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Physicochemical and Quality Characteristic s of Cold and Hot Press of Nigella sativa L Seed Oil Using Screw Press


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Screw pressed is the one of the most important mechanical method for oil extraction from N. sativa seed. The physicochemical and quality characteristics of the oil were studied after pressing at cold and hot (50°C until 100°C) temperatures. The results obtained from free fatty acid (FFA) and acid value (AV) found to be lowest at respectively 100°C (0.19% and 0.39%) and highest at 80°C (0.24% and 0.47%).The value ofspecific extinction coefficient(K232)value was constant for all temperatures (2.82-2.83) and K270value observed the lowest at 50°C (1.48) and highest at 100°C (1.61). Carotenoid content was the lowestat 50°C (1.95 mg/kg) than 100°C (2.46 mg/kg) and SN value found lowest at 50°C (132.75 mg KOH/g oil) and highest at 70°C (198.21 mg KOH/g oil ).Viscosity was the lowestat 60°C (63.80 mPaS) than 100°C (71.47mPaS) and PVmeasured thehighest at 80°C (342.37 meq O2/kg oil) and lowest at 50°C (204.58 meq O2/kg oil). Chlorophyll and density measured from 1.97 to 2.50 mg/kg and 0.93 to 0.98 g/cm3 respectively. The color was green and yellow with increasing temperatures. Sensory analysis panelists were liked moderately of oil pressed at 60°C. Keywords: N. sativa seed oil, physicochemical, cold and hot press temperatures, screw pressed.
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JASR 2014 November
; 10
pages 36-45.
29 October
Research Article
Corresponding Author: Tajul A. Yang, Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains,
Malaysia,11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
Tel: 604-6532224; Fax: 604-6573673; E-mail:
Physicochemical and Quality Characteristics of Cold and Hot Press of Nigella
sativa L Seed Oil Using Screw Press
1,3Wahidu Zzaman, 1Deli Silvia, 2Wan Nadiah Wan Abdullah, 1Tajul A. Yang
1Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, UniversitiSains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Penang, Malaysia
2Bioprocess Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, UniversitiSains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Penang, Malaysia
3Department of Food Engineering and Tea Technology, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet-3114, Bangladesh
Received: August 10, 2014; Revised: September 19, 2014; Accepted: 14 October 2014, Available online: 29 October 2014
© 2014
All rights reserved
Screw pressed is one of the most important mechanical methods for oil extraction from N. sativa seed. The physicochemical and
quality characteristics of the oil were studied after pressing at cold and hot (50°C until 100°C) temperatures. The results obtained from free
fatty acid (FFA) and acid value (AV) found to be lowest at respectively 100°C (0.19% and 0.39%) and highest at 80°C (0.24% and
0.47%).The value ofspecific extinction coefficient(K232)value was constant for all temperatures (2.82-2.83) and K270value observed the
lowest at 50°C (1.48) and highest at 100°C (1.61). Carotenoid content was the lowestat 50°C (1.95 mg/kg) than 100°C (2.46 mg/kg) and
SN value found lowest at 50°C (132.75 mg KOH/g oil) and highest at 70°C (198.21 mg KOH/g oil ).Viscosity was the lowestat 60°C
(63.80 mPaS) than 100°C (71.47mPaS) and PVmeasured thehighest at 80°C (342.37 meq O2/kg oil) and lowest at 50°C (204.58 meq
O2/kg oil). Chlorophyll and density measured from 1.97 to 2.50 mg/kg and 0.93 to 0.98 g/cm3 respectively. The color was green and
yellow with increasing temperatures. Sensory analysis panelists were liked moderately of oil pressed at 60°C.
Key words: N. sativa seed oil, physicochemical, cold and hot press temperatures, screw pressed.
Nigella sativa L is a vegetal spice belongs to the
Ranunculacea family, commonly known as black
cumin seed. Nigella sativa is native to the
Mediterranean region and cultivated into other parts
of the world such as Asia, North Africa & Arabian
Peninsula. The seeds of N. sativa have several
therapeutic effect such as prevention of cancer,
antihypertensive effect [26] anti-inflammatory,
analgesic [1] and antihistaminic action [21]. The oil
extracted from to seed of Nigella sativa used in
Egyptian system of medicine. N. sativa seed oil is
used as an antimicrobial [55], anti-inflammatory
[45], anti-oxidant activity [53,2813,14] anti-tumour
activity [13], anti-cancer [39], gastroprotective
[25,24]. Besides, this the seed also used as a spices
and cosmetic products.
N. sativa seed oil has been produced by solvent
and mechanical extraction methods. Solvent
extraction method is capable of removing nearly 90%
from the seeds but the equipment required for this
methods are generally too expensive and there is the
inherent danger of fire and explosion in terms of the
solvent used [72,4,15]. Screw pressed is the one of
mechanical method for oil extraction [49]. The
extracted from screw pressed method is often higher
in quality as compared to solvent-extracted method
due to higher oxidative stability and lower
nonhydratable phospholipids [53,70]. Screw pressed
method did not extensively replaced the solvent
extraction in processing of commodity oilseeds,
because screw presses recover a lower proportion of
the oil [70,47]. However, the screw press method
does not have high extraction efficiencies as compare
to solvent extraction methods [63,16]. Many factors
e.g. applied pressure, heating temperature, moisture
conditioning of sample, particle size, and heating
time are play important role in order to determine the
extraction efficiency [35,3]. Atta [10] found that the
crude oil by cold press is more stable to auto-
oxidation rancidity than crude oil by solvent and
significant difference in physicochemical of oil.
Mechanical screw pressing method is most popular
method in the world to separate oil from vegetable
oilseeds on small scale. Because it required low
investments, and easily operated, [61].
Until now there is no study available on the
effect of temperatures on quality of screw-pressed N.
sativa seed oils. Therefore, the objective of this
research to analyze the physicochemical and quality
characteristics of screw-pressed N. sativa seed oils at
six different temperatures.
