Article

Trajectories of Discrimination Across Adolescence: Associations With Academic, Psychological, and Behavioral Outcomes

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Abstract

The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample included 226 African American, White, Dominican, Puerto Rican, and Chinese adolescents (ages 11-12 at Time 1) recruited in sixth grade from six public schools in New York City. All forms of discrimination increased during middle school and decreased during high school. The frequency with which adolescents reported different sources and types of discrimination varied across ethnicity/race, but not gender. Initial levels and rates of change in discrimination predicted academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades, albeit in complex ways.

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... First, studies tend to focus on populations either in middle or high school; few examine changes in discrimination using samples that include early, middle, and late adolescents (e.g. Hughes et al., 2016). This is important given the inconsistencies in findings for the offline literature. ...
... This is important given the inconsistencies in findings for the offline literature. For example, studies suggest early adolescents from diverse ethnic-racial groups on average report decreases in discrimination from peers from the 6 th to 8 th grades, but stability in discrimination from adults (Niwa, Way, & Hughes, 2014) whereas others find increases during this period (Hughes et al., 2016). Similar variation has been found among older adolescents, either showing increasing (Benner & Graham, 2011;Benner & Kim, 2009), declining (Bellmore et al., 2012;Hughes et al., 2016) or stable experiences of discrimination across the high school years (Smith-Bynum et al., 2014;Greene et al, 2006). ...
... For example, studies suggest early adolescents from diverse ethnic-racial groups on average report decreases in discrimination from peers from the 6 th to 8 th grades, but stability in discrimination from adults (Niwa, Way, & Hughes, 2014) whereas others find increases during this period (Hughes et al., 2016). Similar variation has been found among older adolescents, either showing increasing (Benner & Graham, 2011;Benner & Kim, 2009), declining (Bellmore et al., 2012;Hughes et al., 2016) or stable experiences of discrimination across the high school years (Smith-Bynum et al., 2014;Greene et al, 2006). Differences may in part be based on school contextual factors or geographic region where the sample is drawn. ...
Article
This study investigated trajectories of individual and vicarious online racial discrimination (ORD) and their associations with psychological outcomes for African American and Latinx adolescents in 6th–12th grade (N = 522; Mgrade = 9th) across three waves. Data were analyzed using growth mixture modeling to estimate trajectories for ORD and to determine the effects of each trajectory on Wave 3 depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self‐esteem. Results showed four individual and three vicarious ORD trajectories, with the majority of participants starting out with low experiences and increasing over time. Older African American adolescents and people who spend more time online are at greatest risk for poor psychological functioning.
... Drawing on this model, and consistent with critical race theories (Ladson-Billings, 1998;Matias, 2013), scholars concur that racial discrimination-systematic mistreatment of the minoritized group that results in differential and negative effects on racial minorities-is pervasive for minority youth such as African Americans, across various developmental trajectories (Martin et al., 2011;Walker et al., 2017;Witherspoon et al., 2016). Within the K-12 education, teachers have been identified as one source of discrimination that African American youth experience (Hughes et al., 2016;Lewis, 2003;Thomas et al., 2009). ...
... In fact, there is evidence that some teachers, White teachers in particular, are supportive of African American youth (Boucher, 2014). There is also evidence that African American youth do experience conflicted parent-child relationships (Crosnoe, 2004;McHale et al., 2006;Sugrue et al., 2016) and peer discrimination (D. Hughes et al., 2016) all of which tend to negatively affect school bonding in this population. ...
... First, the data used are cross-sectional. Therefore, the findings should be interpreted with caution since it is not certain the relationship observed persists over time. Second, racial discrimination and its effects are nuanced relative to the type of discrimination, source, and the settings where racial discrimination occurs (Greene et al., 2006;D. Hughes et al., 2016). In this study, we only examined racial discrimination from one source (teacher). A model that looks at the various sources and types of discrimination will strengthen the current findings. The data set does not allow for such analyses in the current study. ...
Article
Drawing on research about the positive benefits of school bonding on youth mental health, academic and overall well-being, and the inequities African American youth face in education, this study examined the associations among teacher discrimination, parents’ and peer emotional support, and African American youth school bonding. Using data from the National Survey of American Life Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), findings suggest that teacher discrimination negatively affects African American youth’s school bonding. In addition, while parents’ and peer emotional supports are positively associated with youth’s school bonding, and offset some of the negative effects of teacher discrimination on African American youth’s school bonding, these supports may not be enough to help youth realize the maximum benefits of school bonding, especially in the context of teacher discrimination. Implications for social work practice with African American youth and families are discussed.
... Third, adolescents of immigrant backgrounds and cultural minority members typically experience more discrimination than adolescents of non-immigrant backgrounds and cultural majority members (Frankenberg, Kupper, Wagner, & Bongard, 2013;Hughes, Del Toro, Harding, Way, & Rarick, 2016). Ongoing histories of devaluation may entail that intergroup contact is perceived less positively, and less strongly associated with intergroup outcomes (Tropp & Pettigrew, 2005). ...
... While a large body of previous research has focused on relations between a classroom's ethnic composition and intergroup outcomes (for a review, see Thijs & Verkuyten, 2014), recent research increasingly points to the importance of school norms for adolescents' intergroup attitudes and social behaviors (e.g., Nesdale & Lawson, 2011;Schachner et al., 2015;Tropp et al., 2016). Especially in the area of interethnic relationships, school norms play a central role since ethnic minority youth typically experience more discrimination in the society than ethnic majority youth (Hughes et al., 2016), and therefore positive cultural diversity norms at school may be especially important in providing corrective experiences that foster positive interethnic relations (for a similar argument, see Tropp et al., 2016). ...
... Norms supporting contact and cooperation may therefore motivate ethnic majority members to engage in contact with an ethnic outgroup. Ethnic minority members on the other hand typically experience more discrimination in society (see for example Hughes et al., 2016). Therefore, experiencing equal status and cooperation between groups in certain contexts may be especially important for reducing perceived discrimination in this group. ...
... The literature delineates 4 main sources of perceived discrimination relating to the school context: 1. Societal discrimination (Yang and Ham 2017;Benner and Graham 2013;Seaton and Yip 2009); 2. Community discrimination (Brown and Chu 2012); 3. Adult or Institutional discrimination (Brown and Chu 2012;Greene, Way, and Pahl 2006;Faircloth, Beverly, and Hamm 2005;Stone and Han 2005); and, 5. Peer discrimination (Hughes et al. 2016;Niwa et al. 2014;Brown and Chu 2012;Huynh and Fuligni 2010;Waters and Kasinitz 2010;Greene, Way, and Pahl 2006). ...
... Finally, peer discrimination refers to students' unfair treatment of other, select students because of their group membership (Hughes et al. 2016;Niwa et al. 2014;Brown and Chu 2012;Huynh and Fuligni 2010;Waters and Kasinitz 2010;Greene, Way, and Pahl 2006). Examples of peer discrimination include exclusion from group activities, name-calling, insulting, or other forms of overt or covert physical or psychological harassment (Brown and Chu 2012;Brown and Bigler 2005). ...
... For example, Rivas-Drake (2011) measured public regard in terms of students' perceptions of school personnel's beliefs towards racial/ethnic groups, while Benner and Graham (2013) conceptualized racial awareness separately from perceived societal discrimination, arguing that perceived discrimination indicated personal experiences versus beliefs of discrimination. Additionally, researchers have similarly captured academic attitudes under different and broader concepts, such as academic engagement (Hughes et al. 2016;Rivas-Drake 2011;Chavous et al. 2008) or academic adjustment (Benner and Graham 2013;Benner and Kim 2009). ...
Thesis
This study investigated the relationship between different sources of discrimination (i.e., societal, institutional, and peer) and academic outcomes (i.e., academic performance, aspirations, and attitude for achievement) among second-generation immigrant high school students (N = 3,115) of several racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, Latinos, Asians, and Other (e.g., Cuban, West-Indian, and Islander identities). Specifically, the impact of race/ethnicity, school climate, and family cohesion on perceived discrimination and academic outcomes was examined. Results indicated that different sources of discrimination had varying effects on academic outcomes. Unexpectedly, perceptions of peer discrimination predicted improved academic performance and greater academic aspirations. As expected, stronger perceived institutional discrimination predicted lower academic performance. Additionally, a number of factors uniquely interacted with academic outcomes and sources of discrimination. Such factors were distinct racial/ethnic self-labels, aspects of school climate, and family cohesion. Notably, a Black self-label moderated the impact of societal discrimination on students’ attitude for academic achievement, while family cohesion moderated its impact on aspirations and attitude for achievement. The findings on peer discrimination’s positive effect on academic outcomes contradict prior research. Theoretical models by Bronfenbrenner and Garcia Coll and colleagues help contextualize findings for minority adolescents.
... Given that SMY of color are also subjected to racial discrimination, it is important to understand how racial discrimination contributes to SMY's mental health. Prospective studies on racial discrimination among racial minority youth suggest that, although there is important variability, racial discrimination tends to be highest in early and middle adolescence, and declines beginning in late adolescence (Hughes et al., 2016). ...
... First, although this study found patterns of racial discrimination depression symptoms, and suicidal ideation that are consistent with other studies, these unconditional trajectories do not account for all the relevant factors that have been shown to affect them (Birkett et al., 2015;Hughes et al., 2016). Yet the findings do point to their being a developmental process that typically leads to improved mental health as youth move into early adulthood. ...
... For racial discrimination, prior studies among racial minority youth have considered demographic differences and differential exposure to racial discrimination to explain changes in reports of racial discrimination (e.g., Hughes et al., 2016). However, there were few demographic differences in the intercepts and slopes of the racial discrimination. ...
Article
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Sexual minority youth (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth; LGB) of color have multiple minoritized identities, and few studies examine the implications of intersectional minority stressors for their prospective mental health. The current study tested three intersectional hypotheses: the additive hypothesis—racial discrimination and LGB victimization are independently associated with mental health; the multiplicative hypothesis—racial discrimination and LGB victimization interact in to exacerbate their negative association with mental health, and the inuring hypothesis—only racial discrimination or LGB victimization is associated with mental health. Data come from a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth of color (36% Black, 30% Latino, 26% Multi-racial, 4% Native American, and 3% Asian, Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander) from two U.S. cities, one in the Northeast (77%) and one in the Southwest, who were between ages 15–24 (M = 19) and surveyed four times over three years spaced nine months apart (N = 476; 38% bisexual; 67% free and reduced lunch; and 49% assigned female at birth). The multiplicative hypothesis was supported for depression symptoms, and the additive hypothesis was supported for suicidal ideation. Intersectional minority stressors undermine the mental health of sexual minority youth of color and warrant further investigation.
