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Integrated Solar Thermal Systems for renovation of external walls

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Until very recently, technical systems such as solar thermal systems, and other HVAC elements have been conceptualized based uniquely in their thermal performance levels, and its integration with other architectural elements (envelopes, slabs,…) limited to mechanical fixation. However, with steadily increasing use of technologies for the reduction of the non-renewable energy needs in buildings, already developed in the last decades, deeper architectural integration is needed, also considering on cost and assembly process optimization to ensure wide market adoption. In this context, two main trends appear: Integration and hybridation of solar systems in building envelopes. Integrated solutions are created when modular and dimensionally variable glazed collectors are integrated in curtain wall structures or in external cladding systems. Hybrid solutions such as External thermal insulation systems and sandwich panels are generated where unglazed collectors are integrated as part of renders, claddings, etc. to obtain neutral aesthetical impact. Architectural, constructional and thermal results are discussed, not only based on design assessments, but also on manufacture, assembly and assessment results from experimental data.
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Integrated Solar Thermal Systems for renovation of external walls
Roberto Garay Martinez, Peru Elguezabal Esnarrizaga, Julen Astudillo Larraz
Sustainable Construction Division, TECNALIA
c/ Geldo, Edif. 700, 48160, Derio, Spain, Roberto.garay@tecnalia.com
Abstract
Until very recently, technical systems such as solar thermal systems, and other HVAC elements have been
conceptualized based uniquely in their thermal performance levels, and its integration with other architectural
elements (envelopes, slabs,…) limited to mechanical fixation. However, with steadily increasing use of
technologies for the reduction of the non-renewable energy needs in buildings, already developed in the last
decades, deeper architectural integration is needed, also considering on cost and assembly process
optimization to ensure wide market adoption.
In this context, two main trends appear: Integration and hybridation of solar systems in building envelopes.
Integrated solutions are created when modular and dimensionally variable glazed collectors are integrated in
curtain wall structures or in external cladding systems. Hybrid solutions such as External thermal insulation
systems and sandwich panels are generated where unglazed collectors are integrated as part of renders,
claddings, etc. to obtain neutral aesthetical impact.
Architectural, constructional and thermal results are discussed, not only based on design assessments, but
also on manufacture, assembly and assessment results from experimental data.
Keywords: Solar thermal systems; Building envelopes; Integration; Integrated Solar Collector Envelopes
1. Introduction
Built to facilitate the development of human activities, buildings have developed, and several subsystems
have been generated to provide increasing levels of performance. Structural systems; building envelopes;
Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems; etc. are increasingly complex.
Modern envelopes have evolved far beyond their original sheltering functionality, providing also comfortable
levels of daylighting, thermal insulation, and even solar energy harvesting. Being part of the human
environment, these functions need to be correctly integrated in the overall concept of the building, and with
neighbouring systems. Allways keeping within clear cost constraints.
With energy efficiency and an ultimate need to reduce primary energy consumption of buildings towards
sustainability, energy systems are increasing its presence in building envelopes. Solar energy systems such
as solar thermal and photovoltaic systems are being implemented in buildings, boosted by energy
procurement policies and user/owner will to reduce the overall energy costs in buildings.
The increase in use of solar system requires of an increasingly large envelope surface for it implemen tation,
with increasing presence in the overall appearance of the building. The integration of solar systems into
architectural systems seeks the reduction of aesthetical and space impact in buildings. However, since a
deeper integration is pursued, the interaction of the thermal function with other functions must be understood
and placed as a key issue to be solved in the design process. The requirements for highly integrated solar
systems if not conveniently achieved, could potentially have a significant reduction in the overall harvesting
performance of the system.
In this context, two main trends appear: Integration and hybridation of solar systems in building envelopes.
Integrated solutions are created when modular and dimensionally variable glazed collectors are integrated in
curtain wall structures or in external cladding systems. Hybrid solutions such as External thermal insulat ion
systems and sandwich panels are generated where unglazed collectors are integrated as part of renders,
claddings, etc. to obtain neutral aesthetical impact.
In this paper, several integrated and hybrid envelope technologies are discussed, and its particular benefits
and drawbacks identified. Also, research outcomes of several projects are also presented.
