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Designing Qualitative Research

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... During these interviews, we gathered and explored maternal opinions and perspectives on the factors affecting young children's early literacy learning environments at home. This methodology was chosen because it enabled the researcher to study mothers' perspectives in depth and to understand and characterize each mother's unique experience [35][36][37]. Conducting direct interviews either face to face or directly via video conference was crucial since it allowed the researcher to better understand their perspectives in their context and take notice of non-verbal cues. Direct interviewing is an effective way to gather information based on facial expressions (e.g., passion) or the subject's emphasis on seriousness [38]. ...
... After receiving ethical clearance from the Research Ethics Committee (REC) at King Faisal University and informed consent from the participants, data were gathered in Saudi Arabia during the first semester of the 2022 academic year. The study's qualitative research process focuses on an in-depth realization of social aspects within a person's normal environment [37,39]. Thus, the qualitative research in this study procedure used in-depth and semi-structured interviews as well as field notes, which were collected and evaluated by comparing the responses of the participants. ...
... The codes identified during each round agreed with a confidence level of 97%. Further efforts to maintain credibility included presenting the participants' detailed views of the factors and practices that may affect the literacy learning space in the home environment [37,42,43]. ...
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This study explores the factors affecting the early literacy learning spaces of young children in home environments in Saudi Arabia from mothers’ perspectives. A qualitative research methodology was used. In-depth and semi-structured interviews with 15 mothers of young children (2–5 years old) were conducted. A coding approach was used to analyze the qualitative data, which revealed three themes: (1) direct factors that influence the early literacy learning space at home, (2) indirect factors that influence the early literacy learning space at home, and (3) challenges in creating early literacy learning spaces at home. Several pedagogical implications are suggested at the end of this study that could be useful to parents and caregivers who want to support and improve their children’s early literacy learning spaces.
... The professional status of the subject matter experts identifies them as "elites" (Marshall and Rossman, 2016). This status strengthens the validity of data received as information from elites is generally considered to be accurate and valuable (Marshall and Rossman, 2016). ...
... The professional status of the subject matter experts identifies them as "elites" (Marshall and Rossman, 2016). This status strengthens the validity of data received as information from elites is generally considered to be accurate and valuable (Marshall and Rossman, 2016). The information I received from the subject matter experts demonstrated a broad range of rich information on the topic of access to justice, the broader systems that access to justice initiatives occur within, and the challenges for particular groups. ...
... A potential issue is the impact of translation on the data. While the researcher is proficient in Spanish, Marshall and Rossman (2016) detail the challenges with data which has been translated. They argue that translation from one language to another is a complex process which involves many nuances with extracting meaning from the data. ...
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Access to justice has been recognized as an essential component of peace, sustainable development and conflict resolution. The international community acknowledged this significance with the 2015 adoption of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and, in particular, Sustainable Development Goal 16- Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions. Due to the many distinctive characteristics of post-conflict settings, attempting to measure access to justice in post-conflict environments remains challenging. In order to develop a conceptual measurement framework for use in post-conflict situations, this qualitative study reviews and analyzes the literature on access to justice, existing measurement tools designed to measure the concept, and data gathered through consultations with 10 subject matter experts in San Jose, Costa Rica. The resulting conceptual measurement framework accounts for the unique and varied ways that access to justice is experienced in post-conflict environments and suggests feasible options for implementation in the field.
... An interview consists of a meaningful conversation among two or multiple persons (Marshall & Rossman, 2014). ...
... Although the researcher should be prepared with certain-pre-determined questions to ask when interviewing, they must also allow questions to flow naturally based on the information provided by the interviewee. The researcher should not insist upon asking specific questions in a specific order; furthermore, after observing non-verbal behaviours during the interview process, the researcher should immediately record them in their field notes (Mack, 2005;Boyce & Neale, 2006;Marshall & Rossman, 2014). This type of interview technique is to be utilised for the purpose of qualitatively exploring the viewpoints and perceptions of the Jordanian contractors regarding the adoption of waste minimisation behaviours in construction projects, and to substantiate the list of factors determined by the review of the literature (see section 3.4). ...
... As previously mentioned in section 4.5.5.2, semi-structured questions are employed, which allow the respondents to express their views in a manner of their choosing. This approach to questioning is deemed to be appropriate as the direction given to the respondents is minimised, while it also removes the necessity for the researcher to predetermine suitable categories for responses, which allows the formation of groups of similar responses where required subsequent to collecting the data (Marshall & Rossman, 2014). ...
... The methodological approach adopted in this research comprises four phases, as presented in Figure The FG is a research method of exploratory nature that collects qualitative data from group interaction on a topic presented by the moderator [42]. The FG stimulates discussion among experts concerning their insights, opinions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding a product, service, theory, or concept, enlarging and improving the information existing on a topic and creating new insights [43]. The FG is a research method of exploratory nature that collects qualitative data from group interaction on a topic presented by the moderator [42]. ...
... The FG is a research method of exploratory nature that collects qualitative data from group interaction on a topic presented by the moderator [42]. The FG stimulates discussion among experts concerning their insights, opinions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding a product, service, theory, or concept, enlarging and improving the information existing on a topic and creating new insights [43]. ...
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With growing environmental concerns, reverse logistics (RL) assumes a significant role in the sustainability of the construction industry to the extent that it can contribute to mitigating some of the negative environmental impacts related to its activity. However, despite the benefits that can be attributed to RL, its implementation level in the construction industry is still very low. This research determines the root barriers to adopting RL in construction (ARLC) using the case of the Portuguese construction market. The methodology involved focus groups and a combined Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) and Matrices d’Impacts cross-multiplication appliqúe a classmate (MICMAC) approach. The root barriers that have been identified by the application of the methodology to the ARLC are: lack of financial incentives to incorporate recycled materials, lack of knowledge about RL, lack of technical support, standard codes and regulations in favor of using recycled materials, lack of information sharing, cooperation and coordination among entities of the supply chain, current buildings have not been designed for deconstruction, and lack of construction and demolition waste (CDW) management and recycling infrastructures and markets for the materials resulting from CDW. The highest hierarchical level includes barrier B10 (lack of financial incentives to incorporate recycled materials into the construction); this barrier influences all the other barriers and, as such, it is considered the key barrier to the ARLC in Portugal. The research has also identified 17 different mitigation measures to tackle these barriers, with different natures: fiscal, regulatory, financial, etc.
... Elde edilen veriler üzerinde içerik analizi yapılmıştır. Yapılan görüşme ve gözlemler bilgisayar ortamına aktarılmış ve kayıtlı veriler üzerinden kodlar, temalar ve kategoriler çıkartılmıştır (Marshall & Rossman, 2006). Verileri kategorize etmek ve düzenlemek amacıyla MAXQDA paket programı kullanılmıştır. ...
... Content analysis was performed on the obtained data. The interviews and observations were transferred to the computer environment and codes, themes and categories were extracted from the recorded data (Marshall & Rossman, 2006). MAXQDA package program was used to categorize and organize the data. ...