... A cognitive developmental model (Brown & Bigler, 2005) posits that due to increasing cognitive skills (such as understanding of classification, use of social comparison, and moral reasoning), adolescents are more likely to perceive and identify more discrimination targeting their groups when they are growing up. Although most studies have supported this idea (e.g., Brody et al., 2014;Hart, 2021;Hughes et al., 2016;Park et al., 2021), some empirical findings observed decreases in perceived discrimination from 5th to 10th grade among Mexican American adolescents (White et al., 2014) or no changes in perceived discrimination from 9th to 10th grade among a sample of ethnically/racially diverse youth (Wang & Yip, 2020). The inconsistency suggests variation in the trajectories of perceived discrimination, such that adolescents may not uniformly experience the same changing trajectory of perceived discrimination as they grow up, probably due to differences in their individual (e.g., gender, resilience) and contextual (e.g., school surroundings) characteristics (Brown & Bigler, 2005). ...
... Early adolescence is the stage when youth begin to consider their own group identity and how others view their groups (Umaña-Taylor, 2016). Previous research suggests that early adolescents are especially vulnerable to the negative effects of discrimination, since they start acquiring more sophisticated knowledge but have limited ability to interpret and handle social stressors such as discriminatory treatment (Brown & Bigler, 2005;Hughes et al., 2016). For example, perceptions of discrimination were more harmful for socioemotional adjustment (e.g., depressive symptoms) among early adolescents relative to late adolescents (see Williams et al., 2019 for a review). ...
... Prior empirical studies consistently documented that adolescents who experienced Increasing and High-stable discrimination reported poorer psychological outcomes (e.g., higher levels of depressive symptoms) than their peers in the Decreasing group (e.g., Lee et al., 2020;Tynes et al., 2020). Research focusing on the associations between trajectories of perceived discrimination and behavioral outcomes is relatively limited and yields inconsistent findings, such that some studies uncovered that individuals who experienced Increasing and High-stable discrimination were at a higher risk of having problem behaviors (e.g., problematic alcohol use; see Lee et al., 2018;Troop-Gordon & Ladd, 2005), whereas other research documented that adolescents in the Increasing discrimination group did not report more problem behaviors (Hughes et al., 2016). The inconsistency suggests the necessity to include both the psychological and behavioral outcomes when examining the developmental impact of discrimination trajectories. ...
Article
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Perceived discrimination is associated with poorer psychological adjustment and greater problem behaviors among rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Yet, the predictors and the consequences of distinct changing patterns of perceived discrimination are less clear. The current study sought to identify distinct patterns of perceived discrimination trajectories and examine the developmental implications of these patterns among 385 Chinese rural-to-urban migrant early adolescents (Mage = 10.49, SDage = 0.69; 62% boys). Four distinct patterns of perceived discrimination trajectories, i.e., Low-stable (79.59%), Decreasing (9.08%), High-stable (6.11%), and Increasing (5.22%), were identified. Predictors including resilience, family support, peer support, and demographic characteristics (i.e., gender and school types) contributed to differences in pattern membership. Moreover, the Low-stable pattern exhibited more favorable distal outcomes (i.e., lower levels of social anxiety and loneliness and higher levels of self-esteem) than the other three patterns; the Decreasing group had lower levels of loneliness than the High-stable group. The findings extend the understanding of the predictors and consequences of perceived discrimination among rural-to-urban migrant early adolescents from a developmental perspective.
... Parents help build this resilience in response to these realities (Lesane-Brown, 2006) as evidence suggests that strengthening youths' racial ethnic identity and other coping resources through RES conversations may help lessen the negative impact of discrimination and reduce inequality. RES is correlated with awareness of racial prejudice, strong sense of commitment and connection to one's group, greater self-esteem, higher academic engagement, and fewer behavioral problems across racial groups in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Hughes et al., 2016). There is also evidence that coping can help buffer the impact of racial discrimination on mental health outcomes (Garnett et al., 2015). ...
... Given the continued prevalence of racism and racial discrimination in the USA, African American parents are faced with distinct parenting challenges, including raising children who are aware of the racialized society in which they live, yet still able to thrive ( Hughes et al., 2016;Lesane-Brown, 2006;Priest et al., 2014). African American parents use various intentional racialized parenting approaches to instill a positive racial identity in their children, prepare them for a racist world, intervene in racist institutions on their behalf, and protect them against possible interpersonal racist harm. ...
Article
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The Black Parenting Strengths and Strategies (BPSS; Coard, 2003) is a 12-week manualized evidence-based parenting program designed to promote positive and culturally relevant parenting practices for fostering cultural, social, and behavioral competence in African American children. BPSS purposefully and strategically combines universal (commonly studied) approaches to parenting (e.g., monitoring, positive parenting) with inherent strengths and processes of African American families (e.g., racial-ethnic socialization) and attends to the unique challenges that African American parents face in childrearing (e.g., racism, discrimination). Feasibility and efficacy (highly controlled lab setting) for BPSS has been established via a randomized controlled trial (pre-intervention and immediate-post intervention) (Coard et al., The Counseling Psychologist,35(6), 797-820, 2007). Informed by a dismantling approach and developed to meet the expressed need of a community (community centered approach), The Black Parenting Strengths and Strategies–Racialized Short (BPSS-RS) is a 3-week abbreviated version of the BPSS intervention composed solely of racialized parenting and racial-ethnic socialization components. Evaluation of BPSS-RS was the focus of the current study given that it is unknown what outcomes the abbreviated version may yield, particularly when implemented in a “real-world” or “service as usual” environment. Based on pre-post analyses, participation in BPSS-RS resulted in significant improvements in proactive racial socialization, with no significant improvements in the other parenting variables. Furthermore, BPSS-RS participants showed high rates of attendance and satisfaction with the program. Results of this study provide additional support for feasibility and receptibility of the BPSS program, and highlight the potential effectiveness of culturally relevant intervention programs in improving parenting strategies believed to be most instrumental in helping youth respond to racism and fostering African American parents’ use of culturally relevant coping strategies with their children (i.e., racial socialization) in an effort to guard against the negative effects of racial discrimination and racism.
... Smith et al., 2009). As youth enter adolescence, they report greater levels of barriers and discrimination, which may be attributed to increased salience of racial-ethnic identity and growing capacity to recognize racial-ethnic barriers (Hughes, Del Toro, Harding, Way, & Rarick, 2016). Moreover, girls and older children might demonstrate more PYD characteristics, such as pro-social behavior, than boys and younger children (Furrow, King, & White, 2004;Li, Lynch, Kalvin, Liu, & Lerner, 2011;Van der Graaff, Carlo, Crocetti, Koot, & Branje, 2018), and PYD is more likely to be linked to adjustment for girls than for boys (Årdal, Holsen, Diseth, & Larsen, 2018). ...
... It is consistent with some studies that did not find gender differences in racial-ethnic identity development (Chavous et al., 2008;Pahl & Way, 2006). Even though age is related to a more comprehensive understanding and more significance of racial-ethnic identity (Aboud, 2005;Byrd, 2012;Hughes et al., 2016;Quintana, 2008;Umaña-Taylor et al., 2004), it was not related to profile membership in this study. The participants were mainly from Grade 2 to Grade 5 (see Table 1), and it was possible that they were at similar developmental stages with a lack of significant variation. ...
Article
This study sought to identify profiles of positive youth development (PYD) integrating racial–ethnic factors, specifically racial–ethnic pride and perceived racial–ethnic barriers in a sample of African American (77%) and Latino (23%) children (N = 234, Mean age = 8). Using a latent profile analysis, we found three profiles: The High PYD, Proud, & Optimistic (High PYD, racial–ethnic pride, and low perceived racial–ethnic barriers), the High PYD, Proud, & Aware (high PYD, pride, and perceived barriers), and the Low PYD and Disconnected (low PYD, pride, and high barriers). The Optimistic profile exhibited fewer overall adjustment problems and higher standardized achievement at Time 2 than both the Aware and the Disconnected profiles. The Aware and the Disconnected showed similar adjustments. This study highlights the critical role of helping youth to feel competent, caring, connected, and proud, which further supports the role of sociocultural factors in the PYD of African American and Latino children.
... Prior research investigating trajectories of ethnic/racial discrimination and identity in high school (e.g., Hughes et al. 2016; Rivas-Drake and Witherspoon 2013) have employed latent growth models that assume identical rates of change over a prescribed period of time. However, it is also likely that rates of change vary from one year to the next. ...
... This pattern has been found for high school adolescents from diverse ethnic/racial groups, such as Latinx (starting in the fall of 9th grade, Benner and Graham 2011), Asian Americans (Juang and Cookston 2009), and ethnically/racially diverse samples (Greene et al. 2006). At the same time, empirical work has also identified stable or decreasing trajectories in adolescents' experiences of ethnic/racial discrimination (White et al. 2014), with a specific focus on high school students who were Black (Smith-Bynum et al. 2014), Latinx (Unger et al. 2016), or from ethnically/racially diverse groups (Greene et al. 2006;Hughes et al. 2016). However, these studies have examined linear changes in adolescents' ethnic/racial discrimination experiences, without considering more nuanced year-to-year changes that are immediately post transitions versus more stabilized over time. ...
Article
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Research has yet to understand how ethnic/racial discrimination and ethnic/racial identity change simultaneously in adolescence. In a multiethnic sample of 211 adolescents (58% female; 41% Asian American, 10% Black, 24% Latinx, 22% White, 4% other), this study used latent change modeling to examine parallel changes in adolescents' discrimination experiences (frequency and distress) and ethnic/racial identity (private regard, centrality) from 9th to 11th grade. The year immediately following the transition into high school, from 9th to 10th grade, emerged as a challenging period with higher levels of discrimination and accompanying declines in adolescents' private regard. In contrast, from 10th to 11th grade, discrimination distress declined, and adolescents' private regard remained relatively stable. Across both time periods, parallel changes were observed for discrimination (frequency, distress) and adolescents' private regard. Implications for considering the importance of school transition, as well as individual differences by adolescent characteristics and school contexts, are discussed.
... For instance, data revealed that 50% to 75% of the POCI population reported experiencing some form of racial discrimination across the lifespan (Lee, Perez, et al., 2019). Not only do experiences of racism and discrimination occur in educational, medical, and work environments, they also predict stress responses such as increased cortisol output and a range of health problems such as alcohol misuse, depression and anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbances, and cardiovascular health difficulties (Berger & Sarnyai, 2015;Chavez et al., 2015;Fang & Myers, 2001;Flores et al., 2010;Hughes et al., 2016;Lui, 2020;Walls et al., 2015;Yoo & Castro, 2011;Zeiders, 2017). ...
Preprint
Objectives: Racism and discrimination drive racial and ethnic health disparities, and are robust markers for a host of health outcomes in People of Color and Indigenous Peoples (POCI). A comprehensive understanding of possible causal pathways by which racism and discrimination lead to POCI’s health disadvantages is a critical step toward reducing disparities and promoting health equity. Experimental methods can help researchers delineate these causal pathways. In this manuscript, we illustrate how virtual reality (VR) can be used by researchers in experimental studies to advance discrimination science. Method: We summarize current findings on health effects of discrimination. We describe common methodological approaches that have been employed in discrimination science and discuss some of their limitations. Arguments for the potential benefits of using VR to advance discrimination science are provided. Results: VR has the potential to facilitate ecologically valid experiments that examine individuals’ responses to racism and discrimination-related experiences in real-time. Conclusions: VR offers scientists an innovative method that can be used in experimental studies to help delineate how racism and discrimination might lead to health problems in POCI. Still, VR is new to discrimination science; thus, research is necessary to empirically delineate advantages and possible disadvantages of using VR in studies on discrimination.