These systems commonly are integrated as part of advanced or even new concepts of HVAC systems in
which solar systems are connected with thermal storage, heat pumps and low energy delivery systems such
as radiant floors, or even thermal mass activation.
2. Integrated vs. Hybrid
The terminology to define integration level of solar thermal systems in building envelopes is still a matter of
discussion within the solar thermal industry. To the authors’ opinion, three concepts can be defined:
- Building Applied technologies: Solar thermal systems are mechanically assembled over a building
envelope. In this case, no architectural consideration is taken regarding its impact on the building.
Pipework and connections are not integrated.
- Building integrated technologies: Solar thermal systems are integrated into building envelopes,
unless explicitly desired, connections are hidden. Solar technology is integrated into modules with
variable dimensions, or with matching “dummy” elements which can provide sufficient flexibility in
building design.
- Hybridized envelopes: Envelope systems integrate collector surfaces and all pipeworks. Hybridized
envelopes are aesthetically equivalent to common envelope systems. In mixed applications of
standard and hybrid envelopes, the layout of these can be defined in such a way that envelopes
adapt no nearly any geometrical or other type of constraints.
When related to performance and manufacture costs of the different technologies, Applied and integrated
solar thermal technologies provide similar performance ratios, for equivalent solar technologies, however,
integrated systems are potentially more expensive, as their dimensions need to be adapted to each
particular architectural project. When compared to standardized sizes in Building applied technologies, even
with optimal manufacture systems and high production volumes, the handling of the additional engineering
and management procedures in building integrated systems implies a cost premium.
In hybrid and applied solar thermal envelopes, part of the costs for incorporating the solar thermal system
can be absorbed by cost reduction when compared to traditional envelopes (e.g. compared with a traditional
curtain wall, a curtain wall that incorporates a ST collector will already take s benefit of the costs for glazing,
profiles….).The cost of hybridized envelope systems is still unclear due to very low adoption of this
technology. Regarding its performance, this can be assimilated to unglazed solar thermal collector devices.
3. Case study 1: Glazed air solar collector for integration in envelope retrofitting
Glazed air solar collectors are composed by an absorber, a glazed envelope, framing, ventilation and control
elements. Tecnalia has participated in the conceptualization, design and testing of two air solar collectors
within projects MeeFS [1] and RETROKIT [2]. Both designs have been based on the same technological
framework consisting on an extruded Aluminum frame and a rotating louvre system for the control of
ventilation flows in the collector [3].
Although both systems have similarities, their integration framework into a full building envelope retrofitting
scheme differs substantially in the following three concepts:
- Façade system
o RETROKIT integrates within an on-site rendered external energy retrofitting for existing
buildings. The glazed collector is anchored directly to the existing façade.
o MEEFS integrates within a modular dry construction system for external energy retrofitting of
existing buildings. The solar system is integrated into a substructure hosting additional
retrofitting technologies (i.e. glazed surfaces, insulation,…).
- Energy flows & connection with building HVAC system:
o MEEFS focuses on a direct use of the collected energy in the indoor space behind the
collector itself. For that purpose, perforations are made in the existing wall.
o RETROKIT integrates into a wider HVAC system. Several RETROKIT modules can be
connected in the same system to increase mass flow or output temperature as required by
the building HVAC system. Outlet ducts of the system are directed to manifolds in the upper
area of the façade.
- Absorber
o RETROKIT focuses at an instantaneous use of the heat, and the absorber is composed of a
single Al sheet painted in black.
o MEEFS intends to absorb heat and distribute it along the day, and its absorber incorporates
black encapsulated Phase Change Materials (PCM) in its absorber.
In both cases, the system is designed with variable height and widths in order to adapt to particular project
needs, following design criteria for curtain wall systems. The thermal performance of these systems was
tested at the KUBIK by Tecnalia [4] test facility within 2013, 2014 and 2015. Research output on the MeeFS
project is available in [5].
Figure 1: RETROKIT Solar air collector integrated into a curtain wall scheme for testing purposes
Overall, both systems proved their capacity to raise ventilation air temperature within sunny days within the
heating season, potentially allowing for a substantial reduction of heating loads in buildings.