Conference Paper
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Pre-service teacher education has undergone various challenges in the Covid-19 process. This systematic review study aims to identify and highlight the emergent issues reported in the recent literature regarding pre-service teacher education in the Covid-19 process in the Turkish teacher education context. As Flores and Swennen (2020) indicate that it is crucial to consider how teacher education has changed to accommodate the limitations on interaction and transition to new modes of teaching and learning in order to prepare future educators for an uncertain world. Results of the studies conducted during this pandemic process might bring valuable insights regarding experiences in Covid-19 for teacher educators and education faculties to be prepared for complex and emergent situations that might occur in the future. In addition, the study's results may contribute to the relevant teacher education literature.
... Finally, concluding based on the results obtained. According to Marshall and Rossman (1990), Data analysis is seen as a challenging assignment that requires much more effort and skills. It is achieved through making suitable decisions about the purpose and goals of the study, the research questions, and the data collection procedures as explained by Marshall and Rossman (1990) "Data analysis is the process of bringing order, structure, and meaning to the mass of collected data. ...
... According to Marshall and Rossman (1990), Data analysis is seen as a challenging assignment that requires much more effort and skills. It is achieved through making suitable decisions about the purpose and goals of the study, the research questions, and the data collection procedures as explained by Marshall and Rossman (1990) "Data analysis is the process of bringing order, structure, and meaning to the mass of collected data. It is a messy, ambiguous, time-consuming, creative, and fascinating process it does not precede linearly; it is not neat". ...
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Studying ESP involves more than simply learning a collection of technical linguistic words; it is about learning how to use English in a particular situation while also including the necessary skills and language learning objectives. The current study aimed to examine the rationale for employing the translation method to teach ESP to third-year computer science students at the University of Tlemcen. This study employed a case study approach. A questionnaire was administered to ESP the teachers in the department of Science and Technology, and classroom observations on third-year students of computer science were conducted. The study's findings indicated that students pursuing third-year computer science courses at Tlemcen University experience a range of difficulties while interacting with professional resources. The proposed translation method in ESP may be incorporated and adapted as an effective technique for ESP teachers and students to improve learners’ language skills related to their academic field. Keywords: Content-based approach; ESP Context; ESP courses; ESP Students.
... al. (2004) Day reconstruction method Swallow et. al. (2005) Persona matching Hektner, Schmidt & Csikszentmihalyi (2006) Experience Sampling Method (ESM) Marshall & Rossman (2010) Focus Group Kujala et al. (2011) UX Curve (Used for UX over time) Mendoza, Novick & Paso (2005) Diary method Von Wilamowitz--Moellendorff et al. (2006) Retrospective interview method Karapanos (2013) Experience Narratives Hassenzahl (2003) Laugwitz's et al. (2008) User Experience questionnaire Vermeeren et al. (2010) Survey method Karapanos, Martens, & Hassenzahl (2010); Karapanos (2013) iScale Desmet (2005) Product ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper a literature review strategy was utilized to assess the methods of evaluating UX longitudinally. The review revealed that studies on user experience evaluation over time are rare. This rareness is attributed to the cost involved in carrying out such studies. This research nonetheless suggests that lack of sufficient information and adequate knowledge on methods used for the evaluation of UX over time may also be the reason for the scarcity of studies on long-term user experience evaluation. On this note, this paper reviewed previous works on long-term evaluation of UX to elicit the methods employed in conducting such evaluation to inform possible researchers on the existing methods. The outcome of the study indicated a number of methods for the evaluation of UX over time.
... In this study typical case sampling, that is one of the purposive sampling techniques, was used. Typical case sampling is used to express situations that have the ability to represent the universe and do not differ from the universe in terms of their basic characteristics (Marshall and Rossman, 2014). To better understand the misleading perception management applications about Turkey in Western movies, three of twelve Western movies that were filmed on Turkish soil within a three-and four-year period have been chosen as the sample of the study. ...
... In accordance with the peer briefing guidelines, we invited a member of Baidu Jiese Forum who was not included in our sample to read the original posts, review our interpretations, and provide feedback (Spall, 1998). After addressing his concerns and doubts, we then asked two experts specializing in sexual health and Chinese culture to proofread our earlier draft for culturally specific terminology (Marshall & Rossman, 2014). We further revised our manuscript in response to their suggestions. ...
Article
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About 6 million men in China engage in jiese (abstaining from masturbation and porn) and call themselves jieyou (porn-free self-help community members). In this article, we sought to unpack how the idea of jiese took root in Chinese historical, social, and cultural contexts by interviewing 32 jieyou. Guided by the sensemaking theory, we conducted a critical discourse analysis of participants’ responses and ended up identifying four major themes: embodied experiences, jiese as rational and noble, reconstructing the subjectivity of jieyou, and nationalistic sentiments. We found out that jieyou tended to justify their abstinence by seeking sources of legitimacy in traditional Chinese culture, the ideology of healthism, science, and patriotic discourses. We argue that jiese reflects young men’s contradictory cultural practices of conservatism, self-medicalization, and neoliberal governmentality.
... The purpose of descriptive analysis is to bring together the data collected as a result of interviews and observations with the reader in an organised and interpreted way. Descriptive analysis refers to a four-stage process: (1) creating a framework for descriptive analysis, (2) processing the data according to the thematic framework, (3) identifying the findings and (4) interpreting the findings (Marshall & Rossman, 2014). The answers given by the primary school teachers participating in the research to the semi-structured interview form were evaluated by considering the stages of the descriptive analysis method and given in the findings section with frequency and percentage tables. ...
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The purpose of this research is to obtain the opinions of primary school teachers about effective teaching methods in distance education. In this study, the phenomenology design, one of the qualitative research models, was used. The participant group of the research consists of 32 primary school teachers who gave education in various primary schools in the Astana, Kazakhstan, in the 2021–2022 academic year. Research data were collected with the semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. Descriptive analysis method was used in the analysis of the research data. As a result of the research, it was determined that the vast majority of primary school teachers found distance education somewhat effective. The difficulties faced by primary school teachers in distance education applications are inefficient courses, limitations on the internet and computer, low motivation and high level of anxiety and communication problems. Primary school teachers' views on the methods to be followed in making distance education effective has been categorised as providing proficiency training in educational technologies, providing blended learning opportunities, creating interaction opportunities, involving the family in the learning process and creating an effective assessment and evaluation environment. In addition, primary school teachers include effective teaching methods in distance education as creating a blended learning environment, creating a simultaneous and divergent learning environment, creating a simultaneous learning environment and creating a different time learning environment. Keywords: Distance education, teacher opinions, primary school teachers;
... Dalam penelitian kualitatif, peneliti menjadi instrumen kunci untuk mendapatkan hasil penelitian yang baik, untuk itu seorang peneliti harus mempunyai bekal teori dan wawasan yang luas tentang masalah yang akan diteliti, yang bertujuan untuk menganalisis, dan mengkonstruksi situasi sosial yang diteliti menjadi lebih jelas dan terarah. Untuk itu diperlukan berbagai kriteria, sebagai syarat penelitian menjadi terarah, Linclon dan Guba memberikan kriteria yaitu credible, transferability, dependability, confirmability (Catherine & Marshall, 1989). ...
