ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

During the colonial era, British introduced their political, economic and cultural system to Ceylon for maintain the colonial with more benefits. However, after the World War II British lost their hegemonic capabilities in world system. As a result of that, British decide to grant independence and establish the mechanism to maintain the close relations with former colonies in the world system. The Commonwealth was established in 1949 and contain the countries which directly or indirectly controlled by the British Monarchy.During the post-colonial era UK-Sri Lanka maintain close relationship within the international paradigm due to national interest.UK-Sri Lanka Political and Economic relations reach ripe movement during the ethnic conflict and United Kingdom (UK) became a major party for conflict prevention and negotiation process. However, escalation of ethnic conflict create more British involvement in Sri Lankan decision making process and Sri Lanka was granted large scale political and financial aid to maintain the peace process.During the last stage of humanitarian mission against the LTTE, UK became a more active party in IDP and resettlement process in war effected areas.
Proceedings of 8th International Research Conference, KDU, Published November 2015
54
Sri Lanka in Commonwealth: UK-Sri Lanka Political and Economic Relations
2009-2015
H Kandaudahewa
Department of International Relations, University of Colombo, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka
hasithk@inr.cmb.ac.lk
Abstract During the colonial era, British introduced
their political, economic and cultural system to Ceylon for
maintain the colonial with more benefits. However, after
the World War II British lost their hegemonic capabilities
in world system. As a result of that, British decide to grant
independence and establish the mechanism to maintain
the close relations with former colonies in the world
system. The Commonwealth was established in 1949 and
contain the countries which directly or indirectly
controlled by the British Monarchy.During the post-
colonial era UK-Sri Lanka maintain close relationship
within the international paradigm due to national
interest.UK-Sri Lanka Political and Economic relations
reach ripe movement during the ethnic conflict and
United Kingdom (UK) became a major party for conflict
prevention and negotiation process. However, escalation
of ethnic conflict create more British involvement in Sri
Lankan decision making process and Sri Lanka was
granted large scale political and financial aid to maintain
the peace process.During the last stage of humanitarian
mission against the LTTE, UK became a more active party
in IDP and resettlement process in war effected areas.
Keywords Bilateral Relations, Soft Power, National
Interest
I. INTRODUCTION
Ceylon (later Sri Lanka) chronological timeline back to
2500 BC with the greater history with developed
civilization among countries in past. However, Ceylon was
partly colonize since 1505 to 1815 by Portuguese, Dutch
and English. In 1815, British were able to conquer the last
Kingdom of Ceylon called Kingdom of Kandy and be able
to control all part of the Ceylon nearly 133 years. During
the colonial era, British adopted majority of local
community into their political, economic and socio-
cultural practices. Therefore, they introduced British
political and economic system to Ceylon to maintain the
colonial ties and gain more benefits. However, after the
World War II British lost their hegemonic capabilities
and statues in world system. Meanwhile, USA brought
decolonization process into Post World War era. As a
result of that, and the peaceful request from the
colonies, British crown decide to grant the dominance
statues to South Asian countries such as India, Pakistan
and Ceylon. Finally, Ceylon has been granted dominion
independence by British on 04th February, 1948.
After the independence, Ceylon did not have proper
international exposure as a new independent country.
Therefore, Dominion of Ceylon (DoC) seeks assistance
from former colonial ruler to maintain external affairs
and defence under well-known Ceylon - United Kingdom
External Affairs and Defence Agreement in 1947.
In addition, as mentioned in 1947 external affairs
agreement, Ceylon became a part of the Commonwealth
of Nations in 1948. Moreover, most of Ceylon trade
partners are former British colonies in all over the world
and international trade was handled through British
monetary unit called Sterling Pound.
However, during the cold war era, Ceylon established the
proper diplomatic channels with the United Kingdom and
the Commonwealth. Since 1980, UK-Sri Lanka political,
economic and cultural relations mark critical point due to
beginning of ethnic war in Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan ethnic
conflict, which is protracted internal war, made more UK
involvements into Sri Lanka. Black July incident in 1983,
created high pressure on both countries bilateral
relations and it had indicates British sensitivity toward Sri
Lankan community. However, British provided a financial
aid to develop the infrastructure facility in Sri Lanka.
