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A New Approach for Modeling of Photovoltaic Cell/Module/Array Based-on Matlab

Authors:
Physics Journal
Vol. 2, No. 1, 2016, pp. 23-34
http://www.aiscience.org/journal/pj
* Corresponding author
E-mail address: mhshahrokh@ieee.org (M. H. S. Abadi), toghyani.rizi@gmail.com (M. T. Rizi)
A New Approach for Modeling of Photovoltaic
Cell/Module/Array Based-on Matlab
M. Toghyani Rizi, M. H. Shahrokh Abadi
*
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran
Abstract
A step-by-step mathematical modeling of one-diode equivalent circuit of photovoltaic cell/module, implemented in
matlab/simulink was developed. The model was designed to take different inputs in terms of voltage, insolation, temperature,
series and parallel resistances to simulate the electrical behaviour of the module and to produce V-I and P-V curves. The
novelty of this work is consideration the effects of series and parallel resistances of the model as the independent inputs.
Furthermore, hot spot heating and bypass diode operation of the module were investigated. Finally, using the proposed model,
a photovoltaic array in parallel mode was developed and simulated.
Keywords
Photovoltaic Cell, Module, MATLAB, Simulink, Series Resistance, Parallel Resistance, I-V Curve, P-V Curve
Received: September 14, 2015 / Accepted: December 13, 2015 / Published online: December 29, 2015
@ 2016 The Authors. Published by American Institute of Science. This Open Access article is under the CC BY-NC license.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
1. Introduction
Solar energy has the advantage of being environmentally
friendly, pollution free, cost-efficient, and generally is
unlimited in availability [1-4]. All these factors and
dimensions of solar energy have attracted the attention of
many researchers toward the photovoltaic (PV) systems and
devices. The market for PV systems is growing worldwide
[5]. Today’s solar PVs provide nearly 4800 GW. Between
2004 and 2009, grid connected PV capacity reached 21 GW
with an increasing rate of 60% annually [5]. However,
studies on the characteristics of a PV system are frequently
analyzed through the use of a CAD model, which is always
going to be a big challenge for solar cell systems and has
been concerned by many researchers [6-8].
There are common and simple models of solar panel that
have been developed and integrated to software, e.g. Matlab.
Extensive works exist in literature about modeling solar
power generation by photovoltaic cell [9-11]. In 2011, a 36
W PV module for simulation purposes, called Solkar, has
been developed by Pandiarajan and Muthu [12], in which, the
effects of series and parallel resistances of PV module, as
independent inputs, have not been considered in the model.
In this paper, a step-by-step procedure for simulating PV
module using subsystem blocks, with user-friendly icons of
Matlab/ Simulink block libraries is developed in six steps. In
section 2, the mathematical relationships between PV cell
parameters, the modeling procedure, and simulation
scenarios have been presented. Simulation results respect to
the inputs alteration have been given in section 3. In section
4, the PV array has been presented and simulated followed by
conclusion in section 5. It will be shown that a major
improvement to realize the PV characteristics has been done
by implementation of a new equation for output current, I
pv
.
Also inserting a delay block to resolve an algebraic loop error
due to the simulation is the other superior of the current
work. Another novelty of the presented model is building a
PV array based-on the improved PV module in parallel
mode. Hot spot heating effect and bypass diode operation is
also added to accomplish the work.
24 M. Toghyani Rizi and M. H. Shahrokh Abadi: A New Approach for Modeling of
Photovoltaic Cell/Module/Array Based-on Matlab
2. Model for the PV Module
2.1. Analytical Model
A one-diode equivalent circuit of solar cell (Fig. 1) has been
considered as the basis model through this work. In this
model, I
ph
represents the current generated by the photons
and does not change when temperature and incident radiation
of light are constant. Losses have been introduced by adding
a series and a parallel resistance, R
s
and R
p
, respectively, with
regard to the internal cell resistances, contact resistances, and
the effect of leakage currents. Also, I
D
, I
pv
, and V
pv
correspond to the diode current, the output current, and the
terminal voltage, respectively [13]. A solar panel has been
formed by using N
s
and N
p
number of the solar cell put in
series and parallel to fulfill the required power. For the
simulation the SOLKAR 36 W PV module has been
considered as the reference module. The electrical parameter
of this module has been given in Table 1 [14-15].
Fig. 1. One-diode equivalent circuit of solar cell.
(a)
(b)
Fig. 2. (a) A typical module with 36 series cell, (b) Model of solar panel
consists of N
s
and N
p
number of series and parallel cells.
Table 1. Electrical parameters of SOLKAR 36w PV module* [15].
Parameter Value
Rated Power, W 37.08
Voltage at Maximum Power (V
MP
), V 16.56
Current at Maximum Power (I
MP
), A 2.25
Open Circuit Voltage (V
OC
), V 21.24
Short Circuit Current (I
SCR
), A 2.55
Total Number of Cells Connected in Series (N
S
) 36
Number of Cells Connected In Parallel (N
P
) 1
* The electrical specifications have been given at irradiance of 1 kW/m
2
and
cell temperature of 25°C.
Considering the following parameters and definitions, the
photovoltaic array can be described through the equations 1
to 5 as it follows [16-17]:
pv
V
is output voltage of a PV module (V)
pv
I
is output current of a PV module (A)
ref
T
is the reference temperature = 300 °K
Tak is the module operating temperature in Kelvin
ph
I
is the light generated current in a PV module (A)
0
I
is the PV module saturation current (A)
A
is an ideality factor = 1.6
k
is the Boltzmann constant =
23
1.3805 10 j
k
×
q
is Electron charge =
19
1.6 10 C
×
s
R
is the series resistance of a PV module
p
R
is the parallel resistance of a PV module
SCr
I
is the PV module short-circuit current at 27 °C and
2
1kW m
= 2.55A
i
k
is the short-circuit current temperature co-efficient at
0.0017
SCr
IC
=
λ
is the PV module illumination
2
( )
kW m
0
g
E
is the band gap for silicon =
1.1eV
s
N
is the number of cells connected in series
p
N
is the number of cells connected in parallel
The module photo current:
[ ( )].
PH SCr I ak ref
I I K T T
λ
= +
(1)
The module reverse saturation current, –I
rs
:
Physics Journal Vol. 2, No. 1, 2016, pp. 23-34 25
exp 1
SCr
rs
oc
ak
I
IqV
NskAT
=
 