Article
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa konsep reward and punishment dalam teori-teori psikologi dan perspektif Al-Qur'an serta penerapannya dalam proses pendidikan karakter anak jenjang sekolah dasar, juga implikasinya dalam pengembangan pembelajaran. Metode reward and punishment didukung oleh teori-teori psikologi yaitu teori hierarki kebutuhan dasar oleh Abraham Maslow yang menyatakan bahwa keinginan seseorang untuk mendapatkan penghargaan merupakan salah satu kebutuhan dasar manusia. Dan teori Operant Conditioning oleh B.F. Skinner yang menerapkan dua penguatan dalam proses pembelajaran yaitu positive and negative reinforcement. Beberapa prinsip dalam pemberian reward yaitu: 1) Harus ada batasannya, 2) dimusyawarahkan kesepakatannya, 3) dan distandarkan pada proses bukan hasil akhir. Sementara prinsip dalam penetapan punishment: 1) kepercayaan terlebih dahulu baru menghukum, 2) Menghukum tanpa emosi, dan 3) Hukuman bersifat mendidik. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah: penelitian studi tematik. Dengan metode kepustakaan (library research), sedangkan pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan kualitatif
... It is significant to clarify the phenomenon and the reason for the inquiry approach, not just rely on 'feelings'. When it comes to qualitative research, the methods of data collection, ethical issues, analysis of the data etc. should be considered (Marshall and Rossman, 2014;Lewis, 2015). Since my research question is 'What are the merits and limitations of YouTube as a method of informal learning'. ...
Article
YouTube offers multiple channels for informal learning. Participants may learn from video content in the form of lectures, tutorials, guides, and even vlogs. YouTube also enables forms of incidental learning in which participants discover new information, content, or skills, while engaged in other activities. Informal learning on YouTube impacts participants’ learning strategies and learners’ progress. Selecting a new beginner of the Ukulele may help me to figure out some benefits and limitations of YouTube as a method of informal learning.
... The instructor compiled clicker scores for participation over the course of the semester and found that 72% of all clicker questions were answered correctly. A convenience sample (Creswell, 2014) was recruited from an appropriate course at a private Midwestern university, providing a rich mixture of students (Marshall and Rossman, 2014). ...
Article
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The use of clickers in the lecture classroom has increased in recent years. Clickers have been widely used to improve teaching effectiveness in various lecture classroom settings. Most introductory biology courses are taught using direct instruction. One of the ways that students may be engaged in the lecture classrooms is by using a clicker. Clickers have been linked to several positive outcomes for students. Although clickers have been used in several prior studies, few studies have explicitly focused on BYOD clickers (smartphones, tablets, laptops). This study examined the influence of gender on students’ perceptions of using BYOD clickers in an introductory biology course at a Midwestern private college. The findings suggest that male students have more positive perceptions about using BYOD clickers than females in the introductory biology lecture. The BYOD clicker can foster active learning in the classroom and improve classroom experiences and perceptions for all students in biology and other STEM courses.
... This method is considered appropriate for exploring social processes and questions of how and why through open-ended questions ( AU6 c Britten 1995; Liamputtong 2009). The core aim in choosing semistructured interviews is to gather unspoken perspectives and beliefs related to the participants' lived experiences (Creswell 2012;Marshall and Rossman 2014). ...
Article
Gendered power relations and patriarchal culture frequently put women at heightened risk of domestic violence (DV) and children at risk of witnessing this violence. By modeling their mother's role, such children may in turn become victims of DV later in life. This study explores the experiences of young married women who grew up in a violent home environment to gain a better understanding of their recovery from the consequences of witnessing DV. Semistructured interviews were conducted with five Turkish women aged 31–45 years and all in nonviolent relationships. An interpretive phenomenological approach was followed in analyzing the interviews. The findings suggest that growing up in a violent home had destructive effects on the participants' lives, although they have avoided a violent home environment as adults. The study highlights that growing up in a violent home influences women's perceptions of the “right” intimate partner and their strategies to cope with conflict in relationships. This article discusses key conditions for breaking the violence cycle and ensuring a satisfying marital relationship.
... Örneklemin belirlenmesinde olasılıklı olmayan (amaçlı) örnekleme yöntemlerinden "tipik durum örnekleme" yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Tipik durum, evreni temsil edebilecek olan ve özellikleri evrenden farklı olamayan durumları belirtmek için kullanılmaktadır (Marshall & Rossman, 2014). Araştırmaya dahil olmuş olan öğrencilerin demografik bilgileri Tablo 1'de verilmiştir. ...
Conference Paper
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Teknolojideki dönüşümün hayatımızda bir “sabit” haline geldiği 21. yüzyılda, öğretmenlerin teknoloji ile tutarlı ve uygun deneyimlere ne kadar sahip olduklarını ve teknolojiyi kendi sınıflarına ne kadar entegre ettiklerini belirlemek bir ihtiyaç haline gelmiştir. Bu çalışmada, 21. yüzyıl öğretmenlerinin teknoloji yeterliklerinin öz değerlendirme yoluyla belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Öğretmenlerin 21. yüzyıl öğrenmeleri için teknoloji yeterliği öz değerlendirme puanları cinsiyet, branş, kıdem, kurum ve yaş değişkenleri açısından ele alınmış; öğretmenlerin bu yeterlikler kapsamında eğitimde dijital dönüşüme hazır olma durumları tartışılmıştır. Araştırmada nicel araştırma yöntemlerinden tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Katılımcıların belirlenmesinde amaçsal örnekleme yöntemlerinden ölçüt örnekleme kullanılmış ve Milli Eğitim Bakanlığına bağlı kurumlarda görev yapan 198 öğretmenden veri toplanmıştır. Araştırma verileri Christensen ve Knezek (2017) tarafından geliştirilen ve Fidan, Debbağ ve Çukurbaşı (2020) tarafından Türkçe’ye uyarlanan “21.Yüzyıl Öğrenmeleri için Teknoloji Yeterliği Öz Değerlendirme Ölçeği” aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Ölçek dört alt boyut içermekte ve toplam 24 maddeden oluşmaktadır. %95 güven aralığında (p=0,05) analiz edilen verilerin öncelikle normal dağılıp dağılmadığı incelenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre ölçek verilerinin normal dağılım gösterdiği belirlenmiş ve verilerin analizinde betimsel analiz, bağımsız örneklem t-Testi ve One-Way Anova testleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre, öğretmenlerin teknoloji yeterlikleri ile cinsiyetleri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmamıştır. Öğretmenlerin teknoloji yeterlikleri ile branşları arasında ise istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmuştur. Branş ortalamalarına bakıldığında fen bilimleri branşında yer alan öğretmenlerin teknoloji yeterliklerinin sosyal bilimler branşı öğretmenlerine göre daha yüksek olduğu görülmüştür. Fen bilimleri branşındaki öğretmenlerin entegre uygulamalar ve teknolojiyle öğretim yeterlikleri sosyal bilimler branşındaki öğretmenlere göre daha yüksektir. Özel kurumlarda çalışan öğretmenlerin ortalama puanları devlet kurumlarında çalışanlara göre daha yüksek olmasına rağmen öğretmenlerin teknoloji yeterlikleri ile çalıştıkları kurum arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmamıştır. Öğretmenlerin teknoloji yeterlikleri ile kıdem yılları arasında da istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmuştur. Elde edilen bulgulara göre 20 yıla kadar kıdemli olan öğretmenlerin teknoloji yeterlikleri, 21 yıl ve üstü kıdemli öğretmenlere göre daha yüksektir. Öğretmenlerin teknoloji yeterlikleri ile yaş değişkeni arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmuştur. Bu fark 41 yaş ve altı öğretmenler lehine olup, bilişim teknolojilerini kullanarak büyüyen Y jenerasyonu dijital yerli öğretmenlerin teknolojik yeterliklerinin daha iyi olduğu görülmüştür.
