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Herbal cosmetics have growing demand on the earth market and are a precious gift of nature. Herbal formulations continuously have attracted gigantic concentration on the grounds that of their good endeavor and comparatively lesser or nil side effect with synthetic medications. Herbs and spices have been used in retaining and embellishing human magnificence because time immemorial. Hair loss problem is of great significance to both men and women. The essential issues associated with hair loss are hair fading, dandruff, and falling of hair. Alopecia is the medical term for hair loss or baldness. It is an embarrassing condition for any person as he/she looks extra aged than ordinary. Many forms of medication are available to treat alopecia in special procedure of medication such as Allopathic, Homeopathic, and Ayurveda or can also be surgical like hair transplantation; however, none of them is wholly ample. This hindrance could be solved by the use of natural medicines obtained from herbs. Various herbs are being used to preclude the hair loss and remorse of hairs including Aloe vera, brahmi, nagarmotha, amla, bhringraj, and lots of different herbs. Being average medicines, there are various advantages of making use of them like patient compliance, less side results, convenient availability, inexpensive and multiple mode of applications to treat alopecia, and other hair diseases.
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Vol 4, Issue 5, 2016 ISSN - 2321-4406
Received: 26 August 2016, Revised and Accepted: 30 August 2016
Herbal cosmetics have growing demand on the earth market and are a precious gift of nature. Herbal formulations continuously have attracted
gigantic concentration on the grounds that of their good endeavor and comparatively lesser or nil side effect with synthetic medications. Herbs and
spices have been used in retaining and embellishing human magnificence because time immemorial. Hair loss problem is of great significance to both
men and women. The essential issues associated with hair loss are hair fading, dandruff, and falling of hair. Alopecia is the medical term for hair loss
or baldness. It is an embarrassing condition for any person as he/she looks extra aged than ordinary. Many forms of medication are available to treat
alopecia in special procedure of medication such as Allopathic, Homeopathic, and Ayurveda or can also be surgical like hair transplantation; however,
none of them is wholly ample. This hindrance could be solved by the use of natural medicines obtained from herbs. Various herbs are being used
to preclude the hair loss and remorse of hairs including Aloe vera, brahmi, nagarmotha, amla, bhringraj, and lots of different herbs. Being average
medicines, there are various advantages of making use of them like patient compliance, less side results, convenient availability, inexpensive and
multiple mode of applications to treat alopecia, and other hair diseases.
Herbal medicine, Herbal cosmetics, Natural herbs, Hair growth activity, Hair cycle, Brahmi, Nagarmotha, Amla, Bhringraj, Alopecia,
Alopecia areata, Allopathic, Homeopathic, Ayurveda, Beauty, Hair loss, Hair fading, Dandruff, Falling of hair, Herbal formulations.
Hair is among the valuable parts of the physique derived from ectoderm
of the skin and is a protective appendage on the physique. Humans
have hairs that serve principle position of their lives. From the historic
times, hairs had been a magnificence symbols for both men and women.
On a daily basis, the hair falls out of the head, specifically throughout
washing and brushing. 70-100 hairs loss a day is a very common;
however, dropping over 100 hairs a day lasting longer than a couple
of weeks indicates a serious problem. When more hair falls out than
grows, hairstyle becomes thinner; if that procedure persists, even
baldness may occur [1]. Alopecia is the scientific term for hair loss or
baldness. Alopecia will also be of everlasting or transitority kind; it
might probably cover quite a lot of variety and areas of haired head
epidermis of various shapes. It happens from numerous explanations,
and the special identification is not often feasible. Alopecia by and large
begins with one or more small, circular, delicate bald patches on the
scalp and can growth to whole scalp hair loss or whole physique hair
loss [2]. Male is more susceptible than female in the case of alopecia.
It usually is due to the presence of an excessive quantity of androgenic
hormone, testosterone, in male. Average merchandise within the form
of herbal formulations are available in the market and are used as hair
tonic, hair growth promoters, hair conditioner, hair-cleansing agent,
antidandruff agent as well as for the treatment of alopecia and lice
illness [3].
Ayurveda has described hair diseases in three words [4]:
   
 
 