 
(2)
Module saturation current variations due to the temperature
fluctuations is calculated from:
3
0
1 1
( ) . exp[
G
rs
ref ref ak
qE
T
I I T kA T T
 
= −
 
 
 
(3)
The output current of PV cell can be determined by KCL at
the input node, given as:
0
exp 1
pv pv s
pv PH pv pv s
ak p
(V I R )
q
I = I I ( (V I R ) )
kT A R
+
+ − −
(4)
Therefore, the equation for the current and voltage terminal
of the array becomes:
0
exp 1 + −
+
pv pv s
pv P PH P S P
ak
P pv
pv s
S
p
q V I R
I = N I N I ( ( ) )
N N
kT A
N V
( I R )
N
R
(5)
where
, 1
pv oc P
V V N= =
and
36
s
N=
.
2.2. Simulink Modeling
Using the Matlab/Simulink simulation tool, the model of
photovoltaic cell implemented as it has been presented in Fig.
3. The model consists of a direct implementation of the
analytical expressions described above as six subsystems. A
step by step procedure of model illustration to create these
subsystems has been given in detail.
Fig. 3. Implemented model of PV module.
Step1:In this step a subsystem to convert Celsius degrees to
Kelvin has been implemented and given in Fig. 4. The basic
equations for the conversion are:
Operating Temperature:
273
k ak
T Temp T Temp+ = = +
(6)
Reference Temperature:
273 27 300
k ref rk
T T T+ = = + =
(7)
Step2: Using equation (1), in this step, I
ph
has been carried
out based on the inputs given in Fig. 5. The parameters used
in this step are:
Insolation
λ
2
( )
kW m
Module operating temperature, T
ak
= 30 to 70°C
Module reference temperature, T
rk
= 27°C
Short circuit current (I
SC
) at reference temp = 2.55A
(a)
(b)
Fig. 4.(a) Block diagram of °C to °K subsystem1, (b) Internal circuit of
subsystem1.
26 M. Toghyani Rizi and M. H. Shahrokh Abadi: A New Approach for Modeling of
Photovoltaic Cell/Module/Array Based-on Matlab
(a)
(b)
Fig. 5.(a) Block diagram ofsubsystem2, (b) Internal circuit of subsystem2.
(a)
(b)
Fig. 6. (a) Block diagram ofsubsystem3, (b) Internal circuit of subsystem3.
Physics Journal Vol. 2, No. 1, 2016, pp. 23-34 27
Step3: This block uses short circuit current of I
SC
= 2.55A as
the input at reference temperature and module reference
temperature of T
rk
= 27°C and then calculates the I
rs
based-on
the Equation (2). The subsystem has been described in Fig. 6.
Step 4: In this step, saturation current, I
S
, has been calculated
using the reverse saturation current, I
rs
, the module reference
temperature, T
rk
= 27°C, and the module operating
temperature, T
ak
, with respect to the Equation (3). The detail
of this subsystem has been given in Fig. 7.
(a)
(b)
Fig. 7. (a) Block diagram of I
S
subsystem4, (b) Internal circuit of subsystem 4.
28 M. Toghyani Rizi and M. H. Shahrokh Abadi: A New Approach for Modeling of
Photovoltaic Cell/Module/Array Based-on Matlab
(a)
(b)
Fig. 8. (a) Block diagram of subsystem5, kAT
ak
, (b) Internal circuit for the block.
(a)
(b)
Fig. 9. (a) Block diagram for the subsystem6 to calculate I
pv
, (b) Internal circuit for this block.
Physics Journal Vol. 2, No. 1, 2016, pp. 23-34 29
Step5:In this subsystem, operating temperature in Kelvin, T
ak
,
is taken to calculate kAT
ak
, a parameter used in the Equations
(4) and (5).
Step6: This block executes an internal function, Fcn, to carry
out the I
pv
. The function has been given based-on previously
defined I
pv
in the Equation (5):
( )
(2)
(3) exp (1) (6) 1 (4)
36
(1) (6) (5)
36
 
