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Contemporary demographic processes forcing increasing attention to the problems of relationships and dependencies between the different age groups. The ageing of the population in each society leads to changes in the contacts between young people, adults and the elderly. It is reasonable to undertake research on the concept of "solidarity of generations". Maintaining relationships without generational conflict requires actions in the field of social policy known as intergenerational policy. Aim of this article is to present some of its models, which allow not only to analyze the changes in the various communities, but also to create recommendations for public intervention. Description will include activities at the international, national, regional and local levels.
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AD ALTA JOURNAL OF I NTERDISCIPLINA RY RESEARCH
ANALYSIS OF INTERGENERATIONAL POLICY MODELS
aANDRZEJ KLIMCZUK
Collegium of Socio-Economic Policy, Warsaw School of
Economics, al. Niepodłeglości 162, 02-554 Warszawa, Poland
email: aaklimczuk@gazeta.pl
Abstract: Contemporary demographic processes forcing increasing attention to the
problems of relationships and dependencies between the different age groups. The
ageing of the population in each society leads to changes in the contacts between
young people, adults and the elderly. It is reasonable to undertake research on the
concept of solidarity of generations. Maintaining relationships without generational
conflict requires action s in the field of social po licy known as intergenerational po licy.
Aim of this article is to present some of its models, which allow not only to analyze
the changes in the various commun ities, but also t o create recomme ndations for pu blic
intervention. Description will include activities at the international, national, regional
and local levels.
Keywor ds: intergenerational policy; policy analysis; social po licy towards old age and
older people; society for all ages; strategic management.
1 Introduction
One of the key challenges for the European Union at the
beginning of the 21st century is the rapid ageing its population.
This process leads to long-term changes in the intergenerational
relationships. The growing number of older people can be
considered either as a threat or as an opportunity to improve the
quality of life. On the one hand, it is noted that it leads to
negative losses in the labor market, problems with maintaining
health systems and pensions. On the other demographic change
forces the investment in architecture free from functional
barriers, lifelong learning, adapting products and services to
meet the needs of the elderly. Particularly important is topic of
changes in the relationship between young people, adults and
elderly. To avoid the risk of intergenerational conflict and reduce
the scale of age discrimination is necessary to manage
relationships between the generations through the interventions
of this social issues by public, private and non-governmental
entities. Coordination of goals and objectives can by regulated
by models of intergenerational policy. Aim of the article is to
present some models that can be used both for research activities
in each country at different levels of the social structure, as well
as to create specific recommendations and action plans.
2 Intergenerational policy models
Under the concept of generation can be interpreted most
generally community of individuals belonging to the age group
of people born at about the same time1, or otherwise: people
born in the same period (usually within one year), which social
and/or demographic characteristics are considered analytically in
time2.
Pros P. Szukalski can be identified types of relations between
generations3. These are intergenerational: relationship, bond,
solidarity and contract (table 1). While relationships and contract
are terms value-free, while bond and solidarity are positive
characterized. Researcher also points to derivatives concepts,
which have positive connotations (integration) and negative
(war, conflict, disintegration)4. It should be noted that the
presence of contradictions existing between them leads to
concept of intergenerational ambivalence“ coexistence of the
different attitudes and ways of thinking about relationships
between both micro (individual families) and macro (entire
societies) levels.
1 K. Olechnicki, P. Załęcki, Słownik socjologiczny, Graffiti BC, Toruń 2002, p. 29.
2 A.A. Zych, Leksykon gerontologii, Impuls, Kraków 2007, p. 61.
3 P. Szukalski, Czym jest solidarność międzypokoleniowa?, [in:] D. Kałuża, P.
Szukalski (eds.), Jakość życia seniorów w XXI wieku z perspekty wy polityki
społecznej, Wyd. Biblioteka, Łódź 2010, p. 74-91; P. Szukalski, Solidarność pokoleń.
Dylematy relacji międzypokolenio wych, Wyd. Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź 2012, p.
47-80.
4 P. Szukalski, Solidarność pokoleń…, op. cit., p. 49-50.
Table 1. Types of intergenerational relationships and their scope
Concept Key features
Range of
obligations
Inter-
generational
relationship
generally relationship
between individuals or groups
from different generations
interactions, opinions,
attitudes, stereotypes
lack of
obligations
Inter-
generational
bond
sense of biological, cultural,
economic communication
with other generations,
positive attitudes towards
individuals of other
generations
we should
do
something“
attitude
Inter-
generational
solidarity
mutual responsibility towards
other generations, considering
their activities, interest, needs
and opinions by other
generation
we must
do
something“
attitude
Inter-
generational
contract/
agreement
written or not rules of
redistribution of social status
(wealth, power, prestige)
between the generations
lets do
this and
this“
attitude
Source: based on P. Szukalski, Czym jest solidarność
międzypokoleniowa?, [in:] D. Kałuża, P. Szukalski (eds.), Jakość życia
seniorów w XXI wieku z perspektywy polityki społecznej, Wyd. Biblioteka,
Łódź 2010, p. 87-88; P. Szukalski, Solidarność pokoleń. Dylematy relacji
międzypokoleniowych, Wyd. Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź 2012, p. 47-
49.
Through the intergenerational policy could be understood
collections of activities focused on the development and
implementation of a specific contract between the generations.
This policy applies to establishing and maintaining regime
rules defining the shape of relationships between generations,
written or not, the principles present in law, religion, ethics and
customs5. This policy includes conducting the discourse,
negotiating use of ethical and ideological arguments on the
scales, orientations and traces of resources redistribution
between generations. This policy may be forced upon by force or
through symbolic violence by one generation to others, as well
as co-created through dialogue.