Hairs can be defined as – “Modified epithelial structure formed as a
result of keratinization of germinative cells.” Hairs are the outgrowths
from the follicles present on the skin. These follicles are situated on the
dermis, the second layer of the skin and extended up to the epidermis
that is the outermost layer of the skin. Through these follicles grows
out hair. Hair is composed of keratin with chemical constituents such
as carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and oxygen (O).
Hair growth varies from person to person but on an average hair grows
about 5-10 mm/month. Maximum growth of hairs takes place at the age
of about 15-30 years. It is also seen that hair growth is more in summers
as compared to winters [3]. There are about 1,000,000-2,000,000 hair
follicles on the scalp alone. Additional hair follicles are found all over
the body; hair is present in every area of the skin except the palms,
soles, and lips. The presence of hair in odd place make a negative effect,
whereas hairs on the head are a part of overall attraction and beauty of
human being. From an evolutionary point of view, hair on humans is fur
on our mammal cousins. Both coverings emerged to provide warmth.
Scalp (skin on head) consists of seven components. These are papilla
of hairs, hair shaft, mouth of follicle, stratum granulosum, sebaceous
gland, and oil duct (Figs. 1-3) [5].
Morphologically there are three types of hairs [6]:
   
between these of terminal and vellus hair. Intermediate hairs are
medullated and incorporate reasonable quantity of pigment
   
90% of the hairs on the chest, trunk, shoulders, legs, and arms of men
are terminal hairs, whereas only 4500 of hair in the same region on
women are terminal
     
The hair growth undergoes a repetitive cycle where the anagen phase
followed by the catagen and the telogen phase [7]. In the anagen
phase, the hair is actively growing while in the catagen phase it is
characterized by the degeneration and resorption of the lower region
of the hair follicle. The resting phase, where the hair is inactive, is called
telogen phase after this phase the growth of the hair follicle restarts
(Figs. 4 and 5).
Review Article
Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 4, Issue 5, 1-6
Jain and Das
In the scalp, a hair growth cycle has three main phases: Anagen,
catagen, and telogen. The anagen phase is the growth cycle typically
lasts 3-5 years. On a healthy scalp, there are approximately 1,000,000
hair and 90% of the follicles are continually in the anagen phase of hair
growth. The catagen stage follows the end of the growth period when
a follicle begins to become dormant. The telogen stage is a dormant or
resting period that lasts 3-4 months. When the dormant phase ends, an
old hair falls out. A hair follicle then returns to the anagen stage, and a
new hair begins to grow. An average rate of hair growth is about half an
inch per month depending on hair follicles and age of an individual. On
average, 50-60 scalp hairs are lost daily in a normal hair growth cycle
and new hairs begin to grow from these follicles. Hair loss begins when
less new hair begins the re-growth stage [8].
There are several factors for the hair loss; some of the main factors are
given below:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basically, hair loss symptoms are:
 
 
Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 4, Issue 5, 1-6
Jain and Das
 
 
     
autoimmune disease that results in the loss of hair on the scalp and
elsewhere. It usually starts with one or more small, round, non-
scarring smooth patches
 
   
eyebrows and eyelashes
 
for cancer patients but it affects normal cells and hair follicles too.
Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 4, Issue 5, 1-6
Jain and Das
   
