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Profundiconus robmoolenbeeki spec. nov.: A new deep water conoidean gastropod from the Solomon Islands (Gastropoda, Conilithidae)

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Profundiconus robmoolenbeeki spec. nov. is described from material taken in 400 – 700 m depth north of Malaita, Solomon Islands. The radula and operculum of the new species have been examined and are consistent with the inclusion in genus Profundiconus. Profundiconus robmoolenbeeki sp. nov. is compared to Profundiconus cakobaui (Moolenbeek, Röckel & Bouchet, 2008), Profundiconus maribelae Tenorio & Castelin, 2016, and Profundiconus loyaltiensis (Röckel, Richard & Moolenbeek, 1995).
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JOURNAL OF THE NETHERLANDS MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY
VOLUME 80 (1-3) | 8 OCTOBER 2016
Contents
BASTERA VOLUME 80 (1-3) | 8 OCTOBER 2016
Bank, R.A. 40 years of malacology in Amsterdam and Leiden: A Festschrift for Rob
Moolenbeek ..............................................................................................................................
Bank, R.A., Menkhorst, H.P.M.G. & Neubert, E. Descriptions of new and little-known
land snail taxa from Turkey, and establishment of a new genus (Gastropoda,
Pulmonata: Lauriidae, Enidae and Vitrinidae) ...................................................................
Dekkers, A.M. & Dekker, H. A new species of Turbo from the Red Sea (Gastropoda,
Turbinidae) ...............................................................................................................................
Winter, A.J. de, Leeuwen, S. van & Hovestadt, A. A new species of Glyphyalus
(Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Oxychilidae) from the Dutch Caribbean island of
St. Eustatius ..............................................................................................................................
Breure, A.S.H. Philippe Dautzenberg (1849–1935) and his time, towards the
reconstruction of an ancient science network .....................................................................
Janssen, A.W. & Goedert, J.L. Notes on the systematics, morphology and bio-stratigra-
phy of fossil holoplanktonic Mollusca, 24. First observation of a genuinely Late
Mesozoic thecosomatous pteropod ......................................................................................
Poorten, J.J. ter & Gemert, L.J. van. The genus Frigidocardium Habe, 1951 in the
Red Sea (Bivalvia, Cardiidae) ................................................................................................
Dekkers, A.M. A new tiny Conus species from the Philippines (Gastropoda, Conidae)................
Kronenberg, G.C. Revision of Euprotomus Gill, 1870. 5. A third putative hybrid in
Euprotomus (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda) with some additional remarks on
hybridization in Euprotomus ..................................................................................................
Tenorio, M.J. Profundiconus robmoolenbeeki spec. nov.: A new deep water conoidean
gastropod from the Solomon Islands (Gastropoda, Conilithidae)...................................
Faber, M.J. & Gori, S. Infralittoral Rissoinidae (Gastropoda, Rissooidea) of Maldives
with the introduction of a new subfamily and one replacement name, the descrip-
tion of three new species, and a note on the identity of Rissoa rosea Deshayes, 1863....
Dijkstra, H.H. Annotations to the figured scallops (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) in
Gualtieri’s “Index Testarum Conchyliorum”, deposited in the Museo di Storia
Naturale e del Territorio at Calci (Pisa, Italy)......................................................................
Margry, C.J.P.J. Insulivitrina ingridae spec. nov., a fossil vitrinid from the Canary
Island of La Gomera (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)..................................................................
Gemert, L.J. van. Note on the publications of Edmond Saurin (1904-1977) on Recent Mol-
lusca; with a list of all his new pyramidellids (Gastropoda, Pyramidellidae) .....................
Maassen, W.J.M. Descriptions of two new carnivorous snail species from Thailand
(Pulmonata: Streptaxidae, Diapheridae)..............................................................................
Index to Volume 79 ........................................................................................................................
