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A REVIEW ON BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF COMMON MALLOW (MALVA SYLVESTRIS L.)

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Since time immemorial, medicinal plants have been used by various communities to cure a large number of ailments. Research in medicinal plants has received a renewed focus in recent years. The plant-based system of medicine being natural does not pose any serious complications. Phytochemical compounds in plants are known to be biologically active aiding. Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae) is a medicinal plant usually known as common mallow. The purpose of this article is to review information available in the scientific literature on the biological activities of the plant. M. sylvestris having a strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, and antimicrobial activities are reviewed in this article. It is evident from the current literature that M. sylvestris is one of the most promising medicinal plant species. However, extensive research in the area of isolation and characterization of the active compounds of M. sylvestris is essential so that better, safer, and cost-effective drugs for curing various diseases and infections can be developed.
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Vol 4, Issue 5, 2016 ISSN - 2321-550X
A REVIEW ON BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF COMMON MALLOW ȍMALVA SYLVESTRIS L.Ȏ
DIPAK PAUL*
B-7/21(S), Kalyani - 741235, West Bengal, India. Email: dipak23paul@yahoo.com
Received: 22 August 2016, Revised and Accepted: 24 August 2016
ABSTRACT
Since time immemorial, medicinal plants have been used by various communities to cure a large number of ailments. Research in medicinal plants has
received a renewed focus in recent years. The plant-based system of medicine being natural does not pose any serious complications. Phytochemical
compounds in plants are known to be biologically active aiding. Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae) is a medicinal plant usually known as common mallow.
The purpose of this article is to review information available in the scientific literature on the biological activities of the plant. M. sylvestris having a
strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, and antimicrobial activities are reviewed in this
article. It is evident from the current literature that M. sylvestris is one of the most promising medicinal plant species. However, extensive research in
the area of isolation and characterization of the active compounds of M. sylvestris is essential so that better, safer, and cost-effective drugs for curing
various diseases and infections can be developed.
Keywords: Common mallow, Malva sylvestris, Biological activities, Medicinal plant.
INTRODUCTION
Plants, especially medicinal plants play an important as well as a key role
in drug discovery, and these are very useful for curing various disease
ailments for humankind [1-3]. The utilization of various medicinal
plants as a vital source for relief from different illness can be traced
back over five millennia [4-6]. Medicinal plants are still vital source of
non-toxic or less toxic, cost-effective, easily accessible, and safe natural
resources of drugs all over the world [7,8]. According to the report of
the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 65-80% of the
people of developing countries depend on traditional herbal medicine
for their health care due to difficulties of acquiring modern medicine
or poverty [9-11]. Ayurvedic, Unani, and Siddha medicine system of
the Indian subcontinent, traditional Chinese medicines of China, and so
many other traditional medicine systems are present in other countries
of the world [12-15]. Today, we still dependent on “Ayurveda” in about
75% of our medicines [16]. It is estimated that of the discovered 17,000
species, approximately 3000 species are utilized in the pharmaceutical
field [17,18].
Exploration of complementary and alternative medicine derived from
the plant has getting successively importance in the recent years.
In the last decade, there has been a continuous development in the
area of plant-derived medicine or herbal medicine, and these plant
derived herbal medicine are continuously receiving popularity both
in developing and developed countries because of their origin in
nature, more effective in treatment of various health problems and
fewer side effects as compared to commercial drugs [19,20]. The
therapeutic properties of these medicinal plants are attributed to
the presence of biologically active substances or compounds such as
alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, vitamins, and
other phenolic compounds [21-24]. In recent years, many of the plant
species have been scientifically evaluated for their possible medicinal
applications [25-28]. Therefore, medicinal plants are believed to be
an important resource of new biochemical compounds with potential
therapeutic activities.
Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae) is a medicinal plant usually known as
common mallow in Europe and gulkhaira or vilayatti kangani in India
and Pakistan [29]. M. sylvestris is a biennial–perennial herbaceous plant
distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa, and South-West Asia, and
its traditional use has been documented since a long-time ago [30,31].
The plant generally grows in moist areas such as near marshes,
ditches, river banks, oceans, and meadows [32]. For its emollient and
laxative properties, it was used by the Roman and Greek peoples [33].
Traditionally, M. sylvestris is used for the treatment of various infections
or diseases, including cold, cough, tonsillitis, bronchitis, digestive
problems, eczema, burn, and cut wound healing in rural areas [34-36].