= − +
 
 
 
− +
 
 
u
Fcn u u u u
uu u
(8)
where each unit block of u(1) through u(6) have been
illustrated in Fig (7). It is important to mention that in this
block the effect of both series and parallel resistances have
been considered. Also, through this work 36 cells in series
(N
s
= 36) has been considered in one row (N
p
= 1) as a
module. While performing the Fcn in the Matlab, an
algebraic loop warning is appeared in the command window,
which was solved by inserting a delay block in the feedback
loop coming from the output I
pv
before entering the
exponential block so that the current value can be calculated
based on its previous values.
Step7: The final step is interconnection of all the six
previously defined subsystems to implement the whole PV
module, given in Fig. 3. The block diagram of the module
has been given in Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Block diagram of the PV module.
2.3. Simulation Scenarios
Examining the outputs of a PV system include the
instantaneous power and current characteristics. These
parameters are altered by the input parameters of: solar
insolation, temperature, voltage, series and parallel
resistances as shown in the Fig. 11. All these inputs, except
for the V
in
(repeating sequence), are created by signal builder
blocks. A multiplexer is used to collect the results produced
by simulation into a variable V
out
that is used later to plot
the different curves under Matlab command mode.
Fig. 11. Simulink model of the PV module.
30 M. Toghyani Rizi and M. H. Shahrokh Abadi: A New Approach for Modeling of
Photovoltaic Cell/Module/Array Based-on Matlab
3. Results and Discussions
3.1. Effect of Alteration of Sunlight
Irradiation
I-V and P-V characteristics of the module have been obtained
and shown in Fig. 12 under different irradiation of λ = 0.2,
0.6, and 1 kW/m
2
, at 27°C, using series and parallel
resistances of 0.1 Ω and 100 Ω, respectively.
It can be seen from Fig. 12(a) that an increment in the
insolation from 0.2 to 1, causes a significant increasing in the
maximum available power, P
m
, from 7 to 40 watts,
respectively. Correspondingly, graph in Fig. 12(b) shows a
proportional relationship between the short-circuit current
and the incident sunlight by a ratio of 5, at any voltage less
than 15 V, which enunciates that the PV-cell behaves more
like a current source than a voltage source [17].
(a)
(b)
Fig. 12. (a) P-V vs. (b) I-V curves of the module under different values of
incident sunlight.
3.2. Effect of Temperature Variation
Fig. 13 shows the current versus voltage and the power
versus voltage characteristics of the module at temperatures
of 25°C, 50°C, and 75°C, where the sunlight irradiation has
been fixed at 1 kW/m
2
and fixed series and parallel
resistances of 0.1 Ω and 100 Ω, respectively. The figure
shows that any increase in the temperature causes a
decrement in the maximum power, P
m
. This is due to an
increment in the saturation current, I
0
, given in Equation (3),
when the temperature is increased. Furthermore, the short
circuit current remains almost constant when the temperature
is changed at voltages up to 13 volts.
3.3. Effect of Series Resistance, R
s
The simulation was run at different values of R
s
= 0, 0.4,
and 1 , and the related graphs of V-I and P-V
characteristics have been obtained as shown in Fig. 14.
The results show a great impact of series resistance of the
module on the slope of the I-V curve at the voltages
almost near the open-circuit voltage, V
oc
. Degradation in
the cell current due to greater values of R
s
indicates more
power dissipation.
(a)
(b)
Fig.13. (a) P-V vs. (b) I-V curves of the module at temperatures of 25°C,
50°C, and 75°C.
Physics Journal Vol. 2, No. 1, 2016, pp. 23-34 31
(a)
(b)
Fig. 14. (a) P-V vs. (b) I-V curves at different R
s
An important parameter of PV cells is called fill factor (FF),
which in conjunction with V
oc
and I
sc
determines the
maximum power from a solar cell, and can be calculated
from:
max
oc sc
P
FF V I
=
(9)
Fig. 14(a) also demonstrates that the output power of cell is
reduced at higher values of R
s
, resulted in lower FF.
3.4. Variation in Shunt Resistance, R
sh
An alternate current path, rather than the output current, is
produced when the PV cell is distracted from the ideal
condition. This digression is due to the shunt resistance. Such
a diversion reduces the amount of current flowing through
