg. Hélène Boutet.
Range. At present only known from the holotype.
Description. Shell small, thin but solid; shape
biconical, moderately broad with low, conical spire;
base constricted with weakly stretched base.
Protoconch high, consisting of 1 ½ laterally flattened
whorls with sharp angulation forming broad, flat
subsutural platform; tip rather papilliform, first whorl
high, last ½ whorl about 3/5 times narrower than first
whorl. Transition to teleoconch distinct, marked by
fine line.
Teleoconch consisting of 4 ¼ whorls, laterally
flattened on spire, ornamented with dominant axial
ribs crossed by fine spiral cords, interspaces covered
by fine but sharp incremental lines. First whorl with 2
fine, sharp spiral cords, interspaces broad, a third
spiral cord partly concealed under suture of
subsequent whorl. Second whorl with 3 primary spiral
cords, a fine secondary spiral cord appearing in middle
of adapical interspace. This secondary spiral cord
gradualy increasing in strenght, on third whorl almost
as strong as primary spiral cords. Penultimate whorl
with 4 primary spiral cords, interspaces broad with a
fine, obscure secondary spiral cord. Body whorl with
18 spiral cords of different strenght, interspaces broad.
All spire whorls with 12 sharp, pronounced axial ribs,
interspaces twice as broad. Body whorl with 10 axial
ribs, including broad labral varix.
Aperture semi-oval, columella weakly concave,
parietal concave, parietal knob absent or weak, anal
notch broad but weak, anal knob weak, the whole
forming a smooth running curve along columella and
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adapical part of aperture. Columella with a single
columellar knob, on transition to siphonal canal with 2
small columellar folds. Outer lip concave; inside with
4 knobs, adapical one largest, sharp, gradually
becoming smaller towards siphonal canal. Siphonal
canal short, straight, open, narrow
Remarks. Minioniella heleneae sp. nov. is
characterized by the angular protoconch whorls, the
dominant axial sculpture in combination with
moderately fine spiral cords, the fine but sharp axial
incremental lines, the round aperture looking not
unfamiliar for Muricidae with few denticles only, the
orange colour with pinkish upper spire and the small
size.
Etymology. Minioniella heleneae sp. nov. is named in
honour of Hélène Boutet for her interest in shells and
the discovery of several new species.
A
CKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are grateful to Michel & Hélène Boutet (Tahiti),
Jean Letourneux (Tahiti), Philippe Bouchet, Virginie
Héros and Philippe Maestrati (Muséum national
d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France), Jo Rosado
(Mozambique) and Mitsuo Chino (Japan) for
procuring additional material for study, to Robert
Gourguet (Tahiti), Philippe Bacchet (Tahiti) and
Patrick Marti (Tahiti) for logistic help and
photography, to Kevin Monsecour for bibliographical
help and information on Columbellidae, to Chris Vos
for bibliographical help, to Yves Terryn for supporting
this study and to Roland Houart (Belgium) for reading
and correcting the manuscript.
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