1. Acacia concinna Mimosaceae Shikakai
2. Achillea millefolium Asteraceae Yarrow
3. Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae Apamarg
4. Adiantum capillus Adiantaceae Hair fern
5. Albizia amara Fabaceae Silk plant
6. Allium cepa  Onion
7. Aloe vera  Medicinal aloe
8. Amaranthus spinosus  Amaranthaceae Bathua
9. Arctium lappa Asteraceae Burdock
10. Aristolochia bracteol Aristolochiaceae Birthworts
11. Arnica montana Asteraceae Arnica
12. Artemisia abrotanum Asteraceae Southernwood
13. Avena sativa  Wild oats
14. Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Neem
15. Bacopa monnieri Scrophulariaceae Brahmi
16. Brassica spp.Brassicaceae Mustard
17. Berberis vulgaris Berberidaceae Barberry
18. Betula pendula Betulaceae Birch
19. Cajanus cajan Fabaceae 
20. Calendula officinalis Asteraceae 
21. Capsicum annum Solanaceae 
22. Cardiospermum halicacabum Sapindaceae Ballon plant
23. Cassia alata Fabaceae Dadmari
24. Cedrus atlantica  Cedar wood
25. Centella asiatica Umbelliferae 
26. Chelidonium majus  Celandine
27. Cinnamomum camphora  Camphor
28. Cinnamomum zeylanicum  Cinnamon
29. Citrus aurantifolia  
30. Citrus limon  
31. Coccus nucifera Arecaceae Nariyal
32. Cyclea peltata Menispermaceae 
33. Cyperus rotundus Cyperaceae Nagarmotha
34. Datura innoxia Solanaceae Datura
35. Daucus carota  Apiaceae Carot
36. Eclipta prostrata Asteraceae False daisy
37. Emblica officinalis Euphorbiaceae Amla
38. Eucalyptus sp. Myrtaceae Eucalyptus
39. Ficus racemosa Moraceae Bargad
40. Gardenia gummifera  
41. Gmelina asiatica Verbenaceae Asian bushbeech
42. Geranium sibiricum  Siberian geranium
43. Glycine max Fabaceae Soybean
44. Glycyrrhiza glabra Fabaceae 
45. Hamamelis virginiana Hamamelidaceae Witch haze
46. Hibiscus rosa sinensis Malvaceae China rose
47. Hibiscus rosa sinensis  Malvaceae 
48. Hydrocotyle asiatica Apiaceae 
49. Juglans nigra Juglandaceae Black walnut
50. Juglans regia Juglandaceae Walnut
51. Juglans regia  Juglandaceae Akhrot
52. Juniperus communis Cupressaceae Juniper berry
53. Lactuca sativa  Asteraceae 
54. Larrea divaricata Zygophyllaceae Creosote bush
55. Lavandula angustifolia  
56. Lawsonia inermis  Henna
57. Medicago sativa Fabaceae Alfalfa
58. Melaleuca alternifolia Myrtaceae Tea tree
59. Melissa officinalis  
60. Mentha piperita  
61. Mussaenda frondosa  Bebina
62. Nardostachys jatamansi Valerianaceae Jatamansi
63. Nigella sativa  Black cumin
64. Nyctanthes arbor‑tristis Oleaceae Harsinghar
65. Ocimum sanctum  Tulsi
66. Olea europaea Oleaceae Indian olive
67. Panax ginseng Araliaceae 
68. Pelvetia canaliculata Fucaceae Channelled wrack
69. Persea americana  Avocado
70. Phaseolus vulgaris Fabaceae Bean flower
Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 4, Issue 5, 1-6
Jain and Das
     
creating a patch
  
treatments such as hair colors, dye, straightening, softening,
rebounding, and perming, which contains harsh chemicals can trigger
hair loss for some individuals
  
alopecia areata but never converts into alopecia totalis or universalis
   
band like hair loss. It occurs mostly in the temporal or the occipital
medicines have a delayed action on these areas
   
follicles, affected area known as scarring alopecia
   
dieting high-grade fever, anemia, blood loss, hormonal imbalance and
pregnancy, etc., can cause TE type of hair loss telogen word is known
 
traction at the root of hairs, and can develop traction alopecia
    
progressive phase and some of them converts into alopecia totalis
or alopecia universalis
  This type of hair loss is known as compulsive pulling
or repetitive selfpulling by a patient himself or herself.
        
embarrassing disorder, which affects 5% of the global population.
Dandruff mostly occurs after puberty (between ages of 20 and
30 years), and affects males more than females [9].
Dandruff is characterized by scaling of the scalp, and is frequently
associated with seborrhea [10], and seborrhea is the precursor of
seborrheic dermatitis [11]. The yeast, pityrosporum ovale is the
  
dermal lipids and proteins and facilitates lipase activity, which releases
pro-inflammatory free fatty acids causing dermal inflammation
and tissue damage. The lipase activity indicates that in addition to
hypersensitivity, pityrosporum ovale releases toxic chemicals, which
contribute to the development of a fungal infection [12]. According to
the symptoms, dandruff is classified into two types – Dry (common)
and oily dandruff.
A lot of Allopathic, Ayruvedic, and Homeopathic products are available
in the market some of them are formulated from the natural herbs
extract as their basic ingredients. They come as hair tonics, hair
promoting pills, hair oils, hair lotions and as a product for external
or topical application to stop hair fall and promote new hair growth.
There are millions of natural products which promote hair growth.
   