... A recent meta-analysis on the effects of ERD during adolescence showed that most studies (78%) used a general or overall measure of discrimination (Benner et al., 2018). Researchers have begun to emphasize the value of examining multiple sources of ERD and their differential associations with health and adjustment outcomes (Hughes et al., 2016). For example, longitudinal evidence indicates that discrimination from adults is more consequential for youth's academic outcomes, and discrimination from peers is more strongly related to aspects of well-being like depression and physical health symptoms (Del Toro and Hughes, 2019;Huynh and Fuligni, 2012). ...
Article
Consistent with conceptual frameworks of ethnic-race-based stress responses, and empirical evidence for the detrimental effects of ethnic-racial discrimination, the current study hypothesized that experiencing more frequent ethnic-racial discrimination during adolescence would predict differences in physiological responses to psychosocial stress across the college transition. U.S. Latinx adolescents (N = 84; Mage = 18.56; SD = 0.35; 63.1% female; 85.7% Mexican descent) completed survey measures of ethnic-racial discrimination during their final year of high school and first college semester (~5 months later), as well as a standard psychosocial stressor task during their first college semester. Repeated blood pressure and salivary cortisol measures were recorded to assess cardiovascular and neuroendocrine activity at baseline and stress reactivity and recovery. Data were analyzed using multilevel growth models. Experiencing more frequent ethnic-racial discrimination in high school, specifically from adults, predicted higher baseline physiological stress levels and lower reactivity to psychosocial stress during the first college semester, evidenced by both blood pressure and cortisol measures. Experiencing ethnic-racial discrimination from peers in high school also predicted higher baseline blood pressure in college, but not stress reactivity indices. Results were consistent when controlling for concurrent reports of ethnic-racial discrimination, gender, parents’ education level, body mass index, oral contraceptive use, time between longitudinal assessments, depressive symptoms, and general perceived stress. Experiencing frequent ethnic-racial discrimination during adolescence may lead to overburdening stress response systems, indexed by lower cardiovascular and neuroendocrine stress reactivity. Multiple physiological stress systems are sensitive to the consequences of ethnic-racial discrimination among Latinx adolescents transitioning to college.
... More detailed descriptions of our study procedure can be found elsewhere (see Hughes et al. 2016;Niwa et al. 2014). Thus, a brief description of procedures will be provided here. ...
Article
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We examined mothers’ beliefs about gender-typed values and activities and their associations with the academic skills (i.e., math and reading/language arts) and engagement (i.e., emotional engagement in school) of their adolescent children (13–15 years-old) in a U.S. sample of Black, Chinese American, Latinx, and White families (n = 158). Mothers were more likely to endorse gender-typed activities (e.g., “Boys shouldn’t play with dolls”) than gender-typed values (e.g., “Men should make the important decisions in the family”). We found that Chinese American and Latina mothers endorsed more traditional gender-typed beliefs than Black mothers, who endorsed more traditional beliefs than White mothers. Adjusting for race/ethnicity and prior academic outcomes, mothers’ endorsement of gender-typed values was associated with lower emotional engagement in school for male adolescents. In addition, adjusting for race/ethnicity and prior academic outcomes, mothers’ endorsement of gender-typed activities was associated with lower math grades for female adolescents, lower emotional engagement in school for young men, and higher emotional engagement in school for young women. Mothers’ endorsement of gender-typed values and activities was not associated with reading/language arts grades for either male or female adolescents. Our findings have important implications for understanding the processes through which mothers’ gender attitudes may be conveyed and enacted in adolescents’ behavior within the school setting.
... Diversity shapes relationships within classrooms through creating opportunities for cross-group friendships, by creating a power hierarchy among ethnic groups, and through potential intergroup competition resulting from perceived threat Graham, 2018). Since ethnic minorities are more likely to become targets of negative peer interactions (e.g., Hughes et al., 2016), interventions to reduce ethnic discrimination have primarily targeted intergroup attitudes of majority group members (e.g., Turner and Cameron, 2016). Moreover, as majority group students usually hold a higher social status than minority group members, majority group students have more decision power over the formation of interethnic friendships (Verkuyten, 2007;Schwarzenthal et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Drawing on the role of teachers for peer ecologies, we investigated whether students favored ethnically homogenous over ethnically diverse relationships, depending on classroom diversity and perceived teacher care. We specifically studied students' intra-and interethnic relationships in classrooms with different ethnic compositions, accounting for homogeneous subgroups forming on the basis of ethnicity and gender diversity (i.e., ethnic-demographic faultlines). Based on multilevel social network analyses of dyadic networks between 1299 early adolescents in 70 German fourth grade classrooms, the results indicated strong ethnic homophily, particularly driven by German students who favored ethnically homogenous dyads over mixed dyads. As anticipated, the results showed that there was more in-group bias if perceived teacher care was low rather than high. Moreover, stronger faultlines were associated with stronger in-group bias; however, this relation was moderated by teacher care: If students perceived high teacher care, they showed a higher preference for mixed-ethnic dyads, even in classrooms with strong faultlines. These findings highlight the central role of teachers as agents of positive diversity management and the need to consider contextual classroom factors other than ethnic diversity when investigating intergroup relations in schools.
... They are also traversing new and diverse spaces and may encounter different stressors, including exposure to discrimination (Swanson et al. 2003). As adolescents become more aware of their ethnic-racial background, through ERI processes and content, and traverse more environments, experiences of discrimination may increase (Hughes et al. 2016). ...
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Prior scholarship suggests that variation in neighborhood ethnic–racial compositions may be predictors of cultural developmental processes and experiences for adolescents of color. Specifically, neighborhood ethnic–racial concentration may support or inhibit ethnic–racial identity (ERI) development or content; it may amplify or mitigate exposure to discrimination stemming from racism. It is important to consider factors that may explain mixed findings given study, neighborhood, and adolescent characteristics may be sources of systematic heterogeneity. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of neighborhood ethnic–racial concentration on discrimination and ERI among Black, Asian American, and Latinx adolescents. The search initially retrieved 162 records; 13 met inclusion criteria and were coded for theoretical and design elements. A total 36 associations were identified (discrimination: k = 16; ERI: k = 20). For discrimination, a majority of the associations (56%) were in the promoting direction, such that higher neighborhood ethnic–racial concentrations of Blacks, Asian Americans, and Latinxs were associated with less discrimination for Black, Asian American, and Latinx adolescents, respectively. For ERI, 35% of the associations were promoting, such that higher neighborhood ethnic–racial concentrations of Blacks, Asian Americans, and Latinxs were associated with more positive ERI outcomes for the same groups. Almost all of the remaining findings for discrimination were null (38%) and all remaining findings for ERI (65%) were null. This systematic review documents how higher neighborhood ethnic–racial concentrations are potentially beneficial to within-group adolescents navigating the development of ERI and discrimination.
... Furthermore, recent work has examined the effects of distinct discrimination sources, and findings suggested that adult discrimination may be a more prominent risk factor for academic out-comes, whereas peer discrimination may have greater implications for adolescents' psychological adjustment (Benner & Graham, 2013). However, many of these studies compared the effects among pooled samples of Asian American, African American, and Latino youth (e.g., Hughes, Del Toro, Harding, Way, & Rarick, 2016;Niwa, Way, & Hughes, 2014). Among the few studies that have focused exclusively on Latinos, no independent associations have emerged between either discrimination source and academic outcomes-including college-going efficacy (Gonzalez et al., 2014) or school belonging (Umaña-Taylor, Tynes, Toomey, Williams, & Mitchell, 2015). ...
Article
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Objectives: Guided by García Coll and colleagues' (1996) integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children, the current study examined the role of ethnic-racial identity as a mediator through which family ethnic socialization was associated with academic engagement among Latino youth. Furthermore, based on the high prevalence rates of ethnic-racial discrimination among Latino adolescents, the associations between experiences with peer and adult discrimination and youth's academic engagement (controlling for family ethnic socialization and ethnic-racial identity) were tested. Finally, we tested whether discrimination from either peers or adults moderated the mediation process between family ethnic socialization, ethnic-racial identity, and academic engagement. Method: Data were collected from a cross-sectional study of adolescents in the Southwestern United States. Participants in the current study consisted of self-identified Latino adolescents (N = 370; Mage = 16.14 years; SD = 1.12; Range = 14-18; 52.8% female; 96.2% U.S.-born) who completed self-administered surveys during school hours. Results: Path analyses indicated that family ethnic socialization was indirectly associated with academic engagement via ethnic-racial identity. Adult discrimination was negatively associated with academic engagement; however, peer discrimination was not associated with academic engagement. Finally, neither source of discrimination emerged as a moderator of the associations of interest. Conclusion: Findings point to Latino youth's enhanced resilience against discrimination encounters when they have more experiences with family ethnic socialization and have engaged in greater ethnic-racial identity exploration and resolution. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... The practice may prove especially important during adolescence because this is when Black youth take on the developmental task of understanding who they are (Erikson 1968) in addition to the importance and meaning of being a Black person (e.g., racial identity; Rivas-Drake et al. (2014a)). Adolescence is also when they gain the cognitive ability to interpret when they are the target of racial discrimination and perceive more instances of it (Hughes et al. 2016b). Research suggests that Black parents can support positive adolescent development by helping their children adopt more positive feelings about their race and cope with discrimination through positive communication about Black people and Black culture (Huguley et al. 2019). ...
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Racial socialization is an important predictor of wellbeing among Black youth. Scholars have theorized that Black girls could benefit from gendered racial socialization or messages about being Black girls. However, this has not been examined empirically. The current study investigates the role of general and gendered racial socialization and racial identity attitudes on depressive symptoms among 287 Black girls between the ages of 13-17 (Mage = 15.4) in the U.S. Path analysis results demonstrated that general and gendered racial socialization about pride were directly associated with positive feelings about being Black which were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Oppressive messages about Black women were related to negative feelings about being Black and more depressive symptoms. The implications of general and gendered racial socialization on the psychological wellbeing of Black girls are discussed.
... Theoretical work suggests that age and gender are important moderators of perceived discrimination. Developmental period has been linked with perceived discrimination such that early adolescence is associated with greater distress compared to late adolescence; however, it is unclear if this pattern persists into adulthood (Benner et al. 2018;Hughes et al. 2016). Age cohort is also related to perceived discrimination in that individuals born before and after the civil rights movement appear to have different perceptions of discrimination (Gee et al. 2012). ...