4. Figure 2: Service temperature levels and temperature gain in the air
stream in the RETROKIT Solar air collectorCase study 2: Hybridized
metal envelope systems
Metal is increasingly common in construction. Originally metal envelopes were limited to industrial buildings,
due to the low cost and rapid installation times of sandwich envelope systems. However metal solutions have
also developed for commercial buildings and multi-rise residential buildings. With the rise of energy retrofit
solutions for envelopes, ventilated façades have been widely adopted in EU due to their capacity to provide
high quality cladding in buildings. These ventilated systems are commonly composed by a metal
substructure and a cladding material. Common cladding materials are metal, stone, ceramic and phenolic
materials. Several projects have investigated in the possibility to use highly conductive cladding materials as
the absorber of an unglazed collector.
Research projects SOLABS [6] and BATISOL [7] have investigated in the integration of fluid loops in metal
and Aluminum cladding materials. In BASSE [8], steel sandwich panels are used to integrate pipework for an
unglazed collector using an additional external steel layer as absorber.
In all these cases, low grade heat is achieved. Very commonly output temperature is well below service
levels for space heating and domestic hot water required by modern comfort requirements in buildings. This
implies the use of a heat pump where the collector field is connected to the source of the heat pump.
Providing that the sizing of the source-side storage is performed correctly, the proposed configuration
provides a stable and high-temperature source for the heat pump, thus increasing substantially the
performance of the heat pump when compared with benchmark heat pumping technologies.
The advantage of these technologies lies in their seamless integration between envelope and solar thermal
collector field. If performed correctly, an observer would not notice any difference between active and non-
active sections/elevations of the building envelope.
Figure 3: BASSE Sandwich steel envelope with at its pilot setup in the Kubik by Tecnalia test facility [4].
Numerical and experimental technical assessments have showed that this technological approach reaches
the performance level of benchmark unglazed solar collectors.
Figure 4: Temperature levels at the absorber and source-side storage tank, for the BASSE test on a
representative sunny day.
5. Discussion
Although still under R&D and early deployment scale, the field of envelope integrated and hybrid solar
thermal is promising. The underlying approach reaches far beyond the adaptation of solar thermal collectors
to sizes and dimensions as required by building projects, and into full envelope systems, designed with
parts/sections with solar thermal production capacity. Glazed air collectors are a suitable solution for
centralized or de-centralised ventilation systems, which can be integrated as part of retrofitting systems and
kits. Hybrid steel envelopes allow for potentially low cost integration of combined solar systems with minimal
intrusion in the design of the façade.
In the following years, these technologies should develop into industrially and economically/financially viable
solutions with certified performance levels and relevant certifications for its integration as part of an envelope
system.
6. Acknowledgements
The research leading to the results reported in this work has received funding from the European Union
Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007–2013, projects Multifunctional Energy efficient Façade System
(MeeFS, Grant Agreement no 285411) and Toolboxes for systemic Retrofitting (Retrokit, Grant Agreement no
314229), Research Fund for Coal and Steel project Building Active Steel Skin (BASSE, Grant Agreement no
RFSR-CT-2013-00026) and INEF4, Institut pour la Transition Energétique project BATISOL.
7. References
[1] MEEFS, Multifunctional Energy Efficient Façade System, EU FP7 GA nº 285411,
http://www.meefs-retrofitting.eu/ (2016/07/22)
[2] RETROKIT, Toolboxes for systemic retrofitting, EU FP7 GA nº 314229,
http://www.retrokitproject.eu/ (2016/07/22)
[3] Amundarain Suarez, A., Campos Dominguez, J. M., Chica Paez, J. A., Meno Iglesias, S., Uriarte
Arrien, A., Garay Martinez, R., et al. (2014). Passive solar collector module for building envelope.
European Patent EP 2520870 B1, 5 March 2014.