Victoria dam project was financed by the UK government
and British Monarch Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and
His Royal Highness Prince Philip visit to Victoria Dam site
to monitor the progress.
During the last three decades, Sri Lanka was badly
affected by ongoing internal war between The Liberation
Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the Government of Sri
Lanka (GoSL). Internal war cost lot of political,
economic and socio cultural benefit for Sri Lanka with
large number of human life. Under His Excellency
President Mahinda Rajapaksa, UK-Sri Lanka Bilateral
Relations began to develop in new phase.
Proceedings of 8th International Research Conference, KDU, Published November 2015
55
Election manifesto called “Mahinda Chinthana 2005”
mainly pointed out Sri Lankan foreign policy and relations
for next decade. According to Mahinda Chinthana Sri
Lankan foreign policy can be identify as following “… will
continue Sri Lanka’s Non-aligned foreign policy.
committed to continue these friendly relations in the
political, economic, defence, trade and cultural arenas.”
Further, “Mahinda Chinthana 2010” highlights same
policy with economic progress to Sri Lankan post war
scenario.
II.METHODOLOGY
In this research primary sources such as government
press release, report and speeches and the statement
made by the foreign policy decision makes are highly
useful to examine the relation between UK-Sri Lanka. The
main objective of using primary sources are identify the
regime or national interest of countries and highlight the
major significances. Furthermore, secondary sources
such as journal articles and newspaper finding will be
referred to understand the context. Meanwhile, this
research will focus on qualitative approach in social
science arena to achieve the main objectives of research.
III.THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
Within the context of state decision making process
concept of National Interest play major role in
determining its direction and priorities in contemporary
politics. According to J Holsti, the leading Canadian
theorist in national interest, three level of interest such
as fundamental, middle term and long term goals are
important to country decision making process (Holsti
1967, 2-21). He argues state commitment to goals will
make radical and strong decision followed with unitary
actions. Further, Holsti argue fundamental goal always
remain with the top priority, but middle term goals can
be vary from time to time and regime to regime but it
should not endangered the fundamental goal.
James D. Fearon highlight domestic rationalise are
important factor in foreign policy decision making
process and separation of international politics and
foreign policy cannot be done in modern context (Fearon
1998, 142-153). Further, Hang ThiThuy Nguyen argues
external environment, societal environment,
governmental setting, the roles of foreign policymakers
and individual personalities are prime in foreign policy
decision making process (Nguyen 2013, 20-24).
During the post-cold war era, new power dilemmas come
to present with many faces. Joseph Nye who brought the
concept of Soft Power as a new content of power in
international relations highlight tangible resources can
create more influence on other country decision making
process with minimal damage to state relations (Nye
2004, 5). Therefore state in modern context use soft
power to deter the other parties and obtain the
outcomes with minimal influence. Giulio M. Gallorotti
developed the Nye idea on soft power in to new arena.
He argues of Meta Power in international system is main
source for soft power. Further, Gallorotti highlight in
modern day, countries are using foreign aid as a tools of
soft powerinstrument to control behaviours or the
policies of state as they wanted (Gallorotti 2011, 11).
Meanwhile, in UK contextLord Hannay of Chiswick
highlight multilateral dimension of British soft power in
21st century. According to him, British has practice soft
power in hundred years ago and still continue it to
achieve the objectives of national interest. UK policy on
international institutionalism provide a large scale
support for British soft power influence and The
Commonwealth organization become a major part of
that. Therefore, British were able to control the
outcomes and policies of other countries in favour for
their national interest.
In Sri Lankan scenario, GoSL fundamental goal is maintain
Sri Lankan position in world politics as a middle power,
but in major position in world decision making process.
To achieve that GoSL need economic and political
stability within the country and region. Therefore, after
the internal war GoSL look forward to established the
economic stability which aims to fulfil fundamental goal.