Fluid extracts of M. sylvestris flowers and leaves are used as a valuable
remedy for inflammatory diseases of mucous membranes, cystitis,
and diarrhea [30,37]. This plant derives its healing abilities from the
mucilage and flavonoids found in the leaves and flowers [38]. Young
leaves, shoots, flowers, and fruits are consumed salads, leaves, and
shoots are consumed in soups and as boiled vegetables [31]. The
present study reviews the important biological activities of M. sylvestris
for their therapeutic properties (Fig. 1).
PHYTOCHEMISTRY
The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the M. sylvestris showed
the presence of polysaccharides, coumarins, flavonoids, malvin,
malvidin 3-(6”-malonylglucoside)-5-glucoside, malvone A (2-methyl-
3-methoxy-5,6-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) malvaline, scopoletin,
polyphenols, niacin, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E,
and tannins [36,39-42]. Major flavonoids constituents gossypetin
3-sulphate-8-O-β-D-glucoside, hypolaetin 3’-sulphate, and three
8-hydroxyflavonoids were identified in M. sylvestris [38,43]. Cutillo
et al. (2006) [40] have also reported the presence of terpenoids suc h
as sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and monoterpenes in the M. sylvestris.
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
M. sylvestris is an important medicinal plant which shows a wide
range of biological activities (Fig. 2). The plant exhibits antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective,
antinociceptive, and antimicrobial activities which are presented below.
Antioxidant activity
M. sylvestris has been reported to possess antioxidant property.
DellaGreca et al. [30] measured the antioxidant activity of
aqueous extract of M. sylvestris by its ability to scavenge the
2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion radicals
and to induce the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex.
They reported strong antioxidant activity of extract and also isolated
eleven compounds responsible for the activity. Barros et al. [31]
studied the antioxidants and free radical scavengers as well as anti-
Review Article
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inflammatory effect of different parts extract of M. sylvestris (leaves,
flowers, immature fruits, and leafy flowered stems). M. sylvestris
leaves revealed very strong antioxidant properties including radical-
scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition
in liposomes and brain cells homogenates. The protective effect of the
M. sylvestris decoction on renal damages in rats induced by ammonium
metavanadate poisoning was evaluated by Marouane et al. [44].
M. sylvestris is proved to have a significant antioxidative property due to
its richness in phenolic compounds. The antioxidant capacities of leaves
and petioles of M. sylvestris were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH,
Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and ferric-reducing/antioxidant
power (FRAP) radical scavenging assays by Tabaraki et al. [45].
Their study revealed that M. sylvestris had relatively high antioxidant
capacity. Tešević et al. [46] determined the antioxidant activities of
the seed oil of M. sylvestris from Serbia by radical scavenging activity
using DPPH assay. Samavati and Manoochehrizade [47] demonstrated
that crude polysaccharides derived from M. sylvestris leaves had strong
scavenging activities in vitro on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Zakhireh
et al. [48] studied the antioxidative effects of non-polar compounds
extracted from the aerial parts of M. sylvestris. Beghdad et al. [49]
also studied the antioxidant properties of leaves, flowers, stems, and
seeds of M. sylvestris using FRAP assay, total antioxidant capacity, and
scavenging of DPPH radical based on the reduction of molybdenum
(VI) to molybdenum (V) in Algeria. They reported that the extracts
possessed concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. In addition,
the ethyl acetate fraction of M. sylvestris extract exhibited the highest
value of antioxidant activities for almost all parts of leaves. Jaradat et al.
[50] studied comparative antioxidant activity of wild M. sylvestris leaves
and their cultivated species using DPPH radical scavenging activity and
compared to Trolox ((S)-(-)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-
carboxylic acid) antioxidant activity. Their results showed that the wild
M. sylvestris leaves have higher antioxidant activity (IC50) comparing
with their cultivated species.
Anti-inflammatory activity
The anti-inflammatory activity of M. sylvestris has been studied by
numerous research groups. Sleiman and Daher [51] studied the role of
the aqueous extract of M. sylvestris aerial part upon lipemia, glycemia,
inflammation, and gastric ulcer using rats as a model and significant
anti-inflammatory activity was observed. Prudente et al. [52] evaluated
the anti-inflammatory properties of M. sylvestris hydroalcoholic
extract and its compounds in mice ear inflammation caused by
12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate. Their results support the notion
that M. sylvestris leaves possesses topical anti-inflammatory activity
and the compound malvidin 3-glucoside seems to be major responsible
for this effect. The anti-inflammatory effects of M. sylvestris alcoholic
extracts were also evaluated by measuring the pro-inflammatory
mediators PGE2 and PGD2 in desferrioxamine-stimulated phorbol
12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated U937 cells by Martins et al. [53].
