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Handbook of Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise



Qualitative research is a craft skill that to master takes time, practice and intellectual engagement (Demuth, 2015). It is, as Denzin and Lincoln (2011) point out, a field of inquiry in its own right that cross-cuts disciplines, fields and subject matter. They note that a complex, interconnected family of concepts and assumptions surround the term, and that qualitative research, as a set of interpretive activities, privileges no single methodological practice over another. In her review of twenty-five years of rapid development in qualitative research, Lincoln describes the following situation. We are interpretivists, postmodernists, poststructuralists; we are phenomeno-logical, feminist, critical. We choose lenses that are border, racial, ethnic, hybrid, queer, differently abled, Indigenous, margin, center, Other. Fortunately, qualitative research – with or without the signifiers – has been porous, permeable, and highly assimilative. .. Its adherents, and theorists have come from multiple disciplines. .. Consequently, we have acquired richness and elaboration that has both added to our confusion and at the same time, been broad and pliant enough to encompass a variety of claimants. (Lincoln, 2010, p. 8). Given the open-ended nature of the qualitative research project and its multiplicity, it becomes almost impossible to provide, or impose, a single all-encompassing definition of the field. It means different things to different people at different historical periods of moments. That said, Denzin and Lincoln offer an initial generic definition. Qualitative research is a situated activity which locates the observer in the world. Qualitative research consists of a set of interpretive, material practices that make the world visible. These practices transform the world. They turn the world into a series of representations, including fieldnotes, interviews, conversations, photographs, recordings and memos to the self. At this level, qualitative research involves and interpretive, naturalistic approach to the world. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.
An invitation to qualitative research
Brett Smith and Andrew C. Sparkes
Qualitative research is a craft skill that to master takes time, practice and intellectual engagement
(Demuth, 2015). It is, as Denzin and Lincoln (2011) point out, a eld of inquiry in its own
right that cross-cuts disciplines, elds and subject matter. They note that a complex, intercon-
nected family of concepts and assumptions surround the term, and that qualitative research, as
a set of interpretive activities, privileges no single methodological practice over another. In her
review of twenty-ve years of rapid development in qualitative research, Lincoln describes the
following situation.
We are interpretivists, postmodernists, poststructuralists; we are phenomeno-
logical, feminist, critical. We choose lenses that are border, racial, ethnic, hybrid,
queer, differently abled, Indigenous, margin, center, Other. Fortunately, qualita-
tive research – with or without the signifiers – has been porous, permeable, and
highly assimilative . . . Its adherents, and theorists have come from multiple
disciplines . . . Consequently, we have acquired richness and elaboration that has
both added to our confusion and at the same time, been broad and pliant enough to
encompass a variety of claimants.
(Lincoln, 2010, p. 8).
Given the open-ended nature of the qualitative research project and its multiplicity, it becomes
almost impossible to provide, or impose, a single all-encompassing definition of the field. It
means different things to different people at different historical periods of moments. That said,
Denzin and Lincoln offer an initial generic definition.
Qualitative research is a situated activity which locates the observer in the world.
Qualitative research consists of a set of interpretive, material practices that make the
world visible. These practices transform the world. They turn the world into a series of
representations, including fieldnotes, interviews, conversations, photographs, record-
ings and memos to the self. At this level, qualitative research involves and interpretive,
naturalistic approach to the world. This means that qualitative researchers study things
in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms
of the meanings people bring to them.
(Denzin and Lincoln, 2011, p. 3)
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Brett Smith & Andrew C. Sparkes
To interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them, qualitative researchers
draw on a variety of empirical materials that include case study, personal experience, life-story
and life-history interviews, participant observation, artifacts, cultural texts and productions,
along with observational, historical, interactional and visual texts. Accordingly, as Denzin and
Lincoln point out, qualitative researchers deploy a wide range of interconnected interpretive
practices, “hoping always to get a better understanding of the subject at hand. It is understood,
however, that each practice makes the world visible in a different way” (2011, p. 5).
Qualitative research is a movable and constantly expanding scholarly community of practice
and intellectual engagement. For example, in comparing the fourth edition of the Handbook
of Qualitative Research published in 2011 to the third edition published in 2005, Denzin and
Lincoln (2011) state that the latest edition is virtually a new volume with nearly two-thirds
of the authors from the third edition being replaced by new contributors. They point out
that there are 53 new chapters, authors and/co-authors, with 18 totally new chapter topics.
These include contributions on critical social science, Asian epistemologies, disability com-
munities, criteria for assessing interpretive validity, models of representation, varieties of valid-
ity, qualitative research and technology, queer theory, performance ethnography, narrative
inquiry, arts-based inquiry, the politics and ethics of on-line ethnography, teaching qualitative
research, and controversies in mixed-methods research.
