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Developing a Growth Mindset through outdoor personal development: can an intervention underpinned by psychology increase the impact of an outdoor learning course for young people?

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Abstract

This study considers the impact of using a series of Mindset interventions during a five-day outdoor personal development (OPD) course. Self-efficacy, resilience and Mindset were measured pre course, post course and one month post course. It was hypothesised that both experimental and control groups would increase their self-efficacy and resilience, and that the Mindset (experimental) group would significantly increase beyond the levels of the control group, who took part in the standard OPD course. It was also predicted that the Mindset group would move towards a Growth Mindset, whereas the control group would not show any change in Mindset. Hypotheses were tested using a randomised, quasi-experimental method. Separate mixed analyses of variance were carried out for each dependent variable, followed by planned comparisons and post-hoc tests using a Bonferroni correction. Results showed that both groups increased self-efficacy over time; however, there was no further significance for the experimental group. Resilience only increased significantly in the experimental group while the control group made no significant gain, and students in the experimental group moved significantly towards a Growth Mindset while the control group did not.

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... Further analysis was undertaken of studies with a higher quality rating (five or above), and 52 quantitative studies met this criterion of research quality. Twenty six studies incorporated a comparison or control group, although some compared two types of NSLOtC [e.g., (47)] or different participant groups [e.g., (48)] rather than using indoor classroom learning as the comparison group. The following statistically significant results were noted amongst these higher quality quantitative studies, listed by outdoor learning context: ...
Article
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Background The value of natural environments for developing children's self-identity and social skills has been known for some time, and more recently the potential of nature-specific (i.e., excluding built environments) outdoor learning for achieving academic outcomes has been explored. Connecting children with natural spaces has been shown to benefit their physical and mental health; however, the utility of nature-specific outdoor environments as a setting for curricular and non-curricular learning has yet to be clearly established. Our aim was to undertake a narrative synthesis of international evidence of nature-specific outdoor learning and its benefits for personal and social development, wellbeing and academic progress. Methods This systematic review searched publications between 2000 and 2020 in nine academic databases for evidence of socio-emotional and academic benefits of nature-specific outdoor learning in school-aged educational settings, using concise search criteria registered with PROSPERO. The total search results of 17,886 records were initially screened by title, and then two reviewers made blind reviews of the title and abstract of 1,019 records. Results 147 original research studies meeting the criteria were identified. Learning settings ranged across outdoor adventure education, school gardens, field trips, and traditional school subjects taught in natural environments. Study characteristics were summarized, and risk-of-bias tools assessed quality of research as generally moderate, although with a wide range. The reported benefits of learning in natural outdoor settings include: increased student engagement and ownership of their learning, some evidence of academic improvement, development of social and collaborative skills, and improved self-concept factors. Conclusions Nature-specific outdoor learning has measurable socio-emotional, academic and wellbeing benefits, and should be incorporated into every child's school experience with reference to their local context. Teacher pre-service and in-service education needs to include a focus on how natural settings can be used effectively for learning. Further research is needed to clarify the conditions under which specific forms of outdoor learning are most efficacious for various target outcomes. It is recommended that future studies measuring outdoor learning adopt established methodologies to improve the quality of research in this field. Systematic Review Registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=153171 .
... In a similar fashion, Vealey, Chase and Cooley (2017) found that the mindsets of young sportspeople about the skills they had developed had a powerful impact on their self-confidence. In other studies, O'Brien & Lomas (2017), in their study investigating the effects of mindset developing activities in an open-air personal development course, found that there is no significant difference between the self-sufficiency scores of the experimental and the control group. However, they found a significant increase in the resistance (struggling 75 strength) in the students in the experimental group, whose growth mindset score increased. ...