37 Dr. S Saied Hosseini-Asl et al, 2014 /Journal Of Applied Sciences Research 10
(12), November, Pages:36-45
Materials And Methods
Raw Material:
The samples of N. sativa seeds, derived from
India were procured from a supplier, Abdul Ghafar
Enterprise, Malaysia. The N. sativa seed were sieved
to remove dust, sand and other foreign matters. The
samples were kept in vacuumed plastics and stored at
room temperature until further processing.
Preparation of N. sativa L seeds oil:
About of 350 g seeds were pressed for 4 to 5
min to achieve a steady flow of oil and meal before
processing samples. Upon achieving steady
operation, triplicate of 3000 g sample was poured
into the hopper and pressed at six different
temperatures (100±3°, 90±3°, 80±3°, 70±3°, 60±3°,
and 50±3 °C). The yield of oil was stored away from
light in a dark container (wrapped with aluminum
foil), stored in a chiller (+4 °C) for 48 hours to let the
oil to settle foreign materials. After 48 hours, the oil
was centrifuged at 3500 rpm to remove other fine
particles in the oil, flushed with Nitrogen gas and
then kept in a freezer (-18 °C). The oils was weighed
and calculated with the formula:
Where: mo weight of oil extract, ms weight
of samples
Physicochemical characteristic of N. sativa L seeds
Free Fatty Acid (FFA):
Free fatty acids of N. sativa seeds oils were
determined according to AOCS recommended
practice Ca 5a-40 [9].
Acid value (AV):
The acid value (AV) was converted from free
fatty acid with a conversion factor (1.99 as oleic
K232 and K270 specific extinction coefficient:
K232 and K270 extinction coefficients were
measured from absorbance at 232 nm and 270 nm,
respectively, with UV spectrophotometer
(SECOMAN) using 1 % solution of oil in
cyclohexane and a path length of 1 cm [12].
Saponification Number (SN):
Determination of oilseeds saponification number
was used AOCS recommended practice Cd 3-25 [9].
Pigment content of N. sativa seeds oil:p
Oil was weighed accurately 7.5 g oil and
dissolved in cyclohexane up to final volume of 25
ml. Chlorophylls and carotenoids contents were
calculated from the absorption spectra of the oils.
The absorption at 670 nm was usually considered to
be related to the chlorophylls fraction, pheophytin is
being its major component. The dominant pigment in
the carotenoids fraction was lutein and the absorption
was measured at 470 nm. Thus chlorophylls and
carotenoids contents were expressed as mg of
pheophytin and lutein per kg of oil, respectively
The levels of pigments are obtained as follow:
[Chlorophylls] = mg/kg
[Carotenoids] = mg/kg
Density of N. sativa seeds oil:
The density of liquid is required to determine the
power required for pumping. The analysis was
carried out using Pycnometer method recommended
practice 41a-2 [9].
Determination viscosity of N. sativa seeds oil:
Viscosity of the oil samples was measured with
a vibration (Oscillation) viscometer (AND
VIBROVISCOMETER SV-10). The principle of
surface loading whereby the surface of an immersed
probe generates a shear wave that dissipates in the
surrounding medium. The measurements depend on
the ability of the surrounding fluid to damp the probe
vibration [57]. Measurements were performed at
25oC with a plastic-plate at 0.3~10.000 mPaS.
Peroxide Value (PV):
Peroxide values represent the amount of
hydroperoxides or peroxides groups, and identically
with initial products of lipid oxidation. The changes
of the procedure may change the results because this
method is empirical and difficult to obtain sufficient
quantities from foods that are low in fat [52]. The
method included AOCS recommended practice Cd 8-
53 [9].
Color of N. sativa seeds oil:
Color of N. sativa seeds oil was evaluated using
a CIELab Minolta spectrophotometer CM 3500d.
The 15 ml sample was pipette into a sample cup, and
color values were obtained using a D6 5/10
°C(daylight 65 illuminant/10oC observer/set) with
color scale coordinates : L*, a* and b*. L* were
represented the difference between light (L* = 100)
and dark (L* = 0). The component a* was
represented the difference between green (-a*) and
red (+a*) and component b* was represented the
difference between blue (-b*) and yellow (+*b)
(Sahin et al., 2006). The method followed according
AOCS with Cc 13b-45 [9].
Mineral contents of N. sativa seeds Oil:
Some of the minerals content of N. sativa
seedsoil and meal present such as sodium, calcium,
manganese, nickel, cuprum, cadmium, iron, lead, and
zinc were analyzed by with Perkin-Elmer Analyst
100 with induction coupled plasma atomic emission
(ICPAES) spectroscopy [7]. The sample (oil was 1 g)
38 Dr. S Saied Hosseini-Asl et al, 2014 /Journal Of Applied Sciences Research 10
(12), November, Pages:36-45
was digested (ETHOS 900 Milestone, microwave
Lab station) with 6 ml concentrated Nitric acid and 1
ml acid peroxide (30 %) until a transparent solution
was obtained. The instrument was calibrated with
known standards and the samples were analyzed at
corresponding wavelengths.
Sensory analysis:
Description of panel sensory:
The panelists divided two group that commonly
used and not used to consume of N. sativa seeds oil
(n= 40). First of group (n= 25) are randomly panel
from other country e.g. Indonesia, Ghana, Sri Lanka,
and Malaysia which randomly not used consume of
N. sativa seeds oil. This group was students and staff
at Universiti Sains Malaysia with ages between 21-
45 years old. The second group are panelists (n = 15)
were consumer society of N. sativa seeds oil from
Kedah (Malaysia) with ages between 31-65 years
old. This group was recruited on the basis of their
previous experience in descriptive sensory analysis,
interest, availability and consumption of N. sativa
seeds oil at least once a day. The test of panels was
conducted between 11:00 A.M. and 1:00 P.M. on the
first day and 2:00 P.M. and 5:00 P.M on the second
Samples evaluations, 30 ml of the N. sativa
seeds oil were placed into transparent plastic cups
with lids coded with 3 digit random numbers.