In terms of expansion, it is interesting to note that in the 1994 edition of the Handbook of
Qualitative Research a key chapter by Guba and Lincoln analyzed four paradigms that they consid-
ered to be competing for acceptance as the one of choice for informing and guiding qualitative
inquiry. These paradigms were those of positivism, postpositivism, critical theory and related
ideological positions, and constructionism. Moving on to the 2011 edition of the Handbook, the
chapter by Lincoln, Lynham and Guba that deals with paradigms and perspectives in contention,
includes the four paradigms named previously but adds the participatory paradigm. Likewise, in
their introductory chapter to the first edition of the Handbook, Denzin and Lincoln (1994) name
the following paradigms: positivist/postpositivist, constructionism, feminist, ethnic, Marxist,
and cultural studies (see also Chapter 10). All but positivist paradigms can be seen to fall under
the umbrella of interpretivism. In the fourth edition Denzin and Lincoln’s introductory chapter
adds queer theory to this list of interpretive paradigms. Therefore, the number of paradigms that
inform qualitative research is not fixed but is flexible and changes over time. Interpretivism has
therefore grown into a variety of different paradigms.
Even though the terrain of qualitative research is constantly shifting and characterized
by multiplicity, this does not mean that a state of confusion prevails. Certainly, differences
exist between the paradigms mentioned above as basic belief systems and worldviews that
define for their holder the nature of the world, the individual’s place in it, and the range of
possible relationships to that world and its parts. However, a sense of purchase can be gained
by examining the ways in which proponents of any given paradigm respond to the three
fundamental questions posed by Guba and Lincoln (1994), which are interconnected in such
a way that the answer given to any one question, taken in order, constrains how the others
may be answered.
The three fundamental questions posed by Guba and Lincoln (1994) are as follows (see also
Chapters 10, 18, 21, 25, and 29). First, the ontological question: What is the form and nature of
reality, and, therefore, what is there that can be known about it? Second, is the epistemological
question: What is the nature of the relationship between the knower and would-be knower
and what can be known? How this question is answered is constrained by the answer given to
the ontological question; that is, not just any relationship can now be postulated. Third, there
is the methodological question: How can the inquirer (would-be knower) go about finding out
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whatever they believe can be known? Once again, the answer given to this question is con-
strained by the answers given to the two previous questions; that is, not just any methodology
is appropriate.
At a fundamental level, as the work of Demuth (2015), Guba and Lincoln (2004), Krane
and Baird (2005), Lincoln, Lynham and Guba (2011), Sparkes (2015), and Sparkes and Smith
(2014) illustrate, researchers of different paradigmatic persuasions respond to these questions in
different ways (see also Chapters 10, 25, and 29). Thus, in response to the ontology question
adherents of positivism call upon naive realism, whereas those that subscribe to postpositiv-
ism connect with critical realism. Rather than adhering to a form of realism, many qualita-
tive researchers subscribe to a form of interpretivism, and therefore respond in a different
way from positivists to the ontological question. For example, in response to the ontological
question about the nature of reality, critical theory and other openly ideological approaches
call on historical realism, constructionism on relativism, and participatory research on par-
ticipative realities. In relation to the epistemological question, positivism adopts a dualist/
objectivist position, and postpositivism a modified dualist/objectivist position. In terms of
interpretive paradigms, critical theory adopts a transactional/subjectivist position with value
mediated findings, constructionists a transactional/subjectivist position but with cocreated
findings, while participatory research holds to a critical subjectivity with practical forms of
knowing and cocreated findings. The responses to these two questions shape the responses to
the methodological question, which for positivism is experimental/manipulative, for postposi-
tivism is modified experimental/manipulative, for critical theory is dialogical/dialectical, for
constructionism is hermeneutic/dialectical, and for participatory it is political participation in
terms of collaborative or community action inquiry.
How these three questions are answered, as Lincoln, Lynham and Guba (2011) illustrate,
has further implications for how each paradigm positions itself on selected practical issues, such
as the aims and purpose of inquiry, researcher posture, the role of values in the inquiry, the
criteria used to judge the quality of the inquiry, and the nature of “voice” within the inquiry.
For example, with regard to inquirer posture, for positivists it is that of the disinterested scientist
who should remain distant and detached. In contrast, the constructionist researcher is seen as a
coconstructor of knowledge, of understanding and interpretation of the meaning of lived expe-
riences. Different again, is the posture adopted by the critical researcher, which involves being
an activist and transformative intellectual.