... The study employed a qualitative research design, which is defined as any kind of research that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantification (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The output of qualitative research is descriptive in nature and it helps the researcher to better understand the feelings of the respondents (Marshall & Rossman, 2006). The case study approach was employed in the study. ...
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In an effort to advance secondary education in Malawi, the Ministry of Education revised the secondary school curriculum in 2015 from teacher-centered to learner-centered under the Outcome Based Education to enhance the development of transferable skills in learners. Since the inception of the new curriculum, no study had been conducted to explore how teachers implement learner-centered methods in the new Social Studies curriculum. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore secondary school teachers' use of learner-centered methods. The researchers in this paper report of the challenges secondary school Social Studies teachers faced when using the learner-centered methods. The study employed progressivism learning theory as its lens; and three categories of public secondary schools were involved. These include: national, conventional and community day secondary schools. Using the qualitative approach, data were generated through interviews, document analysis and lesson observations. Findings revealed that some Social Studies teachers experienced challenges in planning, preparation and implementation of learner-centered lessons. They also encountered challenges of engaging practices that promote critical thinking and problem-solving skills in learners. The study concluded that Social Studies teachers have potential to teach Social Studies using learner-centered teaching methods if given adequate support. The researchers in this study recommended that there was a need for provision of adequate teaching and learning resources in secondary schools. Secondly, there was a need to revise the new Social Studies curriculum because it was huge. Thirdly, the findings indicated that it was essential to provide teachers with in-service training so that they could have robust knowledge and skills on how to implement learner-centered teaching approaches.
... Notre démarche n'est pas linéaire, mais plutôt itérative. Nous avons en effet procédé à de nombreux va-et-vient entre les différentes phases de la recherche, à savoir l'action, l'observation et la réflexion (Marshall et Rossman, 2011 ;Savoie-Zajc et Descamps-Bednarz, 2007 ;Stringer, 2008). ...
Thesis
A recherche vise à mettre en évidence les effets d’un renouvellement de l’urbanisme participatif, par les expérimentations de médiation urbaine numérique instrumentées, sur l’intégration des jeunes dans la fabrique de la ville. Dans le contexte d’une double injonction à participer et à co-produire la ville adressée aux habitants, nous interrogeons l’intégration de la jeunesse dans le champ de l’urbanisme participatif comme le signe d’une recomposition de la notion de participation et de sa mise en œuvre sur le territoire. Nous questionnons, dans le même temps, l’effet de la généralisation des expérimentations numériques dans ce processus. La jeunesse constitue, dans cette recherche, le prisme employé pour identifier les référentiels qui sous-tendent l’action publique en faveur d’une démocratie participative dans le cadre du projet urbain. Le travail de terrain, fondé à la fois sur la conduite d’expérimentations et deux enquêtes par entretien, a permis d’étudier concrètement comment les jeunes s’engagent en situation participative, mettant en évidence que les situations de co-production doivent être étudiées à l’interface de plusieurs champs, en mobilisant des approches conceptuelles et disciplinaires complémentaires. Finalement, cette thèse invite à renouveler et multiplier les approches de la participation par la médiation, en ce qu’elles permettent de mettre au jour la complexification et la pluralisation des formes d’engagement dans un triple mouvement d’esthétisation, de généralisation des expérimentations, et d’instrumentation qui traverse l’ensemble des territoires.
... As noted earlier, we adopted the multiple case-study design because it allows for an in-depth exploration of complex, multifaceted phenomena as they play out in real-world settings (Marshall & Rossman, 2014). Such a case study considers the role of socio-economic, political, and cultural F I G U R E 1 Phase 1-Gear toward developing the initial program theory (IPT) ...
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This study examines the mechanisms fostering sustainable value propositions of implemented e‐Governments projects in sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA) as a research focus. Value propositions identify how public organizations use e‐Government to fulfill citizens' needs across different roles. Using a concept‐centric systematic review, we identified such value propositions as effective public organizations, quality service delivery, open government and democratic values, as well as social values and well‐being. We chose some selected e‐Government projects in Nigeria and Rwanda; adopted realist evaluation (RE) multiple case studies as a methodology and introduced affordance actualization, self‐determination theory, and sustainability framework for e‐Government success as theoretical lenses. To collect data, we adopted a mixed method RE approach and used a contingent valuation method (CVM) as a quantitative aspect to identify the actualized value propositions in operations in the implemented e‐Government projects in Nigeria and Rwanda as outcomes. Sequentially followed by a realist interview as a qualitative approach to collect and analyze data we uncovered the generative mechanisms causing such outcomes to exist and be sustainable. Our findings revealed technological cognizance and autonomy as well as competence as individual mechanisms identified for sustaining such outcomes. While organizational mechanisms revealed are continuous availability of funds, institutional, administrative, and coordinating capacity with leadership and political support. Other organizational mechanisms include institutionalizing the technology within local settings with ongoing monitoring and improvement evaluation enabled by both internal and external contextual conditions. We synthesized our findings into an actualized value sustainability framework for implemented e‐Government projects in SSA to contribute to academics and practice in ICT4D, particularly RE application in e‐Government study, which is nascent.
... In addition, purposiful sampling was used for the selection of the sample. Purposiful sampling is a sample type chosen to reach data with abundant differences and diversity (Flick, 2014;Marshall & Rossman, 2014). The research questions were delivered to the participants by verbally and in writting. ...
Conference Paper
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Digital citizenship is an indispensable part of the new world shaped by digital developments and technology, so this study aimed to determine gifted and talented students' perceptions of digital citizenship as a leading key to the path to world citizenship. For this purpose, the qualitative analysis was used through semi-structured interview questions carried out with 40 gifted and talented high school students attending 9, 10, 11, and 12th grades in Science and Art Centers participated in Erzurum province. In addition, content analysis was used in phenomenology to analyze the conclusions of the research. As a result, the first findings, gifted and talented high school students answered the first question are accessed, security, and citizenship; the second findings are socialist, diverse source, rights, education, and virtuality in positive aspect; security, time, diversion, healthy, and belief in negative aspect. The last findings are new laws and security measurements in supporting ways. Given the given categories, there is a need to create security measures, informational applications, and activities based on digital citizenship by means of new education program. Future studies could look at digital literacy, data management, and data security, which influence positive or negative perspectives of gifted and talented students on digital citizenship.