1
5
31
39
47
59
64
77
82
89
95
113
127
133
139
143
Robert Moolenbeek
at the
Zoological Museum Amsterdam
(2011)
Photograph by Ella Reitsma
Basteria_cover_80(1-3):Opmaak 1 9/15/2016 10:07 PM Page 1
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Basteria_cover_80(1-3):Opmaak 1 9/15/2016 10:07 PM Page 2
Profundiconus robmoolenbeeki spec. nov. is described
from material taken in 400 – 700 m depth north of
Malaita, Solomon Islands. The radula and operculum
of the new species have been examined and are con-
sistent with the inclusion in genus Profundiconus.
Profundiconus robmoolenbeeki sp. nov. is compared to
Profundiconus cakobaui (Moolenbeek, Röckel &
Bouchet, 2008), Profundiconus maribelae Tenorio &
Castelin, 2016, and Profundiconus loyaltiensis (Röckel,
Richard & Moolenbeek, 1995).
Key words: Conoidea, Profundiconus, deep-water species, Indo-
West Pacific, Solomon Islands.
Introduction
The shallow water cone snail fauna of the Solomon Is-
lands has been reviewed by Delsaerdt in a series of
papers published between 1988 and 2000 (Delsaerdt,
1988, 1990, 1991, 1994a, b; 2000a, b). Little is known,
however, about the deep water species from this re-
gion. Since 2001, the MNHN (Muséum National
d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France) has been carrying
out systematic sampling surveys in the Solomon Is-
lands. A series of cruises aboard the r/v “Alis” have
been devoted to the exploration of the deep benthic
fauna of the Solomon Islands at depths between 100
and 1500 m (SALOMON 1, 2001; SALOMON 2, 2003).
Another expedition has aimed to the study of organ-
isms associated with sunken woods of south Pacific
margins (SALOMONBOA 3, 2007). The main goal
overall is the study of the biodiversity of the insular
margins of Solomon islands by carrying out the inven-
tory and description of the deep water fauna. As a re-
sult of these campaigns, some novel species of cone
snails have been brought to surface and have been re-
cently described. That is the case of Profundiconus
maribelae Tenorio & Castelin, 2016, reported from the
Solomon Islands, including the New Georgia Group
(Vella Lavella Island), Santa Isabel and Guadalcanal,
at depths between 336 and 690 m. Among the material
collected during these research cruises, several speci-
mens of cone snails that do not match any known
species described to date have now been found. These
specimens were collected north of Malaita Island at
depth ranges between 400 and 700 m depth. The
analysis of their conchological features as well as
radular morphology and operculum indicates that
these specimens are in fact individuals of a new
species, introduced herein as Profundiconus robmoolen-
beeki spec. nov.
Methods
The taxonomy used in the present article follows
Tucker & Tenorio (2009) with the updates and modifi-
cations included in Tucker & Tenorio (2013). Speci-
mens of the new species were collected by dredging in
deep-water during the campaign SALOMON 1, car-
ried out by the MNHN in the Solomon Islands aboard
the r/v “Alis” in 2001, at depth ranges of 400 to 800 m.
Other material studied in this work for comparison
purposes was previously deposited in the collections
of MNHN in Paris. Shell morphology is described
using the terminology established in Röckel et al.
(1995). I also used their procedure for counting the
number of protoconch whorls. For morphometric pa-
rameter determination, the shells were measured with
89
Profundiconus robmoolenbeeki spec. nov.:
A new deep water conoidean gastropod
from the Solomon Islands (Gastropoda, Conilithidae)
Manuel J. Tenorio
INBIO - Dept. CMIM y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias,
Torre Norte, 1ª Planta, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain; manuel.tenorio@uca.es
Basteria 80 (1-3): 89-94 (2016)
B2016-17-Tenorio:Basteria-2015 9/7/2016 10:22 PM Page 89
a digital caliper, and the measurements rounded to
0.1 millimeter. Radular morphology is described
using the terminology of Tenorio & Castelin (2016).
Specimens of shells containing the dried animal in-
side were digested in concentrated aqueous potas-
sium hydroxide for 24 h. The contents were flushed
out of the shell by injecting distilled water through
the aperture of the shell by means of a syringe with
an incurved needle. The resulting mixture was then
placed in a Petri dish and examined with the binocu-
lar microscope. The entire radula was removed with
fine tweezers and rinsed with distilled water, then
mounted on a slide using Aquatex (Merck) Mounting
Medium, and examined under the compound micro-
scope. Photos were obtained with a CCD camera at-
tached to the microscope.