As Lincoln, Lynham and Guba (2011), and Sparkes and Smith (2014) argue, the differences
that exist between paradigms lead researchers working within them to generate different ques-
tions, develop different research designs, use different techniques to collect various kinds of
data, perform different types of analyses, represent their findings in different ways, and judge
the “quality” of their studies using different criteria. For some, these differences are problem-
atic. For us, however, such differences are to be celebrated and valued because they allow us
to know and understand the social world, including that of sport and exercise, in diverse and
enriched ways.
The proliferation of paradigms, perspectives, traditions, theories, methodologies and meth-
ods signaled above, has been mirrored in the rapid growth of, and importance attached to,
qualitative research in the domain of sport and exercise. For example, in their review of
qualitative research published in three sports psychology journals during 2000–2009, Culver,
Gilbert and Sparkes (2012) point to a 68% increase in the percentage of qualitative studies
published since the period 1990–1999 (from 17.3% to 29%). They also found that there was a
significant increase in the number of authors publishing qualitative research in these journals.
Accordingly, not only is more qualitative research being published in sport psychology journals
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Brett Smith & Andrew C. Sparkes
but also, very importantly, more scholars are engaging with and producing qualitative work of
different kinds. While similar numerical comparisons are not available in relation to sociologi-
cal journals, such as the Sociology of Sport Journal, the International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
Sport, Education and Society, and Journal of Sport and Social Issues, it is self-evident from what
is published within them that such journals are favorably inclined towards and supportive of
qualitative research of various forms.
A significant marker in the development and legitimation of qualitative research in sport and
exercise was the launch, in 2009, of a new journal by Routledge, entitled Qualitative Research
in Sport, Exercise and Health (twitter @QualiSEH). This journal is dedicated to supporting work
produced in different paradigms and encourages innovative methodologies within a multidisci-
plinary framework. The success of this journal is evidenced by the diverse range of articles that
have appeared in it to date, and the international nature of the authors who submit their work
there for consideration. For example, yearly this journal receives over 200 manuscripts from
over 100 different authors around the globe. In 2012 the journal was also awarded “Gold” by
peers for the best special issue published by all Routledge journals (over 50) that year on the
Olympics and Paralympics. There is also an ever-growing number of conferences and work-
shops attempting to address the demand for qualitative research from students, researchers,
practitioners, and policymakers. For instance, the International Qualitative Conference in Sport
and Exercise now occurs every two years, attracting established scholars and newcomers from
around the world.
Finally, the rapid growth of interest in qualitative research in sport and exercise is evi-
dent in the increasing number of books devoted specifically to this topic. Most recently, these
include the following: Qualitative Research in Physical Activity and the Health Professions (Pitney &
Parker, 2009), Research Methods for Sport Studies (2nd edition) (Gratton & Jones, 2010), Qualitative
Research for Physical Culture (Markula & Silk, 2011), Qualitative Research in Sport and Physical
Activity (Jones, Brown, & Holloway, 2012), Qualitative Research on Sport and Physical Culture
(Young & Atkinson, 2012), and Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health: From Process to
Product (Sparkes & Smith, 2014). These books are excellent resources for seasoned qualitative
researchers, as well as for newcomers to the field. This said, as we know from our own experi-
ence of producing one of the books named above, we had to cover a lot of ground within the
word limits imposed on us by the publishers. Consequently, we necessarily touched on many
issues but were unable to deal with any of those in an appropriate depth. There was also far too
much we had to omit about qualitative research. As such, we did the best job we could, but
feel and know we could have done better. We are sure the authors of the other books named
earlier will validate our experiences.
The Routledge International Handbook of Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise, the first of
its kind, allows the shortcomings of any one book as we have described above, to be rectified.
Of course, no handbook can cover everything, certainly not to all readers’ satisfaction. Whereas
a handbook can cover much more than a book, handbooks will also always contain gaps,
absences, different concerns, and differently organized content. That accepted, this Handbook
extends what has been written in qualitative books on sport and exercise by offering a highly
varied, deep, and detailed menu of qualitative research. Written by leading scholars and some
of the best emerging talents, the chapters in the Handbook operate collectively to provide a
wide-ranging, original, timely, and cutting-edge resource for students, established scholars, and
scholars who wish to learn about qualitative research. For example, chapters map in some detail
commonly used and more novel ways of collecting, analyzing, and representing data in the
sport and exercise sciences. Many chapters also push boundaries by offering an expanded vision
of what the future might hold, in terms of both the process and products of inquiry. As such,
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the contributors to the Handbook consolidate what we know, but also ask critical questions and
pose challenging dilemmas to disturb taken-for-granted ways of thinking, and guard against any
misplaced sense of methodological complacency that might occur.
The Handbook contains 38 chapters, with the majority of 49 contributors coming from
the disciplines of the Sociology of Sport, Sport and Exercise Psychology, or Sport Coaching.