71. Phyllanthus amarus Euphorbiaceae Nirurai
72. Pilocarpus jaborandi  Jaborandi
73. Plantago major  
74. Polygonum multiflorum  Fo-Ti, He Shou Wu
75. Prunus amygdalus  Badam
76. Punica granatum  
77. Pygeum africanum  
78. Pyrus malus  Apple cedar vinegar
79. Quillaja saponaria Quillajaceae Soap bark
80. Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae Castor oil plant
81. Rosemarinu sofficinalis  
82. Salvia officinalis  Sage
83. Santalum album Santalaceae Sandalwood
84. Sapindus indica Sapindaceae Soapnut
85. Sapindus mukorossi Sapindaceae 
86. Saponaria officinalis Caryophyllaceae Soapwort
87. Sesamum indicum  Sesame
88. Sisymbrium irio Brassicaceae Asalio
89. Solanum chrysotrichum Solanaceae Devil’s fig
90. Symphytum officinale Boraginaceae Comfrey
91. Terminalia bellerica Combretaceae Vibhitaka
92. Terminalia chebula Combretaceae Haritaki
93. Thymus vulgaris  Thyme
94. Tridax procumbens Asteraceae Bhringraj
95. Trigonella foneum‑graecum Fabaceae Fenugreek
96. Urtica dioica Urticaceae Stinging nettle
97. Vetiveria zizanioides  Ushir
98. Vigna mungo Fabaceae Black gram
99. Wrightia tinctoria Apocynaceae Indrajev
100. Zanthoxylum rhetsa.  Indian ivy rue, cape yellowwood
Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 4, Issue 5, 1-6
Jain and Das
Many essential oils as well as herbs not only help stop falling hair but
also they actually promote hair growth. Since ages, herbs and natural
products are being used to treat hair loss or other hair related problems
worldwide (Table 1) [13-35].
Natural products are of greatest popularity because they are purely
made up of herbs and shrubs. Today’s generation both men and
women suffers common hair problems as there may be more polluted
atmosphere which results in hair disorders comparable to pigmentation
problems (fading), dandruff and falling of hair (shedding). The use
of bioactive materials from the natural system stimulates the biology
of dermis and hair for usual growth that presents healthful hair and
epidermis. Mainly natural system provides much nutrition, antioxidants,
various oils, proteins, terpenoids, and many most important oils. Hair
loss sufferers spend billion of dollar yearly on treatments ranging
from medicinal drugs, nutrients to designated tonics and shampoos.
Minoxidil and finasteride are the only two drugs authorized by the FDA
for hair progress in men. Minoxidil is the only drug on hand for women
with androgenetic alopecia.
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topical treatment for alopecia areata. J Dermatol 2002;29:343-6.
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... Various medications comprising of herb extracts have been widely available in the market to treat alopecia [18]. However, their hair growing outcome is far from satisfactory. ...
Full-text available
Background In Aayurveda, Blumea eriantha DC has been used in the management of various diseases and is found to exhibit antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic, anti-diarrhoeal, larvicidal, antimicrobial properties. Objective The present study has focused on isolation of the active fraction from B. eriantha DC extract and to investigate its effect as a hair growth promoter along with identification of phytoconstituent(s) responsible for hair growth activity and its probable mechanism of action. Materials and methods Our work introduces an effective isolation protocol for the active fraction from B. eriantha DC extract using chromatographic techniques. Fraction A was isolated by using mobile phase toluene:acetone (9:1). In-vitro and in-vivo methods were executed for the evaluation of hair growth activity. Moreover, the docked conformations of the isolated phytoconstituent Dimethyl sulfone was compared to Minoxidil for selected proteins namely 2FGF, 2PVC and 4U7P. The PDB identifications 2PVC (DNMT3L recognizes unmethylated histone H3 lysine 4), 4U7P (Crystal structure of DNMT3A-DNMT3L complex and 2FGF (Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor) were downloaded from Protein Data Bank. Results The study data revealed that B. eriantha DC alcoholic extracts exhibited prominent hair growth activity and it was affirmed that Dimethyl sulfone a phyto-constituent isolated from B. eriantha DC alcoholic extract contributed for the same. Conclusion The findings strongly suggest hair growth promotion potential of the extract of B. eriantha DC.
... The number of botanical entities claimed to bestow hair restorative effects are almost infinite (1000 extracts tested ; others listed on pages 6-19 (Kohno, 2006)), but almost just as prevalent is the number of species yielding metabolites that can either inhibit 5α-reductase or confer antimicrobial, acaricidal or anti-inflammatory activity (Jain and Das, 2016;Kumar et al., 2011;Lourith and Kanlayavattanakul, 2013;Patel et al., 2015;Varothai and Bergfeld, 2014). It is likely that there are many botanical 'cures' that yield only moderate or negligible positive outcomes, but have nevertheless some merit. ...
Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance Research in the past half a century has gradually sketched the biological mechanism leading to androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Until recently the aetiological paradigm has been too limited to enable intelligent commentary on the use of folk remedies to treat or reduce the expression of this condition. However, our understanding is now at a point where we can describe how some folk remedies work, predict how effective they will be or why they fail. Results The new paradigm of AGA is that inheritance and androgens (dihydrotestosterone) are the primary contributors and a secondary pathology, microinflammation, reinforces the process at more advanced stages of follicular miniaturisation. The main protagonist to microinflammation is believed to be microbial or Demodex over-colonization of the infundibulum of the pilosebaceous unit, which can be ameliorated by antimicrobial/acaricidal or anti-inflammatory therapies that are used as adjuvants to androgen dependent treatments (either synthetic or natural). Furthermore, studies reveal that suboptimal androgen metabolism occurs in both AGA and insulin resistance (low SHBG or high DHT), suggesting comorbidity. Both can be ameliorated by dietary phytochemicals, such as specific classes of phenols (isoflavones, phenolic methoxy abietanes, hydroxylated anthraquinones) or polycyclic triterpenes (sterols, lupanes), by dual inhibition of key enzymes in AGA (5α-reductase) and insulin resistance (ie., DPP-4 or PTP1B) or agonism of nuclear receptors (PPARγ). Evidence strongly indicates that some plant-based folk remedies can ameliorate both primary and secondary aetiological factors in AGA and improve insulin resistance, or act merely as successful adjuvants to mainstream androgen dependent therapies. Conclusion Thus, if AGA is viewed as an outcome of primary and secondary factors, then it is better that a ‘multimodal’ or ‘umbrella’ approach, to achieve cessation and/or reversal, is put into practice, using complementation of chemical species (isoflavones, anthraquinones, procyanidins, triterpenes, saponins and hydrogen sulphide prodrugs), thereby targeting multiple ‘factors’.
... Excessive hair fall, Baldness, Low density, Thin hair, Dandruff, and Itching scalp [3]. ...
Hair loss not only hereditary and age-related but can be the first sign of medical disorder like anemia, hypothyroidism, diabetes, polycystic ovaries, stress and other. Trichology, the specialized science of hair, used in combination with Homoeopathy, is the best suited to diagnose the type of hair loss, it cause and remedy. This paper deals with the homeopathic treatment of hair loss.
... Some important plants/herbs used for hair growth activity[39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50] ...
Full-text available
Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 70-80% of the world population mainly in the developing countries for Primary Health Care because of better cultural acceptability better, compatibility with the human body and lesser medicine or only palliative therapy is available. Even in this era of antibiotics, radiotherapy and strict drug laws, a very large number of herbal products are consumed and marketed throughout the world as health nutrients, food supplements, and curing agents for disease control. It has been observed that a number of herbs and their extract are used for hair growth activities some are described as follow: Petroleum ether extract of aerial parts of Tridax procumbens showed luxurious growth of hair in albino rats. Nearly 70% ethanolic extract of leaves of Ginko biloba was shown to be effective for hair growth activity. Methanolic extract of Potyporus umbellatus has shown excellent hair growth activity in rats. Combined extract Emblica officinalis, Lawsonia inermis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Cyperus rotundus and Corchorus prevent the falling of hairs and enhancement of hair growth activity. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds promote the proliferation of mouse hair follicle cell in vitro and convert hair cycle in vivo similar to Minoxidil 2% solution which is synthetic and has numbers of side effect. Herbal cosmetics are in vogue these days. Nowadays, people have become aware of using herbal cosmetics. Now a day's cosmetology is a well-defined science based on experiences gathered over centuries. The safety and efficacy of natural herbs could not find any suitable match i.e., cannot be replaced by synthetics. There is once again revival of preference for natural products.
Full-text available
The medical term for baldness is alopecia. It refers to the condition where hair is lost from one or more areas of the body, commonly from the scalp. Balding can result from various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, exposure to chemicals, medications, nutritional deficiencies, excessive stress, or prolonged illness. Depending on the pattern of hair loss and its underlying cause, alopecia is categorizedinto several types. Among these, androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata are of primary concern. Presently, there are numerous synthetic treatments available for managing alopecia (both areata and androgenetic alopecia), including minoxidil, corticosteroids, zinc, dithranol, systemic cortisone, tretinoin, irritants, immunosuppressants, azelaic acid, and finasteride. However, these treatments often fail to provide satisfactory and long-lasting results for individuals with alopecia. Moreover, these synthetic products are associated with adverse effects, such as itching, redness, dermatitis, flaking, and irritation. Natural remedies have been explored to address the challenge of hair loss. A variety of herbs have demonstrated efficacy in managing alopecia. These natural remedies operate through mechanisms such as nutritional support, 5-α-reductase and DHT (dihydrotestosterone) inhibition, aromatherapy, and improved scalp blood circulation. Utilizing these natural treatments offers several advantages, including patient adherence, minimal side effects, easy accessibility, affordability, and diverse modes of therapeutic action for hair loss management. In this review, we highlighted the causes of alopecia and its promising, cost-effective treatments, which might significantly alter the lives of those impacted by baldness by providing them with a road to greater self-assurance, well-being, and quality of life.