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This study aims to examine the effect of the use of activities designed by the Integral ASIE Model to learning about genetics in third grade genetics and biotechnology class of preservice science teachers and to determine the opinions of preservice teachers regarding this model and implementation period. The research was conducted with the participation of 39 preservice teachers studying at third grades of the Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education at a State University in the spring semester of 2016-2017 education year. While the activities organized with the Integral ASEI Model were utilized for the preservice teachers included in the experimental group about learning genetics; the control group was explained about the project in line with the current science curriculum. According to the findings, it was concluded that the education designed according to Integral ASIE model in genetics had an effect on enhancing the academic achievement of science preservice teachers in terms of genetics. The content analysis of data obtained from semi-structured interviews applied to the preservice teachers in the experimental group support this result.
... 33 Another study reveals that outdoor education contributed to promotion of resilience and a growth mindset. 34 Not only young people benefit from outdoor education. For older people a positive relation between their participation in microadventures close to home and individual well-being and maintenance of skills is observed. ...
Technical Report
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... Colleges and universities should strengthen the shaping of students' growth mindset to increase students' learning engagement. First, course training has been widely used in intervention research on growth mindset (Blackwell et al., 2007;O'Brien and Lomas, 2017). During the pandemic, the growth mindset intervention targeted at college students can be carried out through online course training. ...
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... They found that the students in the intervention group (i.e., growth mindset) showed a positive change in motivation and their math grades improved. As noted earlier, these positive findings from the intervention have led researchers to apply this intervention to diverse populations and outcomes such as adolescents with mental health problems (Miu & Yeager, 2015;Schleider & Weisz, 2018), adolescents working on personal development through an outdoor adventure course (O'Brien & Lomas, 2017) and parents trying to improve their children's reading and writing scores (Anderson & Nielson, 2016). However, the majority of these interventions (also known as "lay theory interventions," "social psychological interventions," or "implicit theories of intelligence interventions") have been targeted at students in academic settings focused on promoting academic outcomes such as grades (see Yeager & Walton, 2011 for a review of these studies). ...
Article
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Interventions surrounding mindset have recently been applied as a tool for student success in higher education. The current study tested the efficacy of a growth mindset intervention at a university with a diverse student population. Using gateway math and introductory psychology courses, students were randomly assigned to receive a mindset message or one endorsing study skills. Dependent variables were course grade, term GPA, term credit hours earned, and retention to subsequent terms. Analyses using the full sample, minority sample, Pell-eligible, and first-generation college students did not yield meaningful differences in students’ academic success between the intervention and control groups. Further research should investigate why mindset intervention has proven successful with other populations not represented in the present study.
... Conversely, interventions which foster approaches with a problem-solving focus, similar to that of active coping, have shown to increase the prevalence of behaviors characteristic of a mastery goal orientation (O'Brien & Lomas, 2017;Tjosvold, Yu, & Hui, 2004). ...
Thesis
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Failure can be a feared or even fatal stumbling-block for many individuals and businesses but can also be the hallmark of a successful entrepreneur or enterprise. Whether failure becomes an insurmountable obstacle or a refining challenge depends largely on an individual’s behavior after a failure. This study examined the effects of goal orientation, psychological capital, and intrinsic motivation on the post-failure behavior of 180 adults currently employed in a workplace environment. Main findings included: 1) significant correlations found between age and many adaptive characteristics, confirming that a productive failure response is something that can be learned, developed, or trained over time, 2) data better supported a tripolar model of goal orientation than the 2x2 model used, 3) significant intercorrelations between various failure responses indicated that individuals don’t usually respond to failure with a single behavior but with a cluster of related behaviors, 4) strongest relationships were found with mastery-approach and performance-avoidance goal orientations, which each correlated respectively with adaptive and maladaptive responses to failure, 5) the mediating relationships involving PsyCap and intrinsic motivation within the SEM model were diametrically opposed to what was hypothesized as well as what was suggested in the existing literature. Overall, results showed promise for the potential of a cohesive failure model connecting an interrelated network of preexisting individual characteristics to the way people respond after a failure, but some unexpected findings indicate that further research is necessary to determine the structure and placement of the different variables within the model.