Literature review enables indicating at least five models of
intergenerational policy. The first three of them allow primarily work
on theoretical and research work on actions in this area
(intergenerational social integration; linking strategies of social
policy towards old age and elderly people; intergenerational policy
dimensions). While the next two refer to interventions promoted and
supervised by international organizations (United Nations; European
Union).
2.1 Intergenerational social integration
Intergenerational social integration are activities aimed at the
consolidation, merger individuals and groups representing
different generations, and thus increase relationships strength
and solidartity of generations6. These actions relate to raising
awareness of generations interdependence and take into account
the effects of choices and actions of individuals and groups from
one generation to another. Integration indirectly affects the
intergenerational contract rules.
To the analysis of integration can be used concept of C. Offe,
which points to its cultural, economic and political forms and
manifestations on the macro-, meso- and micro-structural levels
of society (table 2)7. This approach allows drawing attention to
generational differences such as division of labor, as recognized
means of conflict resolution, governance institutions, rule of law,
5 Compare: P. Szukalski, Solidarność pokoleń…, op. cit., p. 48.
6 Compare: P. Szukalski, Czym jest solidarność międzypokoleniowa?, op. cit., p. 87; P.
Szukalski, Solidarność pokoleń…, op. cit., p. 49.
7 C. Offe, Drogi transformacji, PWN, Kraków 1999, p. 183-184.
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AD ALTA JOURNAL OF I NTERDISCIPLINA RY RESEARCH
access to voting rights, activities of work and leisure time, in the
use of media technology and accumulation of cultural heritage8.
C. Offe concept underscores also meso-structural level - between
the state and family, and by this generation analysis and
integration activities in local communities, political parties, non-
governmental organizations and professional corporations.
Table 2. Forms and levels of social integration
Forms of
integration
Symptoms of integration at different levels of
society
Macro Meso Micro
Cultural
unity
consciousness
which is
reflected in the
history,
language,
tradition,
religion
existence of
ideology and
parties which
in its actions
and programs
are guided by
cultural values
anthropological
basis for social
action, the
cultural
tradition of
shaping the
identity of
individuals
Economic
production
capacities to
meet the needs
of material and
social security
presence of the
parties and
organizations
which
recognize their
identity and
program in
economic
terms
reasonably
carried interests
and needs of
clients of the
welfare state
Political
universality of
institutions
capable of
damping,
adjustment and
centralization of
political conflict
on the basis of
constitutional
regulations
parties and
organizations
concentration
on certain
principles and
the institutions
of law and
constitutional
order
ability of
citizens to
ensure the
protection of
their rights in
action and wise
regulation by
institutions
Source: C. Offe, Drogi transformacji, PWN, Kraków 1999, p. 184.
2.2 Linking strategies of social policy towards old age and
elderly people
Model proposed by Z. Woźniak can be considered as a broader
concept that allows to design and analysis of intergenerational
policies. It concerns social policy towards old age and elderly
people understood as a set of goals, strategies and actions of
systemic and legislative action, both at the national, regional and
local levels in order to maintain and/or improving the social
status and living conditions of the elderly, to increase their
ability to lead an active and independent life9.
This model assumes a combination of four strategies that should
include general and specific tasks (drawing 1). These are: (1)
“add years to life” – short-term, intervention-insurance, oriented
to dealing with shortages, replenishment of social deficits and
rescue; (2) “add health to years mid-term (5-10 years),
insurance-compensation, including preventive and promotional
programs for anticipate negative phenomena, events and
processes, mainly relating to health; (3) “add life to years” –
perennial compensating-participatory strategy, including
prevention programs on preparing for old age, ability for self-
care, improving quality of life, adressed to oldest of seniors
groups; (4) “towards intergenerational solidarity” – long-term,
participatory-integration, dominant strategy in the future using
“Society For All Ages concept adaptation to the needs,
8 Compare: A. Klimczuk, Bariery i perspektywy int egracji międzypokoleniowej we
współczesnej Polsce, [in:] D. Kałuża, P. Szukalski (eds.), Jakość życia seniorów w XXI
wieku z perspektywy polityki społecznej , Wyd. Biblioteka, Łódź 2010, p. 94-95, 103.
9 Z. Woźniak, Priorytety w programach gerontologicznych organizacji
międzynarodowych i struktur europejskich jako przesłanka budowy polityki społecznej
wobec starości i osób starszych, [in:] M. Szlązak (ed.), Starzenie się populacji
wyzwaniem dla polityki społecznej. Materiały konferencyjne, ROPS, Kraków 2003, p.
28.
abilities and skills of all citizens, and activating as well as using
the potential of the various generations.
Drawing 1. Strategies of social policy considering old age and
elderly people
Source: Z. Woźniak, Priorytety w programach gerontologicznych
organizacji międzynarodowych i struktur europejskich jako przesłanka
budowy polityki społecznej wobec starości i osób starszych, [in:] M.
Szlązak (ed.), Starzenie się populacji wyzwaniem dla polityki społecznej.
Materiały konferencyjne, ROPS, Kraków 2003, p. 28.
Intergenerational policy can therefore be considered as a
combination of several approaches and direction of change in the
design of specific programs and strategies.
2.3 Intergenerational policy dimensions
A different approach propose J. Sáez, S. Pinazo and M. Sánchez
by indicating the intergenerational policy dimensions10.