However, most of these authors here cross discipline boundaries by drawing on work from both
inside and outside their disciplinary home to support points, serve as examples, stimulate debate,
and so on. Several leading figures from “mainstream” qualitative research also contribute chap-
ters. They not only extend their previous work, but also connect with different disciplines in
the sport and exercise sciences. Crossing boundaries is no easy task (Smith & McGannon, 2015;
Sparkes & Smith, 2016). We are therefore grateful to all contributors for doing the hard work
of moving outside their discipline and engaging with different vocabularies, ways of thinking,
and histories. The combination of all these scholars, and the different disciplines within the sport
and exercise sciences that are engaged with here, help make the Handbook further accessible and
relevant for the widest possible audience.
The chapters in the Handbook are organized into six parts. We appreciate that certain chapters
may seem more protypical of that part than others. Some chapters may fit equally comfortably
in two or three parts simultaneously. Therefore, we suggest that readers use the categorization
of parts as a guide. The guide might be useful for readers who wish to devour the Handbook in
its entirety, or to nibble selectively at its chapters, depending on their specific tastes and needs
at any given time. Each chapter also suggests related chapters in the handbook to help navigate
the content.
Part I presents a range of qualitative traditions, in an effort to represent some of the diversity
that helps make up and define the field of qualitative research. No tradition is positioned in the
Handbook as better or worse than another. Each tradition differently structures and influences,
sometimes very subtlety, how we can think about qualitative research, go about doing it, and
judging the work that follows. Part II presents a varied and detailed selection of methods to col-
lect qualitative data. These include interviewing, observation, visual methods, media research,
material objects, and documents of life, such as diaries and autobiographies. Many of these
chapters describe what each data collection is, present rationales for why each might be used, and
offer some practical tips for how to go about collecting said data. Conceptual discussions and
critical insights are also provided.
Part III focuses on methods of analysis. Out of the many that could have been chosen,
attention is given to thematic analysis, phenomenological analysis, interpretive phenomeno-
logical analysis, discourse analysis, conversational analysis, narrative analysis, and qualitative
meta-synthesis. Together the chapters connect with some traditions (e.g., phenomenology
and narrative inquiry) outlined in Part II. The combination provides a flavor of the diverse
landscape of analyses available to us, ranging from widely used methods in certain disciplines,
like thematic analysis and interpretive phenomenological analysis in sport and exercise psy-
chology, to analytic approaches that have been rarely utilized in all of the sport and exercise
sciences, such as conversational analysis and qualitative meta-synthesis. Throughout, ration-
ales for choosing an analysis, practical tips for implementing each, and discussions of major
intellectual challenges are offered.
Part IV examines how we might represent qualitative research, evaluate it, and go about
doing ethical work. Combined, the chapters present a respectful overview of some traditional,
yet still very important issues that qualitative researchers need to grapple with. These include
communicating research through realist tales, respecting writing as a form of analysis, engag-
ing carefully in procedural ethics, and reflecting critically on commonly used criteria to judge
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Brett Smith & Andrew C. Sparkes
qualitative research. The chapters also develop understandings by, for example, providing a
nuanced account of how realist tales might be understood now, presenting an overview of
various creative analytical practices (e.g., different kinds of auto-ethnography and performance
social science), thinking of ethics as a process and chain-like, and highlighting contemporary
ways to think about “validity” in qualitative research.
Part V is concerned with opening up qualitative research practices (further). This section
seeks to open up different and relatively new ways of doing research by focusing on sen-
sory research, Internet research, and pluralistic qualitative analysis. It aims to open up more
informed dialogues about integrating qualitative research in mixed-methods research. This
part also opens up access further to the role of theory, interpretation, and critical thinking in
qualitative work, especially for those new to the field. It makes an exciting opening into a too
often neglected topic; that is, teaching qualitative methods and methodologies in “research
methods” university courses. The penultimate chapter in the section is an opening into the
issue of impact, and how qualitative research can make a difference in society. It provides a
resource that gives seasoned researchers from different paradigms and methods, newcomers,
policymakers, and organizations a strong rationale for what qualitative research can do, and
why it is so valuable. The last chapter in this section turns to Indigenous physical cultures.
Complementing several other chapters in other parts of the Handbook, such as Chapter 8 that
focuses on community-based participatory action research, this final section chapter opens up
further dialogue into Indigenous methodologies and insights into why these matter.
Part VI speculates on the future of qualitative research. Authors in this section come mainly
from Sociology of Sport or Sport and Exercise Psychology. Each author was invited to write a
short chapter on what they perceived to be the future issue(s) in qualitative research. All took a
different tack, and each scholar raises differing questions for the future of qualitative research in
the Sociology of Sport and/or Sport and Exercise Psychology.