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Few studies have examined the role of Black racial identity as a moderator of the relation between perceived discrimination and educational attainment among Black U.S. adults. We explored this question in a sample of 370 self-identified Black adults from the Northeastern U.S. Due to the existing literature demonstrating the benefits of a positive Black racial identity, we hypothesized that centrality and private regard, components of racial identity, would moderate the relation between perceived discrimination frequency/stress and educational attainment. As expected, centrality moderated the relationship although private regard did not. Specifically, Black centrality served as a coping strategy that has a positive influence on educational attainment when individuals perceive high levels of discrimination frequency. Males reported higher levels of discrimination frequency and stress compared to females, though gender did not contribute moderation effects. The finding that younger individuals perceived higher levels of discrimination frequency and stress and lower centrality and private regard compared to their older counterparts, has important implications which are discussed.
... Items assessing perceived ethnic-racial discrimination were adapted from measures used in prior studies (Greene, Way, & Pahl, 2006;Hughes, Del Toro, Harding, Way, & Rarick, 2016;Hughes & Johnson, 2001;Williams, Neighbors, & Jackson, 2003). Adolescents responded to items that assessed varied manifestations of covert and overt discrimination. ...
Preprint
We examined whether the longitudinal inter-relation between discrimination and identity varies according to the perpetrator of discrimination. We used three waves of data from early adolescents (n = 387; ages 11-12 at Wave 1) to assess the strength and direction of relations between perceived discrimination from adults and peers vis-à-vis ethnic-racial identity exploration, commitment, private regard, and public regard. Cross-lagged autoregressive path analyses showed that more frequent discrimination, regardless of source, had reciprocal and significant longitudinal inter-relations with exploration and public regard. Peer discrimination predicted lower commitment and private regard one year later, whereas adult discrimination did not. We discuss the implications of these findings as they relate to the role of peers and ethnic-racial identity processes during early adolescence.
... Examining relations among school cultural socialization, school climate, and school engagement in a single study warrants the use of longitudinal data from a developmental period that is troubling for African Americans (Del Toro, Hughes, & Way, 2020). Due to their advancing socio-cognitive and perspective-taking abilities (McKown & Strambler, 2009;Quintana, 2008), African American early adolescents acquire awareness of stereotypes and discrimination, which limit their abilities to stay engaged and perform well in school (Benner et al., 2018;Hughes, Del Toro, Harding, Way, & Rarick, 2016). However, school cultural socialization efforts can confer protection from such pernicious effects by providing youth with a sense of belonging and community in school. ...
Article
The question of whether schools should promote cultural pride and engage students in ethnic traditions is hotly contested. To contribute to this debate, this longitudinal study examined whether school cultural socialization predicted adolescents' engagement in school over time and whether this relation was mediated by school climate. Data were collected in four waves during a two-year period from 254 African American fifth-graders (53.9% males; Mage = 10.95 at Wave 1) enrolled in three public middle schools. Results revealed that African American youth who reported more school cultural socialization also had greater school engagement over time. This longitudinal relation was fully mediated by youth's perceptions of school climate. Implications for how to promote African American youth's perceptions of schools as culturally sensitive and supportive environments are discussed.
... The adolescents in our sample were in 9 th and 10 th grades, which can limit the generalizability of the results because younger and older adolescents may exhibit different patterns of sleep, discrimination, and support (Gillen-O'Neel et al., 2013;Hughes et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Using data from a 14-day diary study of 95 ethnic/racial minority adolescents, this study examined the within-person effect of daily discrimination tied to multiple social identities on adolescents’ daily sleep quality and duration and whether daily support from important others (i.e., friends, parents, and teachers) would moderate these links. We found that daily discrimination was a low-frequency, but high-impact event associated with shorter sleep duration. Results pointed to the nuanced roles of daily support. Support from friends was negatively related to sleep duration, whereas support from parents appeared to be promotive to sleep quality. Support from teachers protected adolescents from the negative effects of discrimination on sleep duration. Implications for future interventions targeting sleep disturbances associated with discrimination are discussed.
... For instance, data revealed that 50% to 75% of the POCI population reported experiencing some form of racial discrimination across the lifespan (Lee, Perez, et al., 2019). Not only do experiences of racism and discrimination occur in educational, medical, and work environments, they also predict stress responses such as increased cortisol output and a range of health problems such as alcohol misuse, depression and anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbances, and cardiovascular health difficulties (Berger & Sarnyai, 2015;Chavez et al., 2015;Fang & Myers, 2001;Flores et al., 2010;Hughes et al., 2016;Lui, 2020;Walls et al., 2015;Yoo & Castro, 2011;Zeiders, 2017). ...
Article
Objectives: Racism and discrimination drive racial and ethnic health disparities, and are robust markers for a host of health outcomes in People of Color and Indigenous Peoples (POCI). A comprehensive understanding of possible causal pathways by which racism and discrimination lead to POCI's health disadvantages is a critical step toward reducing disparities and promoting health equity. Experimental methods can help researchers delineate these causal pathways. In this manuscript, we illustrate how virtual reality (VR) can be used by researchers in experimental studies to advance discrimination science. Method: We summarize current findings on the health effects of discrimination. We describe common methodological approaches that have been employed in discrimination science and discuss some of their limitations. Arguments for the potential benefits of using VR to advance discrimination science are provided. Results: VR has the potential to facilitate ecologically valid experiments that examine individuals' responses to racism and discrimination-related experiences in real-time. Conclusions: VR offers scientists an innovative method that can be used in experimental studies to help delineate how racism and discrimination might lead to health problems in POCI. Still, VR is new to discrimination science; thus, research is necessary to empirically delineate the advantages and possible disadvantages of using VR in studies on discrimination. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Children develop racial biases and stereotypes as early as preschool (e.g, Raabe & Beelmann, 2011;Rhodes & Baron, 2019;Shutts, 2015), yet they do not start exhibiting exclusionary behavior and a decline in interracial friendships until around middle childhood (Pauker et al., 2017). Increases in exclusionary behavior (e.g., greater racial discrimination; Hughes et al., 2016) and decreases in interracial friendships (Aboud et al., 2003) raise critical questions regarding how these stereotypes and prejudice develop to cause racially discriminatory behavior. Given that positive interracial interactions become increasingly scarce during middle childhood, how do we, as researchers, educators, and social activists, intervene in a way that facilitate productive interactions and discussions about racism that ultimately promote racial equity from a young age? ...
Article
Previous studies have indicated a strong link between lay theories and the development of prejudice. The purpose of this article is to review past studies that have examined the relation between a specific lay theory (mindset) and the development of prejudice, as well as highlight areas for future research that will contribute to our theoretical understanding of mindsets (and their relation to prejudice). Specifically, we highlight the need for future studies to examine mindsets from the target’s perspective, to explore how contextual cues may influence the development of mindsets over time, and to observe how mindsets motivate collective action among majority group members. Future studies focused on these areas will deepen the field’s theoretical understanding of the impact of mindsets on the development of prejudice. Such knowledge, in turn, can inform the construction of future mindset interventions that foster sustainable and concrete improvements in interracial relations and ultimately promote racial equity.
... Perceived ethnic-racial discrimination among Latino and Black adolescents typically refers to experiences with peers and teachers at school, and with retail workers (Hughes et al., 2016;Rosenbloom & Way, 2004). However, Latino adolescents have also reported discrimination that refers to their assumed immigrant backgrounds (Armenta et al., 2013;Rosenbloom & Way, 2004). ...
Article
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In the United States (U.S.), adolescent identity development occurs within a socio-historical context characterized by an ethnic-racial hierarchy, as well as an unequal distribution of power and privilege. The current study examined the associations among two ethnic-racial identity components (i.e., exploration, resolution), perceived ethnic-racial discrimination, and U.S. American identity among White, Black, and Latino adolescents in the U.S. A cross-sectional sample of self-identified White, Black, and Latino adolescents (N = 1,378) completed self-administered surveys (M age = 16.16 years; SD = 1.12, 52.8% female). A sequential model-building approach using multiple-group path analysis revealed that both exploration and resolution were positively associated with U.S. American for White and Black adolescents, but no association emerged for Latino adolescents. Furthermore, among Black adolescents, the association between exploration and U.S. American identity was moderated by perceived ethnic-racial discrimination, such that these two identity dimensions were positively associated only among those who reported higher levels of discrimination. Overall, ethnic-racial identity and U.S. American identity were more strongly associated among White and Black adolescents compared to Latino adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the intersections between ethnic-racial identity and U.S. American identity.
... Discrimination can also affect students' opinions of school and adaptation to higher grade levels in school. Hughes et al. (2016) found that experiences of discrimination in sixth grade significantly predicted unfavorable academic adjustment in eighth grade, and Foxen (2010) found that Latinx youth who faced differential treatment because of their race had a decreased interest in and enthusiasm toward school. Furthermore, in a sample of Latinx ninthand tenth-grade students, Benner and Graham (2011) discovered that students with increased perceptions of discrimination had more negative conceptions of their school atmosphere, which predicted a decrease in grades and an increase in school absences. ...
Article
Background/Context The relationship between perceived discrimination and students’ academic outcomes is well established, showing the negative effects of experiences of discrimination. Although much attention has focused on how to temper these effects for students, few studies have focused on the potential role that teachers can play in lessening the effects of discrimination on student outcomes. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study In this study, we look at the intersection of race/ethnicity and gender by examining at how Latinx male and female high school students’ academic outcomes, such as grade point average, are impacted by their perceived level of discrimination and teacher support. Research Design Using an intersectional framework, this study uses data from 783 Latinx adolescents (Mage = 16.01 years) in the United States. Specifically, we examine the moderating role of perceived teacher support on the relationship between students’ discrimination and their academic performance using a moderated factor analysis approach. Findings/Results Results indicate that the items that measure perceived discrimination and teacher support do not function in the same way for Latinx male and female adolescents and that emotional teacher support buffers the negative relationship between discrimination and academic performance for Latinx males. Conclusions/Recommendations We argue the need to construct measures and approach interventions in the areas of discrimination and teacher support that would allow us to better identify how to support Latinx adolescents in the most effective ways.
... Although both of these ethnic-racial groups may experience different patterns of stereotyping and discrimination, ultimately both of these groups are negatively stereotyped and experience discrimination in school climates (Hughes, Del Toro, Harding, Way, & Rarick, 2016), thus we expect the processes and mechanisms investigated in this study to be similar across the two ethnic-racial groups. Furthermore, T tests revealed that there were no significant ethnic-racial group differences in the mean levels of any of the study variables, and Fisher's r-to-z transformation revealed that there were no significant ethnic-racial group differences in relations of the study variables. ...