... The sample size of this study depended on our research focus with regard to information saturation. We decided that our sample size criterium along with how much information was gathered from the interviews was fulfilled [78,79]. The information that we intended to gather depended on our research question for this study [80]. ...
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This study explores how the services provided by different types of Chinese communities varied in their impact on the social involvement of residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The literature revealed problems caused by travel restrictions, including using oversimplified measures for grassroots governance, which might result in decreased residents' social involvement during COVID-19. We argue that the services provided by "smart communities" in China not only adhered to the COVID-19 pandemic governance, but also promoted the social involvement of residents. Using a case study approach of the smart community Fang Xing and the traditional community Qili Tang, both of which are located in China, this article compared the traditional and smart community services based on 122 interviews with residents and frontline community staff members. The findings suggest that while the traditional community decreased the residents' social involvement by restricting certain services during the pandemic, the smart community was able to apply COVID-19 governance measures, considerably increasing the residents' social involvement. It offered an attractive option for residents to act as community service managers, and it prepared them for local-level pandemic governance. This study provides an understanding of the relationship between the community services and the residents' social involvement in terms of the community services. The smart community model can act as a reference for international community development during pandemic governance.
... Reliability is addressed by employing techniques which show that if the work is to be repeated in the same context, using the same methods and with the same participants, similar results would be achieved. However, owing to the changing nature of issues addressed by qualitative researchers, such provisions of reliability are problematic in their work (Fidel, 1993;Marshall and Rossman, 2014). The dependability issue can be directly addressed by reporting the processes in the study in detail; by doing so, one would be enabling future researchers to repeat that particular study. ...
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The emergence of COVID-19 has resulted in many changes in the world of work. Measures such as remote working, physical distancing, compulsory use of face masks, sanitization among others. With time, a number of medical interventions to deal with the pandemic were developed and availed. Zimbabwe’s retail sector was not spared of different vaccines which were meant to curb the virus. Most Zimbabwean organizations made it mandatory for their employees to get vaccinated or risked losing employment. However, less is known about the perceptions of employees toward voluntary vaccination. This gap is important given the strategic nature of employees in an organization. This paper poses the following questions (1) to what extent were employees consulted on the compulsory vaccination? (2) What are the employees’ perceptions toward compulsory vaccination? (3) How are employees coping with the mandatory vaccination? The study was premised on the classical work of Kurt Lewin on types of leadership, specifically autocratic-democratic styles. Twenty shopfloor employees from two major retail outlets with functional human resource departments and works councils in Masvingo were purposively sampled and interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The sample composed of women and men of different age groups. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data. The paper argues that employees have a right to be involved in issues that concern them. The study has established four levels of consultation existing on a continuum namely formal and genuine consultations, formal but less genuine consultations, informal consultations, and no consultation at all. The fourth level emerged to have been the most popular among most participants. With regards to employees’ perceptions of mandatory vaccination by management, findings have revealed three categories which are, perceived good decision, perceived tight hands on the part of management and the them and us perceptions. Concerning reactions to mandatory vaccination, the study has shown that employees in the retail sector had a number of options to follow. Some went for full vaccination willingly or under duress, while others settled for a single dose. Most participants highlighted that they fraudulently obtained some vaccination cards. These findings support the relevance of engaging employees on matters that affect them. The study has therefore established the importance of genuine consultations between management and employees on issues that pertains the latter.
... In this section, I present first my case study design, then the methods of empirical inquiry and the material that was generated, and then the analytical methods. Lastly, I discuss the trustworthiness 1 (Marshall & Rossman 2011;Lincoln & Guba 1986) of the study by going into methodological and ethical considerations. In this chapter, ethical considerations have been part of the decision-making when designing the case study and decisions made along the way. ...
Thesis
While social sustainability is attracting attention in both policy and academia, there are still challenges when turning social sustainability policy into practice. Instead of making cities more socially sustainable, the meaning of social sustainability tends to change, become simplified, or disappear when it is actualized in practice. This thesis aims to better understand how goals of social sustainability become actualized in urban planning by investigating how the practitioners in a Swedish, strategic planning project are constructing, interpreting, and practising the meaning of social sustainability by making and navigating boundaries through the planning process. Through an inductive approach, I build a theoretical framework of situational boundary making and navigation, a composite of the three analytical lenses: conceptual, contextual, and practice-oriented. This framework enables me to approach the different aspects of the planning situation when constructing the meaning of social sustainability. The research was carried out empirically through an exploratory case study of the ongoing planning project Frihamnen. I have followed how the discourse of social sustainability was constructed in the context of strategic planning and shifted due to strategic planning practice. The thesis concludes that the concept of social sustainability is multi-layered, where, in this case, the first layer of meaning remains while the second layer of meaning shifts through the planning process. I explain the shift by pointing to the mutual effect of the ambiguity of the concept of social sustainability, the hybridity of the strategic planning organisation and the enacted authority of the involved participants. In the end, the planning organisation fall back on business-as-usual to determine the meaning of social sustainability, which moves away from the original vision of the socially sustainable city to a less transformative approach. However, as the shift is only seen in the second layer of meaning, the original formulations in the vision still stand.
... The extent of participation was clarified to research participants at the onset of the study as suggested by Marshall and Rossman (2016), i.e., what the nature of the involvement is, how much about the study's purpose is revealed to the people in the setting, how intensively the researcher is present, and how ethical dilemmas are managed. Every involvement in the lives of the people took place with their consent and without any kind of insistence. ...
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The positive social and environmental outcomes of involving local and indigenous people in environmental management have made their inclusion in forest management increasingly considered. However, in Malaysia, where indigenous forest-dependent communities, known as the Orang Asli, are not yet involved in forest management, their significance needs to be empirically recorded. This study aims to investigate the relevance of involving the Orang Asli in Malaysia’s forest management. The study employed a participant observational study at Kampung Tanjung Rambai, an Orang Asli settlement located in the Malaysian state of Selangor. Dwelling with the community and engaging in their forest-based lives for a course of 1 month have managed to capture their current relationships with the forest, which were then analyzed to determine their roles as meaningful stakeholders. The results show that the community has maintained a relationship with their land that may ensure the prudent use of resources. Furthermore, their forest-based lives can be regarded as small-scale disturbances in the forest ecosystem, which are necessary for maintaining resilience.
... This study used an exploratory approach and qualitative interviews. A qualitative approach helps to "produce a wealth of detailed information" about people and processes (i.e., key aspects of our study investigating citizens' participation in co-production; Patton, 2002, p. 14), is well-suited to building an understanding of phenomena that are not well-understood (Marshall & Rossman, 2014), and contributes to developing existing theory "by pointing to gaps and beginning to fill them" (Siggelkow, 2007, p. 21). Qualitative studies have been also recommended in public administration research as they "address 'how' questions … to explore causal mechanisms, privilege participant experiences and perspectives to provide a more complete picture; increase transferability by elucidating the characteristics of the study environment that are necessary for or likely to influence study findings" (Hendren et al., 2022, p. 15). ...
