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Abstract

This article presents a Brazilian experience in training teachers to educate for purpose. Understanding that purpose is a value to be constructed through real-world and contextualised experiences, the authors discuss some psychological processes that underlie purpose development. Then the authors show how these processes are used in a purpose development programme they have conducted for in-service and pre-service teachers over the past six years. Using innovative pedagogies, such as Problem-Based Learning, Project-Based Learning, and Design Thinking, the authors describe the steps that teachers have to follow in project development, examples of the results accomplished with this kind of programme, and research findings that are being conducted to analyse the principles and results of this approach for training teachers in how to educate youth for purpose.

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... A juventude, segundo Pais (1993), é uma categoria socialmente construída, sujeita, portanto, a se modificar ao longo do tempo. Arantes et al (2016) destaca que, a ONU, por meio da proposição de um critério etário, auxilia a delimitar, apenas, os sujeitos jovens, como todos aqueles que se encontram neste período etário. Mas, para estas autoras, a questão etária seria, provavelmente, a única regularidade partilhada entre todos os jovens, sem exceção, os diferenciando dos demais grupos. ...
... O desenvolvimento de PV de adolescentes vem ganhando espaço nas discussões sobre a educação, pois é considerado um fator responsável por promover engajamento cívico e boa cidadania (TIRRI; MORAN; MARIANO, 2016). A escola é um contexto central na promoção do PV, uma vez que ela guia os adolescentes no processo de construção identitária e de objetivos futuros (ARAÚJO et al., 2016). Professores assumem o papel de mentores, exercendo a função de mediadores entre as aspirações de seus alunos, que emergem a partir das atividades escolares da vida prática, de forma a ampliar a gama de possibilidades referentes ao futuro, e que antes eram mais restritas (QUINN, 2016). ...
... Por isso, as práticas educacionais ativas, que operam a partir do protagonismo do aluno, são centrais na construção de PV, fazendo dele um parceiro na construção do conhecimento, em oposição a uma postura de mero consumidor de conteúdo curricular (ARAÚJO et al., 2016). O professor tem um papel fundamental, em todo o processo de elaboração do PV de seus alunos, na medida em que é o adulto responsável por sua educação formal ao longo da vida (DELLAZZANA--ZANON; BACHERT; GOBBO, 2018). ...
... A juventude, segundo Pais (1993), é uma categoria socialmente construída, sujeita, portanto, a se modificar ao longo do tempo. Arantes et al (2016) destaca que, a ONU, por meio da proposição de um critério etário, auxilia a delimitar, apenas, os sujeitos jovens, como todos aqueles que se encontram neste período etário. Mas, para estas autoras, a questão etária seria, provavelmente, a única regularidade partilhada entre todos os jovens, sem exceção, os diferenciando dos demais grupos. ...
... O desenvolvimento de PV de adolescentes vem ganhando espaço nas discussões sobre a educação, pois é considerado um fator responsável por promover engajamento cívico e boa cidadania (TIRRI; MORAN; MARIANO, 2016). A escola é um contexto central na promoção do PV, uma vez que ela guia os adolescentes no processo de construção identitária e de objetivos futuros (ARAÚJO et al., 2016). Professores assumem o papel de mentores, exercendo a função de mediadores entre as aspirações de seus alunos, que emergem a partir das atividades escolares da vida prática, de forma a ampliar a gama de possibilidades referentes ao futuro, e que antes eram mais restritas (QUINN, 2016). ...
... Por isso, as práticas educacionais ativas, que operam a partir do protagonismo do aluno, são centrais na construção de PV, fazendo dele um parceiro na construção do conhecimento, em oposição a uma postura de mero consumidor de conteúdo curricular (ARAÚJO et al., 2016). O professor tem um papel fundamental, em todo o processo de elaboração do PV de seus alunos, na medida em que é o adulto responsável por sua educação formal ao longo da vida (DELLAZZANA--ZANON; BACHERT; GOBBO, 2018). ...