Article
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Adolescence is a developmental period when youth are increasingly likely to turn to their peers for support, and it is also a time of increased salience and development of ethnic-racial identity (ERI). Ethnic-racial centrality, a dimension of ERI, could be a predictor in the development of peer support, as youth with a stronger self-concept on the basis of their ethnic-racial identity might garner stronger peer relations. The current study examined trajectories of academic and emotional peer support as well as the role of centrality of one's ethnic-racial identity (i.e., ethnic-racial centrality) in predicting such trajectories among Black American and Latinx adolescents (N = 143, Mage = 11.91). Average levels of both academic and emotional peer support did not change over time. However, greater ethnic-racial centrality was positively related to higher initial levels of academic and emotional peer support. Ethnic-racial centrality as a potential asset for youth of color in the development of peer support is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... Racially marginalized adolescents who develop a strong attachment to and pride in their race (e.g., an important dimension of racial identity) report fewer mental health symptoms and greater psychosocial adjustment than those who do not (Wantchekon & Umaña-Taylor, 2021). Youth high in racial pride are also less vulnerable to the deleterious effects of racism (Umaña-Taylor & Rivas-Drake, 2021), which youth begin to experience more frequently as they transition through adolescence (Hughes et al., 2016). Racial pride, therefore, has important implications for fostering healthy development among racially marginalized youth. ...
Article
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Multiracial-Black youth are one of the fastest-growing populations in the U.S., but little is known about their racialized developmental experiences. This study uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify patterns of parental racial socialization among Biracial Black-White adolescents and explore whether those profiles relate to demographics and racial identity outcomes. The sample consisted of 330 Biracial Black-White adolescents living in the U.S. (67% boys; Mage = 14.8, SD = 1.5). The analysis yielded a four-profile solution based on (1) the frequency of socialization messages youth received and (2) the concordance of those messages across both of their parents (i.e., whether socialization frequency is similar or different between Black and white parents). Profile membership differed based on youth gender and racialized appearance (i.e., whether youth presented physically as Black, white, or racially ambiguous). Ultimately, adolescents in the profile with the highest frequency and concordance of parental racial socialization reported more adaptive racial identity attitudes including a sense of pride in being Black and Biracial. Youth in that profile also felt the most comfortable navigating the intersections of their racial identities, which coupled with racial pride has promising implications for their development and wellbeing.
... To date, few studies have incorporated longitudinal assessments of discrimination in adulthood, but there have been some studies of change in discrimination across childhood and adolescence. This literature reveals mixed results with some studies showing that discrimination increased during middle school and declined through high school (Hughes et al., 2016). Among the adolescent participants in the California Families Project used in the current study, however, ethnic discrimination was stable in middle school and increased during the transition to high school (Stein et al., 2019). ...
Article
Objectives Hispanic/Latinx adults are at increased risk for cognitive impairment, and it is critically important to identify modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment in this population. We addressed two key questions: (1) How does perceived discrimination change across middle adulthood? And (2) How are discrimination and the trajectory of discrimination associated with cognitive function? Methods We used data from 1110 Mexican-origin adults between 26 and 62 years old (63% female; 85% born in Mexico). Participants completed a perceived ethnic discrimination scale five times across 12 years and completed cognitive assessments in the last wave, which were composited into a measure of overall cognitive function. We used latent growth curve models to estimate the longitudinal trajectory of perceived ethnic discrimination and growth mixture models to identify sub-groups of change trajectories. We evaluated whether patterns of perceived discrimination trajectories, baseline, intermediary, and concurrent discrimination predicted cognitive function at the last wave. Results Perceived ethnic discrimination decreased over time on average. Significant individual differences in within-person change revealed two change trajectory classes: Stable Low and High Declining. The Stable Low class had better cognitive performance compared to the High Declining class, but this effect was not robust to educational attainment. Perceived discrimination at the last wave was associated with worse cognitive function, and this effect remained after accounting for covariates. Conclusions This study is among the first to evaluate changes in perceived ethnic discrimination in a sample of Mexican-origin adults and their associations with cognitive function. The results highlight the need for more research to better understand the role of discrimination and other social stressors on cognitive health outcomes.
... Items assessing perceived ethnic-racial discrimination were adapted from measures used in prior studies (Greene, Way, & Pahl, 2006;Hughes, Del Toro, Harding, Way, & Rarick, 2016;Hughes & Johnson, 2001;Williams, Neighbors, & Jackson, 2003). Adolescents responded to items that assessed varied manifestations of covert and overt discrimination. ...
Article
The authors examined whether the longitudinal inter‐relations between ethnic‐racial discrimination and ethnic‐racial identity vary according to the perpetrator of discrimination. The authors used three waves of data from early adolescents (n = 387; ages 11–12 at Wave 1) to assess the strength and direction of relations between perceived discrimination from non‐school adults and peers vis‐à‐vis ethnic‐racial identity exploration, commitment, private regard, and public regard. Cross‐lagged autoregressive path analyses showed that more frequent discrimination, regardless of source, had reciprocal and significant longitudinal inter‐relations with exploration and public regard. Peer discrimination predicted lower commitment and private regard 1 year later, whereas non‐school adult discrimination did not. Implications are discussed in relation to the role of peers and ethnic‐racial identity processes.
Article
Black and Latinx youth are situated in a maladaptive discriminatory context in the United States; however, prosociality may be one way that youth can promote their own positive development in the face of these experiences. We examined the longitudinal associations between discrimination and prosociality among 380 Black and Latinx early adolescents (M W6age = 12.38 years, 52% female) and considered race/ethnicity and self-esteem control beliefs as potential moderators to this association. Discrimination predicted higher levels of prosociality among Black youth 6 months later, but not among Latinx youth. Discrimination also predicted higher prosociality among youth with very high self-esteem control beliefs 6 months later, but not among youth with lower levels of self-esteem control beliefs. None of these associations were significant when looking across a 1-year time frame. Our findings support the predictions of self-esteem enhancement theory and highlight the importance of considering how youth’s unique racialized experiences can inform how they respond to discrimination.
Article
The current study is a two-year study examining perceptions of teacher and peer discrimination among Latinx children in middle childhood (n = 156). We examined the frequency and type of teacher and peer discrimination Latinx children perceive; whether perceptions of teacher and peer discrimination predict changes in children's academic attitudes over time (namely, their interest in academics, perceived importance of academic success, school belonging, and perceptions of Latinx peers' academic norms); and whether this influence is moderated by the school ethnic context. Results indicated that a majority of children perceived at least one instance of school-based discrimination, more often from teachers than peers. Further, controlling for academic performance, perceptions of discrimination from teachers, albeit infrequent, led to a lower school belonging and more negative perceptions of their Latino peers' academic norms. School context moderated the links between peer and teacher discrimination and perceived interest in and importance of academics.
Article
The aim of this review is to assess how existing literature conceptualizes LGBTQ+ Latinx youth’s mental health. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (a) assessed populations who identified as LGBTQ+ in addition to a racial/ethnic minority identity from Latin America; (b) mean sample age was between 12 and 18; (c) assessed mental health as a dependent variable; (d) reported either quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method results; (e) written in English; and (f) collected data from participants in the USA. Twenty-three studies were included for review. A thematic synthesis produced four themes: context/setting, persecution, sense of self, and support.
Article
This study employs slope‐as‐mediator techniques to explore how the daily association between ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep disturbances serves as an intermediary link between ethnic/racial identity (ERI) and psychological adjustment. In a diverse sample of 264 adolescents (Mage = 14.3 years old, 70% female, 76% United States born, 25% African American, 32% Asian American, 43% Latinx), discrimination was associated with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, ERI commitment buffered the impact of discrimination on sleep, whereas ERI exploration exacerbated the impact of discrimination. Finally, the daily level association between discrimination and sleep (i.e., daily slope) mediated the association between ERI and adolescent adjustment. Substantive links between discrimination and sleep are discussed as well as broader applications of slope‐as‐mediator techniques.
Article
Introduction: Few studies investigated the combined patterns of individual assets (e.g., social competence, positive identity) and mental health symptoms (MHS) in adolescents. This study examined the patterns of early adolescents' individual assets and MHS and whether identified patterns were associated with later adolescents' outcomes. Methods: Participants were 352 (164 boys, 188 girls) adolescents who were primarily African-American and from low socioeconomic status families, participating in a prospective study of the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure from birth in the Midwest United States. Individual assets, using the Developmental Assets Profile, and MHS, using the Youth Self-Report, were assessed at age 12. Substance use, via self-report and biologic assays, early (before age 15) sexual behaviors, and behavioral adjustment were assessed at age 15. Results: Latent profile analysis indicated four distinctive profiles: low assets with elevated MHS (P1, n = 54, 15.3%); adequate assets with thought and social problems (P2, n = 84, 23.9%); low assets without MHS (P3, n = 101, 28.7%); and high assets without MHS (P4, n = 113, 32.1%). Children in the profile with high assets without MHS (P4) were more likely to have a higher IQ and to be in a more optimal environment (higher parental monitoring and less family conflict) than those in other profiles. Although profiles with MHS were associated with adolescent risk behaviors, this relationship was more pronounced for girls than for boys. Conclusions: Girls in the low assets with elevated MHS (P1) should be a primary concern for preventive intervention. Our study demonstrates the heterogeneity of individual patterns of adaptation and maladaptation.
Article
Racism continues to be a major source of stress for African Americans and can impair psychological functioning. Adolescents experiencing discrimination may engage in self-soothing, but risky behaviors, which leave them at risk for negative life trajectories. Black pride has been identified as a key factor in explaining the heterogeneity in responses to discrimination. Racial socialization, strategies parents use to promote Black pride and protect youth from discrimination, is an important focus of family-based prevention programs serving African American families. This study tests the efficacy of a culturally tailored preventive intervention for rural African American families to disrupt the negative consequences of discrimination on adolescent psychological functioning. Four waves of data from the Strong African American Families (SAAF) efficacy trial (Murry & Brody in Journal of Marital & Family Therapy 30(3):271-283, 2004) with 667 African American families in rural Georgia were used for this study. Structural equation modeling was used to test study hypotheses. Adolescent experiences with discrimination at age 15 predicted concurrent psychological functioning and multiple risk behaviors at age 16, including sexual risk behavior, substance use problems, academic failure, and juvenile justice involvement. Mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological functioning was a significant mediator of these relations. The SAAF program was associated with increases in racial socialization, which in turn fostered gains in adolescent Black pride. Black pride was indirectly associated with reduced risk behavior through adolescent psychological functioning, but Black pride did not moderate the effect of discrimination on psychological functioning. This study confirms that family-based prevention can support African American adolescent mental health in the context of discrimination. However, more emphasis on reducing exposure to discrimination is needed.
Article
Black adolescents may use critical consciousness to cope with stress from experiences of racism. In the current study (n = 594; Mage = 15.4), we used structural equation modeling to examine how stress from individual, institutional, and cultural racism may directly and indirectly relate to critical reflection, critical agency, and critical action for Black adolescents. Analyses indicated that individual and cultural racial stress were positively related to critical reflection and critical agency. Further, all three types of racism were directly related to critical action. Individual and cultural racial stress were also related to critical action indirectly through critical reflection – perceived inequality and critical agency. Altogether, these findings provide empirical evidence for how experiences of racism motivate critical consciousness development for Black adolescents. In efforts to bolster critical consciousness, practitioners may consider providing space and time for Black youth to discuss their own experiences of racism.