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The “woolliness” and “methodological hurdles” of co‐production make it challenging to compare and contrast different co‐production policy initiatives and their outcomes, and distil ‘what works’, for whom and in what circumstances. Inspired by Nabatchi et al.’s (2017) 3Ws typology of the Who, When and What of co‐production, we draw on co‐production theory deriving from a narrative literature review and empirical research of co‐production cases in Scotland and Australia. We propose a new ‘5Ws’ co‐production framework of Who, When, What, Why and Where, arguing that the context (where) should be an integral part of co‐production analyses as socio‐political, geographical conditions and service settings influence the processes and outcomes of co‐production, and that the reasons (why) behind co‐production determine who is involved in co‐production. The paper suggests that the 5Ws of co‐production can offer a useful theoretical lens for analysing a variety of international co‐production cases to inform future policies and practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The research of this study is to describe, understand, interpret and explain these experiences [61] . Therefore, the study aims to describe, explain and interpret a phenomenon of online proctoring tests and evaluation in terms of perceived opportunities and challenges to Nepalese universities, as claimed by Marshall and Rossman [62] . The study is based on descriptive phenomenology and is more focused on studying phenomena of online proctoring tests and evaluations perceived by staff. ...
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Objective: This research aims to explore the first and unique experiences of faculty members, administrators, and technical officers (staff) and their perception of opportunities and challenges using online proctoring tools in the final and entrance exams during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The qualitative approach of interpretive paradigm study was used to evaluate staff experiences in participating online proctored examinations. In mid-2021, eight faculty members, one administrator, and one technical officer participated for the first time in online proctored examinations and elaborated on their perceptions and concerns about their online proctored exam experiences. Results: The study's findings provide new insight into the staff experiences of online proctored examinations, including their predominant concerns over consuming less time and effort, reducing huge administrative burdens, and organizing examinations frequently. The study also highlights challenges such as technology compatibility, doubts about academic integrity/reliability, and validity while implementing the online proctored examinations and their future impact. Conclusion: The findings from this study contribute to the exploration opportunities and challenges of online proctored examination concerning the university staff perspectives of technologically developing countries.
... The phenomenological qualitative method was chosen in this study to derive insights on the high school students' lived experiences involving private tutoring of English (PT-E). According to Marshall and Rossman (1999), the phenomenological methodology allows the scholar to understand the meaning or to uncover common themes that participants spotlight through their functions, opinions, moods, principles, ideals, and assumptive worlds. That is, the researcher identifies common themes that emerges from the rich description. ...
Chapter
Ethnographic research entails anthropological discourses. In other words, ethnographical research focuses on the study of human societies and cultures and their development. This is because anthropology is interested in the study of many aspects of humans within past and contemporary societies. In the light of this, ethnographic research is basically qualitative method driven, applying the use of primary data involving in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and either participant or non-participant observation technique. These qualitative research method instruments ensure that dependable data are derived. However, for better results and reliability, quantitative method instruments could still be applied. A questionnaire is an example of a quantitative instrument. While ethnographic research can be conducted wholly using qualitative research methods, it is impossible to do so entirely with quantitative research. In other words, the paper argues that ethnographic research is anthropological and therefore disposed to qualitative methods since language, culture, acculturation, rites, and religious rituals are involved. But that for greater interrogation, the science of systematic empirical investigation in numerical form and which employs statistical analysis may still be of importance. Ọkọnkọ society being studied serves as both mediator and adjudicator in southern Igbo in Nigeria. Ọkọnkọ serves as a cultural enforcement mechanism against community crises. Because of its cultural authority, Okonko is able to check crimes in the society and disciplines persons of questionable conduct. The ọmụ (palm frond) and uhie (drum) are the emblems and language of Ọkọnkọ society. The ọmụ symbolizes authority while uhie represents the society’s symbol of communication.KeywordsEthnographyLanguage and cultureOkonko societySouthern IgboNigeria
Chapter
Field research is an important aspect of any empirical social study. Field research can be challenging, exciting as well as rewarding and daunting too. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the meaning and importance of field research and to provide a basic understanding to the new researcher who wants to conduct field research about the process of field research. While the chapter highlight the common field research practices, it will also discuss the potential tensions, dilemmas and challenges that may encounter during field research and the possible strategies needed to address them. This chapter argues that researcher should be sensitive and careful regarding reflexivity, positionality, and the relations of power during field research in order to conduct an emancipatory, democratic, and culturally sensitive field research. Such activity includes greater attention to the openness about the purpose of the research and activities undertaken, self-disclosure, mutual sharing of information, and explicit recognition of the expertise of the participant that they gained through lived experiences.KeywordsSocial researchField researchField preparationData collectionField-level challengesLocal context
Chapter
Das dritte Kapitel bildet die methodische Basis der interdisziplinären Forschung. Wissenschaft ist immer auch ein persönlicher und sozialer Prozess, und keine Forschungsmethodik garantiert uns, dass wir die ‚Wahrheit‘ je erreichen (Miller. The problem of method and the practice of management research. In Ketchen DJ, Bergh D (Hrsg) Research methodology in strategy and management. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, S 143–177, 2005). Der Philosoph Ludwig Wittgenstein beschreibt die wissenschaftliche Recherche als einen Kampf gegen die Verhexung unseres Verstandes durch die Mittel unserer Sprache (Harper. Online etymology dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=philosophy&searchmode=none. Zugegriffen am 18.03.2012, 2012).
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This qualitative-phenomenological research aimed to determine the perspectives of the teacher-implementers about the No Child Left Behind Policy in Bato National High School. Participants of the study were three TLE teachers and five teachers from different courses. Participants were chosen through purposive sampling. Using the focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, the researchers found out that the teachers had positive and negative perceptions of the policy; it aided low-performing and at-risk students. However, the participants indicated that students became dependent and lazy; also they mentioned that unprepared students passed; hence, the program was unfair. The school administration needs to look into the teachers-implementers view on the NCLB for its improvement.