... Recently, psychological and social wellbeing benefits of outdoor adventure tourism have gained increased attention among researchers [32,33]. Filep et al. [34], for example, tackled the issue of wellbeing in this context and pointed to the absence of more substantial research surrounding this topic. ...
Article
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The necessity for humans inhabiting the 21st century to slow down and take time to carry out daily practices frames the discourse of this research note. We suggest reconceptualising tourist wellbeing through the concept of slow adventure, as a response to the cult of speed and as a vehicle for engaging in deep, immersive and more meaningful experiences during journeys in the outdoors. We suggest that slow adventure has the potential to improve people's general health and wellbeing through mindful enjoyment and consumption of the outdoor experience and thus bring people back to a state of mental and physical equilibrium. In so doing, we argue that extending the concept to include discussions around the psychological and social aspects of slow adventure is needed.
... For three of these studies, the methods described were not fully random at the individual level with two studies dividing participants according to gender and subsequently allocating participants by an undescribed random approach (Jelalian et al., 2011(Jelalian et al., , 2010 and one study utilising a clusterrandomised approach (Zachor et al., 2017), yet the allocation methods were considered to produce comparable groups. Four studies did not describe the means by which allocation was randomised and the risk of bias was considered unclear (Jelalian et al., 2006;O'Brien and Lomas, 2017;White, 2012a,b) or high (Connelly, 2012). ...
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In this systematic review, we summarised and evaluated the evidence for benefits of immersive nature-experience on children and adolescents' mental, physical and social health. An electronic search was performed for English language articles published between January 2004 and May 2017. Data were extracted from 84 publications that met the inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed for a subset of the studies, i.e. controlled between- and within-subject studies, using a systematic assessment scheme, and the quality of the evidence was reviewed at an outcome level. Across heterogeneous types of immersive nature-experience, there was conditional support for benefits on self-esteem, self-efficacy, resilience and academic and cognitive performance. Correlational research evidenced higher levels of physical activity in natural environments than comparison conditions. Benefits for outcomes such as self-concept, problem solving, and mood were more inconclusive. In addition, social skill-oriented and behavioural indicators were improved, although the categories comprised different outcomes. Risk of bias, insufficient sampling methods and unsuited comparison groups were common study limitations.
... For three of these studies, the methods described were not fully random at the individual level with two studies dividing participants according to gender and subsequently allocating participants by an undescribed random approach (Jelalian et al., 2011(Jelalian et al., , 2010 and one study utilising a cluster-randomised approach (Zachor et al., 2017), yet the allocation methods were considered to produce comparable groups. Four studies did not describe the means by which allocation was randomised and the risk of bias was considered unclear (Jelalian et al., 2006;O'Brien and Lomas, 2017;White, 2012) or high (Connelly, 2012). * For non-randomised studies, the item indicated whether other attempts than randomisation had been using to produce comparable groups and whether descriptive statistics to support that groups were comparable had been presented. ...
Preprint
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In this systematic review, we summarised and evaluated the evidence for benefits of immersive nature-experience on children and adolescents’ mental, physical and social health. An electronic search was performed for English language articles published between January 2004 and May 2017. Data were extracted from 84 publications that met the inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed for a subset of the studies, i.e. controlled between- and within-subjects studies, using a systematic assessment scheme, and the quality of the evidence was reviewed at an outcome level. Across heterogeneous types of immersive nature-experience, there was conditional support for benefits on self-esteem, self-efficacy, resilience and academic and cognitive performance. Correlational research evidenced higher levels of physical activity in natural environments than comparison conditions. Benefits for outcomes such as self-concept, problem solving, and mood were more inconclusive. In addition, social skill-oriented and behavioural indicators were improved, although the categories comprised different outcomes. Risk of bias, insufficient sampling methods and unsuited comparison groups were common study limitations.