Full-text available
This study aimed at reviewing the importance of medicinal plants for the treatment of common hair problems such as baldness, alopecis hair fall, gray hair, dryness and most comman drandruff. The various herbal ingredient are used in the formation are Aloe, Amla, Curry leaves, Camphore, Coconut oil, Eclipta alba, Hibiscus, Heena, Neem, Fenugreek, Sage, Apamarg, Onion, grape seeds, Jatamanshi, Rosamary, Thyme, Tulsi, Garlic and Neem. All ingredients provide essential nutrients such as Vitamin, terpenoids and many essential oils to maintain normal function of sebaceous gland and overall care of skin and hair.
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Plants are the primary source of food, shelter, and various remedial approaches. They are being in use for treating various kinds of human ailments across the world since the ancient times. One of such important plants is Eclipta alba hassk (Asteraceae) which is commonly known as Bhringraj and false daisy. This plant is known for its extra-ordinary therapeutic properties. It is one of most widely used plant in traditional systems of medicines such as Ayurvedic, Unani, Sidha, homeopathy, Chinese, and folk. Each part of this medicinal plant contains many important phytochemical constituents such as coumestans, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroids, polypeptides, and saponins. It is majorly used for enhancing the growth, strength, and blackening of hair. It is used as the main ingredient in many hair oils. It significantly treats problems related to hair such as hair fall, dandruff, premature greying, and baldness. E. alba exhibits many other important biological properties such as anticancer, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-stress, and immunomodulatory. Thus, this medicinal plant is playing a vital role in the medical field and cosmetic industry. The present review is a summary of phytomedicinal importance of E. alba in Ayurveda as well as folk medicine system.
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Background: This is a specific review of Achillea millefoilum L. (Yarrow), known as Qaisum in Arabic, focusing in the current application. Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to confirm the uses of Achillea millefoilum mentioned by Ibn Rushd with modern scientific and pharmacological research. Study Design: Achillea millefoilum is listed among other medicinal plants in the ancient book “Al-Kulliyat Fi A-Tibb”, written by the famous Andulasi Philosopher Ibn Rushd. The focus of the study is to review only the uses mentioned in the book, review up to date literature (e.g. Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus) and analyzing the current pharmacological properties in link to the active constituents of the plant. Results: Ethnopharmacological research confirming the uses mention by Ibn Rusd, such as alopecia and its relation with castor oil and pumpkin, in addition to its application for the treatment of skin disorders. Conclusion: The results give further insights into the pharmacological activity of A. millefolium and confirm the different uses mentioned by Ibn Rusd.
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In the last few decades, a curious thing has happened to Herbal medicines. Instead of being killed off by medical science and pharmaceutical chemistry, it has made come back. Herbal medicine has benefited from the objective analysis of the medical science, while fanciful and emotional claims for herbal cures have been thrown out, herbal treatments and plant medicine that works have been acknowledge. Moreover, herbal medicine has been found to have impressive credentials. Developed empirically by trial and error, many herbal treatments were nevertheless remarkably effective. In a recent survey estimated that 39% of all 520 new approved drugs in 1983-1994 were natural products or derived from natural products and 60-80% of antibacterial and anticancer drugs were derived from natural products. Medicinal plants play an important role in the development of potent therapeutic agents. Plant-derived drugs came into use in the modern medicine through the uses of plant material as an indigenous cure in folklore or traditional systems of medicine. Bacopa monnieri, Cyperus rotundus, and Emblica officinalis (Brahmi, Nagarmotha, Amla) have several chemical compounds have been isolated from these herbs which are useful in treating number of diseases such as diarrhea, vomiting, indigestion, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, hair growth, hair wash, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-allergic, antifungal, cardiac depressant, and cardio-tonic. These reported therapeutic activities are due to the presence of phytochemicals present in these Herbs. Even Ayurveda has recognizes the nutritional elements derived from foods and Rasayanas which help to optimize the availability of " essential nutrients " in the body.