According to the researchers this concept emerges through the
implementation of development projects, generations
cooperation as well as work of research entities and institutions
in carrying out intergenerational projects under certain
conditions. Interdependence among generations refers to the
integration of the three dimensions: place of life, life cycle and
life project (drawing 2). Those dimmesnionsion correspond to:
environments which facilitate the intergenerational relations,
interpretations and stereotypes about stages of life as well as
visions of the future showing individuals their rights and
opportunities in the case of losing different types of resources.
Intergenerational policy should include joined together strategies
and programs for: in the first dimension, environmental and
architectural policies, in a second (inter)cultural and educational
policies as well as in the third economics, labour and healthcare
policies. It should also take into account the decisions agreed
upon by many stakeholders, ethical explanation of the meaning
of actions and practical possibilities of their implementation11.
Discussed concept can be used for policy analysis at central,
regional and local. Indirectly, also points to building solidarity of
generations by adjusting to people of all ages, not only the life of
individual families, but also public spaces significant for local
communities (municipalities, districts). It is possible to create (or
convert existing) facilities and institutions as “intergenerational
shared sites“, as a those which meet at the same time the needs
of children, youth and seniors, as welll as serve to shape their
relationship12. This includes a joint running nursing homes and
kindergartens, senior clubs and schools, homes for the elderly
and homeless mothers, day care for seniors and child
development centers, retirement and academic communities.
Programs of this kind will help to stimulate the exchange
between the generations and create a number of benefits to the
participants and their environment (table 3).
10 J. Sáez, S. Pinazo, M. Sánchez, Fostering intergenerational policies, [in:] M.
Sánchez (eds.), Intergenerational programmes. Towards a society for all ages, “la
CaixaFoundation, Barcelona 2007, p. 186-191.
11 Ibidem, p. 200.
12 S.E. Jarrott, A.P.C. Weintraub, Intergenerational shared sites: A practical model,
[in:] M. Sánchez (eds.), Intergenerational programmes…, op. cit., p. 139.
ANTICIPATION
OVERTAKING OF
EVENTS
INTERVEN-
TION
Add years
to
life
ECONOMY
LABOUR MARKET, GOODS, SERVICES AND B ENEFITS
RESCUE
GAPS
LIQUIDATION
ASSURANCE
Add health to
years
PARTICI-
PATION
Towards
intergenerational
solidarity
SOCIAL POLICY STRATEGIES TO SENIORS
NEEDS
VALUES
POLITICAL PROCESS
ORDER
COMPENSA-
TION
Add life
to
years
SOCIAL
INTEGRATION
- page 67 -
AD ALTA JOURNAL OF I NTERDISCIPLINA RY RESEARCH
Drawing 2. Key dimensions of intergenerational social policies
Source: J. Sáez, S. Pinazo, M. Sánchez, Fostering intergenerational
policies, [in:] M. Sánchez (eds.), Intergenerational programmes. Towards
a society for all ages, “la CaixaFoundation, Barcelona 2007, p. 202.
Table 3. Benefits of intergenerational exchange
For older
persons
For children
and young
people
For the
community
Better mood,
more vitalit y
Increased ability
to cope with physical
and mental illness
Increased
perception of self-worth
Opportunities to
learn
Escape from
isolation
Renewed
appreciation for their
past experiences
Reintegration in
the family and
community life
Friendships with
younger people
Receipt of
practical help, such as
for shopping or
transport
Spending time
with young people
combats feelings of
isolation
Increased self-
este em and mo tivation
Sharing
experie nces with an
audience which
appreciates their
achievements
Respect, honour
and recog nition o f their
contr ibution to the
community
Learning about
young people
Development of
skills, especially social
skills and the use of
new technologies
Transm itting
traditions, culture and
language
Enjoy themselves
in physica l activities
Exposure to
diversity
Increased strength
to cope with adversity
Increased sense of
worth, self-esteem and
self-confidence
Less loneliness
and isolat ion
Access to adult
support at difficult
times
Enhanced sense of
soc ial respo nsibilit y
More positive
perception of older
persons
Greater awareness
of the heterogeneity of
older persons
More practical
skills
Better school
results
Better reading
habits
Less involvement
in violence and drug
use
Better health
More opt imism
Strengt h in times
of adversity
Increased sense of
civic and community
responsibility
Learning about
one’s history and
origins and the history
of ot hers
Building o ne’s
own life history
Enjoyment and
fun
Gain respect for
the achie vements of
adults
Receive support
for one’s own
professional career
Alternative leisure
activities to cope with
problems, particularly
drugs, violence and
antisocial conduct
Reconstruction of
soc ial works
Development of
sense of co mmunity
Construction of a
more inclu sive society
Breaking down
barriers and
stereotypes
Enhanced social
cohesion
Construct and
strengt hen culture
Relieve parental
pressure
Build soc ial
networks and develop
bridges in the
community
Change
stereotypes
Provide c ivic
behaviour models
Build, maintain
and revitalise
communit y
opport unities and
public infrastructures
Produce public art
Develop volunteer
work
Provide
volunte ers for
community services
and encourage people
to work with others in
community groups
Create stories in
commo n
Care for the
environment
Source: based on J. MacCallum (et al), Community building through
intergenerational exchange programs, NYARS, Canberra 2006; cited by:
S. Pinazo, M. Kaplan, The benefits of intergenerational programmes, [in:]
M. Sánchez (eds.), Intergenerational programmes. Towards a society for
all ages, “la CaixaFoundation, Barcelona 2007, p. 72, 75, 84.