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Adventure education philosophers have argued that controlled exposure to challenge can enhance participants' psychological resilience. This study supports this claim, demonstrating significantly greater gains in psychological resilience for 41 young adults participating in 22-day Outward Bound programs than in a control group. All Outward Bound participants reported positive changes in their resilience and their overall change effect size was large. Perceived levels of social support predicted 24% of the variance in resilience gain scores, with participants' ratings of the least supportive group member being the best predictor. The findings for enhanced resilience and the important role of social support warrant wider investigation. In promoting psychological resilience adventure educators are alerted to the importance of facilitating positive interpersonal relations and minimising the detrimental impact of the diverse needs of group members.
Article
Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
Book
This accessible and authoritative introduction is essential for education students and researchers needing to use quantitative methods for the first time. Using datasets from real-life educational research and avoiding the use of mathematical formulae, the author guides students through the essential techniques that they will need to know, explaining each procedure using the latest version of SPSS. The datasets can also be downloaded from the book's website, enabling students to practice the techniques for themselves. This revised and updated second edition now also includes more advanced methods such as log linear analysis, logistic regression, and canonical correlation. Written specifically for those with no prior experience of quantitative research, this book is ideal for education students and researchers in this field
Article
This research sought to integrate C. S. Dweck and E. L. Leggett's (1988) model with attribution theory. Three studies tested the hypothesis that theories of intelligence-the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) versus fixed (entity theory)-would predict (and create) effort versus ability attributions, which would then mediate mastery-oriented coping. Study 1 revealed that, when given negative feedback, incremental theorists were more likely than entity theorists to attribute to effort. Studies 2 and 3 showed that incremental theorists were more likely than entity theorists to take remedial action if performance was unsatisfactory. Study 3, in which an entity or incremental theory was induced, showed that incremental theorists' remedial action was mediated by their effort attributions. These results suggest that implicit theories create the meaning framework in which attributions occur and are important for understanding motivation.
Article
Three studies examined implicit self-theories in relation to shy people's goals, responses, and consequences within social situations. Shy incremental theorists were more likely than shy entity theorists to view social situations as a learning opportunity and to approach social settings (Study 1). Shy incremental theorists were less likely to use strategies aimed at avoiding social interaction (Studies 2 and 3) and suffered fewer negative consequences of their shyness (Study 3). These findings generalized across both hypothetical and actual social situations as well as both self-reports and observer reports and could not be attributed to individual differences in level of shyness. Together, these studies indicate that implicit self-theories of shyness are important for understanding individual differences among shy people and suggest new avenues for implicit self-theories research.
Article
Helpless children show marked performance decrements under failure, whereas mastery-oriented children often show enhanced performance. Current theories emphasize differences in the nature of the attributions following failure as determinants of response to failure. Two studies with 130 5th-grade children explored helpless vs mastery-oriented differences in the nature, timing, and relative frequency of a variety of achievement-related cognitions by continuously monitoring verbalizations following failure. Results reveal that helpless children made the expected attributions for failure to lack of ability; mastery-oriented children made surprisingly few attributions but instead engaged in self-monitoring and self-instructions. That is, helpless children focused on the cause of failure, whereas the mastery-oriented children focused on remedies for failure. These differences were accompanied by striking differences in strategy change under failure. The results suggest that in addition to the nature of the attribution one makes, the timing or even occurrence of attributions may be a critical individual difference. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
This study tested a framework in which goals are proposed to be central determinants of achievement patterns. Learning goals, in which individuals seek to increase their competence, were predicted to promote challenge-seeking and a mastery-oriented response to failure regardless of perceived ability. Performance goals, in which individuals seek to gain favorable judgments of their competence or avoid negative judgments, were predicted to produce challenge-avoidance and learned helplessness when perceived ability was low and to promote certain forms of risk-avoidance even when perceived ability was high. Manipulations of relative goal value (learning vs. performance) and perceived ability (high vs. low) resulted in the predicted differences on measures of task choice, performance during difficulty, and spontaneous verbalizations during difficulty. Particularly striking was the way in which the performance goal-low perceived ability condition produced the same pattern of strategy deterioration, failure attribution, and negative affect found in naturally occurring learned helplessness. Implications for theories of motivation and achievement are discussed.