... As has been pointed out before (Araújo, Arantes, Danza, Pinheiro, & Garbin, 2016), educational proposals consistent with these principles must create educational environments where students assume an active role, and participate in the classes in an intense and reflective manner. It presupposes students who build their intelligence, identity, and values through the dialogue established with peers, teachers, family, and culture, in the everyday reality of the world in which they live. ...
... knowledge, and values-places students at the center of the educational process (Araújo et al., 2016). In this way, active learning methods in education have as their main presupposition an active student, who assumes an active role in the apprenticeship and the search for knowledge, changing, at the same time, the teacher's role in the classroom. ...
Chapter
To innovate in education, it is necessary to get fascinated by the unusual, by the intellectual adventure of riding paths not yet traveled, assuming principles of uncertainty and indetermination as partners of this trip. But this must be done with wisdom and safety. After all, innovation is not based upon an empty space or on fragile foundations. To preserve, transmit, and enrich the cultural and scientific heritage of humanity are the principles that justify the existence of education, both formal and informal. To better understand contexts of innovation and why there is a need for reinventing schools is the vertebral column of this chapter. In the first part, educational revolutions throughout history will be discussed, showing that the spaces for novelty are not empty. In the second part, the discussion will be around the role that active learning methods, such as problem‐based learning (PBL), have in the process of school reinvention, as well as technology and new languages. Finally, some examples will be presented to demonstrate how this reinvention is being constructed in different settings, with a special focus on 3D immersive platforms, which are an emergent technology that promises to approximate different dimensions of reality in the educational field.
... Constructivism is an approach that promotes and invites an intellectual adventure. Taking the discussion to the educational field, constructivism gives voice to students, fosters dia logue, incites their curiosity, leads them to question everyday life and scientific knowl edge and, above all, provides them with the conditions to find the answers to their own questions, both from the individual and the collective point of view (Araujo et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
Paulo Freire, the Brazilian philosopher, educator, and a leading Southern theorist, has been extraordinarily influential worldwide. He is considered one of the founders of criti cal pedagogy, and influenced educators in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with his ideas of liberation, freedom, and emancipation. This essay presents an example of an educa tional program developed in Brazil, where Freire's dialogical theory and principles were adapted to address the challenges faced by youth in education and the skills they need for the communities in which they live. It shows how a Freirean-inspired pedagogical model and active-learning methodologies can become transferable trialogues for other Southern educational experiences. These can empower the youth to solve local community chal lenges and transform societies in unequal places. The living conditions of Latin American, African, and many Asian youth differ in many ways from those in more developed countries of the Global North. In spite of the in equities and social, cultural, economic, and political differences that also exist among the nations of the Global South, a large percentage of the young people living in these coun tries suffer from a lack of opportunities and often do not find instruments to reverse situ ations of disadvantage. In this context, the ideas and reflections of the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire (1921-1997)-for whom education could only be conceived as an instrument of empowerment, emancipation, and critical action in society-gain strength. The goal of this essay is to present Paulo Freire's ideas about education and how some of his principles, reinvented and adapted for the twenty-first century, can inspire transfer able educational interventions for Southern youth, aimed at empowering them to solve lo cal community challenges. The essay presents Paulo Freire's central concepts and their dissemination in the southern hemisphere, and the discussion will try to demonstrate how the principles of his theory inspire active learning methods. In the final part of the essay, an educational perspective developed in Brazilian universities is presented. This experi ence can inspire the development of new educational interventions for Southern youth,
... Para tanto, a escala foi construída de forma a abarcar os diferentes aspectos envolvidos no construto, após consulta à literatura científica: estudo, trabalho, família, aquisição de bens materiais, religiosidade, relações interpessoais e qualidade de vida (Araújo, Arantes, Danza, Pinheiro & Garbin, 2016;Bock & Liebesny, 2003;Cardoso & Cocco, 2003;D Áurea-Tardeli, 2008;Furlani & Bomfim, 2010;Graf & Diogo, 2009;Gonçalves et al., 2008;Miranda, 2007;Parede & Pecora, 2004;Pratta & Santos, 2007;Santos, 2002). Seus itens iniciais foram redigidos de forma a contemplarem, teoricamente, tais aspectos. ...