The Routledge International Handbook of Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise is not a final
statement. It is a starting point. We hope it is a springboard for new thought and new work.
It is hoped that this Handbook, with all its strengths and flaws, will contribute to the growing
maturity and influence of qualitative research in the sport and exercise sciences. We hope you
gain as much from reading it as we have gained from acting as editors, and working with the
excellent scholars whose contributions have made it all possible.
Culver, D., Gilbert, W., & Sparkes, A. (2012). Qualitative research in sport psychology journals: The next
decade 2000–2009 and beyond. The Sport Psychologist, 26, 261–281.
Demuth, C. (2015). “Slow food” post-qualitative research in psychology: Old craft skills in new disguise?
Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 49, 207–215.
Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (1994). Introduction: Entering the eld of qualitative research. In N. Denzin, &
Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 1–17). London: Sage.
Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (2011). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. (2011).
In N. Denzin, & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 1–19). London: Sage.
Gratton, C., & Jones, I. (2010). Research methods for sport studies (2nd edition). London: Routledge.
Guba, E., & Lincoln, Y. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In Denzin, N., &
Lincoln, Y. (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105–117). London: Sage.
Jones, I., Brown, L., & Holloway, I. (2012). Qualitative research in sport and physical activity. London: Sage.
Krane, V., & Baird, S. (2005). Using ethnography in applied sport psychology. Journal of Applied Sport
Psychology, 17, 87–107.
Lincoln, Y. (2010). “What a Long, Strange Trip It’s Been . . .”: Twenty-ve years of qualitative and new
paradigm research. Qualitative Inquiry, 16, 3–9.
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Lincoln, Y., Lynham, S., & Guba, E. (2011). Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging
conuences revisited. In N. Denzin, & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 97–128).
London: Sage.
Markula, P., & Silk, M. (2011). Qualitative research for physical culture. London: Palgrave.
Pitney, W., & Parker, J. (2009). Qualitative research in physical activity and the health professions. Champaign,
IL: Human Kinetics.
Smith, B., & McGannon, K. (2015). Psychology and sociology in sport studies. In R. Giulianotti (Ed.).
Routledge handbook of the sociology of sport (pp. 194– 203). London: Routledge.
Sparkes, A. C. (2015). Developing mixed methods research in sport and exercise psychology: Critical
reections on ve points of controversy. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 49–59.
Sparkes, A. C., & Smith, B. (2014). Qualitative research methods in sport, exercise and health: From process to
product. London: Routledge.
Sparkes, A. C., & Smith, B. (2016). Interdisciplinary connoisseurship in sport psychology research. In
R. Schinke, K. R. McGannon, & B. Smith (Eds). Routledge international handbook of sport psychology
(pp. 581–588). London: Routledge
Young, K., & Atkinson, M. (Eds.) (2012). Qualitative research on sport and physical culture. Bingley, UK:
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... Round 1: To afford observation of coaches' experiences and perceptions [40] the first round used open-ended, free-text questions. Fifteen open-ended questions were formulated based on findings from peer-reviewed literature on deloading [22]. ...
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Background Deloading is a ubiquitous yet under-researched strategy within strength and physique training. How deloading should be integrated into the training programme to elicit optimal training outcomes is unknown. To aid its potential integration, this study established consensus around design principles for integrating deloading in strength and physique training programmes using expert opinion and practical experience. Methods Expert strength and physique coaches were invited to an online Delphi consisting of 3 rounds. Thirty-four coaches completed the first round, 29 completed the second round, and 21 completed the third round of a Delphi questionnaire. In the first round, coaches answered 15 open-ended questions from four categories: 1: General Perceptions of Deloading; 2: Potential Applications of Deloading; 3: Designing and Implementing Deloading; and 4: Creating an Inclusive Deloading Training Environment. First-round responses were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis, resulting in 138 statements organized into four domains. In the second and third rounds, coaches rated each statement using a four-point Likert scale, and collective agreement or disagreement was calculated. Results Stability of consensus was achieved across specific aspects of the four categories. Findings from the final round were used to develop the design principles, which reflect the consensus achieved. Conclusions This study develops consensus on design principles for integrating deloading into strength and physique sports training programmes. A consensus definition is proposed: “Deloading is a period of reduced training stress designed to mitigate physiological and psychological fatigue, promote recovery, and enhance preparedness for subsequent training.” These findings contribute novel knowledge that might advance the current understanding of deloading in strength and physique sports.