Apart from that, in Sri Lankan and United Kingdom
decision making process Executive President and Prime
Minister performance significance role in determining
the policies of national process. Therefore, individual
personalities and attitude were effected in national
process.
IV. UK-SRI LANKA RELATIONS
President Rajapaksa who became a fifth Executive
President of Sri Lanka brought new propaganda to
improving country relations and foreign policy into next
era. During the Rajapaksa era, Sri Lankan foreign policy
always focus on improving war time economy and
sovereign political decision making power in local
context. However, authorities use populist and realist
approach into foreign policy decision making and align
with world powers to secure the interest and the political
sovereignty of the country. As a former colonial ruler and
world power UK government look closely in Sri Lankan
internal and external political decision making process
especially in ethnic and political alliance. Sri Lankan
ethnic issue create huge impact in to UK government
since large number of Tamil communities lives in UK.
Therefore, Members of the Parliament and decision
makers provide necessary support to Tamil diaspora in
Proceedings of 8th International Research Conference, KDU, Published November 2015
56
UK to secure their internal political and regime interest
to maintain the power balance in UK. Furthermore, UK
played major role in post war era to determine outcomes
of process within the Sri Lanka. In addition to that, UK
used Commonwealth Organization to influence the Sri
Lankan political authority while allowing Sri Lankan
leader to emerge as a key figure in Commonwealth
system. Therefore, somehow state accept the right of
non-sate actors as a major party in international
relations.
According to Lunn Sri Lanka seek UK as a trusted ally for
decades and UK have same feeling for Sri Lanka also.
However, President Rajapaksa decision on humanitarian
war and UK Foreign Secretary David Miliband statement
on Sri Lankan human rights violation create downward
turn in UK Sri Lanka relations and future political crisis. In
that case they identify major reason for turnover in Sri
Lankan foreign relations (Lunn 2009, 5-71).
During President Rajapaksafirst visit to UK in December
2007, both parties engage with bilateral economic
relations which aimed to develop the economic
requirement such as textile and infrastructure sections.
UK-SL steel bridge project brought many economic
benefit to Sri Lanka and technological transfer between
both parties. Further,President Rajapaksa was fortunate
to addressthe Oxford Union on 14th May 2008 to explain
the challenges of Sri Lankan community in 21st era.
However, the opportunity was significance to Sri Lanka
since it was a major forum to explain the Sri Lankan
ideology on current situation and informal dialogue to
deliver Sri Lankan ideology over foreign relations.
A. Political Relations 2009-2015
UK-Sri Lanka relations during 2009-2015 based on GoSL
actions on resettlement of internal dispute with all party
involvement. UK House of Common article on “War and
Peace in Sri Lanka” is significance to understand the UK
view on Sri Lankan post-civil war context and President
Rajapaksa policies on international collaboration and
post war. In that case UK decision making authorities has
given their full attention for resettlement and Sri Lankan
human rights policy toward ethnic groups (ibid.). As a
solution for the internal war UK highly suggest on all
party political solution with long lasting peace. However,
UK hope on democratic power transition and ethnic
harmony was challenged by the Rajapaksha regime and
other domestic factors. Domestic parties argue Sri Lanka
need own resettlement and peacebuilding plan rather
accepting western agenda.
However, Ensurethe political security among Tamil
community, GoSL lunched the All Party Representative
committee (APRC) to provide a better political solution.
But at the beginning major Tamil community
representatives such as Tamil National Alliance (TNA)
withdrew form APRC without granting proper chance of
dialogue with Tamil People. Further, Tamil Diaspora (TD)
create massive wave of influence in European counties
with their internal political power. Especially in UK Tamil
community become a key factor in local political situation
and they were able to lobbying important key political
figures in UK politics such as David Miliband, former
Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth
Affairs. The military defeat of the LTTEleft TD as their
only saviour and left them with no option unless
deploying their propaganda through Diaspora. Therefore,
under Labour Government in UK, they were able to
pressure GoSL for wider political solution. As a result of
that GoSL has to negotiate with the TD about political
solution and resettlement and rehabilitation programme.
