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Bamboo charcoal was produced by pyrolysis or carbonization process with extraordinary properties such as high conductivity, large surface area and adsorption property. These properties can be improved by activation process that can be done thermally or chemically. In this paper, carbonization and activation process of bamboo, its structural and adsorption properties will be presented. Herein, the adsorption properties of bamboo charcoal that has fully utilized in solar cell as the electrode, adsorbent for water purification and electromagnetic wave absorber are reviewed.
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Adsorption Properties and Potential
Applications of Bamboo Charcoal: A Review
S.S.M. Isa1,*, M.M. Ramli1, N.A.M.A. Hambali1 , S.R. Kasjoo1 , M.M. Isa1 , N.I.M. Nor1 , N.
Khalid1 , and N. Ahmad1
1School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra Campus, 02600 Arau,
Perlis, Malaysia
Abstract. Bamboo charcoal was produced by pyrolysis or carbonization
process with extraordinary properties such as high conductivity, large
surface area and adsorption property. These properties can be improved by
activation process that can be done thermally or chemically. In this paper,
carbonization and activation process of bamboo, its structural and
adsorption properties will be presented. Herein, the adsorption properties
of bamboo charcoal that has fully utilized in solar cell as the electrode,
adsorbent for water purification and electromagnetic wave absorber are
1 Introduction
Bamboo charcoal is made up from pieces of bamboo (5 years >) which undergoes a heat
treatment normally at 800-1200 °C (pyrolysis process). As early as 1486 AD, bamboo
charcoal has been used in various ways due to its tremendous extraordinary properties.
What makes this charcoal is so amazing is the carbonization process which creates a
product with an enormous surface area to mass ratio which has high ability to attract and
hold (adsorption) a wide range of materials, chemicals, minerals, radiowaves, humidity,
odours and harmful substances.
Among all, absorption property of this material is well discussed and has been utilized
in various applications such as household products (water filtration, humidity and odour
adsorbent, air freshener, fruits and vegetables saver etc.) and health and beauty products
(soap, powder, foot patch etc.). After carbonized, this material can be used as an efficient
absorbent. Depends on what it adsorbs, the carbonized bamboo also can become saturated
and act as the fertilizer. In another hand, the adsorbed impurities can be burned off without
destroying the adsorbent property, which means it can be reused. The adsorption properties
of bamboo charcoal can be improved and become a perfect absorbent when this material is
further activated either thermally or chemically. No longer limited to the previous
applications, recently, the bamboo charcoal has been applied as the working electrode
composite in dye sensitized solar cell to increase device efficiency [1], as the absorbent for
water purification [2] and microwave absorber in antenna [3].
* Corresponding author:
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© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of
the Creative
Commons Attribution License 4.0 (
Become the alternative to activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, graphene and other
carbon based materials, this element is the most notable among readily and renewable
biomass resources because bamboo is the fastest growing plants in Earth [4]. In this study,
bamboo charcoal production, structural and adsorption properties specifically in dye
sensitized solar cell, water purification and microwave absorber are reviewed.
2 Carbonization of camboo charcoal
Generally, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubenscens) is used as the starting material in
the production. This bamboo is cut into small pieces and washed by boiling distilled water
for some hours and dried at temperature nearly 110 °C to remove moisture [5]. Then, the
carbonization process is held in the oven normally at N2 flow [2] at temperature over 800-
1200 °C at longer period hours. However, bamboo charcoal also can be produced at lower
temperature (500-900 °C) with different quality which has been presented in [2]. The fresh
bamboo charcoal produced from this process is the raw bamboo charcoal. This material
already has an extraordinary micro structure with high absorptive capacity.
Fig. 1. Bamboo (a) Moso, (b) charcoal and (c) powder.
3 Activation of bamboo charcoal
Activation of carbonized bamboo charcoal is important to improve the original structure
and increase the adsorption properties. It can be mixed with CO2 [2,6], HNO3 [2,7], NH3
[2,8] and many more before it is heated again at certain temperature (500-1200 °C) for
some periods. The annealed bamboo charcoal need to be cooled to a temperature between
170 to 240 °C before it serves as activated bamboo charcoal. The activation step is
important to increase the volume of the material, breaks some bonds of the turbostratic
carbon structures that form surface functional groups and removes non-crystallized carbons
from the bamboo charcoals.