[4] R. Garay, et al., Energy efficiency achievements in 5 years through experimental research in KUBIK,
in: 6th International Building Physics Conference, IBPC 2015, Torino, 2015. Energy Procedia Volume
78, November 2015, Pages 865-870, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.009ç
[5] D. Kolaitis, R. Garay Martinez, M. Founti, An experimental and numerical simulation study of an active
solar wall enhanced with phase change materials, Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, vol. 3,
no. 1, pp. 71-80, 2015
[6] SOLABS, Development of unglazed solar absorbers (resorting to coloured selective coatings on steel)
for building façades, and integration into heating system, http://leso.epfl.ch/page-37325-en.html
(23/03/2015), EU FP5 Project reference: ENK6-CT-2002-00679
[7] BATISOL, INEF4, Institut pour la Transition Energétique, 2014-2017, http://www.inef4.com/
(2016/07/22)
[8] BASSE, Building in Active Steel Skin, Research Fund for Coal and Steel Grant Agreement no RFSR-
CT-2013-00026, http://www.basse-eu.com/ (2016/07/22)
Full-text available
Article
Solar walls can be used to increase the overall energy efficiency of a building. Phase Change Materials (PCM) are capable of increasing the effective thermal mass of building elements, thus decreasing the overall energy consumption. Recently, the incorporation of PCM in a solar wall has been proposed, aiming to increase the total energy efficiency of the system. The main scope of this work is to investigate the thermal behaviour of a PCM-enhanced solar wall (PCMESW), using experimental and numerical simulation techniques. A prototype PCMESW is installed in a large-scale test facility and is exposed to dynamically changing climate conditions. A broad range of sensors, used to monitor the time-evolution of several important physical parameters, is employed to assess the dynamic response of the PCMESW. In addition, a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool is used to numerically investigate the thermal behaviour of the PCMESW prototype. Predictions of the developing flow- and thermal-field in the PCMESW’s air cavity are validated by means of comparison with the obtained measurements; in general, good levels of agreement are observed. Results of the numerical simulations may support the design optimization process of innovative PCMESW systems. 1Introduction
Development of unglazed solar absorbers (resorting to coloured selective coatings on steel) for building façades, and integration into heating system
SOLABS, Development of unglazed solar absorbers (resorting to coloured selective coatings on steel) for building façades, and integration into heating system, http://leso.epfl.ch/page-37325-en.html (23/03/2015), EU FP5 Project reference: ENK6-CT-2002-00679
Building in Active Steel Skin, Research Fund for Coal and Steel Grant Agreement no RFSR- CT-2013-00026
BASSE, Building in Active Steel Skin, Research Fund for Coal and Steel Grant Agreement no RFSR- CT-2013-00026, http://www.basse-eu.com/ (2016/07/22)
Energy efficiency achievements in 5 years through experimental research in KUBIK An experimental and numerical simulation study of an active solar wall enhanced with phase change materials
  • R Garay
R. Garay, et al., Energy efficiency achievements in 5 years through experimental research in KUBIK, in: 6th International Building Physics Conference, IBPC 2015, Torino, 2015. Energy Procedia Volume 78, November 2015, Pages 865-870, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.009ç [5] D. Kolaitis, R. Garay Martinez, M. Founti, An experimental and numerical simulation study of an active solar wall enhanced with phase change materials, Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 71-80, 2015
Passive solar collector module for building envelope
  • Amundarain Suarez
  • A Campos Dominguez
  • J M Chica Paez
  • J A Meno Iglesias
  • S Uriarte Arrien
  • A Garay Martinez
Amundarain Suarez, A., Campos Dominguez, J. M., Chica Paez, J. A., Meno Iglesias, S., Uriarte Arrien, A., Garay Martinez, R., et al. (2014). Passive solar collector module for building envelope. European Patent EP 2520870 B1, 5 March 2014.
Energy efficiency achievements in 5 years through experimental research in KUBIK
  • R Garay
R. Garay, et al., Energy efficiency achievements in 5 years through experimental research in KUBIK, in: 6th International Building Physics Conference, IBPC 2015, Torino, 2015. Energy Procedia Volume 78, November 2015, Pages 865-870, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.009ç
Institut pour la Transition Energétique
  • Batisol
BATISOL, INEF4, Institut pour la Transition Energétique, 2014-2017, http://www.inef4.com/ (2016/07/22)
Energy Efficient Façade System
  • Multifunctional Meefs
MEEFS, Multifunctional Energy Efficient Façade System, EU FP7 GA nº 285411, http://www.meefs-retrofitting.eu/ (2016/07/22)