the solar cell junction and considerably reduces the voltage
from the solar cell. A simulation is produced at different
values of shunt resistance, R
sh
= 1, 10, and 1000 and V-I
and P-V characteristics of the cell were obtained as shown in
Fig. 15. It is clear that when the R
sh
is lowered the output
current of PV cell is diminished steeply, indicates more
power dissipation which can be translated into Fill Factor
lowering. To achieve higher output power and Fill Factor, for
any applicable PV cell, R
sh
must be increased while the R
s
must be decreased, simultaneously.
(a)
(b)
Fig. 15. (a) P-V vs. (b) I-V cell characteristics at different shunt resistance.
3.5. Hot Spot Heating Effect and Bypass
Diode Operation
Hot-spot heating occurs when there is one low current solar
cell in a string of at least several high short-circuit current
solar cells, as shown in the Fig. 16 [13, 18, 19].
Fig. 16. Hot-spot heating effect.
One shaded cell in a string reduces the current through the
“good” cells, causing the good cells to produce higher
voltages that can often reverse bias the bad cell. Hot-spot
heating occurs when a large number of series connected cells
cause a large reverse bias across the shaded cell, leading to
large dissipation of power in the poor cell. Essentially the
entire generating capacity of all the good cells is dissipated in
the poor cell. The enormous power dissipation occurring in a
32 M. Toghyani Rizi and M. H. Shahrokh Abadi: A New Approach for Modeling of
Photovoltaic Cell/Module/Array Based-on Matlab
small area results in local overheating, or “hot-spots”, which
in turn leads to destructive effects, such as cell or glass
cracking, melting of solder or degradation of the solar cell.
The destructive effects of hot-spot heating may be
circumvented through the use of a bypass diode. A bypass
diode is connected in parallel, but with opposite polarity, to a
solar cell as shown below [20-22].
Fig. 17. One-diode equivalent circuit of solar cell by considering the bypass
diode.
The operation of the bypass diode has been considered by
implementing a Simulink model, given in Fig 18(a), using
the Equation (10):
0
ln ( 1)
bypass
Dbypass t
I
V V I
= − +
(10)
Where
0
25 , 1
t
V mV I A
µ
= =
The decision for being a diode in circuit or not is taken by
Switch1. The Diode = 0 is referred to as no bypass diode,
then the output voltage of PV is switched for the simulation,
which means the PV operates normally. If Diode signal is “1”
and V
pv
<V
Dbypass
, then the diode is forward biased and
I
Dbypass
versus V
Dbypass
curve can be obtained (Fig. 18(b)). The
function of saturation block is to rectify the crossing current
because bypass diode current cannot be negative. For the
modeling, it has been assumed that the hot spot heating has
been occurred and V
pv
= –1 V. A scope observation of internal
signals of the model has been given in Fig. 18(c).
(a)
(b)
Physics Journal Vol. 2, No. 1, 2016, pp. 23-34 33
(c)
Fig. 18. (a) Simulink behavioral model of bypass diode operation (b) Bypass current vs. bypass voltage curve, (c) Scope signals
4. PV Array
In order to realize a PV array, four modules have been
connected together in parallel as shown in Fig. 19 (a), and then
the whole array was simulated. The results of current and
power of array versus voltage are shown in Fig. 19 (b) and (c),
respectively. An output power of about 160 W can be obtained
from the array when the terminal voltage is about 17 volts.
(a)
(b) (c)
Fig. 19. (a) PV array model, (b) I-V curve, and (c) P-Vcurve of PV array.
34 M. Toghyani Rizi and M. H. Shahrokh Abadi: A New Approach for Modeling of
Photovoltaic Cell/Module/Array Based-on Matlab
5. Conclusion
A step by step mathematical modeling of solar energy
conversion through photovoltaic effect was demonstrated
using Matlab/Simulink. The model was simulated respect to
the variation effects of voltage, insolation, temperature, series
and parallel resistance. In this model, the simulation error
due to an algebraic loop has been modified by insertion of
delay block. The presented model can be considered as a
basis model for PV systems/arrays in the framework of the
Sim-Power-System Matlab/SIMULINK toolbox in the field
of solar PV power conversion systems to predict the behavior
of solar PV cells/module/ array under different
circumstances.
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