They suggested that the anti-inflammatory activities evoked by
M. sylvestris may be related to modulation of these mediators. Benso et
al. [54] investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of M. sylvestris
leaves extract and fractions in a co-culture model of cells infected by
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. According to them, M. sylvestris
and its chloroform fraction minimized the A. actinomycetemcomitans
infection and inflammation procedure in oral human cells by a putative
pathway that involves important cytokines and receptors. Hajyani
et al. [55] evaluated the effect of M. sylvestris L. aqueous extract on blood
cell parameters in mice with Candida albicans infection. According to
them, aquatic extract of M. sylvestris plant is able to boost innate immune
system and reduce effect of Candida infection.
Anticancer activity
Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can affect
any part of the body. According to the WHO, cancer is a leading cause of
death worldwide. Reports show that M. sylvestris possesses anticancer
potential. Daniela et al. [56] demonstrated cytotoxic activity of
M. sylvestris leaves extract on murine and human cancer cell lines using
a MTT assay. The biological assay showed that M. sylvestris extracts
significantly reduces proliferation of cancer cell lines.
Wound healing activity
Several studies have proven wound healing activity of M. sylvestris.
Pirbalouti et al. [35] evaluated the wound healing activity of diethyl
ether extract of M. sylvestris flowers in Wistar rats. Pirbalouti et al. [36]
also evaluated the wound healing activity of diethyl ether extract of
M. sylvestris flowers at 200 mg/kg/day dose in alloxan-induced diabetic
rats. The chloroform extract of M. sylvestris flowers were also used to
evaluate the wound healing activity at same dose in Wister rats [57].
Kovalik et al. [58] also assessed the wound healing effect of M. sylvestris
on a palate mucosa wound in rats. The extract-treated diabetic animals
exhibited a significant reduction in the wound area when compared
with control. Afshar et al. [59] assessed the effect of M. sylvestris
aqueous extract on cutaneous wound in BALB/c mice. Their results
showed the significant reduction in the wound in M. sylvestris extract-
treated mice than the control group.
Hepatoprotective activity
M. sylvestris was found to exhibit hepatoprotective activity against
paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Hussain et al. [60] assessed
the hepatoprotective effects of M. sylvestris against paracetamol-
induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The results of their study strongly
suggest that the extract of M. sylvestris has strong hepatoprotective
effects against paracetamol-induced liver injury. The extract of
M. sylvestris significantly reduced the serum levels of these elevated liver
enzyme markers in a dose-dependent manner, and histopathological
examination of liver tissues also exhibited hepatoprotective effects of
M. sylvestris in restoring normal functional ability of the liver.
Fig. 1: Flower of Malva sylvestris L.
Fig. 2: Different biological activities of Malva sylvestris L.
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Antinociceptive activity
The antinociceptive activity of M. sylvestris aqueous extract was evaluated
against classical models of pain in mice by Esteves et al. [61]. It showed a
significant antinociceptive activity in writhing test (76.4% of inhibition)
and also inhibited the neurogenic (61.8%) and inflammatory (46.6%)
phases of the formalin model. Their results suggest that M. sylvestris
possesses interesting substances, which act as antinociceptive agents.