Article
Outdoor adventure education (OAE) is widely recognised for its ability to elicit personal and social development for its participants. However, quantitative evidence on which this recognition is based is frequently questioned, and is virtually absent in Scotland. To provide some of the first statistically determined evidence from Scotland that OAE benefits personal and social development, and through this understand concerns over the robustness of quantitative evidence, a survey of children 10-12 years old attending a residential week of OAE was undertaken. A small positive benefit was measured after the intervention, but this was lost 10 weeks later. The loss is attributed to euphoria at the time and limited integration of experiences into subsequent classwork. Teachers said they were reluctant to integrate outcomes when some pupils could not participate, commonly those from poorer families. Pupils who perceived themselves as having relatively poor personal and social skills appeared to gain most benefit and then lose the least. Since these pupils may well come from poorer families, funding to allow them to participate would permit integration of outcomes into classwork and benefit all pupils. The methodology highlights the need for carefully selected samples, use of an appropriate questionnaire and control of numerous variables.
Book
Preface Part I. Foundations of Research 1. Science, Schooling, and Educational Research Learning About the Educational World The Educational Research Approach Educational Research Philosophies Conclusions 2. The Process and Problems of Educational Research Educational Research Questions Educational Research Basics The Role of Educational Theory Educational Research Goals Educational Research Proposals, Part I Conclusions 3. Ethics in Research Historical Background Ethical Principles Conclusions 4. Conceptualization and Measurement Concepts Measurement Operations Levels of Measurement Evaluating Measures Conclusions 5. Sampling Sample Planning Sampling Methods Sampling Distributions Conclusions Part II. Research Design and Data Collection 6. Causation and Research Design Causal Explanation Criteria for Causal Explanations Types of Research Designs True Experimental Designs Quasi-Experimental Designs Threats to Validity in Experimental Designs Nonexperiments Conclusions 7. Evaluation Research What Is Evaluation Research? What Can an Evaluation Study Focus On? How Can the Program Be Described? Creating a Program Logic Model What Are the Alternatives in Evaluation Design? Ethical Issues in Evaluation Research Conclusions 8. Survey Research Why Is Survey Research So Popular? Errors in Survey Research Questionnaire Design Writing Questions Survey Design Alternatives Combining Methods Survey Research Design in a Diverse Society Ethical Issues in Survey Research Conclusions 9. Qualitative Methods: Observing, Participating, Listening Fundamentals of Qualitative Research Participant Observation Intensive Interviewing Focus Groups Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research Conclusions 10. Single-Subject Design Foundations of Single-Subject Design Measuring Targets of Intervention Types of Single-Subject Designs Analyzing Single-Subject Designs Ethical Issues in Single-Subject Design Conclusions 11. Mixing and Comparing Methods and Studies Mixed Methods Comparing Reserch Designs Performing Meta-Analyses Conclusions 12. Teacher Research and Action Research Teacher Research: Three Case Studies Teacher Research: A Self-Planning Outline for Creating Your Own Project Action Research and How It Differs From Teacher Research Validity and Ethical Issues in Teacher Research and Action Research Conclusions Part III. Analyzing and Reporting Data 13. Quantitative Data Analysis Why We Need Statistics Preparing Data for Analysis Displaying Univariate Distributions Summarizing Univariate Distributions Relationships (Associations) Among Variables Presenting Data Ethically: How Not to Lie With Statistics Conclusions 14. Qualitative Data Analysis Features of Qualitative Data Analysis Techniques of Qualitative Data Analysis Alternatives in Qualitative Data Analysis Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Ethics in Qualitative Data Analysis Conclusions 15. Proposing and Reporting Research Educational Research Proposals, Part II Reporting Research Ethics, Politics, and Research Reports Conclusions Appendix A: Questions to Ask About a Research Article Appendix B: How to Read a Research Article Appendix C: Finding Information, by Elizabeth Schneider and Russell K. Schutt Appendix D: Table of Random Numbers Glossary References Author Index Subject Index About the Authors
Article
Some of the present approaches for studying adventure education are based on grounded theory, folk pedagogies, and existing social science theory. These approaches share some problems, including: (a) an overemphasis on outcomes without specifying processes, (b) a misunderstanding of how different types of evaluation contribute to theory, and (c) under-theorized evaluation and program models. As an alternative, program theory evaluation, which focuses on a “theory-program-outcome” model, in which all three components are specified simultaneously, can help avoid these mistakes while contributing a more sophisticated understanding of how programs have effects.