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Emblica officinalis (Amla, EO, and E. officinalis) is one of the most important herbs in the Indian traditional medicine system, especially Ayurveda and also known as the king of all medicinal plants. EO is famous ayurvedic herb (the name means sour in Sanskrit) is likely one of the most useful drug treatments within the Indian pharmacopoeia, and is considered to be one of the most strongest uvenatives (Rasayana), particularly for the blood, bones, liver, and heart. It is an exceptionally rich source of vitamin C containing 30 times the amount found in oranges. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for various ailments. EO (Amla) is widely used in the ayurvedic medicines and believed to increase defense or immune power against diseases. Several parts of the plant are used to treat a variety of diseases, but the most important is the “fruit.” The fruit is rich in quercetin, phyllemblic compounds, gallic acid, tannins, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C and also contains various polyphenolic compounds. A wide range of phytochemical components including terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and tannins have been shown to possess useful biological activities. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of EO as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antitumor, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory activities, anticancer, anti HIV-reverse transcriptase, antidiabetic, inhibitory effects, antidepressant, antiulcerogenic, hair growth tonic, wound healing activities, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and many other traditional uses of the plant. The present study also includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytoconstituent, and physico-chemical evaluation.
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Peptic ulcer is a most common ulcer of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful. This pathological condition is caused by chronic inflammation due to Helicobacter pylori, excessive use of of NSAIDs like aspirin and smoking. This disorder also results in release of massive amount of toxic free radicals which results in oxidative stress. Ethnobotanically, the whole plant of Calendula officinalis has been reported to be used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and other diseases. Antiulcer-activity of the 50% ethanolic extracts in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant, used in the above disorders. Four groups of six albino rats in each group were used. They were pretreated with (0.25% w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (negative control, 10 ml/kg), 50 mg/kg ranitidine (positive control), whole plant extract of Calendula officinalis (250 and 450 mg/kg/body weight) and their effect was studied on aspirin induced ulcer, cold-resistant stress-induced ulcers, pylorus ligation and ethanol-induced ulcers. The results of the present study showed that the whole plant extract of Calendula officinalis possessed gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition in the formation of ulcers induced by physical and chemical agents with a maximum of 87.15 % therapeutic efficiency (450 mg/kg b.w.) in cold resistant stress-induced ulcers. The present study was also aimed to investigate the effect of this extract on oxidative stress by measuring the level of various oxidative markers. The result of enzyme assay and lipid peroxidation clearly indicates the whole plant of Calendula officinalis extract have significant antioxidant effect on ulcer pathology. Whole plant extract have decreased LPO (p< 0.001) and SOD (p<0.01) with concomitant increase in catalyse activity in cold resistant stress-induced ulcers.
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The ethanolic extract of the leaves and bark of Annona squsmosa. (Annonaceae) was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in wistar rats with liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. The extract at an oral dose of 450 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total serum bilirubin, and malondialdehyde equivalent, an index of lipid peroxidation of the liver. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The activity of extract was also comparable to that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective.
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The aim of performing this work is to study and evaluate Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Prazosin HCL in mice. The animals were treated with Prazosin (PZ) at the doses of 5, 15, 25 mg/kg/body weight intraperitoneal (IP) for single dose (14 days) toxicity studies. Different methods were used to perform the study like Measurement of body weight, organ weight and food intake, Estimation of Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, Estimation of Reduced Glutathione (GSH) level, For evaluation of Genotoxicity following parameters has been evaluated: Micronucleus assay in bone marrow, Micronucleus assay in peripheral blood, Determination of DNA damage: Metaphase chromosome analysis, Determination of DNA damage: DNA fragmentation assay, Determination of Cytotoxicity: Histological examination.The results obtained clearly demonstrate that PZ produced toxic responses at the higher dose in the hepatocytes as evident from increased MDA level, decreased GSH level, DNA damage, increased DNA fragmentation in mice. Also, it is interesting that in bone marrow cells, PZ induced structural chromosomal aberrations, and significantly DNA strand breakage observed. So it is considered as Genotoxicity toward the bone marrow cells and to the hepatocytes of mice. The present study provided evidence that Prazosin induced significant genotoxic effects in mice at its equivalent hepatotoxic dose level.