Thesis
The importance of reflection in enhancing teachers’ Professional Development (PD) has been widely acknowledged. Reflection is initially developed in Teacher Education (TE) programs, and then becomes a part of a teacher’s education throughout their career, specifically when they engage in Reflective Practice (RP) (Farrell, 2015). Within initial TE, practicum has been recognised as the most important part, where Pre-service Teachers (PSTs) assume that they will put what they have learned in theory into practice. However, they spent more time in school as a learner than as a trainee teacher. They also have their own personal characteristics and attributes that influence the way they put what they have learned into practice during practicum. Hence, RP is recognised as a vital tool that helps PSTs to learn from their experiences. The majority of the literature focuses on how to promote reflection within initial TE (Donyaie & Afshar, 2019, p.2), or explores the practitioner's perception towards reflection (Riyanti, 2020) . Yet, little is known about the complexity of reflection as an individual skill in a situated context during practicum, in which reflection is examined based on the individual’s beliefs, abilities, skills, and knowledge (Farrell, 2018). Adopting a qualitative case study, this study offers an in-depth examination of the reflective journey of three Saudi EFL PSTs during practicum, all of whom engaged in three Reflective Modes (RMs) (i.e., individually, dialoguing with a mentor, and with their peers). Their reflection is examined in relation to content and quality in order to track their reflectivity development. Through the reported reflection, the study further aims to establish the contribution of these reflective tools on the participants’ learning through practicum, highlighting their trajectories in becoming teachers. The study brings together data from a wide variety of sources, such as Reflective Journals (RJs), individual reflective dialogue (IRD) with a mentor, group reflective dialogue (GRD) with peers, interviews, documents, and class observations (COs). The findings showcase the complexity of the PSTs’ reflective thinking. Although the participants were similar, in that they were all female EFL PSTs who came from the same context, they navigated the three RMs differently. Their biographies, backgrounds, previous learning experience, and attitudes all influenced their reflective journey to become English teachers. Methodologically, the study highlights the value of a qualitative case study that investigates the three main RMs from a situated perspective.
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The qualitative research characterized by its comprehensiveness, deep-studying, and rich data collected via several resources such as interviews, document analysis, and field observation. Conventionally, analysis was done by hand, utilizing colored pens to sort data and then cutting and categorizing this data. Given the innovations in software technology, electronic techniques of data coding are gradually being more employed by qualitative researchers. NVivo has good advantages and may significantly improve the quality of research. Thus, qualitative researchers are encouraged to pursue employing this tool as possible in their works. This study is an attempt to identify some headlines in using this program.
Book
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** OPEN ACCESS - https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/oa-edit/10.4324/9781003183839/global-citizenship-foreign-language-education-christiane-lütge-thorsten-merse-petra-rauschert ** In light of increasing globalization, this collection makes the case for global citizenship education as a way forward for transforming foreign language learning and teaching to better address current and future global challenges in times of unprecedented change. The volume maps a multi-dimensional approach within foreign language pedagogy to take up the challenge of "educating the global citizen". Drawing on sociocultural, pedagogical, cosmopolitan, digital and civic-minded perspectives, the book explores the challenges in constructing epistemological frameworks in increasingly global environments, the need for developing context-sensitive educational practices, the potential of linking up with work from related disciplines, and the impact of these considerations on different educational settings. The collection reflects an international range of voices, attuned to global and local nuances, to offer a holistic compilation of conceptual innovations to showcase the relevance of global citizenship issues in foreign language education and encourage future research. This book will be of interest to scholars in intercultural education, foreign language education, and language teaching, as well as policymakers and foreign language teachers.
Article
As the immigrant population grows in many countries, immigrant parenting has become a prominent research topic and generated an extensive body of literature. This bibliometric study conducted a systematic review of 1090 articles published from 2000–2020 within the field of immigrant parenting (IP) of young children. Using the citation and co‐citation data, the study delineated the developing trends of IP research, explored the significant shifts, and mapped the future directions. The analysis identified remarkable evolutions and revealed the future of the IP field in both optimistic and problematic lights. This was attributed to a combination of factors, in particular to the diverse topics, increased recognition of the gaps between immigration and parenting, limited methodological choices, a lack of theoretical underpinnings and the influence of the intensification of digitalization upon many dimensions of people's lives. Future studies should broaden the field's understanding of underlying reasons that properly account for IP varieties.
Article
Çin'in Wuhan kentinde ortaya çıkan COVID-19, kısa zamanda tüm dünyaya yayılmıştır. Bu çalışmadaCOVID-19 pandemi sürecinde birinci basamak sağlık çalışanlarında psikolojik sıkıntı, tükenmişlik ve hijyen davranışlarının incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu araştırmada ilişkisel tarama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemi ise 2021-2022 tarihleri arasında amaçlı örnekleme yöntemi ile 18- 65 yaş aralığı olan 401 sağlık çalışanından oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada veri toplamak için COVID-19 Psikolojik Sıkıntı Ölçeği, COVID-19 Tükenmişlik Ölçeği ve COVID-19 Hijyen Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Bireylerde korku ve kaygı düzeyleri arttıkça şüphe, psikolojik sıkıntı, tükenmişlik düzeyleri, değişen hijyen davranışları, ev hijyeni, sosyal mesafe ve maske kullanımı, alışveriş hijyeni, el hijyeni, dışarıdan eve gelindiğinde hijyen ve COVID-19 hijyenin de arttığı gözlenmiştir. Bu sonuçlardan yola çıkarak hastane personelinin tükenmişlik, psikolojik sıkıntı ve hijyen davranışı düzeylerinin azaltılmasına yönelik çok boyutlu eğitim programları, seminerler ve kriz yönetimi politikalarını içeren eylem planlarının yapılması önerilebilir.
Article
Bu çalışmanın amacı, meraklı öğrenci profili oluşturmak için sosyal sistemin ögeleri dikkate alınarak öğretmenler arasında ne tür bir işbirliği olması gerektiğini belirlemektir. Çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemi ve durum çalışması deseni kullanılmıştır. Çalışma grubu 10 öğretmenden oluşmaktadır. Veriler yarı-yapılandırılmış görüşme formu ile toplanmıştır. Verilerin çözümlenmesinde betimsel analiz tekniği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın temaları; meraklı öğrenci özellikleri, girdi, süreç (yapısal, bireysel, kültürel, politik sistem), çevre, çıktı ve dönüt şeklinde belirlenmiştir. Araştırma sonunda öğretmenlerin çoğunluğu, meraklı öğrenci özellikleri ile ilgili, çok soru sorma ve araştırma yapmayı sevme gibi özelliklere vurgu yapmıştır. Öğrencilerin merakını tetiklemede sahip olunması gereken girdiler ile ilgili, gerekli materyallerin sağlanması gerektiği, bu konuda yapılması gereken işbirliği ile ilgili ise, öğretmenlerin iletişim halinde kalarak bilgi ve tecrübelerini paylaşmaları gerektiği üzerine daha çok görüş bildirildiği görülmüştür. Yapısal sistem açısından; öğrencilerin sorumluluk duygusunun geliştirilmesi, öğretmenlerin yetkisinin artırılması ve alanında uzman olması gerektiği belirtilmiştir. Bireysel sistem açısından; öğrencilerin dikkatini çeken sorular sorulması ve öğretmenlerin, öğrencilerin üreteceği ortamlar oluşturması gerektiği üzerine vurgu yapılmıştır. Kültürel sistem açısından; öğrencilerin kültürel faaliyetlere katılımının sağlanması ve öğretmenlerin kültürel faaliyet düzenlemeleri gerektiği belirtilmiştir. Politik sistem açısından; ödül gücüne daha çok odaklanıldığı görülmüş, bu konuda öğretmenlerin ödüllü etkinlikler düzenlemesi gerektiği belirtilmiştir. Çevreden beklenenler ile ilgili olarak; velilerin öğrencilere kültürel aktivite yaptırmaları, bilinçli ve sabırlı olmaları gerektiği, bu konuda öğretmenlerin ise, velileri bilinçlendirmesi ve velilerle ortak çalışmalar yürütmesi gerektiği vurgulanmıştır. Çıktı aşamasında öğrenci başarısı için farklı yöntemler kullanılması gerektiği, bu konuda öğretmenlerin ise, öğrenci başarısını artırmak için farklı etkinlikler tasarlanması gerektiği belirtilmiştir. Dönüt aşamasında değerlendirmenin öğrenciyle birlikte yapılması gerektiği, bu konuda öğretmenlerin ise süreci değerlendirmesi ve eksiklere yönelik çalışmalar yapmaları gerektiği belirtilmiştir. Materyal temini için okul toplumu bir araya gelerek eksikleri eğitim-öğretim yılının başında gidermeye çalışmalıdır. Öğretmenlerin yetkisi artırılmalı ve alanda uzmanlaşmaları için gereken destek sağlanmalıdır. Velilerin öğrencilerin gelişimi için taşın altına ellerini sokmaları, sabırlı olmaları ve bu konuda bilinçlendirilmeleri gerekmektedir.