Article
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The thematic of the life projects of adolescents has been shown relevant in Psychology, specifically in Developmental Psychology. Faced with the lack of instruments that have this objective, the present study consisted in the investigation of the evidence of content validity of the Scale of Life Projects for Adolescents (EPVA), in development. Five experts on the subject acted as judges, classifying the 116 items of the instrument in seven dimensions: affective relationships, study, work, positive aspirations, material goods, religion / spirituality and meaning of life. The analysis of the coefficients of agreement showed the adequacy of the items, being possible to maintain 88% of the initial scale. Analysis of Kappa coefficient showed a concordance index above 0.75 for all judges. The results pointed to the adequacy of the scale to the construct and dimensions that it intends to evaluate.
... Para tanto, a escala foi construída de forma a abarcar os diferentes aspectos envolvidos no construto, após consulta à literatura científica: estudo, trabalho, família, aquisição de bens materiais, religiosidade, relações interpessoais e qualidade de vida (Araújo, Arantes, Danza, Pinheiro & Garbin, 2016;Bock & Liebesny, 2003;Cardoso & Cocco, 2003;D Áurea-Tardeli, 2008;Furlani & Bomfim, 2010;Graf & Diogo, 2009;Gonçalves et al., 2008;Miranda, 2007;Parede & Pecora, 2004;Pratta & Santos, 2007;Santos, 2002). Seus itens iniciais foram redigidos de forma a contemplarem, teoricamente, tais aspectos. ...
Article
Full-text available
A temática dos projetos de vida de adolescentes tem se mostrado um tema relevante na Psicologia, especificamente, na Psicologia do Desenvolvimento. Diante da lacuna de instrumentais que tenham esse objetivo, o presente estudo consistiu na investigação das evidências de validade de conteúdo da Escala de Projetos de Vida para Adolescentes (EPVA), em desenvolvimento. Para isso, cinco peritos no assunto atuaram como juízes, classificando os 116 itens do instrumento em sete dimensões: relacionamentos afetivos, estudo, trabalho, aspirações positivas, bens materiais, religião/espiritualidade e sentido da vida. A análise dos coeficientes de concordância demonstraram a adequação dos itens, sendo possível manter 88% da escala inicial. As análises dos coeficientes de Kappa evidenciaram índice de concordância acima de 0,75 para todos os juízes. Os resultados apontaram para a adequação da escala ao construto e dimensões que pretende avaliar.
... Educational models such as problem-based learning (Araujo, Arantes, Danza, Pinheiro, & Garbin, 2016), crossroads for self-authorship (Pizzolato, 2005) and service-learning (Moran, 2018b) have been promoted. But these perspectives tend to assume stability of worldview. ...
... A special issue on purposeful teaching around the world presents several articles from different countries on this topic giving concrete examples on culture-specific approaches to purpose education [21,22]. For example, in Brazil, action research approaches are adapted with student teachers by using problem-based and design thinking methods to promote purposeful teaching [23]. In American context, service-learning is regarded as one of the most promising pedagogical approach for supporting purpose development of student teachers [24]. ...
Chapter
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... PBL -Project Based Learning)(Alves et al., 2016;Araujo, Arantes, Danza, Pinheiro, & Garbin, 2016;Barak Miri & Dori Yehudit Judy, 2004;Frank, Lavy, & Elata, 2003;Hall Alfred & Miro Danielle, 2016) y el "aprender haciendo" (LBD -Learning by Doing)(Kammermann, Weissinger, Meyer, & Herzog, 2013;Pozzi, Noè, & Rossi, 2015;Sevli, Turkaslan, & Yigitarslan, 2013;West, Flowers, & Gilmore, 1990;Yazici & Töre, 2014;Sergio Artal-Sevil, Manuel Artacho, & Romero, 2015) ...
