Through a set of experiments we demonstrated the potentiality of the use of EEG signal detection through BCI devices in improving the analysis and the interpretation of colors-driven cognitive processes. The approach combines Information Technology methods and signal analysis with cognitive science investigation methods, considering the rising interest in these two disciplines in learning sciences. The presented experiment has been designed with the aim to compare the results of the traditional (qualitative and quantitative) cognitive analysis approach with the EEG signal analysis of the evoked potentials collected from participants. A sample of students has been involved in a learning process during which they received visual stimuli based on colour variation. The stimuli concerned both the background of the text to learn and the colour of the characters. The colours represent the sensorial stimulus, while the cognitive task consists in remembering the words appearing on the screen, with different combination of foreground (words) and background colors. The obtained results show interesting learning effects of primary (RGB) or complementary (CMY) colours as well as EEG correlates.