... Also, we carefully scrutinised the extracted data so that they appear under different themes (see Seidman, 2019) to ensure internal consistency in their narrations (Braun & Clarke, 2006). We analyse the data both inductively and deductively (Sparkes & Smith, 2014) to illustrate the fans lived experiences and impressions of the event with the literature. The sub-themes were derived inductively from the data on fans' account parallel with the literature (e.g. this is the best WC ever, amazing, others, and fans' concerns to FIFA). ...
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Qatar’s hosting of the FIFA World Cup (WC) was met with criticism and mixed-feelings, especially certain journalists from the Global North. Others acknowledged that it was going to boost economic activities and deepen the sports-tourism nexus. The overarching aim of this paper is to analyse fans’ impressions of Qatar 2022 regarding their lived experiences in the city of Doha, which helps to understand and clarify some negative perceptions held before and during the World Cup. Interviews with 31 participants arbitrarily sampled from different countries reveal that Qatar 2022 brought fans imaginable excitement and indelible lived experiences. According to some, it will take decades for successive host countries to match those lived experiences, spectacular displays, smooth commutations and excellent organisation. Some tag it “the best FIFA world cup ever”. Results show that Qatar 2022 inspired, gingered and spurred fans on albeit, other mixed-feelings associated with the tournament. We report that there is a perceived image-rebranding strategy that worked successfully for the host nation. The fans further recommend that FIFA revisit its ticketing processes and systems to make them more accessible and fluid without difficulties. Fans suggest that subsequent hosts of the World Cup could be confined to ‘one city’ only so that they can watch two matches a day as experienced in Qatar. However, fans have concerns about the WC event becoming more expensive for an average supporter in the future.
... Edel (1984) referred to biography as "Writing lives." Smith (1994) suggested that biographies may take many forms including: "portrayals, portraits, profiles, memoirs, life stories, life histories, case studies, autobiographies, journals, diaries, and others" (p. 287). ...
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In this paper we tell the story of Walt Disney, synthesizing the concepts of critical biography with those of life-span theory (LST) from sociology and psychology literature. In this manner, we can better understand how events in one’s life can have a significant impact throughout that person’s life. The paper focuses on four themes: (a) work ethic and pursuit of success, (b) perseverance – bounce back from adversity and keep moving forward, (c) alliance with others who complement one’s own strengths and offset one’s weaknesses, and (d) commitment to excellence. Through these themes, we demonstrate how early life experiences influenced Walt Disney’s behavior throughout his life. Table 1 is provided to outline the key events in the life of Walt Disney, cross-referencing the events as reported within the major Walt Disney biographies.
... The chosen methodological approach allows for a broader and deeper examination of how PWB enables these competitive recreational athlete mothers to benefit from training for and competing in various endurance sports. Thereby, in terms of procedure and underlying philosophy, the present study was underpinned by a relativist ontology and situated within a subjectivist epistemology focus on how people make sense of their reality and how collective definitions of reality shape and direct human thoughts and behaviours (Delanty and Strydom 2003, Smith and Sparkes 2016, Wahyuni 2012. We used qualitative descriptive methodology for generating, interpreting, and creating knowledge regarding the complexities of the phenomenon studied. ...
... The online survey asked both Likert scale and offered opportunities for open responses from students allowing student narratives to be used in thematic analysis. The advantage of this approach was that a deeper understanding could be gained of the students at a local level (Tashakkori & Creswell, 2007), while retaining the ability to promote a naturalistic generalisability of our results (Smith & Sparkes, 2017). ...
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During the Covid-19 pandemic, the University of Northampton changed its usual mode of delivery from face-to-face to online. This may have involved less adjustment than in other institutions as, pre-pandemic, the university already made use of active blended learning using its virtual learning environment. To capture the student voice concerning satisfaction with this change of mode, professional service teams surveyed students attending embedded academic skills and information literacy workshops. The number of students completing the survey was 385 and overall, students were satisfied with online learning. Nearly two-thirds of respondents listed specific advantages and challenges of online learning. The most frequently mentioned advantage was convenience: being at home; the greater ease of combining study with work or home life; and reduced traveling saving both time and money. Other advantages were the improved quality and functionality of the online sessions, and positive motivational/affective factors. The most common challenge was issues with technology. Other challenges were negative motivational/affective factors, with students reporting lack of concentration and that the sessions were impersonal. A significant challenge was a perceived lack of communication between both students and lecturers, and students and their peers. Age was found to be a salient factor with students over the age of 30 markedly more positive about online learning than their younger peers. Concerns for practitioners in moving to online learning would be around ensuring students have access to the appropriate technology and finding ways to improve communication online. However, with appropriate planning, future provision may benefit from the advantages that online learning affords.