2.4 United Nations “Society For All Ages“ concept
Proposed actions for solidarity of generations are also created by
international organizations. At this point, attention should paid
only to the most important ones. First of all, intergenerational
policies are accompanied by promoting active ageing policy
concept disseminated since the 90s mainly due to the World
Health Organization, which combines the desire to maintain the
productivity of older people with their quality of life as well as
mental and physical well-being. This policy stresses the need to
reduce age discrimination, multidimensional education and
citizen participation in protecting the economic, political and
social rights of elderly which is conducive to improve health and
address actions to family and local communities13.
Drawing 3. Flow between elements and capitals in framework
for a Society For All Ages“
Source: Highlights of an expert consultation on developing a policy
framework for a society for all ages - From the Annex of A54/268 - Report
of the Secretary General International Year of Older Persons 1999:
activities and legacies, United Nations,
www.un.org/esa/socdev/ageing/policyframework.html [04.01.2011].
At the global level both of these policies are part of “Madrid
International Plan of Action on Ageing“ which is coordinated
since 2002 by the United Nations and which contains
recommendations for national governments14. The core of this
approach is the created by UN concept in 90s Society For All
Ages (drawing 3)15. Generally, it assumes: (1) use and
reinvestment in the life cycle a human, socio-cultural, economic
and environmental capitals; (2) adaptation of families,
communities and countries infrastructure into of the
demographic structure; as well as (3) carrying out activities on
behalf of: active ageing, lifelong learning, promote healthy
lifestyles, intergenerational relations integration, flexibility of
labor markets, the development of age-friendly envintoments,
civil society development, sustainable social policies to prevent
poverty and exclusion the elderly.
2.5 European Union concept of “Silver economy
In the European Union debate on active ageing was spurred in
1999 in Communication Towards a Europe for All Ages -
13 Active Ageing. A Policy Framework, WHO, Geneva 2002.
14 Report of the Second World Assembly on Ageing Madrid. Madrid International Plan
of Action on Ageing, United Nations, New York 2002.
15 Highlights of an expert consultation on developing a policy framework for a society
for all ages - From the Annex of A54/268 - Report of the Secretary General
International Year of Older Persons 1999: activities and legacies, United Nations,
www.un.org/esa/socdev/ageing/policyframework.html [04.01.2011].
Investments in older persons, in earlier stages of life, in
families and communities and in macro-level institutions
can generate the ca pital needed to sustain ageing per sons
as agents and ben eficiaries and for reinvestmen t back
into socie ty for continuin g development
Older
persons Life-course
Families,
Commu-
nities
Macro-societal
Institutions
and Structures
Generation
of
CAPITAL
HUMAN
SOCIAL
CULTU-
RAL
ENVIR-
NOMEN-
TAL
ECONO-
MIC
REINVESTMENT
Social policies based on intergenerational factors
(INTER)GENERATION
Interdependence among generations
Social policies
related to place of
life
(social site of
intergeneration:
sense of bel onging
to a place, to an
environment…)
Social policies
related to life cycle
(the time of
intergeneration of the
ages as a continuum)
Social policies
related to life
project
(project to
safeguard the
rights of p eople,
especially those
with failing
reserves)
Envi-
ron-
men-
tal
poli-
cies
Archi-
te-
ctural
poli-
cies
(Inter)
-cultu-
ral
poli-
cies
Edu-
cat-
ional
poli-
cies
Econo
-mics
poli-
cies
Labo-
ur
poli-
cies
Health
-care
poli-
cies
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AD ALTA JOURNAL OF I NTERDISCIPLINA RY RESEARCH
Promoting Prosperity and Intergenerational Solidarity16 issued
on the occasion of the celebration of the UN International Year
of seniors as well as in 2012 by the organization European Year
for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations.
Intergenerational policies and active ageing are disseminated for
a number spheres of socio-economic life 17. Noteworthy in relation
to the labor market are age management programs in
organizations as part of a broader strategy for diversity
managing18. The essence of the the proposed changes is taking
into account differences in age of employees in the processes:
recruitment, training, development and promotion; flexible
forms of employment and ergonomic design of work stations, as
well as change in attitudes towards older workers.
Another, more complex, recommended by the European
Commission approach is to build a silver economy19. Wherein
as the researchers of this phenomenon note is not only the
market of goods and services for the wealthy elderly, but also
special arrangements for trade between economic operators to
allow adaptation to the ageing workforce; as well as ideas of
universal designand intergenerational relationsaimed at
adaptation of goods and services to people of all ages, physical
and cognitive capabilities, which can lead to improve social
social integration20.
3 Conclusions
The purpose of the article was to present selected models of
intergenerational policy. It is a concept of social policy related to the
ageing of the population, which specifically refers to the maintenance
of good relations between the generations of young people, adults
and elderly. Intergenerational policy allows to take action at different
levels of society aimed at preventing and mitigating the effects of
generational conflict as well as age discrimination. Discusses five
models - three for the research and construction recommendations, as
well as two models promoted and controlled by international
organizations.
It is reasonable to identify a number of practical recommendations
for action arising from the review. Given the increase of
multigenerationality it is reasonable to continue to support activities
intergenerational integration and policy. This approach should be
taken into account in the specific policies (including population,
family, education, migration). It is important to make efforts for the
development of the national silver economy models, taking into
account more activities in line with the policy of innovation.
Intergenerational policies should aim to increase the benefits of
cooperation by elderly (grandparents) and young (grandchildren) and
their social environment. It is appropriate to take into account in the
proposed actions solutions for eliminating overlapping generations
divisions on territorial dimmesnion and with situation on the labor
market.