Article
African American college students tend to obtain lower grades than their White counterparts, even when they enter college with equivalent test scores. Past research suggests that negative stereotypes impugning Black students' intellectual abilities play a role in this underperformance. Awareness of these stereotypes can psychologically threaten African Americans, a phenomenon known as “stereotype threat” (Steele & Aronson, 1995), which can in turn provoke responses that impair both academic performance and psychological engagement with academics. An experiment was performed to test a method of helping students resist these responses to stereotype threat. Specifically, students in the experimental condition of the experiment were encouraged to see intelligence—the object of the stereotype—as a malleable rather than fixed capacity. This mind-set was predicted to make students' performances less vulnerable to stereotype threat and help them maintain their psychological engagement with academics, both of which could help boost their college grades. Results were consistent with predictions. The African American students (and, to some degree, the White students) encouraged to view intelligence as malleable reported greater enjoyment of the academic process, greater academic engagement, and obtained higher grade point averages than their counterparts in two control groups.
Article
Previous research has shown that cognitive processing and achievement strategies are important for motor learning and achievement. Despite this, there are few studies identifying the role of motivational beliefs in the cognitive self-regulation of students' learning in physical education classes. This study reports the results of multivariate analyses of the relationships between thirteen to fourteen-year-old secondary school pupils' (n=343) implicit theories of ability and their self-regulated learning in PE. Self-regulation measures included metacognitive/elaboration strategies, effort regulation and adaptive help seeking. Results revealed consistent relationships between motivational beliefs and pupils' use of self-regulation strategies. The results underscore the educational value of reappraising pupils' implicit theories of ability, making them believe in the modifiability of ability through effort and hard work and learning. The results illustrate the importance of linking pupils' motivational and cognitive characteristics to provide a fuller understanding of their self-regulation of learning in physical education.
Article
In this target article, we present evidence for a new model of individual differences in judgments and reactions. The model holds that people's implicit theories about human attributes structure the way they understand and react to human actions and outcomes. We review research showing that when people believe that attributes (such as intelligence or moral character) are fixed, trait-like entities (an entity theory), they tend to understand outcomes and actions in terms of these fixed traits (''I failed the test because I am dumb'' or ''He stole the bread because he is dishonest''). In contrast, when people believe that attributes are more dynamic, malleable, and developable (an incremental theory), they tend refocus less on broad traits and, instead, tend to understand outcomes and actions in terms of more specific behavioral or psychological mediators (''I failed the test because of my effort or strategy'' or ''He stole the bread because he was desperate''). The two frameworks also appear to foster different reactions: helpless versus mastery-oriented responses to personal setbacks and an emphasis on retribution versus education or rehabilitation for transgressions. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for personality, motivation, and social perception.