Cabinet Spokesmen Hon. Minister KeheliyaRambukwella
officially confirmed that GOSL was dealing with Diaspora
to achieve post war reconstruction and peacebuilding
process (Abeywickrema 2010).
With the pressure from international community
including UK,GoSL held a local government election in
northern and eastern province to secure political rights.
Completing first half of grass root level democracy and
peacebuilding, it created ad hoc for long hated political
insecurity and resolved major root cases for conflict. But
GoSL was not being able to neutralise the Sinhala
community when they rose against political solution
based on federalist approach. Other hand, Rajapaksa
regime didn’t want to challenge their Sinhala Buddhist
political foundation for ethnic minorities. Finally hope for
peaceful negotiation was slash by the domestic factors
and UK becomes a main party to fight against that.
2010 parliamentary and presidential elections in Sri
Lankacreate more international attraction. Especially the
focus on changing governance structure from democracy
into authoritative aspect has made more interest on UK
government policies toward good governance and
transparency.To balance the upcoming authoritative
aspect UK positively support US proposal on United
Nation Human Right Council resolution, which is called
“Promoting reconciliation and accountability in Sri Lanka”
under UNHRC A/HRC/RES/19/2) and UNHRC
A/HRC/RES/22/2 (UNHRC 19, 22, 2012/13).After UNHRC
Proceedings of 8th International Research Conference, KDU, Published November 2015
57
resolutions United State and European Union adopted
fiscal reducing policy to use their soft power against GoSL
to pressurize on post war humanitarian and resettlement
issues (The Hindu, 2013).
However, GoSL established Lesson Learnt and
Reconciliation Commission (LLRC) appointed by President
Rajapaksha to fact finding mission on Internal war and
addressed international allegation on war crimes. After
two years, conducting a long mission, LLRC released their
report in public in December 2011 and GoSL prepared
National Action Plan to address LLRC recommendations
with a lot of international and regional pressure (Piru
2012).
UK support on Human Right resolution creates a negative
impact over bilateral relations. However, GoSL required
to maintaining a friendly political approach with UK to
win over Sri Lankan nomination for CHOGM in 2013.
Meanwhile, during the CHOGM 2011 in Australia both
Head of the Government discuss the mutual political
issues and be able to resolve some of them in certain
aspect. As a result of that, the UK continue their
economic aid as well as humanitarian funding over
resettlement and rehabilitation programme. Further,
during CHOGM 2013 Prime Minister Cameran and
President Rajapaksha held bilateral discussion which
aimed to prolonged the harmony between parties.
Therefore, Commonwealth become a key platform for
the UK and Sri Lanka to resolve the bilateral issues and
both parties were able to use summit diplomacy to fulfil
the national interest of nation. Meanwhile, UK politically
pressurizes GoSL over accountability and good
governance to maintain the bilateral relations which
aimed to mutual benefit in economic and political
scenario.
B. Economic Relations 2009-2015
UK- Sri Lanka economic relation extent new stage after
the internal war. At the end of the war, GoSL decide to
shift their foreign policy direction into new range with
focusing on economic development within the country.
Further, GoSL prioritize the reconstruction and
peacebuilding in economic scenario. To implement
economic reconstruction programme GoSL look for it
traditional economic partners to fulfil her national
interest in economic scenario.
During the 2009, UK was a second biggest export market
for Sri Lanka in cinnamon, tea, rubber, fisheries and
textile. The market share for the textile and apparel
section nearly 27.7% and 22% represent species and
fisheries production in Sri Lankan gross export section
(MoFA 2010). In that case UK economic collaboration is
significance to Sri Lanka to achieve the post war
development progress.