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4 Structure and adsorption properties
Figure 2 shows the structure of bamboo charcoal before and after activation. As shown
in the figures, vascular bundles of the bamboo charcoal are arranged in various sizes. The
pore characteristics of this material can be macropore (> 50 nm), mesopore (2-50 nm) or
micropore (< 2nm). This pore characteristic and the resistant coefficient of this material are
affected by the temperature of carbonization and activation processes. As the temperature
increases, the material will change from insulator to semiconductor or even to conductor,
while the pore size is getting bigger. Normal and activated bamboo charcoal have the same
ability to absorb chemicals and substances from air and water, however the normal bamboo
charcoal has poor holding capacity compared to the activated forms. Other than surface
area to mass ratio, the excellent adsorption property is contributed by the van der Waals
force [11].
Fig. 2. Bamboo charcoal structure (a) after carbonization, (b) after activation [9] and (c) at higher
magnification [10].
5 As electrodes in dye sensitized solar cell
Conventionally in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC), carbon based material and
titanium dioxide (TiO2) were employed as counter and working electrodes. However, TiO2
working electrodecan only absorb ultraviolet and several approaches including the use of
dopants such as nitrogen [12], hydrogen [13], metal [14] and others to introduce disorder in
the surface layer and narrow the band gap of TiO2 which can improve the photocatalytic
activities were done. The introduction of disorder and dopant at the surface would enhance
visible and infrared absorption [13]. Several initiatives using carbonaceous materials such
as graphene [15], carbon nanotubes [16] and hybrid graphene-carbon nanotubes [17] have
been performed in order to increase device efficiency due to their good conductivity and
high effective surface area. These materials can help the electron excitation and enhance
the light harvest efficiency of the photoanode and working electrode when hybridizing this
material with TiO2.
Aside from the stated carbon based materials, mesoporous carbon such as bamboo
charcoal also potentials to be used as the electrodes in DSSC. Carbonized bamboo
charcoal which undergoes heat treatment between 700 to 900 °C has the resistance
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coefficient between 0.12 to 11.9 Ωm which perfect as the electrode [10]. In other work,
Chen et al. [13] has proved that modified TiO2potentials to increase solar absorption by
altering the surface structure and its energy band. The black TiO2 (refer Fig. 3(a)) can be
resolved into two peaks compared to typical white TiO2. The changes in reflectance and
absorbance spectra at 806.8 nm suggest that the optical gap of the black TiO2 was narrowed
by intraband transition. Further analysis with XPS (Fig. 3(b)) also has been performed to
show the changes of density of states between typical TiO2 and modified TiO2 and the
results were illustrated in Fig. 3(c).
Recently, the best performance of bamboo charcoal in DSSC is 5.4% [1] attributed to
the porous of bamboo charcoal embedded in the nano-crystalline TiO2 which facilitates the
capability of dye absorption and the generation of electrons during exposure to the light.
However, the development of DSSC utilizing bamboo charcoal still in preliminary stage
and more improvements need to be done.
Fig. 3. Comparison between typical TiO2
and modified (a) powder forms, (b) Spectral absorbance, (c)
XPS spectra and (d) Illustration of density of states [13].
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6 As an absorbent in water purification
Many industries produce volatile compounds that can pollute the environment and harm
the human health. The common compounds include hydrocarbon compounds such as O2,
N2, sulphur, halogen and others. Generally, adsorbents were employed to remove the
pollutants from wastewater or waste gas. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbents comes
from the affinity of molecules, and is classified into physical adsorption, chemical
adsorption and catalytic action. Examples of adsorbent are activated clays, aluminium
oxide based materials, silica gel, ion exchangers, magnesia based materials, activated
carbon and others. Among all, the activated carbon is the most common used absorbent as
it is cheaper, easier to be used and recyclable. It has superior performance in dealing with
organic and toxic waste such as chrome, ozone, pesticide and others. In that matter,
bamboo charcoal is a potential cheaper alternative absorbent among carbon based material
such as carbon nanotubes [18, 19], graphene [19], graphene oxide [19] and others which
offers a larger specific area and greater pore volume which can perform a greater degree of
It has been shown that, the adsorption of bamboo charcoal is affected by the
carbonization temperature as shown in Fig. 4(a). As the temperature increased, the pore is
greater and the adsorption rate is increased. The adsorption of substances in water also
depends on the way the bamboo charcoal is activated. It has been investigated that bamboo
charcoal activated with HNO3(refer Fig. 4(b)) showed better surface area with the
introduction of acidic functional groups without destruction of pore structure compared to
the charcoal activated with CO2(refer Fig. 4(c)) which much depends on the activated
temperature [2]. Author also proved that charcoal activated by NH3 not present a promising
yield although the mesopore was increased with the applied temperature. However this
HNO3 activation process posses more functional groups and resulted higher water vapour
adsorption capacity at low humidity area.