... We developed a semi-structured interview guide (Additional file 2) through a process of theoretical and pragmatic problematisation [27] and by consulting recommendations in the literature [21,22]. Whilst a semi-structured interview guide can provide structure to interviews, the first author adopted a conversational and flexible approach [28,29], involving clarification and elaboration probes; this facilitated an in-depth exploration of the research aims [30]. This flexibility allowed the participants to speak freely, share additional insights, digress appropriately from the interview guide, and consequently enhanced the fluency of the interview, thereby enabling the acquirement of rich data and ensuring a systematic process of consistent data acquisition across all interviews [31]. ...
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Background To manage injuries effectively, players, head coaches, and medical personnel need to have excellent knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours in relation to the identification of risk factors for injuries, the implementation of injury prevention initiatives, as well as the implementation of effective injury management strategies. Understanding the injury context, whereby specific personal, environmental, and societal factors can influence the implementation of injury prevention initiatives and injury management strategies is critical to player welfare. To date, no qualitative research investigating the context of injuries, has been undertaken in elite-level women’s football. The aim of our study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of players, head coaches, and medical personnel in the Irish Women’s National League (WNL) to injury prevention and injury management. Methods We used qualitative research methods to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of players, head coaches, and medical personnel in the Irish WNL to injury prevention and injury management. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 17 players, 8 medical personnel, and 7 head coaches in the Irish WNL. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Our study is located within an interpretivist, constructivist research paradigm. Results The participants had incomplete knowledge of common injuries in elite-level football, and many held beliefs about risk factors for injuries, such as menstrual cycle stage, which lacked evidence to support them. Jumping and landing exercises were commonly used to reduce the risk of injuries but evidence-based injury prevention exercises and programmes such as the Nordic hamstring curl, Copenhagen adduction exercise, and the FIFA 11+ were rarely mentioned. Overall, there was dissatisfaction amongst players with their medical care and strength and conditioning (S & C) support, with resultant inadequate communication between players, head coaches, and medical personnel. Conclusion Poor quality and availability of medical care and S & C support were considered to be a major obstacle in the effective implementation of injury risk reduction strategies and successful return-to-sport practices. More original research is required in elite-level women’s football to explore injury risk factors, injury prevention initiatives, and contextual return-to-sport strategies, so that players, head coaches, and medical personnel can use evidence that is both up-to-date and specific to their environment.
... One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with the four captains and four coaches. These interviews adopted a flexible approach to be responsive to the individual participant's answers in line with the recommendations of Smith & Sparkes (2016). These interviews allowed an in depth exploration of each participant's perceptions and experiences. ...
This study examined perceptions of effective leadership in elite women’s soccer by team captains. Data were collected from a range of perspectives in four elite female soccer teams in England. For each of the four teams, data were collected from 6 participants (total N = 24 players). For each of the four teams, interviews were conducted with the captain and the coach as well as a focus group with 4 players regarding their perceptions of the captain’s leadership. Data were firstly deductively categorised under the four key areas of transformational leadership: idealised influence, inspirational motivation, individualised consideration and intellectual stimulation. An inductive analysis of the relevant data which did not fit into these themes revealed the importance of captains building bridges through helping to navigate the gender gap as well as to facilitate effective relationships with and between players. The implications of these findings are discussed.
The Premier League football academy environment plays a significant role in shaping the psychosocial needs and development of youth footballers. The first author conducted a qualitative case study within a category one academy over nine-months using multiple methods (observation, field notes, interviews, focus groups, and document analysis). The holistic ecological approach (HEA) was used as a framework to capture the complexity of academy life. Analysis revealed a disparity between the awareness of the importance of psychosocial skills within the environment and the approach to embedding and prioritising their development. Environmental factors at both a micro and macro level resulted in an intention-action gap which inhibited psychosocial skill development. From the results of this study we suggest that sport psychology practitioners (SPPP) should incorporate environmental level factors in their work to better facilitate players’ psychosocial development.
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Interpretation and presentation of the variety of methods employed by coaches to develop their craft and the experiences that informed them along the way.
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Physical activity has been shown to improve the health and well-being of students, athletes and the general population, especially when it is properly monitored and responses are evaluated. However, data are mostly gathered without considering a valuable element, participants’ perceptions. Therefore, the objective was to know the perception of volleyball student-athletes when using different monitoring and response tools that assess well-being, workloads, responses to workloads, and academic demands. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with female volleyball student-athletes (n = 22) was used to know players’ perceptions when using a wellness/well-being questionnaire, session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), and countermovement jumps (CMJ), and consider academic demands. Results show that the wellness questionnaire and sRPE increased student-athletes’ awareness of well-being and readiness to perform, improved self-evaluation, self-regulation, and self-demand. However, motivation and overcoming challenges were based on the CMJ. Academic demands affected 82% of student-athletes, altering stress, fatigue, and sleep quality. Nonetheless, sport was seen as an activity that helped with academic commitments. Therefore, the wellness questionnaires and the sRPE facilitated self-awareness and positive dispositions toward self-regulation. Simultaneous intensive academic demands and training can produce mutual positive effects if the variables of physical and mental loads are harmonized in the critical academic and sports periods.