Samples consisting of different temperatures
extraction of screw press at cold press (50°, 60°, 70°
C) and hot press(80°, 90° and 100°C). Samples were
presented with water and paper ballots on a plastic
tray. Panelists were instructed to consume the whole
sample and rinse their mouths with water between
samples to minimize any residual effect [31,74].
According to Aminah [6] stated that 7 point
scale is suitable for sensory analysis. Hedonic scale
is a rating scale method used in sensory evaluation.
Here's an example:where 1 = dislike very much, 2 =
dislike moderately, 3 = dislike slightly, 4= neither
like nor dislike, 5 = like slightly, 6 = like moderately,
and 7 = like very much, according to the
acceptability of color, odor, taste, viscosity,
bitterness and overall quality.
Statistical Analysis:
The effects of temperatures on physicochemical,
sensory analysis, antioxidant and nutritional
properties of N. sativa seeds oil and meal were
analyzed using ANOVA one way and Tukey’s test
with two replicates. All of the statistical was
performed at the 5 % significance level were
presented as mean ± standard deviation (M±SD)
using SPSS 12.0 for windows [50].
Result and Discussion
Physicochemical characteristics of N. sativa seeds
Free fatty acid (FFA) measurement is directly
correlated with the acid value as shown in Table 1.
FFA and acid values of oil extracted at 80 °C
was significantly different (p<0.05) with those at 50
°C, 60 °C, and 100 °C. However, FFA and Acid
value of oil extracted at 100 °C showed the values
were lowest when compared to temperature at 80 °C.
Both conditions are due to effect of high temperature
extraction, inhibiting hydrolys is process during oil
extraction. Hydrolys is process so ccurring in the oil
is generally caused by water content and
lipaseenzymes. When seeds are extracted, the
existing water in the seeds will come out with the oil
and react with triglycerides to form FFA and glycerol
[62]. Therefore, the values of FFA and acidity
production were higher at low extraction temperature
and the quality of oil decreases because oxidation
readily happens in these conditions.
These result was lowest than comparing with
FFA in red raspberry and jatropha oil are 1.32 % and
1.03 % found by Šuuroviet al [66] and Salimon et al.
[59]. Šuurovi et al [66] told that FFA and acid value
were showing condition the seeds before and during
the processing oil extraction. The non-refining oil
must have ± 2 % of FFA. Atta [10] found that FFA
and AV of the solvent extraction were lower than
cold pressed extraction of N. sativa seeds oil. The
value of FFA was 11.0 % as oleic used by cold press
and 6.7 % by solvent extraction.
However, Dandik et al. [23] reported that the
low temperature may give a higher value of FFA and
causing the disposition to the hydrolysis action
catalyzed by native lipase in ground seeds. Acid
value allows the standards of Codex Alimentarius
Commission [5] for edible oil at 4% as oleic acid.
Despite the high value obtaine data lower
temperature, hencompared to standard values fore
dible oils the value is still below standards.
Specific extinction usually determined by K232
and K270. K232 value measured by the presence of
conjugated dienoic acid in the oil is an indication of
primary oxidation products at 232-234 nm. Some
researchers have used absorption at 268-270 nm to
measure conjugate trienes as well as
ethylenicdiketones and conjugate ketodienes and
dienals arising as secondary oxidation products [47].
Farmer et al [27] reported that the extent of double
bond displacement correlated with the degree of
oxidation occurring in unsaturated oil. Value of K232
and K270 represent primary and secondary oxidation
component in oils. From the Table 1, it shows that
the value of K232 at 50 °C and 60 °C was significantly
different (p<0.05) with temperature at 90 °C.
The values of K270 at 50 °C was significantly
different (p<0.05) with other temperatures, except
temperature at 60 °C. Primary and secondary
oxidation is increased by the increasing the
temperatures of heating. White et al. [69] said that
double bond can also change to form conjugated
39 Dr. S Saied Hosseini-Asl et al, 2014 /Journal Of Applied Sciences Research 10
(12), November, Pages:36-45
dienes during the hydrogenation or deodorization of oil if the temperature rises above 245 °C.
Table 1: Physicochemical and quality characteristics of N. sativa seeds oil pressed at different temperatures.
50 °C
60 °C
70 °C
80 °C
90 °C
100 °C
Free Fatty Acid
(as oleic %)
Acid Value
(as oleic %)
K232 (%)
K270 (%)
SN (mg KOH/g oil)
Chlorophyll (mg/kg)
Carotenoid (mg/kg)
Density (g/cm3)
Viscosity (mPaS)
Means in the same row with different superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05)
These result of K232 and K270 was higher than N.
sativa seed oil from Tunisian (1.07 and 0.27) and
Iranian (0.74 and 0.18) found by Cheikh-Rouhouet
al. The values of K232 and K270 were related to data
from Besbeset al [19] which found that value
increase the Rancimat time from 2.30 to 13 and 0.5
to 2, respectively. The value of K232 was higher due
to sensitivity to heating during extraction processing
to form higher content of primary oxidation of date
seed oils and virgin olive oils. Because product of
primary oxidation is unstable under heating it would
be degraded causing of secondary oxidation and
absorption at 270 nm. It shows that value of
secondary products of oxidation was lower than
primary products oxidation. Proving that N. sativa
seeds oil has a good resistance against heating
condition [68,19].
The saponification number (SN) increased with
heating temperature of 50 °C to 70 °C and decreased
from 80 °C to 100 °C (Table 1). This is because
temperature is one way to eliminate the compounds
of other impurities and allow the natural process of
saponification. Comparing the SN value to other
oilseed e.g. rapeseed oil (184 mg KOH/g oil),
pumpkin oil (199.3 mg KOH/g oil), safflower oil
(184.2 mg KOH/g oil), coconut oil (247.9 mg KOH/g
oil), melon seeds oil (979 mg KOH/g oil), palm
kernel oil (732 mg KOH/g oil) and castor seeds oil
(137 mg KOH/g oil), the value of SN from palm
kernel and melon seeds oil was higher than other
oilseeds [11,56,48].