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It is said that the use of Bacopa monnieri (BM) for memory enhancement goes back 3000 years or more in India, when it was cited for its medicinal properties, especially the memory enhancing capacity, in the vedic texts " Athar-Ved Samhila " (3:1) of 800 BC and in Ayurveda. In the folklore of Indian medicine, several herbs have been used traditionally as brain or nerve tonics. One of the most popular of these neurotonics is BM, a well-known memory booster. Brahmi has been administered at religious institutions to help students to enhance their memory for learning ancient, religious hymns. It is also used as cardio-tonic, tranquilizer and sedative, improves the process of learning, restores memory, and enhances power of speech and imagination, diuretic and nervine tonic, antistress, for nervous and mental strain, use in insanity, epilepsy, hysteria, esthenia, nervous breakdown. It is a small, creeping succulent herb. The leaf and flower bearing stems are 10-30 cm long and arise from creeping stems that form roots at the nodes with pale blue or pinkish white flowers belonging to family Scrophulariaceae grown nearly banks of freshwater streams and ponds, paddy fields, and other damp places. The chief phytoconstituents present are brahmine, herpestine, alkaloids, and saponins.
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In present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate a Comparative study of powder v/s gel of proniosomal drug delivery system of flurbiprofen. Flurbiprofen, are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) is used for the relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. It exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. It will be also effected the transdermal system rate because of its size, nature and chemistry, these systems give better drug permeability from biological bioavailability membranes and helps in solubilization of some practically insoluble drugs and hence solve problems of many drug. In the present study we are using various surfactants like span 20, 40, 60, 80, and brij 35 and studided in various proniosomal powder and gel formulation and studied in both result in following formulation. In this result proniosomal gel of formulation brij 35 show better entrapment and highest in vitro drug release. The best result obtain in which formulation which having equimolar ratio(1:1) of brij 35 and cholesterol.The release mechanism was explained with zero order, first order, higuchi equations. Thus it can be concluded that the proniosomes gel posses higher entrapment efficiency and utilizes alcohol, which itself act as penetration enhancer. The elicited an increase of the percutaneous permeation of flurbiprofen both in-vitro and in-vivo. In addition, in vivo experiments showed that flurbiprofen proniosomes gel can ensure a sustained release of the drug and hence a prolongation of its therapeutic activity, which can be related to an accumulation of flurbiprofen in the skin.
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ABSTRACT Objective: The main objective of present study is to treat Alopecia. Alopecia areata is an unpredictable hair-loss condition. Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Herbal systems of medicine have become increasingly popular in recent years. Medicinal plants have been used for the treatment of hair diseases since antiquity. Herbs such as turmeric, fenugreek, ginger, Cyperus (Nagarmotha), and holy basil are integral parts of ayurvedic formulations. Cyperus rotundus is a well-known ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. Methods: Extracts are prepared by separating the soluble matter from vegetable tissues by the application of a suitable solvent such as alcohol, water, or ether. The resultant liquid is concentrated by evaporation to obtain a liquid extract or concentrated almost to dryness to obtain the solid extract and its volatile oil. Hair formulation of C. rotundus belonging to family Cyperaceae in the form of herbal formulation (5% herbal cream and oil) was studied and it showed excellent hair growth activity with standard (2% minoxidil ethanolic solution) in Wister albino rats. Results: Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the oil, as compared to control animals. The hair growth promoting effect was evaluated against the control, standard, and test animals at 0, 10, 15, and 20 days with the formulated hair oil and hair cream prepared from the volatile oil extracted from the C. rotundus and the significant hair growth was observed, and the growth was compared with the standard drug used 2% solution of minoxidil. Conclusion: The results of treatment with oil were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. It holds the promise of potent herbal alternative for minoxidil.
Nyctanthes arbortristis (N. Arbortristis) is one of the most useful traditional medicinal plants in India. It is distributed widely in sub-Himalayan regions and Southwards to Godavari. Each part of the plant has some important medicinal value and is thus commercially exploitable. It is now considered as a valuable source of several unique products for the medicines against various diseases and also for the development of some industrial products. The present review is to focus on the potential phyto-chemicals and pharmacological activity of plant N. Arbortristis. Various parts of the plant like seeds, leaves, flowers, bark and fruits have been investigated for their significant pharmacological activity. Phyto-chemicals like flavanoid, glycoside, oleanic acid, essential oils, tannic acid, carotene, friedeline, lupeol, glucose, benzoic acid have been reported for significant hair tonic, hepatoprotective, anti-leishmaniasis, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-pyretic, anti-histaminic, anti-malerial, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of Night jasmine and emphasizes the need for further exploring available information.