Article
This paper presents a study on innovative digital technology factors affecting UAE healthcare service practices performance. The innovative digital technology factors are clustered in four domains namely systemdevelopment; IT base innovation; technology services and process integration. Data collection was conducted through questionnaire survey among healthcare employees from managers to operational workers in Dibba Hospital, Masafi Hospital, and Fujairah Hospital in UAE. The selection of respondents was carried out in two sampling approaches which are stratified sampling random sampling technique methods. A total of 300 questionnaire sets were distributed but only 281 sets of completed questionnaire were returned for the analysis. This represents the responses rate of 94%. Before conducting the ranking analysis, the collected data was characterised for its reliability and normality patterns and found that the data has achieved the reliability and normality criteria. The ranking analysis found that the most influential innovative digital technology factor is TS2 of the technology services domain. TS2 is concerning the connectivity with an extranet.The second factor is TS3 in the technology services domain which is efficient human resource management system. The third rank is SD2 system development domain which is updates the technological features of existing system to improve healthcare services. The fourth rank is BIN1 in IT base innovation domain which is adds new capabilities to the existing system. Finally, the fifth rank is BIN2 in IT base innovation domain which isnew features are often added to the existing system.
Article
How scholars and IRBs perceive and apply the Belmont principles in crowd work‐based research was an open and largely neglected question. As crowd work becomes increasingly popular for scholars to implement research and collect data, such negligence, signaling a lack of attention to the ethical issues in crowd work‐based research more broadly, seemed alarming. To fill this gap, we conducted a qualitative study with 32 scholars and IRB directors/analysts in the United States to inquire into their perceptions and applications of the Belmont principles in crowd work‐based research. We found two dilemmas in applying the Belmont principles in crowd work‐based research, namely the dilemma between the dehumanization and expected autonomy of crowd workers, and the dilemma between the monetary incentive/reputationall risks and the conventional notion of research benefits/risks. We also compared the scholars' and IRBs' ethical perspectives and proposed our research implications for future work.
Article
This qualitative study explores the experiences of 26 family members supporting Canadian Armed Forces veterans living with mental health problems including operational stress injuries (OSIs). The research focusing on military‐connected families emphasizes the impacts of service on the families. Little is known about how families impact military veterans, particularly those diagnosed with OSIs. This research addresses that gap by revealing the capabilities and demands characterizing their everyday lives. Semistructured interviews with 26 individuals identifying as family members of Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) veterans and three focus groups (three participants in each group for a total of nine) with family members of CAF veterans released within the preceding 10 years were conducted. The veterans were living with broadly defined diagnosed and undiagnosed mental health problems including OSIs. Using the family adjustment and adaptation (FAAR) model as an organizational framework, demands and capabilities embodied within the everyday lives of the family members were revealed. Monitoring the well‐being of the veteran, managing daily life, accessing and mobilizing resources, and caregiving were discussed as capabilities by participants in this study. These capabilities buffer the demands associated with the veteran's mental health problems. Results of this study endorse recommendations for family‐centered program and service development, modeled on approaches that recognize the systemic and relational contexts instrumental in supporting positive outcomes for veterans with OSIs. Further research exploring the complex, interdependent, and interactional role of families supporting veterans with OSIs is warranted.
Research
The current study investigates Iraqi EFL learners’ command in terms of appropriate employment of sociocultural norms of English conversation. The sample of the study has been selected from fourth-year students, Department of English, College of Education for Humanities, University of Mosul for the academic year 2019-2020. The sociocultural norms accounted for are conversational openings, turn-taking, backchannels, adjacency pairs, repairs and conversational closings which include both pre-closing and leave-taking. The researcher deploys a role-play test to elicit the required data. Conversation analysis approach serves as the model for collecting and transcribing the data. Further, the study adopts Al- Hadeedy’s (2019) model to evaluate students’ performance for the role-play scenarios. The model has been slightly modified to suit the research questions. Then, T test is applied for statistical treatment. The result of the study indicates that the majority of the students are not employing the majority of the sociocultural norms appropriately which refutes the posed hypothesis. Keywords: Sociocultural norms, Conversation analysis, conversational openings, turn-taking, backchannels, adjacency pairs, repairs, conversational closings.
Thesis
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A convergent parallel mixed research design belonging to the pragmatist paradigm was employed. A total of 246 and 14 students with disabilities (SWDs) were selected through stratified proportionate simple random and purposive sampling techniques from five HEIs. Data were collected through three self-administered questionnaires (SAQ, SES, and CSEQ) and a semi-structured interview guide. Permission and consent agreement of the HEIs and respondents were received. In analyzing the quantitative data frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, correlation, One sample t-test, and stepwise multiple regression, and for qualitative data In Vivo software were used. Results were: inclusion was significantly and positively related to all dimensions of self-advocacy and engagement constructs. Both data sets were found to be integrating in indicating the same findings. Meaning, respondents were found to be self-advocates (except having lower knowledge of rights, the students were having higher knowledge of self, communication, and leadership); engaged (except having a lower relationship with their faculties, the students were having higher values, sense of belonging, cognitive, relationship with their peers, and behavioral engagements); and the students were included in the HEIs. Both self-advocacy and engagement were found to have a predictive power of inclusion of respondents in the HEIs, where engagement was found to be more predictor. From self-advocacy knowledge of self and leadership and on engagement sense of belonging, cognitive, and valuing dimensions in their respective order were found to having a stronger predictive power on the inclusion of respondents in the HEIs. However, respondents had not received the determinant factors at all on self-advocacy and obtained less on engagement to be able to self-advocate and be engaged for inclusion in the HEIs though they were found to be. Based on the findings it was concluded that if SWDs work hard to be self- determined, strive for realizing social justice, exert quality effort, and seek active involvement their inclusion in the HEIs would be ensured. Besides, relevant recommendations were made to all the concerned individuals and institutions in the area, e.g., making the HEIs in the country ready enough in advance before accepting SWDs.
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