The following directions for further research on solidarity of
generations may be proposed. Reasonable are studies on scale and
signs of disintegration in intergenerational relations in particular of
social, cultural, economic and political spheres. Presented models
allows construction of discourse analysis on intergenerational
policies and contracts as well as changes in the life cycle. Analyze of
16 Communication from the Commission. Towards a Europe for All Ages - Promoting
Prosperity and Intergenerational Solidarity, COM(1999) 221, Brussels, 21.05.1999.
17 Dimensio ns of intergenerat ional policies and active age ing in the EU include:
European Employme nt Strategy, Open Metho d of Coordination on social protection
and social inclusion, fight against age discrimination, policy of equal opportunities for
people with disabilities and gender equality, promotion of social innovation, public
health and physical activity, accessibility and mobility, ICT for the elderly, lifelong
learning. See: The EU contribution to active ageing and solidarity between
generations, European Commission, Luxembourg 2012.
18 A. Walker, Active ageing in employment. Its meaning and potential, “Asia-Pacific
Review”, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2006, p. 89.
19 According to the European Commissions silver economy is a concept that refers to
“a combination of good delivery conditions (high levels of education, research and
development, sensitive and flexible markets) with the increasing purchasing power of
older consumers, which offers great opportunities for new economic growth. See:
Europe’s demographic future. Facts and figures on challenges and opportunities,
European Commission, Luxembourg 2007, p. 96.
20 See: A. Klimczuk, Supporting the Development of Gerontechnology as Part of
Silver Economy Building, “Ad Alta: Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Vol. 2. Iss.
2. 2012, p. 52-56.
compatibility of national strategy papers on solidarity of generations
with recommendations of international organizations are needed.
Research is also needed on the possible development of a common
intergenerational relations spaces in local communities.
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10. Report of the Second World Assembly on Ageing Madrid.
Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing. New York:
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11. Sáez, J., Pinazo, S., Sánchez, M. Fostering
intergenerational policies, [in:] M. Sánchez (eds.),
Intergenerational programmes. Towards a society for all
ages. Barcelona: la Caixa” Foundation, 2007. 184-203p.
12. Szukalski, P. Czym jest solidarność międzypokoleniowa?,
[in:] D. Kałuża, P. Szukalski (eds.), Jakość życia seniorów w
XXI wieku z perspektywy polityki społecznej. Łódź: Wyd.
Biblioteka, 2010. 74-91p. ISBN 978-83-62378-08-1.
13. Szukalski, P. Solidarność pokoleń. Dylematy relacji
międzypokoleniowych. Łódź: Wyd. Uniwersytetu
Łódzkiego, 2012. 206p. ISBN 978-83-7525-694-9.
14. The EU contribution to active ageing and solidarity between
generations. Luxembourg: European Commission 2012.
24p. ISBN 978-92-79-25123-8.
15. Walker, A. Active ageing in employment. Its meaning and
potential. Asia-Pacific Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2006. 78-
93p.
16. Woźniak, Z. Priorytety w programach gerontologicznych
organizacji międzynarodowych i struktur europejskich jako
przesłanka budowy polityki społecznej wobec starości i osób
starszych, [in:] M. Szlązak (ed.), Starzenie się populacji
wyzwaniem dla polityki społecznej. Materiały konferencyjne.
Kraków, ROPS: 2003. 14-33p. ISBN 83-918380-1-3.
17. Zych, A.A. Leksykon gerontologii. Kraków: Impuls 2007.
276p. ISBN 978-83-7308-708-8.
Primary Paper Section: A
Secondary Paper Section: AD, AE, AO
- page 69 -
... The use of outdated concepts and measures may, in fact, lead to inadequate measures to resources, values and goals of different public life actors on the international, national and regional levels of public policy (Ervik, 2009). The development of the demographic ageing phenomenon is still illustrated with "burden" 4 indicator, which describes "overload" of working-age population by those in a retirement age, which is associated with negative and conflicting changes in social relations (Klimczuk, 2013a). Controversy over the sustainability and consequences of these concepts and measures leading to the search for methods of measurement and analysis, which mainly take into account national circumstances in dimensions such as institutional and legal, migration, health status of the population, functional and cognitive capabilities of older people (Stone, 2006, pp. ...
... 84-94). Interventions should also take into account intergenerational consultation and reconcile the interests of different age groups (Klimczuk, 2013a). ...
Article
Full-text available
The complexity of population ageing effect is a significant challenge at a regional and local level. Adaptation activities require the cooperation of local governments, business entities and non-governmental organizations. The article describes the dimensions of interventions, typology of “shrinking regions” and two initiatives: Regions for All Ages and SEN@ER - Silver Economy Network of European Regions. In addition, essay discusses the dilemmas of creating special regional strategies with their implementation factors and barriers in the construction of silver economies. It is supplemented by some conclusions from the analysis of selected regional development strategies in Poland. Summary sets out possible directions for further research for national institutions.
... The use of outdated concepts and measures may, in fact, lead to inadequate measures to resources, values and goals of different public life actors on the international, national and regional levels of public policy (Ervik, 2009). The development of the demographic ageing phenomenon is still illustrated with "burden" 4 indicator, which describes "overload" of working-age population by those in a retirement age, which is associated with negative and conflicting changes in social relations (Klimczuk, 2013a). Controversy over the sustainability and consequences of these concepts and measures leading to the search for methods of measurement and analysis, which mainly take into account national circumstances in dimensions such as institutional and legal, migration, health status of the population, functional and cognitive capabilities of older people (Stone, 2006, pp. ...