Chapter
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In recent years, new educational strategies at high education are being implemented, which are quite different from the classic master class. Among these other ways of teaching are "Project Based Learning" (PBL) and "Learning by Doing" (LBD). With both methodologies it is about recovering the keys of the learning of the ancient craftsmen. Among the advantages of these learning systems, it is worth mentioning the acquisition of implicit competences for group work and communication (PBL) and serve as a stimulus for autonomous work and creativity (LBD). The subject of "Mockups, Models and Prototypes" is taught to students in the third year of the of "Degree in Engineering in Industrial Design and Product Development" at the E.T.S. of Engineering and Industrial Design (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid). The competences that students should acquire with the learning of this subject advise the use of PBL and LBD methods. This paper shows the procedure used to simultaneously implement both teaching methodologies and value the benefits obtained in the learning of students through the evaluation of acquired skills.
... In recent years, the study of purpose has gained global attention (e.g., Araujo, Arantes, Danza, Pinheiro, & Garbin, 2016;Bundick & Tirri, 2014;Moran, 2017;Tirri, Moran, & Mariano, 2016). Life purpose has been defined as a long-term intention to contribute to the world in a personally meaningful way (Damon, Menon, & Bronk, 2003). ...
Article
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Service-learning is an important and effective educational pedagogy that has grown tremendously in Spain. Research shows that service-learning has positive effects on the professional and personal development of future teachers. Since future teachers, in turn, influence the education of the next generation, it is important to understand how service-learning may influence the life purposes of student-teachers themselves, specifically, how emotions influence this development process. Statistical analyses of 198 Madrileño student-teachers’ responses to online questionnaires suggested that service-learning involves positive emotions like interest, enthusiasm, inspiration and determination. Surprisingly, these positive emotions decrease during service, except for the 53 student-teachers whose purposes changed. Most reported positive changes in all dimensions of life purpose, with some also noting strengthened relationships between 10 pairs of dimensions, such as between stronger impetus to help others and a clearer understanding of who would benefit. This study supports teaching as a calling and how service-learning can strengthen that calling.
... The examples below come from one study (Pinheiro & Arantes, 2015) that was part of a series of research studies conducted 2009-2015 (Arantes, Pinheiro, & Araujo, 2014;Araujo, Arantes, Danza, Pinheiro, & Garbin, 2016;Araujo, Arantes, Klein, & Grandino, 2014). Further methodological details and findings can be found in these papers. ...
Article
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Purpose represents a unique opportunity for identifying and analyzing the complexity of human reasoning, considering that its constitution brings together cognitive, affective and social elements. In this article, we use the Theory of Organizing Models of Thinking (OMT), an epistemological and methodological approach based on developmental psychologist Jean Piaget’s work, to present a different perspective on how to analyze youth purpose and to explain the cognitive-emotional dynamics of reasoning in everyday thinking. We introduce OMT and its benefits, then explore the insights it can provide through examining seven OMTs used by Brazilian youth about their life purposes. These models focus on: consumerism and financial stability, interpersonal relationships, only work, work and family, idealization of work and family, altruistic intentions, and fragile purpose projections. These models show how reasoning and emotion are complexly linked in everyday thinking.
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A learner-centred curriculum provides space for the learner to be actively involved in knowledge production and learning. Such can only happen if the learner's confidence is boosted by a feeling of control and ability to manage his or her progress towards acquiring a qualification. The twenty-first century teacher must create an environment that not only supports the Four Pillars of Learning but also leads to learners being allowed a voice to ask pertinent questions. The teacher should be able to guide the student to full physical and mental maturity and should help to develop critical thinking, and the students should be encouraged to practice the truth and have self-respect and respect for other people. This can happen if the learner is afforded the opportunity to self-accept. If the learners fail to do so, they are likely to have lack of confidence, which will lead to lack of independence.
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This article intends to discuss the relationship between morality, democracy and education within the perspective of the complex thinking, pointing to paths and proposals for its effective implementation in the educational routine, underthe conviction that this is an imperative of the new social demands presented to the contemporary schooling. Understanding that one of the purposes of education is the ethical development, the author proposes intentional actions such that through them the school practices can offer to the subjects of education the necessary tools to build their cognitive, affective, cultural, and organic competence, thereby enabling them to act morally in the world. To that effect, seven aspects of school reality that hamper or contribute to school democratization are identified and discussed, which must be understood from the paradigm of complexity: school contents, classroom methodology, the nature of interpersonal relationships, the values, self-esteem and self-knowledge of the school community, as well as the school management processes.