Article
Asian American adolescents' cross-race friendships are poorly understood, partially due to the model minority stereotype. Using data from 915 Asian American adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent to Adult Health, the present study examined the influence of cross-race friendships (based on peer nomination data) on Asian American adolescents' psychological well-being trajectories, as well as the moderating role of school context (numeric marginalization, school prejudice). Results showed that cross-race friendships promoted Asian American adolescents' psychological well-being, particularly in early adolescence and in schools where adolescents lacked critical mass of same-race peers or where prejudice was widespread. Similar findings were observed for cross-race friendships with the majority group, and more evident effects emerged for cross-ethnic friendships. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Despite the racial achievement gap, many Black adolescent boys excel in school. Academic socialization is one way that parents can contribute to these youths' success. However, only a few studies have examined the specific ways that Black parents support their sons' high achievement. To address this gap, we used a multi-wave, multi-informant, mixed-method design to examine the conversations, rules, and after school routines of 12 Black boys and their primary caregivers. First, using latent class growth curve analyses, boys were grouped into a high-achieving or low-achieving group according to their average grade in Math and English across 5 assessments from 6th to 11th grade. Then, using content analysis, we analyzed semi-structured interviews from these families for evidence of academic socialization. Drawing on the Stage Setting Framework, we found that parents of high-achieving Black boys engaged in four types of academic socialization practices that facilitated their children's academic success.
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Mental and behavioral health conditions are common among children and adolescents in the United States. The purpose of this state-of the-art review article is to describe inequities in mental and behavioral health care access and outcomes for children and adolescents, characterize mechanisms behind the inequities, and discuss strategies to decrease them. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these inequities is essential to inform strategies to mitigate these health disparities. Half of United States children with a treatable mental health disorder do not receive treatment from a mental health professional. Children and adolescents in racial, ethnic, sexual, sex, and other minority groups experience inequities in access to care and disparities in outcomes for mental and behavioral health conditions. Suicide rates are nearly twice as high in Black compared to White boys 5 to 11 years old and have been increasing disproportionately among adolescent Black girls 12 to 17 years old. Children identifying as a sexual minority have >3 times increased odds of attempting suicide compared to heterosexual peers. Adverse experiences of children living as part of a minority group, including racism and discrimination, have immediate and lasting effects on mental health. Poverty and an uneven geographic distribution of resources also contribute to inequities in access and disparities in outcomes for mental and behavioral health conditions. Strategies to address inequities in mental and behavioral health among United States children include investing in a diverse workforce of mental health professionals, improving access to school-based services, ensuring equitable access to telehealth, and conducting quality improvement with rigorous attention to equity.
Chapter
Discrimination has been found to influence various developmental outcomes. Before discussing the research found regarding the outcomes in Arab American adolescents, it is important to understand the developmental processes and theories that exist pertaining to development and discrimination. This chapter presents the various theories that are most cited and relevant to Arab American youth in the literature. Developmental processes in adolescence are discussed in detail along with how discrimination has been found to affect these processes. The dialogue sets the stage for why and how discrimination in various settings, including the school system, influences critical aspects of development in minority youth.
Article
This study examines how everyday discrimination is associated with 6‐day trajectories of sleep/wake problems, operationalized as sleep disturbance and daytime dysfunction, among 350 diverse adolescents (Mage = 14.27, SD = 0.61, 69% female; 22% African American, 41% Asian American, 37% Latinx; 24% multiethnic/racial; across participating schools, 72% of students eligible for free/reduced price lunch) in the Northeastern United States. Adolescents encountering discrimination experienced changes in sleep/wake problem trajectories (i.e., significant increases in same‐day sleep/wake problems), whereas adolescents reporting no discrimination experienced no changes in trajectories (Cohen’s ds = .51–.55). Multiethnic/racial (compared to monoethnic/racial) adolescents experiencing everyday discrimination reported greater same‐day sleep/wake problems, yet steeper decreases in sleep/wake problems suggesting stronger impact coupled with faster return to baseline levels.
Article
A substantial literature has focused on how ethnic-racial socialization from parents shapes youths' racial identities and the meanings they attach to their own and others' racial group membership. We argue that a critically important source of information to youth about the meaning and significance of race, and therefore a key source of ethnic-racial socialization, resides in youths' exposure to repeated patterns in the relative social experiences, opportunities, roles, and outcomes experienced by two or more racial groups across levels of the ecological environment. Drawing on Seidman's concept of a “social regularity” we propose the concept of a “racial regularity” to name, describe and define pervasive and repeated intergroup patterns that youth observe through their daily transactions across settings. Additionally, drawing from the socio-cognitive developmental literature, we consider why and how racial regularities may inform youths' racial knowledge. Finally, we illustrate our perspective using existing ethnographies of racial dynamics in schools and neighborhoods vis-à-vis youths' racial knowledge. Highlights • Children and adolescents learn about the meaning of race from their everyday experiences in settings. • The experiences of and roles occupied by racial groups in a setting relative to each other are key. • We need studies in which settings are the unit of measurement and analysis for fuller understanding.
Article
I selectively review the last decade of theory and research on Latinx adolescents and emerging adults’ development. After briefly reviewing the changing demographics of US Latinx families, I address: (1) asset-based theories of Latinx youth’s development; (2) the literature on the educational pathways of US Latinx youth; (3) how close relationships, ethnic/racial (ERI) identity, and family, school, and community context promote or constrain Latinx youth’s educational and positive development and provide examples of successful interventions to promote ERI and academic adjustment. I conclude with suggestions for scholarship in the next decade, including applying intersectional, interdisciplinary, biopsychosocial, and international lenses to studying Latinx youth, researching father involvement, and addressing between- and within-country of origin variations in Latinx youth's education and development.
Article
This study investigated the socializing influence of peers and parents in interracial encounters by disentangling how children and adolescents consider peer and parent messages when predicting interracial and same‐race inclusion. Black and White children (9–14 years old, N = 246) predicted the likelihood of interracial and same‐race peer inclusion when peer and parent sources of influence were present and provided justifications for their expectations. Results revealed that, while participants predicted inclusion would be less likely when parent sources of influence were present than when peer sources of influence were present, the racial composition of the encounter and the race of the participant mattered only in contexts with peer sources of influence. Participants’ reasoning about the benefits of inclusion and social pressure also differed when parent or peer sources were present. This study informs efforts to improve the quality of interracial peer interactions and programs designed to promote positive intergroup peer relationships.
Article
This study examined how discrimination experiences, beliefs, and coping in middle adolescence contributed to heterogeneity in African American parent–adolescent relationship (PAR) profiles three years later. Data were from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study in which 589 African American caregivers (92% female; Mage = 39.15, SD = 6.72; range = 27–74 years old) were interviewed when youth were in 8th and 11th grades. We used previously identified profiles of ethnic-racial socialization, general parenting practices, and relationship quality: No-nonsense High Socializers, Indulgent Average Socializers, Unengaged Silent Socializers, and Authoritative Cultural Socializers. Results indicated that parents’ discrimination experiences, racial coping self-efficacy, and racial coping socialization when youth were in the 8th grade predicted membership in PAR profiles three years later controlling for youth gender, parent marital status, and family socioeconomic status.
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Despite notable improvements in theory and methods that center the lived experiences of Black adolescents, White supremacy endures in developmental science. In this article, we focus on one methodological manifestation of White supremacy—sampling decisions that assume Black adolescents are a homogeneous group. We examine overlooked concerns about within-group designs with Black adolescents, such as the erasure of some African diasporic communities in the United States. We first describe the homogeneity assumption and join other scholars in advocating for within-group designs. We next describe challenges with current approaches to within-group designs. We then provide recommendations for antiracist research that makes informed within-group design sampling decisions. We conclude by describing the implications of these strategies for researchers and developmental science.
Article
Cultural‐ecological theories posit that ethnic‐racial identity (ERI) development is shaped by transactions between contexts of ethnic‐racial socialization, yet research considering intersections among multiple contexts is limited. In this study, Black, Latino, White, and Asian American adolescents (N = 98; Mage = 16.26, SD = 1.09; 55.1% female identifying) participated in surveys and focus group discussions (2013–2014) to share insights into ERI development in context. Using consensual qualitative research, results indicated: (a) family ethnic‐racial socialization intersects with community‐based, peer, media, and school socialization; (b) ethnic‐racial socialization occurs outside family through intersections between peer, school, community‐based, and media settings; and (c) ethnic‐racial socialization is embedded within systems of racial oppression across contexts. Discussion includes implications for future research and interventions supporting youth ERI.
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Black youth experience racial discrimination at higher rates than other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. To identify how racism can simultaneously serve as a risk factor for adverse childhood experience (ACE) exposure, a discrete type of ACE and a post‐ACE mental health risk factor among Black youth, The culturally informed adverse childhood experience (C‐ACE) model describes how racism can simultaneously serve as a risk factor for ACE exposure, a discrete type of ACE and a post‐ACE mental health risk factor among Black youth. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
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Racial/ethnic discrimination is a commonplace experience for many adolescents of color, and an increasing number of studies over the past 25 years have sought to document discrimination and its consequences at this stage of the life course. The evidence is clear and convincing that racial/ethnic discrimination is harmful for adolescents’ socioemotional and behavioral well-being as well as their academic success. Discrimination measurement, however, poses a critical source of potential variation in the observed effect sizes capturing the associations between racial/ethnic discrimination and adolescents’ well-being. This meta-analysis integrated 1,804 effect sizes on 156,030 unique ethnically- and geographically-diverse adolescents (Mage = 14.44, SD = 2.27) from 379 studies that used 79 unique instruments to assess racial/ethnic discrimination. The meta-analysis focused on a host of measurement-related moderators, including the number of items, response scale and response dimensions, reliability, retrospective reference period, perpetrators, and initial target populations. Larger effect sizes were observed for instruments with more items and with non-dichotomously rated items. Perpetrator and retrospective reference period also emerged as key moderators, while measure reliability, response dimensions, and initial measurement development characteristics were not significant moderators. Findings provide key insights for the development of more precise, effective instruments to assess perceived racial/ethnic discrimination in adolescence.
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The detrimental effects of discrimination are well documented; however, the influence of ethnic/racial identity (ERI) on this association is equivocal. There is theoretical and empirical support for both protective and detrimental effects of ERI. This meta-analysis includes 53 effect sizes from 51 studies and 18,545 participants spanning early adolescence to adulthood to synthesize the interaction of ERI and discrimination for adjustment outcomes. Consistent with existing meta-analyses, discrimination was associated with compromised adjustment; further, this effect was buffered by overall ERI particularly for academic and physical health outcomes. Different ERI dimensions and adjustment outcomes revealed important patterns. ERI exploration increased vulnerabilities associated with discrimination, particularly for negative mental health and risky health behaviors. The exacerbating influence of ERI exploration was strongest at age 24, and more recent publications reported weaker exacerbating effects. In contrast, ERI commitment conferred protection. A composite score of ERI exploration and commitment also conferred protection against discrimination. Sample demographics mattered. The buffering effect of ERI commitment was stronger for Latinx (compared with Asian heritage) individuals. The buffering effect of public regard was stronger for Asian heritage (compared with African heritage) individuals. For positive mental health outcomes, a composite score of ERI exploration and commitment had a stronger buffering effect for Latinx (compared with African heritage) individuals. For risky health behaviors, Latinx individuals reported a stronger buffering effect of ERI (compared with African heritage and Asian heritage) individuals. The current meta-analysis identifies gaps in the literature and offers suggestions for future research.