Fig. 4. Water vapour adsorption-desorption of (a) bamboo charcoal, (b) activated CO2and (c)
activated HNO
7 As an electromagnetic waves absorber
Due to the extensive effort towards gigahertz (Ghz) electronic system and
telecommunication devices, electromagnetic (EM) interference problems have raised
vastly. EM is defined as conducted or radiated electromagnetic signals which emitted by
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electrical circuits which under operation, perturb proper operation of surrounding
equipments which also may cause radioactive damage to living/biological species [3].
Thus, an effective shielding material in wide variety applications is needed. For this
purposes, Radar Adsorbing Material (RAM) has been applied from commercial and
electronic instrumentations to antenna system and military electronic devices which can be
produced under different forms such as conductive paints or rubber loaded with ferrite or
carbon which generally used for stealth military planes; or in foam or multilayered
topologies that commonly used as liners for all enclosures in which reflection waves has to
be minimized such as an anechoic chambers. But, the existing adsorption solution is still
facing very low power loss.
Recently, the focus on the research on designing shielding material which works by
adsorption was boosted all over the world. Most of the proposed material was based on
polymeric materials in order to take the advantages of their lightness, low cost, easy
shaping and others. There are three main strategies on producing the adsorbing material: 1)
dispersion of metallic fillers, fibers or nanoparticles within polymer matrix which can
increase the interaction with the electromagnetic radiation; 2) using conductive polymers
such polyaniline (PANI) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and 3) dispersion carbon based
electrically conductive polymer matrices. Based on that, carbon material like carbon black
[20], carbon nanotubes [21] and graphene [22 - 24] have been used as the polymeric filler
because of their extraordinary properties. However the production of these carbon materials
is expensive and some of the materials are facing impedance match mechanism that may
harmful to the EM adsorption properties [24]. Besides, the carbon based dielectric
absorbers have narrow absorbing frequency bandwidth [25]. Therefore, a development of
the EM absorbing material with low density, high thermal stability, high absorption
properties, broad microwave frequency bandwidth as well as cheaper solution is highly
demanded. Based on that demands, bamboo charcoal can be a magnificent alternative as
this material has similar high conductivity, large surface area and extremely higher
adsorption properties.
8 Conclusion
In this paper, the properties and potential applications are reviewed. The magnificent
adsorption property of this material becomes the main highlight which it can be fully
utilized in various potential applications such as electrode in solar cell, absorbent for water
treatment and wave absorber in antenna. This adsorption property can be influenced by the
carbonization temperature, the activation process and activation precursor as the pore is
getting larger and the surface area is improved.
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... Bamboo is one of the potential feedstocks to substitute wood for charcoal production that can be produced via a pyrolysis process at high temperatures (800-1200•C) [6][7]. It is a renewable energy resource, cost-effective and ecofriendly product that can be an alternative to fossil fuels. ...
... It is also having an excellent adsorbent capacity that can be used to remove harmful gases, absorbs the unpleasant smell and being in water purification and wastewater treatment system [4]. Isa et al. [3,6] also reported that bamboo charcoal has an enormous surface area to mass ratio with a microporous structure which has great absorption properties that can hold (adsorb) a wide range of materials, chemicals, minerals, radio waves, humidity, odours and harmful substances. Bamboo charcoal surface area (300 m 2 /g) is ten times greater than wood charcoal (30 m 2 /g) and larger than multi-walled carbon nanotubes (200 m 2 /g) [3]. ...