The higher value of suggests that the oilseed
contain high molecular weight fatty acids with low
level of impurities and can be used in soap making
industry [36]. This shows that the quality of
the oil decreases due to the process of oxidation and
hydrolysis [62]. The value of SN is higher at 70 °C
because the heat may have denatured the fat-
hydrolyzing enzyme with higher degree of
denaturation in oil extracted from N. sativa seed. The
lower SN may be due to the presence of residual
water which may have aided hydrolysis resulting in
lower amount of mg KOH.
Carotenoids significantly increased at
temperature of 50 °C to 70 °C and of 100 °C (Table
1). The increase in temperature was significantly
different (p<0.05) with carotenoid at temperature at
50 °C with 70 °C and 100 °C. Chlorophyll was
insignificantly different (p<0.05) with increase in
temperatures. A similar result was obtained by
Luaceset al [38], who observed the main pigment
compounds in the virgin olive oil -carotenoid and
chlorophyll) treated with heat-temperatures. The
heat-treatment caused increased both of β-carotenoid
and chlorophyll. But there is no relation was found
between chlorophyllic compound and the treatment
temperatures [38].
The pigments decreased the quality of oils due to
its interaction with light making it easily oxidized.
The β-Carotene is easily oxidized to
epoxycarotenoids, which are colorless and oxidation
products of β-Carotene can induce autocatalytic
oxidation in oils [34]. Chlorophyll is converted to
colorless derivatives by reacting with peroxyradicals
produced during oxidation [37]. The β-carotenoid in
N.sativa seeds oil was higher than oilseed from
Parsley (0.783 0.989 mg/kg), and lower than
Mullein (1.121 mg/kg) and pumpkin seeds oil (5.957
mg/kg) [51]. The chlorophyll was more found in the
canola oil (4-30 mg/kg), and rapeseed (5-55 mg/kg)
but in refined bleach and deodorized (RBD) of
canola oil the value less than 0.025 mg/kg and trace
in the soybean oil [32].
Density of N. sativa seeds oil in the table 1 show
that at temperature 50 °C the value was significantly
different (p<0.05) with other temperatures. This
result was in contrast with density in Slovene
Camelinasativa oil was decreased (0.9207 g/cm3 to
0.9041 g/cm3) with increasing of temperature (20 °C
to 50 °C) [2]. The density of liquid oil is less than
that of most other food components, and so there is a
decrease in density of food as its fat content
increases. Thus the lipid content of foods can be
determined by measuring their density.
The viscosity value decreased at 50 °C to 60 °C
and increased again at 70 °C until 100 °C (Table 1).
40 Dr. S Saied Hosseini-Asl et al, 2014 /Journal Of Applied Sciences Research 10
(12), November, Pages:36-45
There was significantly different (p<0.05) between
temperature at 60 °C with others temperature, except
at 50 °C. Value at 70 °C and 80 °C was significantly
different (p<0.05) with 80 °C and 100 °C. The
increase in viscosity value during heating is in
correlation with the formation of dimers and
polymers due to the increase of carbon chain length
and also related to the difference in saturated fatty
acids with the consequence of a higher melting
points. In most cases, an increase in temperature will
lower the viscosity of a material, but sulphur, which
form polymers,is an exception. Viscosity is another
physical characterization which mostly depends on
temperature and on to some extent the compositional
difference of vegetable oils. Viscosity of N. sativa
seed oil was higher than Malaysia Jatrophacurcas
seeds oil (36 cPs), NigeriJ. curcas seeds oil (17-52
cPs), and soybean oil (50.09 cPs) [32,59].
The peroxide values of the N. sativa seed oil
from 50 °C (204.58 meq O2/kg oil) to 100 °C (324.52
meq O2/kg oil) did not show any significant
difference (p<0.05), except between 50 °C (204.58
meq O2/kg oil) with 80 °C (342.37 meq O2/kg oil)
the value becomes significantly different (p<0.05)
(Fig. 1). The peroxide value was increased from 30
mmol O2/kg become 120 mmol O2/kg oil due to
different temperatures [66].
Peroxide values are one other content from
primary products (hydroperoxides) of lipid oxidation
in oilseeds. These values are usually used as an
indicator for the initial stages of oxidation process.
However, in time, some hydroperoxides form rapidly
during storage. Because of these reasons, Sherwin
[60] stated that peroxide values do not necessarily
indicate the actual extent of lipid oxidation.
Nevertheless, secondary products of lipid oxidation
(aldehydes) are less easily destroyed than peroxide
values (hydroperoxides) during heating processing
[20]. It has relation with K232 as a secondary product
of lipid oxidation.
GoerlichPharma International [29] reported that
the peroxide value of N. sativa seeds oil rose rapidly
immediately after production. However, because of
the residues of essential mock oxygen of the fatty oil
bound as peroxide, it caused the peroxide value to
not be a suitable measure for rancidity. The peroxide
value of N. sativa seeds from Egypt was found to be
<120 meq O2/kg oil [29]. Cheikh-Rouhouet al [22]
reported values of 5.65 meq O2/kg (Tunisian) and
4.35 meq O2/kg (Iranian).
The difference in the values was resulted due to
the source of the plant and the condition in which the
plants grow and effects of processing. In addition,
Pike [52] said that the disadvantage of this method is
the requirement of 5-g oil sample size. It is difficult
to obtain sufficient quantities from foods with low fat
and empirical and this method can changes the result
with any modification.
The CIELAB color measurement method was
determined by its color coordinates: L* represent the
difference between light (L*= 100) and dark (L*=0),
a* represent the difference between green (a*) and
red (+a*) and b* represent the difference between
blue (-b*) and yellow (+b*). The N. sativa seed oil
was lighter by the increase of heat temperature at 70
°C and become less or dark at the temperature of
100°C (Table 2).
Table 2: Color (CIELAB L* a* b*) value N. sativa seeds oil pressed at different temperatures.
Means in the same column with different letters are significantly different (p<0.05).
The darkness may be due to the complicated
process during processing, interactions with fatty
acids, dimers, polymers and other minor compounds
present in the oil and effect of increased heat [71].