Since Elem War IV, UK was involved in Northern and
Eastern province reconstruction programme. During
2009-2010 UK aid programme provide a £2 million aid
under conflict prevention fund to resolve the conflict
between parties in ethnic war. Further, foreign aid was
used to facilitate the negotiation and conflict prevention
process during the last stage of war. In that context UK
has shown their interest over Sri Lankan internal war
with aimed to peaceful negotiation by providing
economic facilities to the conflict parties. However,
outbreaks of conflict into next stage endanger the
national interest of UK. Meanwhile, UK government
deployed their humanitarian aid to conflict effected areas
in northern and eastern province under UK aid
Humanitarian fund. During the 2009-2011, UK provides a
£ 13.5 million for the humanitarian process and several
times UK top diplomat visit the conflict affected areas to
monitor the progress. Further, they provide economic
assistance and pressure the GoSL to facilitate economic
activities to reduce the poverty and hungry (HCoUK
2012).
Janet Ford, Head of UK Trade and Investment at the
British High Commission in Sri Lanka explain the UK
strategy over Sri Lankan post war economy over next
decade. Meanwhile, UK was aimed Sri Lankan industries
and service sector by investing and promoting
technological transfer. Under that scheme, UK invested
building the technological infrastructure facilities for the
British Telecom in 2010. To promote the national interest
of Sri Lanka, GoSL provide large scale fiscal facilities to
top European countries including UK to promote their
business activities. As a result of that UK become eight
largest Foreign Direct Investor (FDI) for Sri Lanka by
providing $ 52 million FDI in 2011.
British government encourage Private-Government and
Private-Private investment relationship to enhancement
economic activities with both parties. Meanwhile, they
expand their service requirement in Sri Lanka and
currently 110 UK companies operating with 29,000 local
labour forces (MoFA 2011). In another aspect, UK
investment into Sri Lanka during post war economy
brought a creditable situation for international investors
while encouraging European and Asian partners to
expand their business activities in Sri Lanka. Therefore
GoSL were able to reach the top investing countries to
reconstruct the economic activities which was downward
during the last thirty years of war. However as we can
Proceedings of 8th International Research Conference, KDU, Published November 2015
58
see UK become a major party for Sri Lankan post war
economic development process by contributing trade,
investment and service sector stability.
UK-Sri Lanka reaches new era during the 2013
Commonwealth Head of Government Meeting at
Colombo, Sri Lanka (CHOGM). With the participation of
David Cameran, Prime Minister of UK to CHOGM 2013
bilateral relations expands the many areas economic and
political section. Further, 27 UK investors represent
Commonwealth Business Forum in Sri Lanka with many
investing opportunities. With Summit diplomacy GoSL
were able to secure many investment programmes with
UK including development of Colombo Port- South Asia
Gateway terminal in 2013.
Table 1. Value of Trade between Sri Lanka and UK
(2009-2014)
Year
UK export to Sri
Lanka
UK import
from Sri
Lanka
2009
£ 109.5 m
£ 657 m
2010
£ 129 m
£ 707m
2011
£ 155 m
£ 804 m
2012
£ 146 m
£ 907 m
2013
£ 167 m
£ 849 m
2014
£ 165 m
£ 1158 m
Source: (British High Commission 2015)
According to the Table one UK export more commodities
from Sri Lanka than exporting. Therefore bilateral trade
create a positive contribution for Sri Lankan economy
and become a top destination for Sri Lanka. In 2014, even
under the economic crisis in Europe UK-Sri Lanka trade
achieve 36% of growth in service and trade sector.
Within the economic activities UK was not always
supportive for Sri Lanka during the post war era. Base on
human right allegation against GoSL, UK has taken
various forms of economic barriers to deter the Sri
Lankan policy since 2009. In August 2010, UK support
European Union decision on suspending GSP+ privilege to
Sri Lanka based on human rights standard. Further, in
2013 again UK supported European Union decision on
limiting fisheries export by Sri Lanka to European Union
based on human rights and environmental facts.
Therefore UK has cordially used their power to deter
outcomes of another state in international system.