Article
This study investigated whether type of implicit theory about athletic coordination would influence motivation to persist at a novel exercise task in the face of difficulty. Fifty college students were told that we were testing a new type of exercise and were given one of two theories about the nature of athletic coordination. Some participants were told that athletic coordination was mostly learned (incremental condition), while others were told that athletic coordination was genetically determined (entity condition). Participants initially experienced success and then difficulty while following videos containing the new exercise. Consistent with predictions, results showed that participants given an incremental theory of athletic coordination reported greater motivation and self-efficacy and less negative affect in the face of difficulty than those given an entity theory. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
The purpose of this meta-analysis is to examine the effects of adventure programs on a diverse array of outcomes such as self concept, locus of control, and leadership. The meta-analysis was based on 1,728 effect sizes drawn from 151 unique samples from 96 studies, and the average effect size at the end of the programs was .34. In a remarkable contrast to most educational research, these short-term or immediate gains were followed by substantial additional gains between the end of the program and follow-up assessments ( ES = .17). The effect sizes varied substantially according the particular program and outcome and improved as the length of the program and the ages of participants increased. Too little is known, however, about why adventure programs work most effectively. Download: http://www.wilderdom.com/pdf/HattieAdvEdMA1997.pdf
Article
ABSTRACT—Psychology calls itself the science of behavior, and,the American,Psychological,Association’s current ‘‘Decade of Behavior’’ was intended to increase awareness and appreciation,of this aspect of the science. Yet some psychological,subdisciplines have,never directly studied behavior, and studies onbehavior are dwindlingrapidlyin other subdisciplines. We discuss the eclipse of behavior,in personality and social psychology, in which direct obser- vation of behavior,has been increasingly supplanted,by introspective self-reports, hypothetical scenarios, and questionnaire,ratings. We advocate,a renewed,commit- ment to including direct observation of behavior whenever possible and,in at least a healthy minority,of research projects. Fordecadesnow,psychologystudentshavebeentaughtfromthe
Article
Psychology calls itself the science of behavior, and the American Psychological Association's current "Decade of Behavior" was intended to increase awareness and appreciation of this aspect of the science. Yet some psychological subdisciplines have never directly studied behavior, and studies on behavior are dwindling rapidly in other subdisciplines. We discuss the eclipse of behavior in personality and social psychology, in which direct observation of behavior has been increasingly supplanted by introspective self-reports, hypothetical scenarios, and questionnaire ratings. We advocate a renewed commitment to including direct observation of behavior whenever possible and in at least a healthy minority of research projects. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.
Article
To date, little empirical research has been conducted to support the claim that outdoor adventure education (OAE) develops desirable psychological characteristics in participants. This study examined the effects of an OAE foundation degree curriculum on positive psychological development. Fifty-two students (26 OAE students, 26 controls on an unrelated course), aged 16-39 years, completed a battery of positive psychological questionnaires (at the start of their respective courses and 3 months later) measuring hardiness, mental toughness, self-esteem, self-efficacy, dispositional optimism, and positive affectivity. OAE curriculum activities included rock-climbing, navigation training, countryside leadership, gill-scrambling, and open canoeing. Control students were enrolled on a classroom-based travel and tourism college course. Inferential multivariate statistics revealed non-significant (p greater than 0.05, partial h2 = 0.38) improvements by the OAE group across several psychological constructs. Significant effects (p less than 0.05, partial h2 = 0.15) for the cohort were revealed for total hardiness. No significant gender differences were reported. The non-significant overall effect is interpreted in terms of sample size, OAE activities, and measured personality styles. The implications of these results are discussed relative to previous findings and in terms of psychological theory.