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Purposes are projections about the future based on past and present actions, including the integration and regulation of values and feelings. In this study, we aimed to analyze these processes in the purposes of young Brazilians. A total of 200 young people between 15 and 19 years of age who were public school students from the five geographical regions of Brazil participated in the survey. We applied a written, individual, and open-ended questionnaire that was constructed by the Stanford Center on Adolescence and adapted for this study. We identified seven different ways by which the future was designed, observing different dynamics of thought and great complexity in the integration of values and feelings. For the vast majority of respondents, family and work constituted central values and appeared in an integrated manner in the feelings they expressed: happiness, welfare, and satisfaction. These results cultivate a greater understanding of psychic organization in purposes, opening up new possibilities for studies in moral psychology.
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Much of the debate over moral education in recent decades has centered around the advan-tages and disadvantages of two dominant educational approaches to the moral formation of children, referred to as traditional character education and rational moral education. Traditional character education focuses on the inculcation of virtuous traits of character as the proper aim of education. In contrast, rational moral education seeks to facilitate the development of autonomous moral judgment and the ability to resolve disputes and reach consensus according to canons of fairness. The first approach, then, is concerned with the educational requirements that contribute to the formation of character. The second is concerned with the development of reasoning and autonomy. Unfortunately, the debate has often taken on an either/or quality that has obscured common ground and integrative pos-sibilities. In this chapter a third way, called integrative ethical education, is introduced. It offers a holistic approach to ethical education that, on the one hand, acknowledges the goal of cultivating reflective reasoning and a commitment to justice, required for the develop-ment of democratic communities and, on the other hand, acknowledges that the demands of citizenship in a pluralistic democracy and the ability to engage in deliberative democratic procedures depend on having a character of a certain kind. In this chapter, the main themes of the two dominant approaches to moral and character education are reviewed. These prototypes align tolerably well with philosophical positions associated with Aristotle and Kant, respectively. The relation of these prototypes to specific educational strategies employed in moral and character education are discussed, including how recent models have attempted to reconcile them. Integrative ethical education is introduced as a view that is built on the best from these two traditions but also incorporates knowledge from cognitive science, best practice instruction, and the ancient Greek notions of techne and eudaimonia.
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The field of psychology has been slow to recognize the importance of purpose for positive youth development. Until recently, purpose was understood, if at all, as a means of adapting to threatening conditions rather than as a motivator of good deeds and galvanizer of character growth. Moreover, in most psychological studies, purpose has been conflated with personal meaning, a broader and more internally oriented construct. This article offers a new operational definition of purpose that distinguishes it from meaning in an internalistic sense, and it reviews the existing psychological studies pertinent to the development of purpose during youth. The ar- ticle identifies a number of urgent questions concerning how—and whether—young people today are acquiring positive purposes to dedicate themselves to and, if so, what the nature of today's youth purposes might be. When Victor Frankl published the English edition of Man's Search for Meaning in 1959, the book's instant influence forced psychology to come to terms with the primary importance of high-level belief systems that had been considered derivative or epi-phenomenal by the major theories.1 The notion that ethereal constructs such as "meaning" and "purpose" could make a differ- ence—that they could motivate someone to do some- thing, or even shape a person's basic choices about how to live—seemed impossibly soft-headed and sentimen- tal to mainstream psychologists of that time. If the be- haviorist and psychoanalytic schools (the two best-known bodies of psychological work at midcentury) agreed on anything at all, it was that mean- ing, purpose, and other such belief systems were the products of more fundamental drives; that they were de- pendant on the drives for their shape, substance, and very existence; and that meaning and purpose were no more than marginal factors in behavioral development. To this entrenched materialist position, Frankl (1959) wrote (in the non-"degenderized" language of his day): Man's search for meaning is a primary force in his life and not a "secondary rationalization" of instinctual drives. This meaning is unique and specific in that it must and can be fulfilled by him alone; only then does it achieve a significance which will satisfy his own will to meaning. There are some authors who contend that meanings and values are "nothing but defense mechanisms, reaction formations and sublimations." But as for myself, I would not be willing to live merely for the sake of my "defense mechanisms," nor would I be ready to die merely for the sake of my "reaction for- mations." Man, however, is able to live and even to die for the sake of his ideals and values! (p. 121)