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... They are found abundantly in natural habitats, especially in Asia and the tropical regions, due to their fast proliferative growth. Most bamboo species take only a few months to grow to full size and are among the fastest-growing plants [31]. Bamboo is also considered a renewable biomass resource. ...
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In this study, locally grown bamboo (Gigantochloa spp.) was used as feedstock for pyrolysis production of biochar under various pyrolysis temperatures (400–800°C). The resultant biochars were tested for their performance in adsorptive removal of the methylene blue (MB) dye. The scope of the adsorption experiment includes the effects of adsorbent dosage, solution pH, initial adsorbate concentration, and contact time. The adsorption data confirmed that pyrolysis temperature has a significant effect on adsorptive performance, whereas biochar pyrolysed at 500°C (BC500) has the highest adsorptive performance with the maximum adsorption capacity (derived from the Langmuir model) being 86.6 mg g-1. Basic characterisations (SEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR, and BET) were carried out for BC500 where FTIR and SEM confirmed the adsorption of MB onto the biochar, while the BET data showed the reduction of the BET surface area, total pore volume, and pore diameter after the adsorption process.
... In the MFC design, electrodes are desired to have the following characteristics: (i) high electrical conductivity and low resistance; (ii) high mechanical strength; (iii) strong biocompatibility, (iv) high chemical stability and corrosion resistance, (v) large surface area, (vi) low cost, and vii) environmental friendliness [1]. Bamboo charcoal meets most of the aforementioned characteristics [66,67,76,[79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88]. Figure 2 shows SEM images of the external surface and cross-section of the BC anode. The electron micrographs show that the BC used in this study has a rough fiber-like external surface ( Figure 2a) and is comprised of dense round to hexagonal tubes from 20 to 500 µm in diameter, arranged in a honeycomb-like pattern (Figure 2b). ...
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In this study, three single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs), each having Pt-coated carbon cloth as a cathode and four bamboo charcoal (BC) plates as an anode, were run in a fed-batch mode, individually and in series. Simulated potato-processing wastewater was used as a substrate for supporting the growth of a mixed bacterial culture. The maximum power output increased from 0.386 mW with one MFC to 1.047 mW with three MFCs connected in series. The maximum power density, however, decreased from 576 mW/m2 (normalized to the cathode area) with one MFC to 520 mW/m2 with three MFCs in series. The experimental results showed that power can be increased by connecting the MFCs in series; however, choosing low resistance BC is crucial for increasing power density.
... More and more biological resources are being used to prepare adsorbents, and some studies have shown that specific biological resources have a high potential for use as adsorbents [1][2][3][4]. Among them, bamboo charcoal is one of the most popular biological resources. ...
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With the advancement of science and modern medical technology, more and more medical materials and implants are used in medical treatment and to improve human life. The safety of invasive medical materials and the prevention of infection are gradually being valued. Therefore, avoiding operation failure or wound infection and inflammation caused by surgical infection is one of the most important topics in current medical technology. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have minor irritation and toxicity to cells and have a broad-spectrum antibacterial effect without causing bacterial resistance and other problems. They are also less toxic to the human body. Bamboo charcoal (BC) is a bioinert material with a porous structure, light characteristics, and low density, like bone quality. It can be used as a lightweight bone filling material. However, it does not have any antibacterial function. This study synthesized AgNPs under the ultraviolet (UV) photochemical method by reducing silver nitrate with sodium citrate. The formation and distribution of AgNPs were confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurement (XRD). The BC was treated by O2 plasma to increase the number of polar functional groups on the surface. Then, UV light-induced graft polymerization of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAm) and AgNPs were applied onto the BC to immobilize thermos-/antibacterial composite hydrogels on the BC surface. The structures and properties of thermos-/antibacterial composite hydrogel-modified BC surface were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectrum (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that thermos-/antibacterial composite hydrogels were then successfully grafted onto BC. SEM observations showed that the thermos-/antibacterial composite hydrogels formed a membrane structure between the BC. The biocompatibility of the substrate was evaluated by Alamar Blue cell viability assay and antibacterial test in vitro.