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A framework that emphasizes and integrates individuals' intersubjective experiences with Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (PVEST) is introduced and compared with self-organizational perspectives. Similarities, differences and advantages of each framework are described. In a demonstration of PVEST's utility, a subset of data from the 3rd year of a longitudinal study (14- to 16-year-old middle adolescent African-Americans) is used for examining an achievement variable: negative learning attitude. Explored separately by gender, a regression model that contained risk, stress, and a reactive coping variable for the prediction of negative learning attitudes was investigated. For boys, stress was an independent stressor across steps independent of the other variables entered; social support was particularly important for males. For girls, not only was stress not important but it was also only the social support variable, perceived unpopularity with peers, that was a significant predictor of girls' negative learning attitude. Particularly for boys, the findings suggest critically important roles for teachers and peers in the negative learning attitude of midadolescent economically disadvantaged African-American students.
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Amidst changing patterns of accommodation and conflict among American ethnic groups, there remains a paucity of research on the nature and impact of racial and ethnic discrimination on development in multiethnic samples of youth. The Adolescent Discrimination Distress Index along with measures of caregiver racial bias preparation and self-esteem was administered to 177 adolescents drawn from 9th–12th graders self-identified as African American, Hispanic, East Asian, South Asian, and non-Hispanic white. Youth from all ethnic backgrounds reported distress associated with instances of perceived racial prejudice encountered in educational contexts. Instances of institutional discrimination in stores and by police were higher for older youth and particularly for African American and Hispanic teenagers. Encounters with peer discrimination were reported most frequently by Asian youth. Reports of racial bias preparation were associated with distress in response to institutional and educational discrimination and self-esteem scores were negatively correlated with distress caused by educational and peer discrimination. The importance of research on discrimination distress to understanding adolescent development in multiethnic ecologies is discussed here.
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In this article, a conceptual model for the study of child development in minority populations in the United States is proposed. In support of the proposed model, this article includes (a) a delineation and critical analysis of mainstream theoretical frameworks in relation to their attention and applicability to the understanding of developmental processes in children of color and of issues at the intersection of social class, culture, ethnicity, and race, and (b) a description and evaluation of the conceptual frameworks that have guided the extant literature on minority children and families. Based on the above considerations, an integrative conceptual model of child development is presented, anchored within social stratification theory, emphasizing the importance of racism, prejudice, discrimination, oppression, and segregation on the development of minority children and families.
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Prominent explanations of the overrepresentation of Black Americans in criminal justice statistics focus on the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, racial isolation, and social disorganization. We suggest that perceived personal discrimination is an important but frequently neglected complement to these factors. We test this hypothesis with longitudinal data on involvement in general and violent juvenile delinquency in a sample of Black youth from a variety of communities in 2 states. We examine the direct effects of concentrated disadvantage and racial isolation and the direct and mediating effects of social organization, support for violence, and personal discrimination. Consistent with our hypothesis, perceived personal discrimination has notable direct effects on both general and violent delinquency and is an important mediator between neighborhood structural conditions and offending; moreover, its effects exceed those associated with neighborhood conditions.
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Ethnically diverse high school contexts present unique social opportunities for youth to form interethnic relationships, but they may also subject students to certain social challenges such as peer ethnic discrimination. With a sample of 1,072 high school students (55% girls; 54% Latino, 20% African American, 14% Asian, 12% White) attending 84 high schools, school context factors that protect students' exposure to peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years were investigated with a three-level hierarchical linear model. Each spring for four consecutive years (grades 9-12), self-reported peer ethnic discrimination, interracial climate at school, and perceived school ethnic composition were assessed. At the school level, objective high school ethnic composition data were collected. Peer ethnic discrimination was found to decline slightly across the high school years. Above and beyond this decline, more positive perceptions of the school interracial climate and both objective and perceived numerical ethnic majority status predicted lower levels of peer ethnic discrimination. Taken together, the results highlight the significance of both objective (e.g., ethnic composition) and subjective (e.g., interracial climate) aspects of the school ethnic context to students' high school social experiences.
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This longitudinal study examined the influences of discrimination on socioemotional adjustment and academic performance for a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Using autoregressive and cross-lagged techniques, the authors found that discrimination in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms, alienation, school engagement, and grades in middle adolescence but that early socioemotional adjustment and academic performance did not predict later experiences of discrimination. Further, their investigation of whether earlier or contemporaneous experiences of discrimination influenced developmental outcomes in middle adolescence indicated differential effects, with contemporaneous experiences of discrimination affecting socioemotional adjustment, whereas earlier discrimination was more influential for academic performance. Finally, they found a persistent negative effect of acculturation on the link between discrimination and adolescents' developmental outcomes, such that those adolescents who were more acculturated (in this case, higher in American orientation) experienced more deleterious effects of discrimination on both socioemotional and academic outcomes.
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The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Archival information regarding the racial/ethnic composition of the participants' neighborhoods and schools was used and increased school diversity was linked to increased perceptions of cultural discrimination. Regardless of school and neighborhood diversity, high perceptions of collective/institutional discrimination were linked to lower self-esteem for students in high diversity settings. Further, high levels of collective/institutional discrimination were associated with lower life satisfaction for African American youth in low diversity settings.
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This study focused on the perceptions of discrimination for Chinese American adolescents: how perceptions changed over time, how generational status and acculturation were related to these changes, and whether earlier discrimination experiences were related to subsequent depressive symptomatology. The sample included 309 Chinese American adolescents who participated in a 2 year, three-wave longitudinal study. Findings suggest that perceptions of discrimination became more acute over time for the majority of Chinese American adolescents in our study, that greater initial levels of perceptions of discrimination predicted a slower orientation to U.S. culture, that discrimination was not related to orientation to Chinese culture, and that an increase in perceptions of discrimination was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms. Greater orientation to Chinese culture was also related to fewer depressive symptoms. The findings are discussed in light of the unique cultural context of the study.
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The present study examined ethnic, gender, and age differences in perceived discrimination and the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents. Data are from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth. Results indicate that the majority of Black youth perceived at least 1 discriminatory incident in the previous year. Adolescents at later stages of development perceived more discrimination than those at earlier stages, and African American and Caribbean Black males perceived more discrimination than their female counterparts. Perceptions of discrimination were positively linked to depressive symptoms and were negatively linked to self-esteem and life satisfaction, regardless of ethnicity. However, Caribbean Black youth appear to be more vulnerable when they perceive high levels of discrimination.
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In this article a conceptual model for the study of child development in minority populations in the United States is proposed. In support of the proposed model, this article includes (a) a delineation and critical analysis of mainstream theoretical frameworks in relation to their attention and applicability to the understanding of developmental processes in children of color and of issues at the intersection of social class, culture, ethnicity, and race, and (b) a description and evaluation of the conceptual frameworks that have guided the extant literature on minority children and families. Based on the above considerations, an integrative conceptual model of child development is presented, anchored within social stratification theory, emphasizing the importance of racism, prejudice, discrimination, oppression, and segregation on the development of minority children and families.
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A framework that emphasizes and integrates individuals' intersubjective experiences with Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (PVEST) is introduced and compared with self-organizational perspectives. Similarities, differences and advantages of each framework are described. In a demonstration of PVEST's utility, a subset of data from the 3rd year of a longitudinal study (14- to 16-year-old middle adolescent African-Americans) is used for examining an achievement variable: negative learning attitude. Explored separately by gender, a regression model that contained risk, stress, and a reactive coping variable for the prediction of negative learning attitudes was investigated. For boys, stress was an independent stressor across steps independent of the other variables entered; social support variable, perceived unpopularity with peers, that was a significant predictor of girls' negative learning attitude. Particularly for boys, the findings suggest critically important roles for teachers and peers in the negative learning attitude of midadolescent economically disadvantaged African-American students.
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The authors review the available empirical evidence from population-based studies of the association between perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination and health. This research indicates that discrimination is associated with multiple indicators of poorer physical and, especially, mental health status. However, the extant research does not adequately address whether and how exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of disease. Gaps in the literature include limitations linked to measurement of discrimination, research designs, and inattention to the way in which the association between discrimination and health unfolds over the life course. Research on stress points to important directions for the future assessment of discrimination and the testing of the underlying processes and mechanisms by which discrimination can lead to changes in health.
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This study examines the direct and indirect relationships among racial identity, racial discrimination, perceived stress, and psychological distress in a sample of 555 African American young adults. A prospective study design was used to assess the influence of two dimensions of racial identity attitudes (i.e., centrality and public regard) on other study variables to investigate the relationship between racial identity attitudes and psychological distress. The results show some evidence of a direct relationship between racial centrality and psychological distress, as well as evidence of indirect relationships for both centrality and public regard through the impact of racial discrimination and perceived stress. In addition, racial centrality was both a risk factor for experiencing discrimination and a protective factor in buffering the negative impact of discrimination on psychological distress. Results are discussed within the context of identifying multiple pathways to psychological well-being for African American young adults within the context of racial discrimination.
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This article presents results from a 3-year longitudinal study of the growth patterns and correlates of perceived discrimination by adults and by peers among Black, Latino, and Asian American high school students. Results revealed a linear increase over time in levels of perceived discrimination by adults, whereas perceptions of discrimination by peers remained stable over time. Asian American and non-Puerto Rican Latino adolescents (primarily Dominican) reported higher levels of peer and/or adult discrimination than did Puerto Rican youth, whereas Black adolescents reported a steeper increase over time in levels of perceived discrimination by peers and by adults than did Puerto Rican adolescents. Peer and adult discrimination was significantly associated with decreased self-esteem and increased depressive symptoms over time. Ethnic identity and ethnicity were found to moderate the relationships between perceived discrimination and changes in psychological well-being over time. Results underscore the need to include perceptions of discrimination when studying the development and well-being of ethnic minority adolescents.
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Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6–8, Mage at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed.
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Developmentally salient research on perceived peer discrimination among minority youths is limited. Little is known about trajectories of perceived peer discrimination across the developmental period ranging from middle childhood to adolescence. Ethnically concentrated neighborhoods are hypothesized to protect minority youths from discrimination, but strong empirical tests are lacking. The first aim of the current study was to estimate trajectories of perceived peer discrimination from middle childhood to adolescence, as youths transitioned from elementary to middle and to high school. The second aim was to examine the relationship between neighborhood ethnic concentration and perceived peer discrimination over time. Using a diverse sample of 749 Mexican origin youths (48.9 % female), a series of growth models revealed that youths born in Mexico, relative to those born in the U.S., perceived higher discrimination in the 5th grade and decreases across time. Youths who had higher averages on neighborhood ethnic concentration (across the developmental period) experienced decreases in perceived peer discrimination over time; those that had lower average neighborhood ethnic concentration levels showed evidence of increasing trajectories. Further, when individuals experienced increases in their own neighborhood ethnic concentration levels (relative to their own cross-time averages), they reported lower levels of perceived peer discrimination. Neighborhood ethnic concentration findings were not explained by the concurrent changes youths were experiencing in school ethnic concentrations. The results support a culturally-informed developmental view of perceived peer discrimination that recognizes variability in co-ethnic neighborhood contexts. The results advance a view of ethnic enclaves as protective from mainstream threats.