Antimicrobial activity
M. sylvestris poses antimicrobial activity against various bacterial
and fungal species. Dulger and Gonuz [62] investigated antimicrobial
activity of M. sylvestris flower and leave extracts against nine
bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus
cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Listeria monocytogenes, and
Micrococcus luteus) and three yeasts (C. albicans, Rhodotorula rubra,
and Kluyveromyces fragilis) using the disc diffusion method. They found
that M. sylvestris has moderate activity against tested microorganisms
when compared to standard antibiotics. De Souza et al. [63] also studied
antimicrobial activity of M. sylvestris aerial part extract against S. aureus,
Staphylococcus epidermidis, M. luteus, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, C. albicans,
and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their study reported that ethanol extracts
of M. sylvestris were active against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli,
but methanol extract showed activity only against S. cerevisiae. Cheng
and Wang [64] studied antimicrobial activity of anthocyanin extracted
from M. sylvestris. According to them, the anthocyanin showed a
promising antimicrobial activity to S. aureus but had no bacteriostasic
activity to both Aspergillus niger and E. coli. The bacteriostasic activity to
S. aureus increased with increasing anthocyanin content of M. sylvestris
in the solid-culture experiment. The antibacterial activity of M. sylvestris
extract was also evaluated against two reference strains and 11 clinical
isolates of Helicobacter pylori [65]. Their results demonstrated that
M. sylvestris extract was capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of
H. pylori. Malik et al. [66] investigated the antibacterial activity of
ethanolic extract of M. sylvestris leaves against Salmonella typhimurium
in vitro using agar well diffusion method. Walter et al. [67] also examined
the antibacterial activity of M. sylvestris against one Gram-positive
(S. aureus) and two Gram-negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) bacteria.
Their results showed a significant antibacterial activity. Cardoso
et al. [68] evaluated antifungal activity of M. sylvestris (mallow) tinctures
on C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. According to them,
M. sylvestris tincture showed a significant antifungal activity against
all the tested fungal strains at lower concentrations. The antifungal
activity of plant extracts (seeds, stem parts, and leaves) of M. sylvestris
has also been evaluated against four fungal pathogens such as Rhizopus
stolonifer, Trichoderma sp., Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium
sp. [69,70]. They demonstrated that among the plant extracts studied,
the seed and stem of M. sylvestris extracts were capable of inhibiting
in vitro growth of the four tested fungal pathogen, but stem was the
most effective. Abu-Qatouseh et al. [71] evaluated in vitro antimicrobial
activity of methanolic leaves extracts of Algerian originated M. sylvestris
against H. pylori. According to them, potential antimicrobial activities of
M. sylvestris extracts against H. pylori would be potential novel agents
for the control of H. pylori infections. Zohra et al. [72] also studied
the antimicrobial activity of M. sylvestris seed oil against the standard
strains of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, B. cereus, Enterococcus feacalis,
E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, as well as the fungi C. albicans by
agar diffusion method. Their study revealed that the seed oil inhibits the
growth of all microorganisms tested except the Gram-negative bacteria
P. aeruginosa. Parveen et al. [73] evaluated the antifungal activity of M.
sylvestris leaves extract against A. niger causing black mold rot of pear
(Pyrus communis L.). It was revealed from their results that different
concentrations of M. sylvestris leaves extract caused a significant
reduction in spore germination of A. niger compared to control.
CONCLUSIONS
M. sylvestris is an important resourceful plant due to its various
medicinal properties. It possesses a broad spectrum of biological
activities as evident from this review. A broad range of phytochemical
components such as polysaccharides, coumarins, anthocyanin,
malvin, malvidin 3-(6”-malonylglucoside)-5-glucoside, malvone A
(2-methyl-3- methoxy-5,6-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) malvaline,
scopoletin, polyphenols, niacin, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin
E, and tannins reviewed that it possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,
anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, and
antimicrobial activities. So, it can concluded that common mallow is a
traditionally and clinical proven plant species for both its application
and efficacy. Research aimed at identifying active compounds
responsible for the bioactivities of common mallow (M. sylvestris) could
contribute positively to the discovery of new drugs.
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Innovare Journal of Life Sciences, Vol 4, Issue 5, 2016, 1-5
Paul
Al-Qaoud K. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori and urease inhibitory
effects of polyphenolic extracts of local herbs from Algeria. Int Arab J
Antimicrob Agents 2013;3(4):4.
72. Zohra SF, Meriem B, Samira S. Fatty acids profile and antimicrobial
activities of the seed oil of Malva sylvestris L. from Algeria. Int J Chem
Environ Biol Sci 2013;1(2):233-5.
73. Parveen S, Wani AH, Bhat MY, Pala SA, Ganie AA. Biology and
management of Aspergillus niger van tiegh. Causing black mold rot
of pear (Pyrus communis L.) in Kashmir Valley, India. Int J Adv Res
2014;2(6):24-34.