... On the contrary, the chemical adsorption process involves the formation and breaking of chemical bonds and valence forces that generate high activation energy and releasing high adsorption heat (Artioli, 2008;Hu and Xu, 2020). Examples of commonly used adsorbents are activated carbon, molecular sieve, activated clays, silica gel, and magnesia-based materials (Isa et al., 2016). The high porosity and smaller particle size are two important characteristics to develop a good adsorbent that will influence the adsorption performance (Tareq et al., 2019). ...
Water pollution is one of the most concerning global environmental problems in this century with the severity and complexity of the issue increases every day. One of the major contributors to water pollution is the discharge of harmful heavy metal wastes into the rivers and water bodies. Without proper treatment, the release of these harmful inorganic waste would endanger the environment by contaminating the food chains of living organisms, hence, leading to potential health risks to humans. The adsorption method has become one of the cost-effective alternative treatments to eliminate heavy metal ions. Since the type of adsorbent material is the most vital factor that determines the effectiveness of the adsorption, continuous efforts have been made in search of cheap adsorbents derived from a variety of waste materials. Fruit waste can be transformed into valuable products, such as biochar, as they are composed of many functional groups, including carboxylic groups and lignin, which is effective in metal binding. The main objective of this study was to review the potential of various types of fruit wastes as an alternative adsorbent for Pb(II) removal. Following a brief overview of the properties and effects of Pb(II), this study discussed the equilibrium isotherms and adsorption kinetic by various adsorption models. The possible adsorption mechanisms and regeneration study for Pb(II) removal were also elaborated in detail to provide a clear understanding of biochar produced using the pyrolysis technique. The future prospects of fruit waste as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) was also highlighted.
... Typically, the production of carbon-based adsorbents begins with the pyrolysis of biomass sources at high temperatures to produce charcoal (Isa et al., 2016). The charcoal is then activated to create more active sites and functional groups on the surface of the charcoal. ...
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In this study, Cu-modified activated bamboo charcoal is studied for its performance in removing simulated ruthenium dye wastes. The bamboo belonging to the genus Gigantochloa was used as the starting material to prepare the bamboo charcoal (BC). The BC is activated using KOH, NaOH, and HCl. The activated BCs were then further modified using CuCl2. H2O solution to obtain Cu-impregnated BC. The elemental, functional groups, and surface morphology analyses were carried out to characterize the adsorbents. The Ru complex dye adsorption process was evaluated by batch adsorption experiments, and out of all the adsorbents, the copper-modified KOH-activated bamboo charcoal (10BCKOH) showed the highest adsorption capability. Then, the 10BCKOH characterize with BET, SEM, EXD, XRD, and FTIR before and after the adsorption and optimize the adsorption parameters of pH, dosage, contact time, and initial concentration. The adsorption of the Ru dye is strongly dependent on the pH of the dye solution. The adsorption isotherm has a strong correlation with the Freundlich model, with the value of R² at 0.927 (KF = 0.0235). The maximum adsorption capacity predicted by the Langmuir model was 64.4 mg.g⁻¹ for 10BCKOH sample. The adsorption process fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R² = 0.996). The kinetic and isotherm parameters showed that the adsorption of Ru complex onto 10BCKOH was feasible and spontaneous under the reported experimental conditions, and the ion exchange mechanism played a significant role in the process. Our results have shown that 10BCKOH is effective for the removal of Ru dye from the aqueous solution. Graphical abstract
The aim of this chapter is to discuss in detail the potential of bioenergy products that can be produced from bamboo and to review the previous and current research that has been carried to use bamboo as feedstock for bioenergy products. The potential of bamboo to be used as a feedstock for various types of bioenergy products: solid fuels, liquid fuels as well as gaseous fuels has been reviewed. Methods of conversion of bamboo either thermochemical or biochemical processes vary depending on the bioenergy products targeted. Optimization of parameter conditions to increase the product yield and the barrier to overcome in the near future for product commercialization needs to be identified and focused on. As a source of energy, bamboo is suitable to be an alternative to meet the current demand for renewable energy from natural resources. Increase in use of bioenergy products further leads to reducing the dependency on fossil fuel resources and reducing environmental impact.KeywordsBambooEnergyPelletsBioenergyBiofuel
An experimental study was conducted on the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of a hybrid composite fabricated by the hand lay-up method with neat epoxy and a combination of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), copper oxide (CuO), and bamboo charcoal (BC) as nanofillers. The main objective of this study was to improve the EMI SE at the higher frequency range of 8–12 GHz, with promising mechanical and thermal strength. The samples were fabricated and characterized for EMI shielding behavior. Further, response surface methodology (RSM) was carried out, and based on experimental results, it was found that the maximum EMI SE for sample A6 was 35.11 in a frequency range of 8–12 GHz, which is an admirable improvement in EMI SE with matrix alone. Also, it was noted that 5.0 wt.% CuO, 1.25 wt.% MWCNTs, and 5.5 wt.% BC were the optimal wt.% values for gaining the maximum EMI SE.