Abbreviations: dd = dead; lv = live; MNHN =
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France;
PMD = relative position of the maximum diameter;
RD = relative diameter; RSH = relative spire height;
SL= maximum shell length; SL/TL= shell
length/radular tooth length; TL/APL= radular tooth
size/anterior portion length; 100BL/APL= 100 x blade
length/anterior portion length.
Results
Family Conilithidae Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956
Profundiconus robmoolenbeeki spec. nov. (Figs 1–6)
Type material examined. — Holotype (Figs 1-2): MNHN IM-
2012-43954, 25.1 × 10.7 mm (lv), r/v “Alis”, expedition SA-
LOMON 1, st. DW 1775, N Malaita, Solomon Islands, 8°12'36''S,
160°41'42''E, 498–600 m depth. Paratype 1 (Figs 3-4): MNHN
IM-2012-43955, 24.3 × 10.3 mm (dd), r/v “Alis”, expedition SA-
LOMON 1, st. DW 1770, N Malaita, Solomon Islands, 8°19’36’’S,
160°38’42’’E, 453–542 m depth. Paratype 2 (Figs 5-6): MNHN
IM-2012-43953, 23.7 × 9.5 mm (dd), r/v “Alis”, expedition SA-
LOMON 1, st. DW 1772, N Malaita, Solomon Islands, 8°15’48’’S,
160°40’24’’E, 570–756 m depth.
Type locality. — N Malaita, Solomon Islands,
8°12'36''S, 160°41'42''E, 498–600 m depth.
Distribution and habitat. — Only known from the
type locality and its vicinity, N Malaita, Solomon Is-
lands. Confirmed live specimen from depths of 498–
600 m (holotype).
Etymology. — The species is named after Dr.
Robert Moolenbeek, well-known Dutch malacologist,
in recognition for his many and important contribu-
tions of a lifetime devoted to the study of mollusks
with emphasis on cone snails, including the descrip-
tion of several species of Profundiconus.
Description. — Morphometric parameters: SL=
23–26 mm; RD = 0.55–0.57; RSH = 0.24–0.28; PMD =
0.82–0.91. Shell shape is biconical. This is a small to
moderately small sized species. The spire is high,
concave and stepped, especially towards the apex.
The whorl tops are concave in cross section. The pau-
cispiral protoconch of 1.5 whorls is white, porcella-
neous and translucent, with a maximum diameter of
0.95 mm (Fig. 7). The early teleoconch whorls are
white, with small tubercles which become obsolete or
absent by whorl six. The first three teleoconch whorls
have no cords but display arcuate radial striae. Cords
are present from whorl four onwards, increasing
from 4 to 6 on late teleoconch whorls. The suture is
narrow and shallow. The shoulder is angulated, with
a distinctive ridge present, which may be undulated
or weakly tuberculated. The sides of the shell are
straight or very slightly convex just below the shoul-
der. The last whorl is smooth or with very fine spiral
striae, with 10–12 spiral grooves around the basal
quarter. The posterior notch is shallow and C-shaped.
There is no anterior notch. Ground color white. Early
teleoconch whorls white, with small, fused brown
blotches arranged in spiral forming a narrow band
over the tubercles. These small brown blotches be-
come sparse and separated from each other on late
teleoconch whorls, but may eventually reach the
shoulder. Last whorl overlaid with sparse irregular
axial brown streaks. Some specimens also show
brown dashes forming several interrupted, well-
spaced spiral lines, especially around the midbody
and toward the shoulder region. The columella is
white. The aperture is white, straight and rather nar-
row. The periostracum is yellowish, thin and trans-
parent. The operculum of the holotype is elongated,
yellow-brown and serrated (Fig. 8).