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The self-conscious emotions of guilt, shame, and pride typically occur when people evaluate their own self through the eyes of another person. This article will first of all discuss the nature and function of self-conscious emotions, and describe their developmental course in children and adolescents. Then, a number of variables are discussed that are thought to increase young people's proneness to experience self-conscious emotions. Following this, the empirical evidence on the relationships between guilt, shame, and pride and various types of psychopathology in children and adolescents will be summarized. A model is presented to explain why these self-conscious emotions are associated with a diversity of psychopathological outcomes. Finally, recommendations for clinical practice are made in terms of assessment and interventions targeting the origins and sequelae of self-conscious emotions.
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Researchers contend that committing to an inspiring purpose in life is an important component of healthy identity development for adolescents; however, little research has focused on how identity and purpose develop together. Therefore, the study followed a sample of eight adolescent purpose exemplars for five years in order to develop a grounded model of the way these two constructs interact. Findings suggest that for adolescent purpose exemplars, the processes of identity formation and purpose development reinforce one another; the development of purpose supports the development of identity, and the development of identity reinforces purposeful commitments. Furthermore, in the adolescent purpose exemplars' lives, the purpose and identity constructs largely overlap in such a way that what individuals hope to accomplish in their lives serves as the basis of the adults they hope to become. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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Using data from a 50-state survey of policies, state case study analyses, the 1993-94 Schools and Staffing Surveys (SASS), and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), this study examines the ways in which teacher qualifications and other school inputs are related to student achievement across states. The findings of both the qualitative and quantitative analyses suggest that policy investments in the quality of teachers may be related to improvements in student performance. Quantitative analyses indicate that measures of teacher preparation and certification are by far the strongest correlates of student achievement in reading and mathematics, both before and after controlling for student poverty and language status. State policy surveys and case study data are used to evaluate policies that influence the overall level of teacher qualifications within and across states. This analysis suggests that policies adopted by states regarding teacher education, licensing, hiring, and professional development may make an important difference in the qualifications and capacities that teachers bring to their work. The implications for state efforts to enhance quality and equity in public education are discussed.
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Este artigo propõe-se a discutir as relações entre moralidade, democracia e educação na perspectiva do pensamento complexo, apontando caminhos e propostas para sua efetiva implementação no cotidiano educacional, com a convicção de que esse é um imperativo das novas demandas sociais para a escola contemporânea. Entendendo que um dos objetivos da educação é o da formação ética, o autor propõe ações intencionais para que a escola propicie aos sujeitos da educação os instrumentos necessários à construção de suas competências cognitivas, afetivas, culturais e orgânicas, dando-lhes condições de agir moralmente no mundo. Nesse sentido, são identificados e discutidos sete aspectos da realidade escolar que impedem ou contribuem para a democratização da escola e que devem ser compreendidos a partir do paradigma da complexidade: os conteúdos escolares, a metodologia das aulas, a natureza das relações interpessoais, os valores, a auto-estima e o auto-conhecimento dos membros da comunidade escolar, assim como os processos de gestão escolar.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the evolution of education in recent centuries, trying to explain how movements of democratization and universal access to education promoted the universal inclusion of people in the educational processes. Schools have been structured in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries under principles of exclusion and homogenization which are not reaching the demands of an inclusive education. This situation has an impact on the expectations of knowledge desired by contemporary societies. This impasse has been demanding a re-invention of education, which involves changes in the content, form and relationships between teachers and students within educational settings. Based on the principles of the Positive Psychology, a post-graduate course to re-invent education is presented as well as related concerns to personal and professional ethics. This course combines active learning methodologies with new and diverse information technology and communication tools. The program has been offered to 1,000 Brazilian basic education teachers, aiming at providing instruments for promoting ethical education through topics such as, democratic coexistence; human rights; health; inclusive education; and relationships among school, families and community. The final goal underling these activities is the development of active citizens.