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This study examined the role of hypermasculinity as a form of reactive coping among urban African American adolescent males (ages 12-17) and assessed the extent to which hypermasculinity is influenced by youth appraisals of how adults in their school and community perceive them. Two research questions were addressed: (a) Do adolescent males who report negative community and school experiences use hypermasculine attitudes as a coping response? (b) Do the effects of perceived negative school and community experiences persist, if they are present at all? Participants in the study were 241 African American adolescent males who attended public schools in a large southeastern city. Associating youth-reported questionnaires on perceived teacher expectations and perceptions of community challenges from one wave of data on hypermasculine attitudes within the same year and 2 years later, the results indicate that hypermasculinity attitudes stem from negative perceptions in the community and school contexts. Also, hypermasculinity attitudes were associated with these negatively perceived experiences across time. When examined longitudinally, negative experiences in the community had a stronger relation to hypermasculinity than similar experiences at school.
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In the current study, we examined the precursors and consequences of discrimination for 876 Latino, African American, and Asian American adolescents (Mage = 16.9 years, SD = 0.43). The race/ethnic characteristics of schools and neighborhoods influenced adolescents' perceptions of the race/ethnic climates of these contexts. In turn, adolescents who viewed climates more negatively were more likely to perceive discriminatory treatment by school personnel, peers, and societal institutions. Discrimination from these 3 sources exerted differential influence on developmental outcomes: Greater discrimination from school personnel was associated with poorer academic performance, greater discrimination from peers was associated with more psychological maladjustment, and greater societal discrimination was associated with heightened racial awareness. Relations were consistent across race/ethnic groups and gender. Implications for intervening to reduce racial discrimination and other social stigmas are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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Drawing from cultural ecological models of adolescent development, the present research investigates how early adolescents received ethnic–racial socialization from parents as well as how experiences of ethnic and racial discrimination are associated with their ethnic identity (i.e., centrality, private regard, and public regard). Data for this study were drawn from a multimethod study of ethnically and socioeconomically diverse early adolescents in three mid- to high-achieving schools in New York City. After accounting for the influences of race/ethnicity, social class, gender, immigrant status, and self-esteem, parental ethnic–racial socialization was associated with higher levels of ethnic centrality (i.e., the extent to which youth identify themselves in terms of their group), more positive private regard (i.e., feelings about one's own ethnic group), and public regard (i.e., perceptions of other people's perceptions of their ethnic group). Ethnic discrimination from adults at school and from peers was associated with more negative perceptions of one's ethnic group (i.e., public regard). In addition, the association of ethnic–racial parent socialization and ethnic identity beliefs was stronger for those who reported higher levels of adult discrimination. Results highlight key ways in which ethnic identity may be shaped by the social ecologies in which adolescents are embedded.
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Little is known about the frequency of ethnic or racial discrimination and its implications for Latin American and Asian youths' development. In this study, we examined if there were ethnic and generation differences among 601 12th graders from Latin American (36%), Asian (43%), and European (19%) backgrounds in the frequency of peer, adult, and daily discrimination, and whether discrimination predicted their well-being. Adolescents from Latin American and Asian backgrounds reported more adult and peer discrimination than their peers from European backgrounds. Latin American youth reported more adult discrimination than their Asian peers. Discrimination predicted lower grade point averages and self-esteem, and more depressive symptoms, distress, and physical complaints. Ethnic identity, ethnic socialization, and race rejection sensitivity did not moderate the associations between discrimination and well-being.
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Recent research suggests that although ethnic discrimination may have negative consequences for psychological well-being among youth of Chinese descent as it does for other ethnic groups, ethnic identity beliefs may buffer against such effects. Data for this study were drawn from the Early Adolescent Cohort Study, an investigation of contextual influences on the social, emotional, and academic adjustment of youth in ethnically diverse New York City middle schools. The present study sample consists of Chinese American (n=84) and African American (n=119) sixth graders. Results suggest that Chinese American youths’ own positive affect toward their ethnic group (private regard) was positively associated with higher self-esteem. In addition, the more favorably Chinese American youth perceived that others view their group (public regard), the fewer depressive symptoms they reported. In addition, among Chinese American youth, more favorable public regard attenuated the negative relationship between peer ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the commonalities among ethnic and racial minority groups’ experiences of discrimination as well as the unique challenges that Chinese American youth face.
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Does anticipated future racial discrimination undermine African-American adolescents' academic motivation and performance? Do face-to-face experiences with racial discrimination at school undermine African-American adolescents' academic functioning? Does African-American ethnic identity buffer these relations? This paper addresses these questions using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of African-American adolescents living near Washington D.C. The data were collected at the beginning of the 7th grade and after the completion of the 8th grade. As expected, the experiences of day-to-day racial discrimination at school from one's teachers and peers predicted declines in grades, academic ability self-concepts, and academic task values. A strong, positive connection to one's ethnic group (our measure of ethnic identity) reduced the magnitude of the association of racial discrimination experiences with declines in both academic self-concepts and school achievement. Most youth responded to anticipated future discrimination with increased academic motivation.
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Ethnic microaggressions are a form of everyday, interpersonal discrimination that are ambiguous and difficult to recognize as discrimination. This study examined the frequency and impact of microaggressions among Latino (n = 247) and Asian American (n = 113) adolescents (M age = 17.18, SD = .75; 57 % girls). Latino adolescents reported more frequent microaggressions that dismiss their realities of discrimination and microaggressions characterized by treatment as a second class citizen than Asian Americans, but similar levels of microaggressions that highlight differences or foreignness. There were no ethnic differences in the extent to which adolescents were bothered by microaggressions. Moreover, even supposedly innocuous forms of discrimination are associated with elevated levels of anxiety, anger, and stress, which may increase feelings of depression and sickness. Microaggressions should be recognized as subtle discrimination that send messages about group status and devaluation, and similar to overt discrimination, can evoke powerful emotional reactions and may affect mental health.
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Parasite communities are arranged into hierarchical levels of organization, covering various spatial and temporal scales. These range from all parasites within an individual host to all parasites exploiting a host species across its geographic range. This arrangement provides an opportunity for the study of patterns and structuring processes operating at different scales. Across the parasite faunas of various host species, several species-area relationships have been published, emphasizing the key role of factors such as host size or host geographical range in determining parasite species richness. When corrections are made for unequal sampling effort or phylogenetic influences, however, the strength of these relationships is greatly reduced, casting a doubt over their validity. Component parasite communities, or the parasites found in a host population, are subsets of the parasite fauna of the host species. They often form saturated communities, such that their richness is not always a reflection of t
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This article examines the extent to which racial differences in socio-economic status (SES), social class and acute and chronic indicators of perceived discrimination, as well as general measures of stress can account for black-white differences in self-reported measures of physical and mental health. The observed racial differences in health were markedly reduced when adjusted for education and especially income. However, both perceived discrimination and more traditional measures of stress are related to health and play an incremental role in accounting for differences between the races in health status. These findings underscore the need for research efforts to identify the complex ways in which economic and non-economic forms of discrimination relate to each other and combine with socio-economic position and other risk factors and resources to affect health.
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Changes in perceptions of discrimination were examined with 668 Latino students (62% Mexican American; 56% female; M(age) = 14.6 years). Adolescents' reports of discrimination increased across the first 2 years of high school. Perceptions of discrimination were higher for boys and for primary language brokers, as well as for adolescents in schools with more ethnically diverse student bodies but a less diverse teaching staff. Path analysis revealed that higher levels of discrimination and increases in discrimination across time influenced Latino adolescents' academic outcomes (i.e., grades, absences) indirectly via their influences on perceptions of school climate. Findings highlight previously understudied individual and school contextual factors that shape experiences of discrimination and the mechanisms by which discrimination indirectly influences Latino adolescents' outcomes.
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Statistics show that black males are disproportionately getting in trouble and being suspended from the nation's school systems. Based on three years of participant observation research at an elementary school, Bad Boys offers a richly textured account of daily interactions between teachers and students to understand this serious problem. Ann Arnett Ferguson demonstrates how a group of eleven- and twelve-year-old males are identified by school personnel as "bound for jail" and how the youth construct a sense of self under such adverse circumstances. The author focuses on the perspective and voices of pre-adolescent African American boys. How does it feel to be labeled "unsalvageable" by your teacher? How does one endure school when the educators predict one's future as "a jail cell with your name on it?" Through interviews and participation with these youth in classrooms, playgrounds, movie theaters, and video arcades, the author explores what "getting into trouble" means for the boys themselves. She argues that rather than simply internalizing these labels, the boys look critically at schooling as they dispute and evaluate the meaning and motivation behind the labels that have been attached to them. Supplementing the perspectives of the boys with interviews with teachers, principals, truant officers, and relatives of the students, the author constructs a disturbing picture of how educators' beliefs in a "natural difference" of black children and the "criminal inclination" of black males shapes decisions that disproportionately single out black males as being "at risk" for failure and punishment. Bad Boys is a powerful challenge to prevailing views on the problem of black males in our schools today. It will be of interest to educators, parents, and youth, and to all professionals and students in the fields of African-American studies, childhood studies, gender studies, juvenile studies, social work, and sociology, as well as anyone who is concerned about the way our schools are shaping the next generation of African American boys. Anne Arnett Ferguson is Assistant Professor of Afro-American Studies and Women's Studies, Smith College.
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Typescript (photocopy). Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Psychology, 1992. Includes vita and abstract. Includes bibliographical references.
Article
Discrimination affects millions of children in the United States and throughout the world. Although the topic is important for both theoretical and applied reasons, little developmental work has examined children's perceptions of discrimination directed toward themselves and others. A review of past theoretical and empirical work on the perception of discrimination is provided. Next, a developmental model of the perception of discrimination is offered. The model identifies developmental and individual differences expected to influence judgments about discrimination, as well as situational variables that are likely to support attributions to discrimination.
Article
Longitudinal links between perceived racial discrimination and later conduct problems and depressive symptoms were examined among 714 African American adolescents who were 10-12 years old at recruitment. Data were gathered 3 times over a 5-year period. Hypotheses were tested via latent curve modeling and multiple-group latent growth modeling. Increases in perceived discrimination were associated with increased conduct problems and depressive symptoms. This association was weaker when youths received nurturant-involved parenting, affiliated with prosocial friends, and performed well academically. For conduct problems, the association was stronger for boys than for girls; for depressive symptoms, no gender differences emerged. The findings thus identify contextual variables that moderate the contribution of perceived discrimination to African American youths' adjustment.
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