Article
Attempted to demonstrate the effects of low expectancy of reinforcement and low expectancy for control of reinforcement on performance in an achievement situation. 20 male and 20 female 5th graders were given pretest successes (soluble WISC-type block designs) by 1 adult (success E), and failures (insoluble block designs) by another (failure E), with trials from each being randomly interspersed. In the test phase, all problems were soluble. A number of Ss failed to complete problems administered by the failure E when her problems became soluble, even though they had shortly before solved almost identical problems from the success E and continued to perform well on the success E's problems. The Ss who showed the largest performance decrements were those who took less personal responsibility for the outcomes of their actions (as measured by preexperimental Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Scale scores) and who, when they did accept responsibility, attributed success and failure to presence or absence of ability rather than to expenditure of effort. Those Ss who persisted in the face of prolonged failure placed more emphasis on the role of effort in determining the outcome of their behavior; moreover, males displayed this characteristic to a greater extent than females. Implications of the results for strategies of behavior change are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Past work has documented and described major patterns of adaptive and maladaptive behavior: the mastery-oriented and the helpless patterns. In this article, we present a research-based model that accounts for these patterns in terms of underlying psychological processes. The model specifies how individuals' implicit theories orient them toward particular goals and how these goals set up the different patterns. Indeed, we show how each feature (cognitive, affective, and behavioral) of the adaptive and maladaptive patterns can be seen to follow directly from different goals. We then examine the generality of the model and use it to illuminate phenomena in a wide variety of domains. Finally, we place the model in its broadest context and examine its implications for our understanding of motivational and personality processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes how motivational processes influence a child's acquisition, transfer, and use of knowledge and skills. Recent research within the social-cognitive framework illustrates adaptive and maladaptive motivational patterns, and a research-based model of motivational processes is presented that shows how the particular performance or learning goals children pursue on cognitive tasks shape their reactions to success and failure and influence the quality of their cognitive performance. Implications for practice and the design of interventions to change maladaptive motivational processes are outlined. It is suggested that motivational patterns may contribute to gender differences in mathematics achievement and that empirically based interventions may prevent current achievement discrepancies and provide a basis for more effective socialization. (79 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
361 Ss (aged 16–31 yrs) from a previous study by the authors (see record 1986-17987-001) were asked to complete a self-description questionnaire (SDQ III) again, 18 mo after completion of a residential program called Outward Bound that consisted of physically and mentally demanding outdoor activities. There was little systematic change in the multidimensional self-concepts during the long-term follow-up interval. Findings further support the Outward Bound program as an effective intervention for enhancing self-concept and the construct validity of responses to the SDQ III. Findings demonstrate that self-concept can be changed through effective intervention and that these effects can be maintained. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Helpless children show marked performance decrements under failure, whereas mastery-oriented children often show enhanced performance. Current theories emphasize differences in the nature of the attributions following failure as determinants of response to failure. Two studies with 130 5th-grade children explored helpless vs mastery-oriented differences in the nature, timing, and relative frequency of a variety of achievement-related cognitions by continuously monitoring verbalizations following failure. Results reveal that helpless children made the expected attributions for failure to lack of ability; mastery-oriented children made surprisingly few attributions but instead engaged in self-monitoring and self-instructions. That is, helpless children focused on the cause of failure, whereas the mastery-oriented children focused on remedies for failure. These differences were accompanied by striking differences in strategy change under failure. The results suggest that in addition to the nature of the attribution one makes, the timing or even occurrence of attributions may be a critical individual difference. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Using recent research, I argue that beliefs lie at the heart of personality and adaptive functioning and that they give us unique insight into how personality and functioning can be changed. I focus on two classes of beliefs - beliefs about the malleability of self-attributes and expectations of social acceptance versus rejection - and show how modest interventions have brought about important real-world changes. I conclude by suggesting that beliefs are central to the way in which people package their experiences and carry them forward, and that beliefs should play a more central role in the study of personality.
Article
The concept of mechanisms that protect people against the psychological risks associated with adversity is discussed in relation to four main processes: 1) reduction of risk impact, 2) reduction of negative chain reactions, 3) establishment and maintenance of self-esteem and self-efficacy, and 4) opening up of opportunities. The mechanisms operating at key turning points in people's lives must be given special attention.
Article
Standardized tests continue to generate gender and race gaps in achievement despite decades of national attention. Research on “stereotype threat” (Steele & Aronson, 1995) suggests that these gaps may be partly due to stereotypes that impugn the math abilities of females and the intellectual abilities of Black, Hispanic, and low-income students. A field experiment was performed to test methods of helping female, minority, and low-income adolescents overcome the anxiety-inducing effects of stereotype threat and, consequently, improve their standardized test scores. Specifically, seventh-grade students in the experimental conditions were mentored by college students who encouraged them either to view intelligence as malleable or to attribute academic difficulties in the seventh grade to the novelty of the educational setting. Results showed that females in both experimental conditions earned significantly higher math standardized test scores than females in the control condition. Similarly, the students—who were largely minority and low-income adolescents—in the experimental conditions earned significantly higher reading standardized test scores than students in the control condition.