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Zephyranthes citrina Baker is a bulbous herb, commonly known as yellow rain lily belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. It is a native of tropical and subtropical America but nowadays it is cultivated as a popular ornamental herb in several parts of the world including India. This herb represents one of the richest sources of phytochemicals, especially alkaloids and possesses great potential for pharmaceutical applications. It shows remarkable antiprotozoal, antimicrobial, anti-Alzheimer, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and dye removal activities. This review is an effort to give a detailed study of the literature on the biological activities of Zephyranthes citrina. This review concludes that Zephyranthes citrina has a great potential to treat various diseases and could be used as a source for novel healthcare products in the near future, which requires further experimentation.
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Abstract: This study was carried out at university of Diyala in 2018-2019 on cherry tomatoes var. cerasiforme to study Solanum lycopersicum the effect of pre and post harvesting treatments on the quality and storability of tomato fruits. The pre-harvest treatments included salicylic acid and zinc (100 mg L ) and postharvest included immersion of fruits with a Vapor gard (1 ml L ) and Armurox ( 2 ml L ). The fruits were stored at a -1 -1 -1 temperature of 5°C and relative humidity about 80% for 20 days. The fruits treated before harvesting with salicylic acid 100 mg L maintained -1 firmness, total amount of acids, lowest percentage of weight loss, damage, highest degree of discoloration and acceptability. Viber gard showed a positive effect in the preservation of fruits from damage and maintain the firmness and quantity of acids, highest degree of discoloration and acceptability. The use salicylic acid spray on fruits before harvesting and dipping fruits with Viber card after harvesting increases the storability and marketing value of tomato fruits. Keywords: Cherry tomatoes, Salicylic acid, Zinc, Vapor card, Armurox
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... They might also be utilised to find active phytochemicals that could be used instead of medicines. The study conducted in Khunjerab National Park, Gilgit Pakistan, and Ladha subdivision, South Waziristan Agency, Pakistan, reported that many species of this family are utilized for milk production, skin infection and lung diseases in animals [81,82]. ...
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... They might also be utilised to find active phytochemicals that could be used instead of medicines. The study conducted in Khunjerab National Park, Gilgit Pakistan, and Ladha subdivision, South Waziristan Agency, Pakistan, reported that many species of this family are utilized for milk production, skin infection and lung diseases in animals [81,82]. ...
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Background Wetlands are biologically diverse and highly productive ecosystems that support one-third of all threatened and endangered plants of the world. Wetland plants have been studied ethnobotanically much less than terrestrial plants, including in Pakistan, thus information about the uses of local wetland plants in traditional healthcare system is scare. Head Maralla is a non-recognized wetland with diversified flora that has been focused of the current study. Methods The ethnobotanical data were collected from four sites viz., River Tavi, Upstream Chenab, River Manawarwala Tavi, and Bhalolpur through questionnaire and interviews during field trips. Quantitative indices including informant consensus factor (ICF), cultural significant indext (CSI), relative frequency of citation (RFC), and use value (UV) were used to analyze the data. Results On the whole, 119 plant species were identified belonging to 54 families, of which 87 species were dicot, 12 monocots, 11 aquatic, 5 ferns, and 4 species were bryophytes. Of these, 50% of the plant species were utilized for therapeutic purposes, followed by leaves which had more than 20% usage of total consumption. Herbs were the primary source of medicine (73 spp) followed by trees (22 spp), weeds (11 spp), shrubs (9 spp), foliose (2 spp) and thaloids (2 spp) in the area. Fic ranged from 0.66 to 0.93 for constipation and respiratory disorders with an average Fic of 0.87 reflecting a high consensus among the informants about the use of plants to treat particular ailment. Major ailments viz., urination (14%), cough (8.40%), cold (6.70%), stomach (5.90%), asthma (5.90%), skin infection (5%), constipation (5%), and diarrhea (4%) etc., were treated with local plant recipes. The highest CSI value was found for A. vesica (7.55) widely used in respiratory disorders and in digestive problems. RFC ranged from 0.92 to 0.15 with the maximum value obtained for R. communis (0.95). The use values ranged from 0.03 to 0.90 with the maximum use value for R. communis (0.90). A positive correlation was found between CSI and RFC (r = 0.29), and CSI and UV (r = 0.29). The JI values ranged from 7.14 to 0.14 indicating strong affinity with Samahani valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Unique species Osmunda regalis was first time reported from Pakistan with novel uses for renal and blood purifier. Fifteen percent (15%) plants contribute as fodder species consumed by local community for livestock while almost 6.7% species were utilized for timber and fuel purposes. Conclusion The ecosystem of Head Maralla provide a complex habitat for aqauatic, terrestrial, and agriculture wetland vegetation. It is suggested that conservation efforts should be made to conserve the ethnoecological knowledge of these areas and pharmacological studies should be conducted for noval drug synthesis in future.