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Through a cultural dynamics lens, what are the promises and pitfalls of having a life purpose to make a creative contribution to one’s culture? Purpose is self-regulation that focuses on a personally meaningful intention to accomplish something prosocial. Although previously studied among older adults reflecting on their lives, a more recent perspective on purpose studies youth prospectively planning their lives. Creativity is the introduction of a novel yet appropriate meaning into a situation that, over time if it is adopted by enough others, can become a new cultural norm. Purpose is a stabilizing personal beacon for understanding and enacting one’s role within a culture, whereas creativity initiates and amplifies a ripple effect on the culture’s dynamics. A creativity-driven life purpose aims to change, redirect, or augment some aspect of culture. It brings the promise of deepening and elaborating cultural resources and the common good. Yet, creativity often requires that the creator provides most of the momentum to proceed. The uncertainty of creativity can lead to fewer social and institutional supports plus more challenges and resistance. Creators need to find tolerant early adopters to demonstrate and educate their novel contributions to others. Despite these challenges, many creators describe their purposes in strongly moral terms: they consider their aim a personal responsibility to share with other minds something “beloved” in their cultural domain as a way to enlarge cultural opportunities for all. Educators can support or thwart creativity-driven purposes in youth; practical suggestions for helping such purpose development are discussed.
Article
Prior studies have found that youth reporting a general sense that "I have a purpose" also describe having social supports that enhance thriving. This study links specific social supports to specific purposes described by youth. We examined whether developmental level, social-structural supports of gender and ethnicity, and close relationship supports of family and friends explained (a) how likely youth were to describe three dimensions of a specific purpose content (intention, engagement, and beyond-the-self reasons), and (b) how youth with specified purposes used social supports to pursue those purposes. Youth in higher grade levels were more likely to describe their future plans, activities that pursued those plans, and reasons that considered consequences to others as well as themselves. Non-White ethnicity and higher friend support also increased the likelihood of youth expressing future plans. Youth with purposes sought or created-then integrated into a tailored support network-purpose-specific benefits from their families, opportunities to engage, and institutions.
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With the growing interest in the development of purpose in youth, one important role that requires attention is the school teacher. The current article explores student perceptions of the role teachers can play in fostering purpose in their students in the mid- and late adolescent years, and the teacher competencies that facilitate purpose development. The present investigation posits and tests a structural model in which student perceptions of teacher support predicts youth purpose, mediated by student perceptions of teacher competencies; in turn, youth purpose predicts broader positive youth development. Two samples of demographically diverse young people ages 13–18 were surveyed in the United States (n = 381) and Finland (n = 336). Results showed support for the role of teachers in fostering purpose, and provided evidence for the hypothesized model with some cross-cultural differences. Implications of these findings for developing purpose in schools are discussed.
Article
This study identified the characteristics of effective tutors in a problem‐based learning (PBL) educational setting. Forty‐four junior medical students participated in two 6‐week PBL groups and evaluated their tutors based on a list of 12 characteristics.Statistical analyses of the students’ responses revealed that faculty members differed significantly in their possession of tutor skills, in the way they carried out the tutor skills, and in their performance of group‐management skills. Tutors were rated highest on participation in the sessions, enthusiasm, and level of comfort outside their area of expertise. They were rated lowest on providing feedback to the group and promoting psychosocial issues.The results indicate that students are highly satisfied with overall tutor performance despite significant differences among tutors. Two important characteristics of the effective tutor were identified: (a) helping students identify important issues and (b) providing feedback to students while encouraging feedback from the group.