Increased consumption and demand for freshwater has resulted to massive production of wastewater, which has toxins and is harmful to the environment if not treated. The use of permeable reactive barriers using activated carbon has proven to be a low cost and environmental friendlier solution to the problem compared to conventional methods. This minireview demonstrated the use of bamboo activated carbon, which is mesoporous in treating wastewater pollutants through adsorptive processes. The paper discusses the chemical and physical processes involved in activation and carbonization of bamboo charcoal, its adsorptive and structural characteristics. Case examples of its application in wastewater treatment based on literature review are also evaluated. Overall, bamboo is a viable renewable biomass material used in wastewater treatment compared to alternative carbon-based materials such as wood charcoal, coconut shell activated charcoal and carbon nanotubes.
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A multiple robot control architecture including a plurality of robotic agricultural machines including a first and second robotic agricultural machine. Each robotic agricultural machine including at least one controller configured to implement a plurality of finite state machines Within an individual robot control architecture (IRCA) and a global information module (GIM) communicatively coupled to the IRCA. The GIMs of the first and second robotic agricultural machines being configured to cooperate to cause said first robotic agricultural machine and said second agricultural machine to perform at least one agricultural task.
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In this study, the bamboo charcoals and the bamboo-based activated carbons were prepared from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) by N-2 carbonization, CO2 activation and NH3 ammonization at 500-900 degrees C and HNO3 oxidation at room temperature followed by air oxidation at 350 degrees C. The structural and surface chemical characteristics of prepared activated carbons were determined by N-2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and Boehm titration, respectively. The water vapor adsorption capacity of each prepared activated carbon was examined with varying the pore structure, surface acidic functional groups and nitrogen contents of samples. Water vapor adsorption-desorption of the bamboo charcoals showed that very small micropores which could adsorb water vapor but be impossible for nitrogen molecule to be accessed would be formed when the carbonization was performed above 700 degrees C. The water vapor adsorption capacity at low humidity region was found to be obviously improved by the oxidation with HNO3. The elemental analysis demonstrated that nitrogen was abundantly introduced into the activated carbon through ammonization at 700-900 degrees C. Also, thermogravimetric analysis for NH3-treated activated carbons which were saturated in relative humidity (RH) of 90% indicated that the interaction between water vapor and activated carbon could be strengthened by surface nitrogen. Ammonization at 900 degrees C significantly developed the specific surface area and pore volume and showed the highest capacity of water vapor adsorption.
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Activated carbon (AC) was treated by ammonia gas to introduce nitrogen element on the graphite sheets for enhancing adsorption amount of copper(II) ions in aqueous solution. The nitrogen content was increased with the rise in NH3 treatment temperature. Though any significant textural properties was not observed in the NH3 treatment up to 700 °C , BET and meso-pore specific surface areas were increased above 800 °C indicating that the NH3 etched and gasified carbons to produce CH4. AC was also out-gassed in He flow at 1000 °C to remove surface acidic oxygen for the comparison with the NH3 treatment. Successfully applying the Langmuir adsorption isotherms to the experimental results, the adsorption capacity of copper(II) ions onto the NH3 treated AC at 700 °C (7AG) was greater than the outgassed carbon (OG). The amount of copper(II) ions desorption from 7AG was smaller than that from OG. In contrast, adsorption amount of proton on 7AG was smaller than that of OG from the pH alternation, suggesting that π-electrons on the graphene layers might be withdrawn by nitrogen introduced, then π-electrons density would be decreased. Some amount of copper(II) ions adsorption onto 7AG could be observed even if the pH was less than 3, whereas it was hardly taken place for OG. Based on the experimental results, the introduced nitrogen atoms are estimated to become new strong adsorption sites for the copper(II) ions adsorption, probably transferring loan pair electrons of nitrogen on the graphite sheets to the copper(II) ions.