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A follow-up of the 1990s review of qualitative research articles published in three North American sport psychology journals (Culver, Gilbert, & Trudel, 2003) was conducted for the years 2000–2009. Of the 1,324 articles published, 631 were data-based and 183 of these used qualitative data collection techniques; an increase from 17.3% for the 1990s to 29.0% for this last decade. Of these, 31.1% employed mixed methods compared with 38.1% in the 1990s. Interviews were used in 143 of the 183 qualitative studies and reliability test reporting increased from 45.2% to 82.2%. Authors using exclusively quotations to present their results doubled from 17.9% to 39.9%. Only 13.7% of the authors took an epistemological stance, while 26.2% stated their methodological approach. We conclude that positivist/ postpositivist approaches appear to maintain a predominant position in sport psy-chology research. Awareness of the importance of being clear about epistemology and methodology should be a goal for all researchers. A review of qualitative research articles published in the 1990s provided a timely overview of how qualitative methods are employed, and how results are reported, in the field of sport and exercise psychology (Culver, Gilbert, & Trudel, 2003). That original review appears to have become a useful resource for sport and exercise psychology researchers, having been cited in at least 65 academic publications in the seven years since it was published (Google Scholar, n.d.). Although the original review has contributed to the continuing dialogue about research methods in sport and exercise psychology, no similar review has been completed for the decade following the 1990s. In the first decade of the 21st century qualitative research in
In this chapter, we will Compare the quantitative and qualitative research designs; Discuss the different parts of a qualitative research project; Discuss the researcher’s role in a qualitative research process.
The present paper addresses several aspects discussed in the special issue on the future of qualitative research in psychology. Particularly, it asks whether in light of the overhomogenization of the term "qualitative methods" researchers actually can still assume that they talk about the same thing when using this terminology. In addressing the topic of what constitutes the object of psychological research and what accordingly could be a genuinely psychological qualitative research it acknowledges the need to return to the study of persons' unique experience. In light of the risk of "McDonaldization" in present qualitative research, it argues that we need to return to learning research methods as craft skills. It will then give an outlook on how recent developments in discursive and narrative psychology offer a fruitful avenue for studying unique psychological experience as people manage to 'move on' in a material world and in irreversible time.
This is a book - please kindly do NOT request a copy from me. Qualitative forms of inquiry are a dynamic and exciting area within contemporary research in sport, exercise and health. Students and researchers at all levels are now expected to understand qualitative approaches and be able to employ them in their work. in this comprehensive and in-depth introductory text, Andrew C. Sparkes and Brett Smith take the reader on a journey through the entire qualitative research process that begins with the conceptualization of ideas and the planning of a study, moves through the phases of data collection and analysis, and then explains how findings might be represented in various ways to different audiences. Ethical issues are also explored in detail, as well as the ways that thegoodnessof qualitative research might be judged by its consumers.
Objectives To stimulate debate in sport and exercise psychology about the nature of mixed methods research as currently practiced and how this approach might develop in the future. Design An exploration of five points of controversy relating to mixed methods research. Method A presentation of critical reflections on the following. (1) Mixing methods as a non-debate, (2) Purists, pragmatists and mixing paradigms, (3) Integrating findings and representational forms, (4) Judgement criteria and mixed methods research, and (5) Power, politics and what counts in mixed methods research. Results The examples provided of mixed methods research in action indicate that a number of problematic issues regarding both process and product have been neglected. Conclusions Mixed methods research offers a number of conceptual, practical and pedagogical challenges that need to be addressed if this form of inquiry is to develop its full potential in sport and exercise psychology.
The acceptance of qualitative research in applied sport psychology is growing steadily, yet there are continued calls for greater methodological diversity in this research. To this end, we offer ethnography to extend and enhance our understanding of applied sport psychology. Ethnography is aimed toward understanding the culture of a particular group from the perspective of the group members. The group culture, then, will lend insight into the behaviors, values, emotions, and mental states of group members. Ethnographers employ multiple methods to gain a comprehensive understanding of the social environment and perceptions of the members of the social group. In this paper, we discuss the epistemological and methodological foundations of ethnography. Then, using research examples related to applied sport psychology, we describe processes involved ethnographic research. Finally, we explore the issues of representation and legitimacy in ethnography.