Significant difference (p<0.05) were found between
70 °C and 100 °C (for value of L*), temperature of
50 °C, 60°C with 70 °C and 100°C (for value of a*)
and temperature of 50 °C and 100 °C with 90 °C
(for value of b*). The color of the N. sativa seed oil
was commonly more greenness and yellowness by
the increasing of temperature. Color of N. sativa
seeds oil was darker and more yellowish than
Malaysian rubber seeds oil (L* = 33.98; a* = 0.86;
and b* = 0.47) (Bashar et al., 2009). Compared the
color with other oilseeds e.g. castor seeds, coconut
seeds, melon seeds, palm kernel seeds oil, the color
were golden yellow, pale yellow, golden yellow, and
pale yellow [48].
Mineral contents of N. sativa seeds oil are
shown in Table 3. Table 3 shown values increased
with decline in temperature but it was not significant
different (p<0.05) of increase pressing temperature.
It was shown for iron, zinc, lead, cadmium increase
with increase the temperature pressing. Calcium only
found at temperature 50 °C and 100 °C in small
quantity. Some minerals were not found at certain
temperatures, e.g. nickel only was found at 60 °C, 80
°C and 100 °C. Values increased with increase in
pressing temperature (Table 3).
The data shows N. sativa seeds oil has highest
contents of iron, lead, manganese and zinc in ranges
4585.40 x10-3-2853.80 x10-3 mg/L, 571.20 x10-3-
41 Dr. S Saied Hosseini-Asl et al, 2014 /Journal Of Applied Sciences Research 10
(12), November, Pages:36-45
3030.50 x10-3 mg/L, 133.30 x10-3-193.60 x10-3
mg/L, 345.40 x10-3-2710 x10-3 mg/L, respectively.
Mineral contents in NSM were high iron, lead,
manganese and zinc in ranges 78.25-119.80 mg/100
g, 10.45-30.38 mg/100g, 18.0-19.44 mg/100 g,
16.56-28.40 mg/100 g, respectively. It was similar to
soybean meal and cotton seeds meal whereby,
Imorouet al [33] found that iron, zinc, calcium and
phosphorus were higher in content in that meal.
Table 3: Mineral contents from N. sativa seeds oil pressed at different temperatures.
50 °C
60 °C
70 °C
80 °C
90 °C
100 °C
Data are represented in M (x10-3) ± SD (mg/L). N =2. nd was not detected. Different superscript in the same row represent significant
difference (p<0.05).
The value of lead, iron and zinc increased with
decline of heat temperature of the screw press. The
screw press machine is made out of steel and at
elevated temperatures can be catalyzed to breakdown
and appear in the oil and meal in minute quantities.
Friction inevitably fuels this process as the metal
parts come into contact at high temperature causing,
also, some level of lipid oxidation in the presence of
oxygen. Crude oil has impurities, like heavy metal,
minerals and need to be refined to produce safe
product for human consume. Likewise meal seeds,
for safe consumption, are suggested be processed
using cold pressing rather than hot press for N. sativa
Sensory analysis:
Sensory analysis is the most important parameter
for acceptability of a product from consumers. Some
factors influencing sensory evaluation and habitual
on panelist to consume the product e.g. origin state,
healthy or ages of panelist, origin of product,
cultivar, agricultural practices, methods of harvests,
transport, technological operation of producing the
product and storage the products [41].
Sensory analysis of N. sativa seed oil was
ranked on the basis of 6-point hedonic scale for
various attributes like color, odor, taste, viscosity,
bitterness and overall acceptability. Sensorial
analysis of panelist that used to consume of N. sativa
seed oil was shown in Table 4. Analyses of the
samples show that temperature 50 °C, 60 °C and 100
°C were significantly differs (p<0.05) in color.
Sample at 100 °C has more dislikes with panelists.
Samples at 60° were liked moderately than 70 °C.
The odor of sample is preferably at temperature of 60
°C and liked moderately than others.
In terms of taste, panelists preferred the sample
at 60 °C, like slightly at 50° and dislike moderately
sample at 90°C. Panelists disliked very much such
sample at 100 °C and is significantly different
(p<0.050) with sample at 60 °C. Panelists preferred
viscosity from sample at 50° and 60 °C. The
viscosity was significantly different (p<0.05)
between 50°, 60 °C with 90° and 100 °C. Bitterness
of the samples was noticeably at 80° until 100 °C
than sample at 60 °C. For overall acceptability, the
panelist agreed on the sample at 60 °C (4.80) was
like moderately. Sample at 100 °C was significantly
disliked moderately by panelists. Evaluation of
samples exposes that oil produce at 100 °C was
significantly different in color, odor, taste, bitterness
and overall acceptability (Table 4).
Table 4. Sensory analysis of panelist that used to consume N. sativa seeds oil (pressed at different temperatures), n = 15
Means in the same row with different superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05)
But different evaluation among panelist
commonly consume of N. sativa seeds oil with not
commonly consume (Table 5). Panelist was
evaluated all of sample were not significantly
different (p<0.05) with temperatures on color, odor,
taste and bitterness. But on the viscosity, it was
significantly different (p<0.05) among sample at 90°
and 100 °C with others. Overall acceptability of
panelist not consume of N. sativa seeds oil was like
slightly (4.16) sample of 60 °C than sample of 90 °C.
42 Dr. S Saied Hosseini-Asl et al, 2014 /Journal Of Applied Sciences Research 10
(12), November, Pages:36-45
Table 5: Sensory analysis of panelist that not used to consume N. sativa seeds oil (pressed at different temperatures).
Means in the same row with different superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05)
Assessment of color on sensory analysis related
to premises color analysis is done by instrument.
Table 2 shows that increase of the extraction
temperature would make oil become darker,
greenish, and bluish. An objective assessment of the
panelists proved that oil in the temperature of 60 °C
and 70 °C are brighter and yellowish just like N.
sativa seed oil that were sold in the market. Many
consumers preferred the bright color, transparent but
close to its natural color of oil. No more chemical
refining, bleaching or further process purification
with chemical addition was done. The application of
mechanical, chemical and heat in processing oilseed
or vegetable oil extraction may affect the color of the
sample [68].