Radular teeth examined in the holotype (Fig. 9). 41
teeth in radular sac. Radular tooth large-sized: its
total length relative to shell length SL/TL= 29, rather
elongated. The anterior portion is shorter than the
posterior section of the tooth (TL/APL= 2.67). There is
one barb and a pointed, well-defined blade, which
covers 42% of the anterior portion of the tooth. There
is an external cusp located at approximately the lower
quarter of the anterior portion of the tooth, extending
between 74% and 85% of the length of the anterior
portion of the tooth. The external cusp is laterally ex-
panded and with 8–9 small denticles. A characteristic
fringe of closely spaced projections pointing towards
the apex located below the waist is present. Shaft fold
is present. Large and prominent basal spur present
on top of the slanted base of the tooth.
Discussion. — In spite of the few specimens avail-
90
Basteria 80(1-3), 2016
B2016-17-Tenorio:Basteria-2015 9/7/2016 10:22 PM Page 90
able, the distinctive combination of shell and radular
morphology along with the accurate field data war-
rants the introduction of P. robmoolenbeeki as a new
species.The morphology of the radular tooth and the
serrated operculum are fully consistent with the
placement of this species in genus Profundiconus
Kuroda, 1956, as discussed in Tucker & Tenorio (2009)
and Tenorio & Castelin (2016).
Profundiconus robmoolenbeeki is most similar to P.
cakobaui (Moolenbeek, Röckel & Bouchet, 2008) (Figs.
15-16), P. maribelae (Fig. 17), and Profundiconus loyal-
tiensis (Röckel, Richard & Moolenbeek, 1995) (Fig. 18).
91
Tenorio, M.J. – New Profundiconus from the Solomon Islands
Figs 1-8. Profundiconus robmoolenbeeki spec. nov. 1-2, holotype, MNHN IM-2012-43954, 25.1 x 10.7 mm, N Malaita, Solomon Islands,
8°12'36''S, 160°41'42''E, 498–600 m depth; 3-4, paratype 1, MNHN IM-2012-43955, 24.3 x 10.3 mm, N Malaita, Solomon Islands, 8º19’36’’S,
160º38’42’’E, 453–542 m depth; 5-6, paratype 2: MNHN IM-2012-43953, 23.7 x 9.5 mm, N Malaita, Solomon Islands, 8º15’48’’S,
160º40’24’’E, 570–756 m depth; 7, protoconch and early teleoconch whorls of P. robmoolenbeeki spec. nov. (holotype); 8, fragments of the
operculum of P. robmoolenbeeki spec. nov corresponding to the holotype, showing serrations in the lower margin. Scale bar represents 10
mm unless otherwise stated.
B2016-17-Tenorio:Basteria-2015 9/7/2016 10:22 PM Page 91
The scarce number of specimens of P. robmoolenbeeki
available for study prevented any statistical compari-
son of shell morphometry among different taxa. Pro-
fundiconus cakobaui, known from the Fiji Islands, has a
smaller shell length (SL10–25 mm) and a broader
body whorl (RD 0.60–0.66), with a spire of straight
profile instead of concave compared to P. robmoolen-
beeki.Profundiconus cakobaui has nodules on the 3–4
first teleoconch whorls. In P. robmoolenbeeki the nod-
ules extend to whorl 5 and eventually reach the shoul-
92
Basteria 80(1-3), 2016
Figs 9-14. Radular teeth of Profundiconus species. 9,Profundiconus robmoolenbeeki spec. nov., tooth from holotype, SL25.1 mm; 10,P.
cakobaui, tooth from unnumbered paratype, MNHN IM-2000-21033, Ride de Lau, Somo-somo Strait, Fiji, 414-510 m, SL18.4 mm; 11,P.
cf. cakobaui, tooth from specimen MNHN IM-2008-1243, Bligh Water, Fiji, 567-699 m, SL24.8 mm; 12,P. maribelae, tooth from paratype 1,
MNHN IM-2007-30935, NW Isabel, Solomon Islands, 336–341 m depth, SL30.0 mm; 13,P. loyaltiensis, tooth from uncataloged specimen,
MNHN, Ile des Pins, New Caledonia, SL17.4 mm; 14,P. virginiae, tooth from holotype, MNHN IM-2007-30854, Plateau des Chesterfield,
519–522 m depth, SL42.5 mm. Scale bar 100 mm.