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This study investigates the applicability of an electrode of TiO2/bamboo-charcol-powder composite particles in a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Bamboo charcoal (BC) was prepared from 3 to 4 years old Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) in a mechanical kiln at 500 °C for 1 h, and the bamboo charcoal powder (BCP) was then mixed with TiO2 (P-25) particles via the dry mixing method. The dye-covered electrode of TiO2 (P-25)/BCP composite particles was applied in a DSSC, and an I–V measurement system was used to measure the short-circuit photocurrent (Isc), the open-circuit photovoltage (Voc), and the power conversion efficiency (η) of the DSSC. The mass ratio of TiO2 to BCP and the average size of BCP substantially influenced the Isc and η of the DSSC. Interestingly, the η of the DSSC with a TiO2 (P-25)/BCP electrode (5.4%) substantially exceeds that of the conventional DSSC with a TiO2 (P-25) electrode (3.6%), which may be due to the fact that the TiO2 (P-25)/BCP electrode has a better capability of dye absorption.
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Here we experimentally study the microwave absorption and near-field radiation behavior of monolayer and few-layer, large-area CVD graphene in the C and X bands. Artificial stacking of CVD graphene reduces the sheet resistance, as verified by non-contact microwave cavity measurements and four-probe DC resistivity. The multilayer stacked graphene exhibits increased absorption determined by the total sheet resistance. The underlying mechanism could enable us to apply nanoscale graphene sheets as optically transparent radar absorbers. Near-field radiation measurements show that our present few-layer graphene patches with sheet resistance more than 600 Ω/sq exhibit no distinctive microwave resonance and radiate less electromagnetic power with increasing layers; however, our theoretical prediction suggests that for samples to be practical as microwave antennas, doped multilayer graphene with sheet resistance less than 10 Ω/sq is required.
In this study, enhancement in efficiency of anthocyanin-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) through the incorporation of graphene directly into the dye mixture is demonstrated. Graphene was incorporated in the anthocyanin dye mixture and allowed to co-adsorb on the mesoporous titania; this is compared with anthocyanin-only mixture as control, and also compared with DSSC with graphene incorporated directly into the titania. Current voltage (IV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out to characterize the different DSSC cells. Addition of graphene resulted in increased power conversion efficiencies: addition into the TiO2 as a photoanode composite, direct addition to the anthocyanin extracts (anthocyanin:graphene dispersion) during the adsorption step, or a combination of these two. The latter resulted in the highest enhancement in the PCE by as much as 2.4 times. EIS data showed a favorable decrease in charge transfer resistance in the TiO2 layer as graphene is added to the DSSC, with increased magnitude of the short-circuit current (J(sc)). This is explained by graphene providing added conducting pathways for the photo-generated electrons; results show that this is also manifested in the co-adsorption of graphene with the anthocyanin dye onto the titania anode.
The effect of a three-stage carbonization and activation process on the properties of a bamboo charcoal (BC), prepared from the 4- to 6-year-old Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) planted in the Jhu-Shan of Nantou, Taiwan, was investigated. A process simulation, based on first principles thermodynamics, was conducted using a thermochemistry software package (FactSage). Our model not only reproduced the key experiments well, but also provided a detailed chemical reaction mechanism of the carbonization process involving multiple solids and multi-component gas phases. Three-stage process proposed herein consisted of first-stage carbonization process to prepare BC, second-stage activation process to activate BC, and third-stage activation process to refine activated BC. Measured changes in the pH values of the BC were explained based on the chemistry of the gas products, and, accordingly, a theoretical maximum pH value for the BC was proposed. Furthermore, material properties like charcoal yield, ash content, pH level, elemental compositions, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area, morphology, and Fourier transform infrared spectrum were measured. Interestingly, the observed maximum BET specific surface area (493.0 m2g−1) of refined BC obtained through above three-stage process was more than 2000 times larger than that of the sample fabricated at 400 °C in the first-stage carbonization process (0.2 m2g−1), and this once again demonstrated the importance of process optimization. Our multi-stage process and new chemical reaction mechanism can be used to speed up the technology development of a general carbonization for a variety of bio-resources.