N. sativa seeds oil has a strong odor, spicy like
fennel flowers and has a sticky consistency [30]. The
higher oil extraction temperature caused the stronger
spicy smell and closer to a burning smell. This is
caused due to the seeds of N. sativa containing high
protein, carbohydrate, double bonds of carbon and
unsaturated fatty acids. The heat temperature would
be denatured composition of protein, degraded of
carbohydrate, breakdown the double bonds become a
long chain carbon or saturated fatty acid and
oxidized the unsaturation fatty acids [71]. The color
of meal become darker charred and the smell was
very strong similar with the N. sativa seed oil.
The sensory analysis of taste and bitterness are
similar of which higher temperature caused dislike in
taste because of higher bitterness value (Table 4 and
5). Conclusion from all panelists preferred oil sample
pressed at 60 °C than sample at 100 °C. Similar to a
virgin olive oil sensory where different sensory notes
described the characteristic of the virgin olive oil and
the high score shows a balance between main
sensory perceptions and the consumer appreciation
[43]. Sultan et al. [64] stated that flavor is the major
priorities which were influenced by temperature,
moisture, in contact-air, light and presence of
The vegetable oil or oilseed would be
characterized by a high nutritional value in addition
to a high oxidative stability making it appropriate to
be applied in high temperature [41]. N. sativa seed
oil has majority of compounds e.g. oleic, linoleic,
linolenic and palmitic acids [10,64,22]. The
unsaturation of fatty acid e.g. oleic becomes an
importance in nutritional value because it could
lower LDL.
Increasing HDL and linolenic acid was
responsible for unpleasant room-odor during deep-fat
frying in olive oil [41]. Unsaturated fatty acids such
as oleic, linoleic, linolenic in oil and fat become
oxidized during the processing. Lipid oxidation cause
adverse flavors and aromas, compromises the
nutritional quality of fats and oil and lead to the
production of toxic compound [42].
Values of K232, K270, carotenoid, SN, peroxide
and viscosity were significantly different (p<0.05) at
different temperature except chlorophyll. Similarly
with the FFA and acid values which showed the
lowest value at the high temperature due to inhibition
of thehydrolysisprocessduringoilextraction at higher
temperatures. Color of N. sativa seed oil was
commonly more green than yellow with increasing
temperature. Overall test of sensory analysis showed
panelists liked moderately oil pressed at 60°C.
Author thanks the Fundamental Research Grant
Scheme (FRGS): The Role of The Major/Minor
Components in Cold Pressed Oil Oxidation. This has
financed this project with grant number 6711102 and
Universiti Sains Malaysia
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... Oil yield was determined in weight percentage (w/w%) according to Abubakar et al. (2012). Oil color was analyzed via colorimeter Minolta CM-3500D (USA) equipped with SpectraMagic and expressed as L*, a*, and b*, based on Zzaman et al. (2014). Free fatty acids (FFA) analysis and peroxide value were estimated according to Official ...
... According Table 2). Darkening of plant oil brought upon by heat is a complex process including, among others, fatty acids, pigments, polymers, and interactions between these compounds that lead to both breakdown and formation of a new composition like aldehydes and ketones (Zzaman et al., 2014). It also indicates impurities capable of causing quality degradation leading to reduced shelf-life, which is hence considered undesirable (Ramos-Escudero et al., 2019). ...
... a,b,c represent significant differences among time within the same temperature and condition; A,B,C represent significant differences among temperature within the same time and condition; α, β represent significant differences between condition of the same roasting temperature and time; all at p < .05. pressing. Black seed oil extracted by screw-press at 50-100°C was notably dark, with an L* value range of approximately 25-32 (Zzaman et al., 2014). Compared to ...
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Nigella sativa, commonly known as the black seed, is a culinary spice therapeutic against many ailments. Common preparation practice of roasting or heating the seeds often deteriorates bioactive compounds, which can be remedied with superheated steam (SHS). With roasting temperatures of 150, 200, and 250°C and roasting times of 10, 15, and 20 min, convection and SHS roasting media were tested, and their effects on proximate analysis, antioxidant assays, and oil quality were evaluated. For proximate content, moisture significantly decreased from 9.08% in unroasted seeds to 4.18%-1.04% in roasted seeds, while fat increased to as high as 44.76% from 32.87% in unroasted seeds. Roasting only slightly increased ash content and had no significant impact on protein and carbohydrate content. SHS roasted black seeds had better DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacity (RSC) than convec-tion roasted seeds. DPPH RSC decreased with elevated roasting time and temperature , conversely related to total phenolic content, which increased with increased roasting time and temperature. Oil of roasted seeds developed an increasingly intense brown color from an initial light, yellow, unroasted oil with better extraction efficiency in SHS roasting. For oil quality analysis, free fatty acid values were significantly lower in both roasted samples. Peroxide value was initially recorded at 84 in convection and 48 (meq O 2 /kg of oil) in SHS roasted samples. In contrast, p-anisidine values were initially recorded at 28.36 in convection roasted samples compared to 23.73 in SHS roasted samples. Based on all quality analyses, SHS showed better potential in black seed quality preservation.
... 7 Mechanical (screw-press) extraction is commonly used to obtain high-quality NSO having higher oxidative stability and lower nonhydratable phospholipids. 8 Nigella seed essential oil: Nigella seeds contain 0.18-2.5% essential oil 5,9 that is yellowish-brown in color and has an unpleasant odor. 3 It can be obtained from the crushed seeds by steam distillation, hydrodistillation after Soxhlet extraction, or through hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus. ...
... Photo ©2022 Steven Foster iodine value, UV absorption (232 nm and 270 nm) to measure conjugated dienes and trienes, saponification value, and iodine value were investigated to determine the quality and the purity of the oils. 8,13,24,[88][89][90] Limits of these specifications are also included in the draft monograph of NSO in the Turkish Pharmacopoeia. 91 NSOs that do not meet the specifications suggest low quality or adulteration. ...