... 84-94). Interventions should also take into account intergenerational consultation and reconcile the interests of different age groups (Klimczuk, 2013a). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The complexity of population ageing effect is a significant challenge at a regional and local level. Adaptation activities require the cooperation of local governments, business entities and non-governmental organizations. The article describes the dimensions of interventions, typology of “shrinking regions” and two initiatives: Regions for All Ages and SEN@ER - Silver Economy Network of European Regions. In addition, essay discusses the dilemmas of creating special regional strategies with their implementation factors and barriers in the construction of silver economies. It is supplemented by some conclusions from the analysis of selected regional development strategies in Poland. Summary sets out possible directions for further research for national institutions.
... The use of outdated concepts and measures may, in fact, lead to inadequate measures to resources, values and goals of different public life actors on the international, national and regional levels of public policy (Ervik, 2009). The development of the demographic ageing phenomenon is still illustrated with "burden" 4 indicator, which describes "overload" of working-age population by those in a retirement age, which is associated with negative and conflicting changes in social relations (Klimczuk, 2013a). Controversy over the sustainability and consequences of these concepts and measures leading to the search for methods of measurement and analysis, which mainly take into account national circumstances in dimensions such as institutional and legal, migration, health status of the population, functional and cognitive capabilities of older people (Stone, 2006, pp. ...
... 84-94). Interventions should also take into account intergenerational consultation and reconcile the interests of different age groups (Klimczuk, 2013a). ...
Book
Full-text available
W procesie planowania „dobrej starości” ważne miejsce zajmuje profilaktyka pomyślnego starzenia się, określana jako profilaktyka gerontologiczna. Działania te odnoszą się przede wszystkim do procesów sprzyjająych podejmowaniu aktywności fizycznej, kulturowej, afirmacji życia, rozwoju jakości i ilości kontaktów interpersonalnych (Szarota, 2010, s.135). Pojmowanie starości jako aktywnego i pełnowartościowego okresu w życiu człowieka jawi się jako jedno z najważniejszych zadań rozwojowych sprzyjających podniesieniu jakości życia. Aktywne starzenie się ujmowane w kategorii „produktywnego życia” (Perek-Białas, Worek, 2005, s.13) jest koncepcją niezwykle pojemną w aspekcie działań praktycznych i bogactwa analiz badaczy zajmujących się tematyką gerontologii społecznej i edukacyjnej. Permanentne dociekanie uwarunkowań indywidualnych i społecznych wymuszane jest nie tyko przez szereg zmian związanych z następstwami demograficznymi z którymi powoli zaczyna mierzyć się Europa środkowo-wschodnia, lecz również z przeobrażeniami stylu życia osób star-szych. Funkcjonowanie na etapie późnej dorosłości związane jest w dużej mierze ze stylem życia we wcześniejszych okresach. Starość postrzegana jako zbieranie owoców życia dla wielu ludzi stanowi dar i szczęście, jednocześnie dla innych osób w tej kategorii wiekowej może być związana z rozczarowaniem i cierpieniem (Vážanský, 2014, s.142). Niewątpliwie podniesienie jakości życia osób starszych odnosi się rówież do „edukacji do starości” we wcześniejszych etapach życia, a także uwarunkowana jest zbiorem cech indywidulanych - biopsychicznych oraz zespołem okoliczności społecznych i politycznych (zob. Hátar, 2014, s.16). Tak pojmowany zespół cech służy dookreślaniu systemowego ujęcia aktywnej starości, tworzącej w szerszej perspektywie istotne obszary związane z codziennym funkcjonowaniem seniorów. Niniejszy III tom z serii „Czesko-Polsko-Słowackie studia z andargogiki i gerontologii społecznej” jest próbą ukazania aktywnej starości w wymiarze: edukacyjnych potrzeb i możliwości osób starszych (Adam Zych, Andrea Bontová, Łukasz Tomczyk), indywidualnych i społecznych uwarunkowań kształtujących zachowania określane mianem „żywotnych i witalnych” (Remigiusz Kijak, Drahomíra Gracová, Andrzej Klimczuk) oraz kulturowego odbioru procesów związanych ze starzeniem się i starością (Małgorzata Bortliczek, Maja Dziedzic). Publikacja wpisuje się w założnia programów mających za zadanie stymulowanie do podejmowania ciągłego namysłu nad skuteczną aktywizacją osób starszych w wymiarze indywidualnym jak i społecznym. Ważność koncepcji aktywnego starzenia dostrzegają nie tylko gerontolodzy społeczni, lecz również stała się ona podstawą strategii państwowych, przykładowo „Rządowego Programu na rzecz Aktywności Społecznej Osób Starszych na lata 2014–2020” (Ministerstwo Pracy i Polityki Społecznej, Polska), czy też „Národný program aktívneho starnutia na roky 2014–2020” (Ministerstvo Práce, Słowacja) oraz „Národní strategie podporující pozitivní stárnutí pro období let 2013 až 2017” (Ministerstvo práce a sociálních věcí, Republika Czeska). Štefan Chudý Łukasz Tomczyk Bibliografia: Hátar C. (2014), Geragogika, Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa, Nitra. Perek-Białas J., Worek B. (2005), Aktywne starzenie się. Aktywna starość – określenie pojęć, [w:] Perek-Białas J. (red.), Aktywne starzenie. Ak-tywna starość, Wyd. AUREUS, Kraków. Szarota Z. (2010), Starzenie i starość w wymiarze instytucjonalnego wspar-cia, Wyd. Uniwersytetu Pedagogicznego, Kraków. Vážanský M. (2014), Senioři v životnim finale, „Lifelong learning”, roč. 5, č. 1, Brno. *** In the process of planning the „well ageing”, the important position is filled by the well ageing preventive treatment, determined as a gerontology prevention. These actions refer to processes which favor undertaking physical, cultural activity, life affirmation, development of quality and quantity of interpersonal relationships (Szarota, 2010, p. 135). Perception of the