Further, UK had demonstrated their soft power
utilization economic power in aggressive way. However,
UK decides to continue some aid packages to Sri Lanka to
ensure existence of mutual economic and political
relations. In the context UK used their soft power in two
major ways such as deter and control which aim to
control the outcomes of other state. Meanwhile UK were
able t get many domestic interest via foreign policy tools
such as compiling GoSL to provide necessary legal and
political actions to improve the standard of living and
Human Rights within the Sri Lanka.
V. CONCLUSION
In conclusion, researcher can clearly outline during the
post war era,GoSL directly aimed to develop the political
relations with major power in world system and UK
become a one of the major party. Meanwhile, GoSL has
shown their interest over securing long term
fundamental goals by adopting international opinion
rather rejecting them. However, in that process
Rajapaksa regime followed their own methods with
populist domestic approach rather than rational
approach on foreign policy. In that context, Sri Lankan
community has suffered political and economic sanction
with minimal social impact. But it was greatly affected by
the public opinion over UK. International public opinion
on major issue become a key opinion on local and
international decision making process with the deeper
impact. Adopting Sri Lanka foreign policy base on that
create provide a significance role over local decision
making process.
UK has significantly show their national interest over Sri
Lankan post war scenario and they used more flexible
and controllable power sources to obtain the certain
outcomes of they want. In that context, concept of soft
power become a predominant approach to control the
state behaviour in modern day politics. Further, it make
minimal damage over state relation rather than hard
power approach. Therefore in modern day context
economic aid become a challengeable factor for the
territorial integrity and national interest.
REFERENCE
Abeywickrema, M I, (2010). Captured Tiger KP Working
With Government. The Sunday Leader, 27 June. 6
Daily News, (2010). British Foreign Aid to Sri Lanka. p.6.
Fearon, J. (1998). Domestic Politics, Foreign Policy, and
Theories of International Relations. Annual Review of
Political Science, 1(1), pp.289-313.
Gallarotti, G. (2011). Soft power: what it is, why it’s
important, and the conditions for its effective use.
Journal of Political Power, 4(1), pp.25-47.
Proceedings of 8th International Research Conference, KDU, Published November 2015
59
Holsti, K. (1967). International politics. Englewood Cliffs,
N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Lunn, J., Taylor, C. and Townsend, I. (2009). War and
Peace in Sri Lanka. Commons Library Research Paper
RP09/51, pp.5-71.
Nye, J. (2004). Soft power. New York: Public Affairs.
President.gov, (2009) new era in foreign relations to
safeguard motherland President. Available at:
http://www.president.gov.lk/news.php?newsID=695.
[Accessed 06 June 2015].
Priu, (2011). Commission of Inquiry on Lessons Learnt And
Reconciliation. Colombo: Government of Sri Lanka,
[ONLINE] Available at:
http://slembassyusa.org/downloads/LLRC-REPORT.pdf
[Accessed 06 June 2015].
Priu, (2013). National Plan of Action to Implement the
Recommendations of the LlRC. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.priu.gov.lk/news_update/Current_Affairs/ca
201207/20120726national_plan_action.htm. [Accessed
06 June 2015].
Rjapaka, M. (2005). MahindaChintana I. [Colombo: s.n.]
Rjapaka, M. (2005). MahindaChintana II. [Colombo:
s.n.]
The Hindu, (2012). Sri Lanka faces U.S. aid cut. p.Online
Edition.http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/so
uth-asia/sri-lanka-faces-us-aid-cut/article4619545.ece
(accessed 10 June 10 2015).
ThiThuy Nguyen, H. (2013). Theories of US Foreign Policy:
An Overview. World Journal of Social Science, 1(1).
UK Aid, (2015). Sri Lanka." Development Tracker.
Department for International Development-UK.