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Goal: This bulletin aims to provide general information on the seed and seed oil of nigella (Nigella sativa) and summarizes the available information on adulteration, mislabeling, counterfeiting, and fraud in nigella raw material and its products. It also provides information on trade and market dynamics, laboratory methods for detecting adulteration, and economic and safety implications for the consumer and industry. It may be used as guidance for quality control personnel and members of the international phytomedicine and botanical supplement industries and the extended natural products community in general.
... Sikorska et al. [32] highlight that the presence of chlorophylls is correlated with the L* and a* components. A lower value (−4.57) of the a* parameter was achieved by BO, which in terms of this colour component was similar to the value obtained by Wahidu et al. [33] for cumin oil (a* = −4.51). However, the highest value of the L* parameter was determined in the case of BO (96.69), which means that its colour was the brightest. ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the quality of selected oils from the seeds of herbs and vegetables (basil, fenugreek, coriander, tomato, garden cress, parsley, and dill), especially their oxidative stability. The oils were tested for oxidation degree (acid value, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX indicator, and specific extinction under ultraviolet light), colours, content of carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments, fatty acid composition, indicators of lipid nutritional quality, oxidative stability, and oxidation kinetics parameters (Rancimat). Principal component analysis was applied to identify a correlation between the oils’ quality parameters. The results of the fatty acid compositions show that basil oil was a good source of omega-3 fatty acids. Coriander seed oil was found to be the most resistant to oxidation, containing mainly monounsaturated fatty acids. The highest value of activation energy was calculated for fenugreek oil (94.18 kJ/mol), and the lowest was for dill seed oil (72.61 kJ/mol). However, basil oil was characterised by the highest constant reaction rate at 120 °C—3.0679 h−1. The colour determined by the L* parameter and the calculated oxidizability value had the most significant influence on the oxidation stability of the oils, and the correlation coefficients were r = −0.88 and 0.87, respectively.
... The color of the oil was dark purple. It was reported that many consumers preferred the bright color, transparent, but close to its natural color of oil (Zzaman et al., 2014). ...
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The purpose of this study was to analyze physicochemical properties of wild grape (Lannea microcarpa) seed oil. Several characterizations were conducted, including a gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and cold saponification. The analyses were also supported by measuring acid, iodine, saponification, and peroxide values. Other analyses were relative density and refractive index. Experimental results showed that the oil was dark purple with the composition of oil of 59%. The qualitative GC-MS revealed the oil contained several fatty acids, including decanoic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, margaric acid, 1-octadecanoic acid, oleic, and erucic acid. The soap produced from the seed oil has basic pH and relatively high foam value. When the high concentration of oil was used, the appearance of oil was very dark purple and slightly soluble in water. This is due to the fact that most of the oil compositions were non-polar structure. This result confirmed the potential use of the oil for soap and other cosmetic materials.
... Compared with studies, Al-Snafi (2016) showed the pharmacological activities of Cuminum cyminum in and pointed to the content of α-carotenoid (RE) (2.54 µg) and β-carotene (15.24 µg) in 2 g of seeds. On the other hand, Zzaman et al. (2014) studied the physicochemical and quality characteristics of cold and hot press of Nigella sativa L seed oil (Black Cumin), carotenoid ranged from 1.95 mg/kg to 2.46 mg/kg pressed at different temperatures (50°C to 100°C). ...
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Fixed oils (lipids) from the seeds of Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare L.) and Caraway (Carum carvi L.) were extracted by the cold press. The oil content, chemical and physical properties, as well as, minerals content were determined. Results approved that the oil content of the examined samples was at the range of 12.5-17.16%.; the most dominant fatty acids were petroselinic acid (18:1-δ-6), which is a characteristic fatty acid of the Apiaceae family (anise, cumin, fennel, and caraway) at the range of 55.43 to 79.3%, followed by linoleic acid (13.16 to 331.71%.). The obtained results from free fatty acid (FFA) and acid value (AV) found to be the lowest in anise seed oil (1.6%, 0.82 mg KOH/g oil, respectively); while, caraway seed oil had the highest values of PV and viscosity at 25 C (3.7 meq. O2/kg  oil, 85.24 Cp, respectively). Chlorophyll and density measured from 0.09-0.43 mg/kg and 0.93-0.96 g/cm3. In this study, the mineral content of the Apiaceae plant s oils is detected by Emission Scanning Electron  Microscopy (FE-SEM). Cumin seed oil had the lowest value of sulfur and carbon (0.04, 68.65, respectively). Aluminum and Bromine ranged from 0.79-20.5 and 1.47-14, respectively. The percentage of inhibition of caraway, cumin, Anise, and Fennel fixed oil in the linoleic acid system were 78.87, 75.31, 60.26, and 59.11%, respectively, compared with Standard synthetic antioxidant BHT which was 92.07%.
... Currently, Gac aril oil production is mainly carried out by traditionally mechanical compression with a screw press, but this method gives low yield and quality (Thuat, 2010). The high temperature steaming process usually applied as a key pretreatment in the mechanical method causes the destruction of the plant cells, denaturation of the protein, reduction of oil viscosity and massive loss for the bioactive substances in the oil such as vitamin E, sterol, carotenoids (Wahidu, Deli, Wan Nadiah Wan, & Yang, 2014). ...
... reported for Ipomoea carnea seed oil [17] the colour of the oil was dark yellow. It was reported that many consumers preferred the bright color, transparent but close to its natural color of oil [18]. The following physico-chemical results were obtained; Acid value mgKOH / g of 0.47±0.01 was obtained which is lower than 12.97 ± 0.01 reported for Neocarya macrophylla seed oil [19]. ...