old age as an active and quality phase of a human life appears in a form of one of the most important developmental tasks that favor improving the quality of life. Active ageing is perceived as a category of „productive life” (Perek-Białas Worek, 2005, p. 13) is an extremely broad concept in the aspect of practical actions and a range of analyses of scientists dedicated to social and educational gerontology. Permanent search for individual and social conditions is forced not only by a range of changes connected with demographic aftermath which Middle East Europe has to face, but also by the transformation of senior life quality. Functioning in the phase of late adulthood is connected mainly with the life style at the earlier stages. Old age is perceived as collecting fruits of life is a gift and a blessing for many people, at the same time for other people in the same age category it may be connected with disappointment and suffering (Vazansky, 2014, p. 142). There is no doubt that improving the quality of life of older people refers to the preparation for old age at the stage of medium adulthood, and is also determined by a set of individual features – bio psychical and determinants generated by political and social space (see Hatar, 2014, p. 16). This set of features serves as a way to determine the systematic perception of active old age, which creates distinguished and important areas connected with every-day functioning of seniors. This III Volume from „Czech-Polish-Slovak studies in andragogy and social gerontology” is an attempt to depict the active ageing in the dimension of : educational needs and abilities of elder people (Adam Zych, Andrea Bontova, Łukasz Tomczyk), individual and social conditions determining behaviour referred to as „lively and vital” (Remigiusz Kijak, Drahomira Gracova, Andrzej Klimczuk) and a cultural choie of processes connected with ageing and old age (Małgorzata Bortliczek, Maja Dziedzic). The publication incorporates in the assumptions of programmes aiming at stimulating for undertaking constant consideration on efficient activation of older people in the individual and social dimension. The importance of the concept of active ageing is recognized not only by social gerontologists, but it also became a basis of many government programmes, e.g. „Rządowy Program na rzecz Aktywności Społecznej Osób Starszych na lata 2014–2020” (Ministerstwo Pracy i Polityki Społecznej, Polska), „Národný program aktívneho starnutia na roky 2014–2020” (Ministerstvo Práce, Słowacja), „Národní strategie podporující pozitivní stárnutí pro období let 2013 až 2017” (Ministerstvo práce a sociálních věcí, Republika Czeska). Štefan Chudý Łukasz Tomczyk
... "Intergenerational policies" can be understood as public policies, collections of activities focused on the development and implementation of a specific contract between generations (Klimczuk, 2013). This policy applies to establishing and maintaining "regime," which is the rules defining the shape of relationships between generations, written or unwritten, and the principles present in law, religion, ethics, and customs. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
“Age of life” is one of the essential characteristics that differentiate people. Age perception is also associated with social justice. The concept of age is defined ambiguously. At the same time, the different age criteria also forms the basis of age differentiation and age discrimination. The population lead to distinctions of age groups, age categories, and generations. Differences between generations also lead to Study in the concepts of intergenerationality, intergenerational justice, and intergenerational policies. A. Klimczuk, Intergenerationality, Intergenerational Justice, Intergenerational Policies, [in:] S. Thompson (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham 2015, pp. 419-423.
Chapter
This chapter brings together some developments in intergenerational economics and policy. Topics include intergenerational transfers and mobility, equity, solidarity, conflict and ambivalence, and the discussions around justice between generations. The chapter closes with a presentation of indices of intergenerational fairness.
Article
Full-text available
Niepełnosprawność jest jedną z cech różnicujących jednostki i grupy we współczesnych społeczeństwach. Osoby o ograniczonej sprawności fizycznej, poznawczej i psychicznej są szczególnie narażone na dyskryminację oraz wykluczenie społeczne, gospodarcze i polityczne. Co istotne kwestia socjalna osób niepełnosprawnych na początku XXI wieku zmienia się wchodząc w relację z procesem starzenia się ludności. Artykuł ma na celu przybliżenie wybranych teoretycznych koncepcji działań na rzecz poprawy wizerunku niepełnosprawności i ograniczania barier doświadczanych przez osoby niepełnosprawne w dostępie do różnego rodzaju zasobów, przestrzeni i szans. Krytyczna analiza literatury przedmiotu obejmuje wskazanie cech koncepcji polityki aktywizacji oraz zasad i celów polityki społecznej w holistycznym paradygmacie normalizacji. Podsumowanie zawiera możliwe dalsze kierunki badań i analiz. ** Disability is one of the features that differentiate individuals and groups in modern societies. People with reduced physical, cognitive and psychological efficiency are particularly exposed to discrimination and social, economic and political exclusion. What's important social issue of people with disabilities in the early 21st century changes by entering into a relationship with the ageing of the population. Article aims to introduce some theoretical concepts efforts to improve the image of disability and reduce the barriers faced by persons with disabilities in access to different kinds of resources, spaces and opportunities. A critical analysis of the literature includes: description of the concept of activation policy as well as principles and objectives of social policy in a holistic paradigm of normalization. This summary contains possible future directions of research and analysis.