B2016-17-Tenorio:Basteria-2015 9/7/2016 10:22 PM Page 92
der. The latter also has more cords on the late teleo-
conchs whorls than P. cakobaui, which usually only
has 4 on the periphery. There is one specimen identi-
fied as P. cakobaui (MNHN IM-2008-1243, Fig. 16)
which is much larger and narrower-bodied than the
specimens of P. cakobaui in the type series and might
in fact represent a different species. I will refer to this
particular specimen from now on as Profundiconus cf.
cakobaui. This specimen is more similar in size and
shape to P. robmoolenbeeki than any other specimen of
P. cakobaui, but it is still wider-bodied (RD = 0.60) and
has a straight spire instead of concave.
The radular teeth of P. cakobaui (Fig. 10) and P. cf.
cakobaui IM-2008-1243 (Fig. 11), and the tooth of P.
93
Tenorio, M.J. – New Profundiconus from the Solomon Islands
Figs 15-19. Profundiconus species. 15,Profundiconus cakobaui, holotype, MNHN IM-2000-21030, Somo-somo Strait, South of Vanua Levu,
Fiji, 426-487 m, SL18.9 mm; 16,P. cf. cakobaui, MNHN IM-2008-1243, Bligh Water, Fiji, 567-699 m, SL24.8 mm; 17,P. maribelae, paratype
1, MNHN IM-2007-30935, NW Isabel, Solomon Islands, 336–341 m depth, SL30.0 mm; 18,P. loyaltiensis, holotype, MNHN IM-2000-2545,
Ride des Loyauté, New Caledonia, 480 m, SL21.8 mm; 19,P. virginiae, holotype, MNHN IM-2007-30854, Plateau des Chesterfield, 519–
522 m depth, SL42.5 mm. Scale bar 10 mm.
B2016-17-Tenorio:Basteria-2015 9/7/2016 10:22 PM Page 93
robmoolenbeeki (Fig. 9) are different. The anterior por-
tion of the tooth of P. robmoolenbeeki is longer than in
P. cakobaui, as reflected by the parameter TL/APL=
2.67 for P. robmoolenbeeki, and 3.2–3.8 for P.cf. cakobaui/
P. cakobaui. The external cusp in P. robmoolenbeeki has
8–9 denticles, but only 6 in P. cakobaui, and in the latter
this structure is located at a lower position of the ante-
rior portion of the tooth, closer to the waist.
The shells of P. maribelae and P. loyaltiensis exhibit
stronger sculpture on the last whorl in the form of spi-
ral grooves and flat ribbons, and have fewer but more
developed cords on the sutural ramp compared to P.
robmoolenbeeki. The spire in P. maribelae is straight and
stepped instead of concave. In P. loyaltiensis the spire
is concave, but the shell is white and patternless at
variance with P. robmoolenbeeki, which exhibits a pat-
tern of sparse brown axial streaks and fine dashes
arranged in spiral.
The radular tooth of P. robmoolenbeeki (Fig. 15) is
different from the teeth of P. maribelae (Fig. 16) and P.
loyaltiensis (Fig. 18). The anterior portion of the tooth
in P. robmoolenbeeki is longer than in the other species
(TL/APL= 3.4 for P. maribelae, and 3.6 for P.
loyaltiensis). In P. robmoolenbeeki The blade covers pro-
portionally less extension of the anterior portion,
100BL/APL= 42% , whereas in P. maribelae this param-
eter is 50%, and 60% in the case of P. loyaltiensis.
Whereas the relative sizes of the teeth of P. robmoolen-
beeki and P. loyaltiensis are similar (SL/TL= 29-30 in
both cases), the relative size of the tooth of P. maribelae
is significantly smaller, with SL/TL= 45.
The radular tooth of P. robmoolenbeeki is similar in
its elongated shape to that of P. virginiae Tenorio &
Castelin, 2016 (Figs. 14 and 19), a recently described
species from the Plateau des Chesterfield. Although
the parameters TL/APL= 2.6–2.7 and 100BL/APL= 40–
43% for this species match those of P. robmoolenbeeki, it
has a smaller relative size as indicated by the parame-
ter SL/TL= 37–45, and only 5–6 small denticles on the
external cusp. The shell of P. virginiae (Fig. 19) is very
different to that of P. robmoolenbeeki. It has a larger
shell which is broader and with a lower sigmoid spire.