Article
This literature review outlines five measurable, policy-relevant teacher characteristics that reflect teacher quality: teacher experience, teacher preparation programs and degrees, type of teacher certification, specific coursework taken in preparation for the profession, and teachers' own test scores. It reviews a wide range of empirical studies that examine the impact of teacher characteristics on teacher effectiveness. Overall, several studies find a positive effect of experience on teacher effectiveness. The selectivity/prestige of the institution attended by a teacher has a positive effect on student achievement. Teachers who have earned advanced degrees have a positive impact on high school mathematics and science achievement when degrees earned are in those subjects. Research demonstrates a positive effect of certified teachers on high school mathematics achievement when the certification is in mathematics. Studies show little impact of emergency or alternative route certification on student achievement in mathematics or science compared to standard certification. Teacher coursework in both subject area taught and pedagogy contributes to positive education outcomes. Pedagogical coursework seems to contribute to teacher effectiveness at all grade levels. Tests that assess teachers' literacy levels or verbal abilities are associated with higher levels of student achievement. (Contains 108 references.) (SM)
Article
This volume has 7 sections of chapters about the many aspects of the psychology of emotion. Each section is drawn from a diverse set of disciplines including: history, anthropology, sociology, philosophy, biology, and neurophysiology, including coverage of compelling new findings on brain–behavior relationships. The development of emotions is represented, along with social processes and personality, the interface between affect and cognition. New to this edition is a section on recent research on emotions and health that represents one of the field's most dynamic and fruitful areas of inquiry. This volume could be a helpful resource for students, researchers, and clinicians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Based on rapid advances in what is known about how people learn and how to teach effectively, this important book examines the core concepts and central pedagogies that should be at the heart of any teacher education program. This book was edited in collaboration with Pamela LePage, Karen Hammerness, and Helen Duffy. It is the result of the National Academy of Education's Committee's work on teacher education. It was written for teacher educators in both traditional and alternative programs, university and school system leaders, teachers, staff development professionals, researchers, and educational policymakers, the book addresses the key foundational knowledge for teaching and discusses how to implement that knowledge within the classroom. This book recommends that, in addition to strong subject matter knowledge, all new teachers have a basic understanding of how people learn and develop, as well as how children acquire and use language, which is the currency of education. In addition, the book suggests that teaching professionals must be able to apply that knowledge in developing curriculum that attends to students' needs, the demands of the content, and the social purposes of education: in teaching specific subject matter to diverse students, in managing the classroom, assessing student performance, and using technology in the classroom. The ideas and suggestions outlined in this book have far-reaching implications for educational policy, classroom practice, and staff development and will go a long way toward informing the next generation of teachers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The benefits of understanding and pursuing one's purposes in life are well documented. However, few studies have addressed potential interventions for enhancing purpose. This article presents the results of an empirical investigation testing whether reflecting on and discussing one's core values, life goals, and purposes in life has benefits for later purpose, as well as later life satisfaction. The study involved a pretest/posttest experimental design with 102 college students, with posttest measures administered nine months later. Results showed that those who engaged in the guided discussion of their values, life goals, and purpose (compared to those who did not) benefited in terms of their goal directedness and life satisfaction and that the benefits for life satisfaction were partially attributable to changes in goal directedness. The article concludes by highlighting implications for practitioners of all kinds, including parents, with recommendations for implementing the purpose discussion in a variety of youth settings.
Article
This article reviews the research literature on teaching and supporting purpose in adolescence and young adulthood. An extensive search revealed that most studies on youth purpose examine psychological correlates and neglect instructional and social supports. School is an effective context for fostering purpose, yet reported approaches for explicitly instructing for purpose are rare after the early 1990s, reflecting a trend away from a language of purpose as a discrete endeavor in education since at least the 1960s. Furthermore, research on the outcomes of early purpose instruction curricula is not present in empirical journal articles. Nevertheless, a concern for fostering youth purpose has not disappeared from education; rather, it is subsumed under approaches that foster more comprehensive positive student outcomes, such as character, civic engagement, and positive youth development. Key curricular approaches to these outcomes are therefore also reviewed and examined for insights into how purpose can be fostered.
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