Chapter
Full-text available
Generational differences in societies are characteristics generally attributed to people’s age that constitute a sociocultural phenomenon. Divisions in the generations differ across nations and extend even to civilizations. Perception and recognition of the different characteristics of each generation affect the cooperation between people in social, political, and economic capacities, and subsequently extend to entities in the public, informal, commercial, and nongovernmental sectors. From the perspective of social justice, it is important to draw attention to how workplace management techniques are used to promote equal opportunities among representatives of various generations. A. Klimczuk, Generational Differences, Generations of Western Society, Managing Multiple Generations in the Workplace, [in:] S. Thompson (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham 2015, pp. 348-352.
Article
Full-text available
Civic non-participation in public life is one of the most important problems in contemporary Poland. This phenomenon makes all generations equal and it requires breaking of the barriers in intergenerational integration. Presented study shows that the aspiration for coherence and stability of the system may be based on the taking advantage by using benefits of age difference in society. Article indicates dimensions and levels in seeking quality solutions for the integration in conditions of shaping social dispersion space order. It also contains types of different approaches to the integration barriers related with process of aging society and discrimination based on age phenomenon. ** Obywatelskie nieuczestnictwo w życiu publicznym należy do najważniejszych problemów współczesnej Polski. Zjawisko to czyni wszystkie pokolenia równymi a przeciwstawienie się mu wymaga przełamania barier integracji międzypokoleniowej. Niniejsze opracowanie wskazuje, iż dążenie do spójności i stabilności systemu może opierać się na wykorzystaniu korzyści z różnicy wieku członków społeczeństwa. Wskazane zostały wymiary i poziomy poszukiwania rozwiązań jakościowych na rzecz integracji w warunkach kształtowania się w przestrzeni społecznej ładu rozproszonego oraz typy barier integracji międzypokoleniowej związane z procesem starzenia się społeczeństw i zjawiskiem dyskryminacji ze względu na wiek.
Article
This article focuses primarily on the recently emerged notion of “active ageing” and the policies necessary to turn it from a political slogan into an important mechanism in societal adjustment to population ageing. It begins by summarizing the main reasons for the growth of interest in active ageing. It goes on to describe the background to the concept of active ageing and its relationship to productive ageing. Then it outlines the basic principles on which policies on active ageing should be based and the key elements of a strategy to implement it. This is followed by a summary of the potential of active ageing to influence social protection expenditure. Finally the focus moves to the organizational level and the elements of an age management approach are presented. It is argued that a strategy of active ageing across the life course will enable ageing workers to exert a stronger influence over not only their later life careers but also their health and well-being. In addition to this personal empowerment active age management within organizations has the potential to improve efficiency and the optimum use of human capital. At the macro level active ageing can help to sustain or build up social protection systems. The main reference point for this article is Europe.
Intergenerational programmes. Towards a society for all ages. Barcelona: "la Caixa" Foundation
  • S E Jarrott
  • A P Weintraub
Jarrott, S.E., Weintraub, A.P.C. Intergenerational shared sites: A practical model, [in:] M. Sánchez (eds.), Intergenerational programmes. Towards a society for all ages. Barcelona: "la Caixa" Foundation, 2007. 125-147p.
Intergenerational programmes. Towards a society for all ages. Barcelona: "la Caixa" Foundation
  • S Pinazo
  • M Kaplan
Pinazo, S., Kaplan, M. The benefits of intergenerational programmes, [in:] M. Sánchez (eds.), Intergenerational programmes. Towards a society for all ages. Barcelona: "la Caixa" Foundation, 2007. 64-91p.
Intergenerational programmes. Towards a society for all ages. Barcelona: "la Caixa" Foundation
  • J Sáez
  • S Pinazo
  • M Sánchez
Sáez, J., Pinazo, S., Sánchez, M. Fostering intergenerational policies, [in:] M. Sánchez (eds.), Intergenerational programmes. Towards a society for all ages. Barcelona: "la Caixa" Foundation, 2007. 184-203p.
Jakość życia seniorów w XXI wieku z perspektywy polityki społecznej. Łódź: Wyd. Biblioteka
  • P Szukalski
Szukalski, P. Czym jest solidarność międzypokoleniowa?, [in:] D. Kałuża, P. Szukalski (eds.), Jakość życia seniorów w XXI wieku z perspektywy polityki społecznej. Łódź: Wyd. Biblioteka, 2010. 74-91p. ISBN 978-83-62378-08-1.
  • P Szukalski
  • Solidarność
  • Pokoleń
Szukalski, P. Solidarność pokoleń. Dylematy relacji międzypokoleniowych. Łódź: Wyd. Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2012. 206p. ISBN 978-83-7525-694-9.
Priorytety w programach gerontologicznych organizacji międzynarodowych i struktur europejskich jako przesłanka budowy polityki społecznej wobec starości i osób starszych
  • Z Woźniak
Woźniak, Z. Priorytety w programach gerontologicznych organizacji międzynarodowych i struktur europejskich jako przesłanka budowy polityki społecznej wobec starości i osób starszych, [in:] M. Szlązak (ed.), Starzenie się populacji wyzwaniem dla polityki społecznej. Materiały konferencyjne. Kraków, ROPS: 2003. 14-33p. ISBN 83-918380-1-3.
Leksykon gerontologii. Kraków: Impuls
  • A A Zych
Zych, A.A. Leksykon gerontologii. Kraków: Impuls 2007. 276p. ISBN 978-83-7308-708-8.