The shoulder is subangulate, forming a characteristic
ridge, covered with axial costae on last whorl. Apart
from these conchological differences with P. rob-
moolenbeeki, the protoconch of P. virginiae is multispi-
ral with 3–3.5 whorls instead of paucispiral.
Acknowledgements
My most sincere thanks to: Prof. Philippe Bouchet,
Virginie Heros and Philippe Maestrati from the
MNHN, Paris, for all the facilities provided for the
study of deep water cones from the Solomon Islands,
Fiji and New Caledonia; Manuel Caballer, project E-
RECOLNAT: ANR-11-INBS-0004, MNHN for the pho-
tos of the type specimens illustrated in the present
work; John K. Tucker, Rantoul, Illinois, for reading
and suggesting improvements to the manuscript. Two
anonymous reviewers read the manuscript and pro-
vided useful suggestions for improvement.
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ing Cone shells: 1-517. MdM Publishing, Wellington FL,
USA.
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Basteria 80(1-3), 2016
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Article
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The genus Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956 is reviewed. The morphological characters of shell, radular tooth and internal anatomy of species in Profundiconus are discussed. In particular we studied Profundiconus material collected by dredging in deep-water during different scientific campaigns carried out in the Solomon Islands, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia. We reconstructed a phylogeny of 55 individuals based on partial mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences. The phylogeny shows several clades containing individuals that do not match any of the known species of Profundiconus according to their shell and radular morphologies, and are introduced here as new species: Profundiconus maribelae sp. nov., from the Solomon Islands; Profundiconus virginiae sp. nov., from Chesterfield Plateau (New Caledonia); Profundiconus barazeri, from Chesterfield Plateau and Grand Passage area (New Caledonia); Profundiconus puillandrei sp. nov. from Norfolk Ridge (New Caledonia), Kermadec Ridge (New Zealand), and possibly Balut Island (Philippines); Profundiconus neocaledonicus sp. nov., from New Caledonia.
Book
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The Illustrated Catalog of the Living Cone Shells is a work that unites in one book all the current taxonomic information about the cone shells. Cone shells have long been valued by collectors and malacologists and have become widely used in medical studies of their venomology. This book, written by two well-known experts on the subject, contains more than 1960 entries, with more than 1000 color photos of the species considered valid along with their subspecies and most important forms. Inclusion of a comprehensive chapter on taxonomy and an extensive bibliography, will make this work an invaluable tool for the serious collector as well as for the professional scientist interested in cone shells. Finally, the extensive additions helping resolve supraspecific taxonomy should make this aspect of cone shell biology more understandable carrying it well beyond the contributions made in 2009 by Tucker & Tenorio in their book Systematic Classification of Recent and Fossil Conoidean Gastropods
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We present herein a new classification of the cone shells. This classification uses radular morphology to define most of the suprageneric taxa. However, other features such as shell morphology, morphology of the periostracum and operculum and dietary habits are also factored in. We consider fossil taxa as well as Recent taxa whose radular morphology are unknown, using shell morphological traits to place them in appropriate genera. The classification consists of five families, namely Conorbiidae, Hemiconidae n. fam., Taranteconidae n. fam., Conilithidae n. fam. and Conidae. The family Conidae is by far the most numerous in terms of genera both extinct and living, and comprises at least two subfamilies (Coninae and Puncticuliinae, hereby introduced) and 64 genera, one of them fossil. The next family in number of genera is Conilithidae, with two new subfamilies (Conilithinae and Californiconinae) and 19 genera, two of them extinct. The remaining three families are basal to the other two, and much less diverse. Hemiconidae has only one fossil genus assigned, whereas Taranteconidae has two extant genera, and Conorbiidae consists of three genera, one fossil and two extant. Thus, the resulting classification comprises 89 genera in total, from which 27 are introduced as new taxa, and all the remaining 62 genera were already introduced in the literature. We also discuss the correct use of the generic name Asprella Schaufuss, 1869. A type species (Conasprella pagoda (Kiener, 1845)) is designated for Conasprella Thiele, 1929 under article 70.3.2 of the ICZN. Thiele (1929) had misidentified C. pagoda as Conus cancellatus (Hwass, 1792, a species of Conasprelloides). Finally, we note that the actual publication date for Fusiconus longurionis (Kiener) is 1850 not 1845. The name was not published in Kiener’s plates, which do date from 1845, but instead it was introduced in the text. The text in question dated from 1850. Cladistic analyses were preformed on a data matrix consisting of one behavioral trait (diet), 17 radular morphology traits and 28 shell morphological traits. Results of these provided good support for the Conidae and Conilithidae based on radular synapomorphies. Support for other families was less robust but for all families the results of our morphological analyses mirror clades found in many molecular studies. Our study lends support for phylogenies developed from molecular data.