BIOGRAPHY OF AUTHOR
Author is a Lecturer (Probationary) at
the Faculty of Arts, University of
Colombo. He obtained is BA (hons) in
International Relations from the
University of Colombo and also is
reading for his MSc in International
Relations from the same university.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Article
Soft power has attracted significant attention in scholarly and public debates on foreign affairs in recent years. Notwithstanding this greater attention, the treatment of soft power has developed little beyond ‘soft theory.’ This article addresses this deficiency by offering a more rigorous and systematic analysis of the process of soft power. In addition, it seeks to address two further shortcomings in the treatment of soft power: by explaining how changes in modern world politics have raised the value of soft power and by proposing conditions that encourage decision‐makers to appreciate and effectively employ soft power strategies.
Full-text available
Article
A significant and growing literature on international relations (IR) argues that domestic politics is typically an important part of the explanation for states' foreign policies, and seeks to understand its influence more precisely. I argue that what constitutes a "domestic-political" explanation of a state's foreign policy choices has not been clearly elaborated. What counts as a domestic-political explanation is defined by opposition to systemic or struc-tural explanations. But these may be specified in several different ways—I spell out two—each of which implies a different concept of domestic-political explanations. If a systemic IR theory pictures states as unitary, ra-tional actors, then a domestic-political explanation is one in which domestic-political interactions in at least one state yield a suboptimal foreign policy relative to some normative standard. Or, if a systemic IR theory pictures states as unitary, rational actors and also requires that attributes of particular states not enter the explanation, then a domestic-political explanation is any one that involves state characteristics other than relative power. Implications of each approach are developed, and examples from the literature are pro-vided. I also address the question of whether there is a sharp distinction be-tween a "systemic theory of international politics" and a "theory of foreign policy," arguing that there is an important and natural sense in which they are the same.
Article
This article reviews major theoretical perspectives to US foreign policy as well as on how these theoretical perspectives explain foreign policy decision making and conducting of the US. First, the paper will discuss the process of making foreign policy to sustain US core values and interests which are determined by five major categories of sources (i) the external environment, (ii) the societal environment of the nation, (iii) the governmental setting, (iv) the roles of foreign policymakers, and (v) the individual personalities of foreign policy-making elites (Wittkopf et al 2008, p. 15). Then, the paper will examine the defensive and offensive realism, liberalism, marxism, neoclassical realism, constructivism which can be based on to understand US foreign policy behaviour. It will be concluded that no single theory has the capacity to describe, explain and predict US foreign policy behaviour. A mixture of such theoretical approaches seems to be necessary to obtain a comprehensive picture of US foreign policy.
Captured Tiger KP Working With Government. The Sunday Leader
  • M Abeywickrema
Abeywickrema, M I, (2010). Captured Tiger KP Working With Government. The Sunday Leader, 27 June. 6
War and Peace in Sri Lanka. Commons Library Research Paper RP09/51
  • J Lunn
  • C Taylor
  • I Townsend
Lunn, J., Taylor, C. and Townsend, I. (2009). War and Peace in Sri Lanka. Commons Library Research Paper RP09/51, pp.5-71.
National Plan of Action to Implement the Recommendations of the LlRC
  • Priu
Priu, (2013). National Plan of Action to Implement the Recommendations of the LlRC. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.priu.gov.lk/news_update/Current_Affairs/ca 201207/20120726national_plan_action.htm. [Accessed 06 June 2015].
International politics
  • K Holsti
Holsti, K. (1967). International politics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Commission of Inquiry on Lessons Learnt And Reconciliation. Colombo: Government of Sri Lanka
  • Priu
Priu, (2011). Commission of Inquiry on Lessons Learnt And Reconciliation. Colombo: Government of Sri Lanka, [ONLINE] Available at: http://slembassyusa.org/downloads/LLRC-REPORT.pdf [Accessed 06 June 2015].
British Foreign Aid to Sri Lanka
  • Daily News
Daily News, (2010). British Foreign Aid to Sri Lanka. p.6.
new era in foreign relations to safeguard motherland-President Available at: http://www.president.gov.lk/news.php?newsID=695
  • President
  • Gov
President.gov, (2009) new era in foreign relations to safeguard motherland-President. Available at: http://www.president.gov.lk/news.php?newsID=695. [Accessed 06 June 2015].