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Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) is an aromatic plant belonging to Apiaceae family widely cultivated elsewhere for its strongly flavoured leaves and seeds. Fennel seeds are of particular interest as a rich source of both vegetable and essential oils with high amounts of valuable components. However, residual cakes after oil extraction were typically considered as byproducts, in the present framework, the potential added value of these cakes was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of fennel cake and seeds to protein bread quality. In the current research, a single-screw extruder, which is a solvent-free technique, was used for fennel seed oil extraction. For the protein bread making, fennel seed and cake flour in concentrations from 1 to 6% were used. Moisture, colour L*a*b*, hardness, total phenolic concentration, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and nutritional value of protein bread were determined. The addition of fennel cake and seeds had significant (p < 0.05) effect on bread crumb colour and hardness attribute, whereby the bread became darker and harder in texture than the control. Moreover, higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic concentration were observed for both protein breads enriched with fennel cake and seed flour. The overall results showed that addition of fennel cake and seed had beneficial effects on phenolic concentration, antioxidant activity and quality of protein bread. This result suggests also that added value of fennel seeds oil by-products could be increased by their utilisation in bread production.
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Virgin coconut oil is a functional food which provides health benefits. It is different from other cooking oils in that it has medium-chain fatty acids rather than long-chain fatty acids. The traditional aqueous extraction of the oil is very flexible that can be applied in a medium to large-scale industry. The study was carried out to optimize the aqueous extraction of virgin coconut oil using response surface methodology. The most influencing three factors were used for this experiment, which are the coconut milk-to-water percentage, fermentation and refrigeration time. The optimization study showed that the method can produce the best yield with quality by using coconut milk (73.8%), fermented (14.1 h) and refrigerated time (20.5 h). Coconut milk percentage and fermentation time significantly affected the response of extraction yield (p ≤ 0.01). The aqueous extraction can be used commercially for the production of virgin coconut oil as the method is environmental friendly.
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Jatropha curcas oil was extracted using n-hexane as solvent in the Soxhlet extraction method. The physicochemical properties of Malaysian Jatropha curcas oil were evaluated. The result showed that the Jatropha seeds consist of 60% (dry w/w) crude oil. The physicochemical properties showed that the seed oil contained low moisture level of 0.02 ± 0.01 %, acid value (1.50 ± 0.07%), iodine value (91.70 ± 1.44 mg/g), peroxide value (0.66 ± 0.04 miliequivalence/kg) and saponification value of 208.5 ± 0.47 mg/g respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid (46.00 ± 0.19%) appears as dominant fatty acid in seed oil followed by linoleic acid (31.96 ± 0.19%) and palmitic acid (13.89 ± 0.06%). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed that the dominant triacylglycerols present were PLL (20.40%), OOL (17.98%), POO (15.02%), OOO (14.89%) and OLL (14.00%).
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A study was carried out on four papaya varieties namely, Bombai, Deshi, Shahi (Yellow) and Shahi (Red) for their physico-chemical composition grown at Rajshahi. The results showed that maximum fruit weight was observed in Bombai and lowest in Shahi (Red). It was also found that recovery of pulp, TSS and total sugar were 80.46-87.41%, 9.0-13.0% and 6.96-10.50% respectively.
Sensory quality plays an important role in the acceptability of foodstuffs. Color and flavor are the main sensations that contribute to their acceptability by consumers. Flavor is a complex sensation consisting primarily of smell and taste, but it is complemented by tactile and kinesthetic sensations (Reineccius 1993). It is evoked by stimulation of all oral and nasal chemosensory systems because the brain blends the information from the individual systems into a single perceptual gestalt (Maruniak 1988). The role of flavor in the food supply is critical and beneficial; it is vital in the control of food recognition, selection, and acceptance. Flavor also plays a role in nutrition as it is partly responsible for aiding the digestion of food in humans (Ensor 1989).
The anti-inflammatory activity of the volatile oil (v.o.) of Nigella sativa L. seeds and its active principle thymoquinone has been examined using carrageenan-induced oedema in rat hind paws and cotton seed pellet granuloma in rats. Both the v.o. and thymoquinone were found to produce a significant dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect as evidenced by the significant inhibition of oedema formation and reduction of the granuloma weight. The v.o. (0.66 ml and 1.55 ml/Kg, i.p.) inhibited rat hind paw oedema formation by 64.12% and 96.26%, while thymoquinone (0.5, 1.0, 5 mg/Kg, i.p.) caused a reduction of 38.85%, 56.63% and 104.88%, respectively. Indomethacin (3 and 9 mg/Kg, i.p.) inhibited the oedema by 46.90% and 67.83%, respectively. In addition, the v.o. (0.33 ml and 0.66 ml/Kg, i.p.) inhibited granuloma formation by 17.64% and 46.86%, while thymoquinone (3 and 5 mg/Kg, i.p.) reduced granuloma weight by 13.04% and 48.09%. These effects were nearly comparable to indomethacin (3 mg/Kg, i.p.) which reduced granuloma weight by 34.37%. It was suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of the v.o. of Nigella sativa seeds may be due to inhibiting the generation of eicosanoids and lipid peroxidation.
Understanding the physical properties of foods is important as they are used in process design, product and process optimization, product development, food quality control and food process modeling. This book provides a fundamental understanding of physical properties of foods. Basic definitions and principles of physical properties are discussed as well as the importance of physical properties in the food industry and measurement methods. In addition, recent studies in physical properties area are summarized. The material presented is helpful for students to understand the relationship between physical and functional properties of raw, semi-finished, and processed food in order to obtain products with desired shelf-life and quality. Each chapter provides examples and problems, which teach students to analyze experimental data to generate practical information. In addition, the material in the book may be of interest to people who are working in the field of Food Science, Food Technology, Biological Systems Engineering, Food Process Engineering, or Agricultural Engineering. The book also can be used as a reference by graduate students and researchers who deal with physical properties. About the authors Serpil Sahin and Servet Gülüm Sumnu are Professors at the Middle East Technical University’s Department of Food Engineering.
The structure of nigellicine (1) , an unusual alkaloid from the seeds of , was determined by x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic techniques.
Generally, the recommended pre-pressing operations for oil expression include grinding or flaking and then cooking pre-cleaned oilseeds. The literature indicates that pressure, temperature, pressing time and moisture content are the factors which affect oil yield during expression processing of oilseeds.Nearly all of the yield data reported correspond to hydraulic presses while the current technology, at least in the U.S.A., for expression processing is the screw press. Research is still needed to determine if these factors affect the screw-pressing process in the same way and to the same extent as they do in a static pressing operation.