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Knowledge of the attributes of the venom-injecting radular teeth of Conus can enhance understanding of the functional biology of feeding and the systematics of this large and taxonomically difficult genus of gastropods. We define and provide a scheme for coding the states of Conus radular tooth characters, in order to facilitate their use in taxonomic and phylo-genetic studies. To exemplify these characters, we describe and illustrate teeth of putatively primitive species and of species representing generalized, vermivorous, molluscivorous and piscivorous feeding groups within the genus. We define and address the intraspecific and interspecific variation of ten presence-absence characters and 15 continuous characters, of which at least five and ten, respectively, are present in most species. Some continuous characters are bimodally distributed among the species sampled. If this distribution still obtains when additional species are examined, these characters could also be coded unambiguously as having two states. We also review the several previously proposed classification schemes of Conus radular teeth and of species according to tooth characters. As Troschel suggested in 1866, a tooth length:width ratio greater than or less than 20 separates the genus into two distinct species groups, now known to comprise the molluscivorous and piscivorous species in the former, and vermivorous and generalized species in the latter. Important subsidiary characters are the number of barbs, presence/ absence of blade, cusp, and spur, length of serrations, relative width of base, and tooth length:shell length ratio.
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A little less than 100 species of cones are known in the literature from waters around the Fiji islands, all intertidal to subtidal. We report here on the species taken by recent offshore and deep-water benthic sampling expeditions. Samples were taken to depths of 1300 m, although cones were taken not deeper than 680 m. Leaving aside two taxa of uncertain identity, the material contains 22 species from depths deeper than 100 m, all of which are new records for Fiji, including four new species (Conus cakobaui spec. nov., alive in 414-567 m; C. joliveti spec. nov., alive in 150-353 m; C. fijisulcatus spec. nov., alive in 150-188 m; and C. gigasulcatus spec. nov., alive in 290-300 m). A further 19 species are from depths shallower than 100 m, and these include six new records for Fiji, including two new species (C. fijiensis spec. nov., alive in 80-120 m; and C. sutanorcum spec. nov., alive in 32-50 m).
The Conidae of the Solomon Islands. Part 3. Alphabetical review treating the (sub)species from Conus hopwoodi up to Conus nimbosus
  • A Delsaerdt
DELSAERDT, A., 1991. The Conidae of the Solomon Islands. Part 3. Alphabetical review treating the (sub)species from Conus hopwoodi up to Conus nimbosus. -Gloria Maris 30: 1-24.
The Conidae of the Solomon Islands. Part 7. Finally II
DELSAERDT, A., 2000b., The Conidae of the Solomon Islands. Part 7. Finally II.-Gloria Maris 39: 23-58.
New species of the Conidae (Gastropoda)
  • T Kuroda
KURODA, T., 1956. New species of the Conidae (Gastropoda). -Venus 19 (1): 1-16.
  • D Röckel
  • W Korn
  • A J Kohn
RÖCKEL, D., KORN, W. & KOHN, A. J., 1995. Manual of the living Conidae, Volume 1: Indo-Pacific region: 1-517. Verlag Christa Hemmen, Hackenheim.