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Chapter
Medicinal plants serve as the backbone of conventional healthcare systems of medicine and have been used since decades for the treatment of various diseases. Globally, around 50,000 species of medicinal plants are employed in traditional healthcare system of which Asia contributes a major part. These medicinal plants provide income to millions of people in both developing and developed countries. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), around 80% population of the world depend on medicinal plants to meet their primary healthcare needs. During the past few decades, the use of herbal drugs has increased considerably because they are relatively cheap, more cost-effective, and less toxic than synthetic medicine.
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Ipomoea quamoclit belonging to Convolvulaceae family is an annual, herbaceous plant, commonly known as mayil manikkam, akasamulla, kunjalata, tarulata, kamalata, getphul in India and distributed throughout the tropical areas of the world. Ipomoea quamoclit is used as folk medicine around the world for various illnesses. This paper reviews the important biological activities of I. quamoclit reported over the last few decades. These include antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity, antidiabetic activity as well as insecticidal activity. These studies reveal that I. quamoclit have various biological activities; hence, it is encouraging to find its new therapeutic uses.
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Many plant species are used in the different parts of the world since ancient time to control various pathogenic bacteria. This work was designed to assess the antibacterial activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, and Capsicum chinense fruits against eight pathogenic bacterial strains. The plant extracts were assessed for the presence of large classes of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, phenol, carbohydrate, protein, reducing sugar and capsaicin. The aqueous and methanol extracts of three varieties of capsicum fruits showed wide antibacterial activities against the different human pathogenic bacteria. From this result it is concluded that capsicum fruits may serve as natural bactericidal agents for the treatment of various infectious diseases caused by different Gram positive and Gram negative human pathogenic bacteria.
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Objective: To investigate the pharmacognostical characteristics and in vivo anticonvulsant activity of chloroform, ethanol (90%) and aqueous extracts of Abutilon indicum Linn sweet stem. Methods: The Abutilon indicum Linn sweet stem were successively extracted using chloroform, ethanol and aqueous solvent (water). The extracts were screened for phytochemicals using HPTLC and GC-MS techniques. The extracts were also screened for acute toxicity and anticonvulsant activity, against MES and PTZ induced convulsions, using Wistar albino rats. Results: The phytochemical screening study reveals the presence of more chemical constituents in chloroform extract followed by ethanol and aqueous extract. We found no significant changes in average body weight of animals, up to tested oral dose of 3000 mg/kg, during acute toxicity study. The in vivo study reveals the anticonvulsant activity of chloroform and ethanol extract against MES and PTZ induced convulsions. The chloroform extract is found to be more potent, similar to Phenytoin, in controlling both MES and PTZ induced convulsions than ethanol and aqueous extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that the chloroform extract of Abutilon indicum stem has remarkable anticonvulsant activity. Also, our study indicates the potential application of Abutilon indicum stems in the treatment of convulsive disorders as a need of modern health science. However, the further studies are needed to screen the active constituent having an anticonvulsant effect.
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Objective: The present study investigates the qualitative and quantitative phytoconstituents and bactericidal effect of medicinally important Pelargonium graveolens L’ Her leaves extracts. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening analyses were determined using standard protocol methods. In addition, antibacterial activities of the P. graveolens leaves extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion method against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Results: The results revealed that ethanolic extract of P. graveolens was found to be the predominant occurrence of phytochemicals (9/11) which contains flavonoid, phenol, tannins, saponins, reducing sugar, glycosides, terpenoids, anthraquinone, and phlorotannins while starch and steroids were absent. In quantitative estimation of bioactive phytoconstituents showed carbohydrates (74 mg/gdw), protein (41.25 mg/gdw), chlorophyll (2.2±0.05 mg/gdw), lipids (0.07 mg/gdw), tannins (135.3 gm/gdw), phenolic compounds (123.75 mg/gdw) and flavonoids (50 mg/gdw) were found to have higher amount in ethanolic extract followed by acetone, methanol and aqueous extract and also showed an inhibitory action on growth of tested bacteria. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of the P. graveolens leaves hold promises as a potential source of pharmaceutically important phytochemicals and also have strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd.