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Solution to unsolved problems of Physics 30.3.2016 version

Authors:
Solution to unsolved problems in physics
Provided through
Theory of Everything
Jouni Jokela
jouni@jokela-turbine.ch
ABSTRACT
First I got an Idea about the reasons of Turbulence. Then I noticed how Earths rotation has
a Thermodynamic background. This removed the Drag and opened thus the possibility to
explain the Gravity through Le Sage’s original idea. After studying the NASA’s
observations from thermosphere, even the Heat problem got answered. So Gravity got it’s
explanation through kinetic theory. It was solidified by the Observation how Froude-law
apply to planets. There was no mass needed when explaining Gravity. So maybe the whole
mass could be left out of physics. And suddenly the Relativity made more sense than
before. This opened the road to understanding of Radioactivity. So I finally wrote a paper
called “QED explanation for Gravity and Radioactivity. Theory of Everything”
But as it uses massless concepts which nobody is used to think in physics, it might take
many years before it get understood and accepted.
But if it’s really a “Theory of Everything”, then it should be able to answer all the unsolved
problems of Physics. I already noted how it can answer many of them. But in this paper I
try to answer to all the “unsolved problems of physics” which were listed in Wikipedia.
And while going through these question, I felt many time a real success of this theory. In
this paper these questions are answered as short as it’s possible. Just to point out the
direction for the reader to go further. The greatest joy was found from Coronal heating
Problem, Flyby anomaly, and from Photon underproduction/Space roar problems.
Content;
Abstract
Introduction,
1. General Physics/Quantum Physics
1.1 Entropy (arrow of time)
1.2 Interpretation of quantum mechanics
1.3 Grand Unification theory
1.4 Yang-Mills theory
1.5 Physical information
1.6 Dimensionless physical constant
2. Cosmology and general relativity
2.1 Cosmic inflation
2.2 Horizon Problem
2.3 Future of the Universe
2.4 Baryon asymmetry
2.5 Cosmological constant problem
2.6 Dark Matter / Dark Energy / Dark Flow
2.7 Ecliptic alignment of CMB anisotropy
2.8 Shape of the Universe
3. Quantum Gravity
3.1 Vacuum catastrophe (see 2.5)
3.2 Quantum gravity
3.3 Black holes.
3.4 Extra dimension
3.5 The cosmic censorship hypothesis and the chronology protection conjecture
3.6 Locality
4. High-energy physics /particle physics
4.1 Higgs mechanism
4.2 Hierarchy problem
4.3 Magnetic monopoles
4.4 Proton decay and spin crisis
4.5 Supersymmetry
4.6 Neutrino mass
4.7 Color confinement
4.8 Strong CP problem and axions
4.9 Anomalous magnetic dipole moment
4.10 Proton size puzzle
4.11 Exotic hadrons
5. Astronomy and astrophysics
5.1 Astrophysical jet
5.2 Coronal heating problem
5.3 Diffuse interstellar bands
5.4 Gamma ray bursts
5.5 Supermassive black holes
5.6 Kuiper cliff
5.7 Flyby anomaly
5.8 Galaxy rotation problem
5.9 Supernovae
5.10 Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray
5.11 Rotation rate of Saturn
5.12 Origin of magnetar magnetic field
5.13 Large scale anisotropy
5.14 Photon underproduction crisis
5.15 Space roar
5.16 Age-metallicity relation in the Galactic disk
5.17 The lithium problem
5.18 Solar wind interaction with comets
5.19 Ultraluminous pulsar
5.20 The injection problem
5.21 Fast radio bursts
6. Nuclear physics
6.1 Quantum chromodynamics
6.2 Nuclei and nuclear astrophysics
6.3 Plasma physics and fusion power
7. Atomic, molecular and optical physics
7.1 Hydrogen atom
7.2. Abraham-Minkowski controversy
8. Condensed matter physics
8.1 High-temperature superconductors
8.2. Amorphous solids
8.3 Cryogenic electron emission.
8.4 Sonoluminescence
8.5 Turbulence
8.6 Alfénic turbulence
8.7 Topological order
8.8 Fractional Hall effect
8.9 Bose-Einstein condensation
8.10 Liquid crystals
8.11 Semiconductor nanocrystals
8.12 Electronic band structure
INTRODUCTION
Leave the Mass away from the physics. And everything becomes straight. Mass is only a
fictitious property similar to centrifugal force. This means there is no Gravity. Energies are
pushed towards each other because the create shades. There is no gravitational Pull. The
special relativity doesn’t need to predict anything for the mass. It’s just the space which
goes to zero, when the speed of light is reached. There is no antimatter. There is no Dark
Matter or Dark Energy. Everything in physics is so much simpler without mass. It just
seems difficult to think Force without mass, as F=ma, or Energy without a mass, as E=mc2.
Just try to get over it. Here are the answer where this kind of thinking will lead us.
1. General Physics/Quantum Physics
1.1 Entropy (arrow of time)
Question(s);
(1)Why did the universe have such low entropy in the past, resulting in the distinction
between past and future and the second law of thermodynamics? (2)Why are CP violations
observed in certain weak force decays, but not elsewhere? (3)Are CP violations somehow a
product of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, or are they a separate arrow of time?
(4)Are there exceptions to the principle of causality? (5)Is there a single possible past? (6)Is
the present moment physically distinct from the past and future or is it merely an emergent
property of consciousness? (7)Why does time have a direction? (8)What links the quantum
arrow of time to the thermodynamic arrow?
Answers;
1) The total entropy of universe is Constant over time.
2) CP-violations in weak decays are not violations; there is no antimatter.
3) They is only one arrow of time. Time is irreversible.
4) There is no exception to the principle of causality.
5) There is only single possible past.
6) The present moment is not physically distinct from the past and the future.
7) Time doesn’t have direction, but it is irreversible.
8) Radiactive decay and matter creation through photons.
1.2 Interpretation of quantum mechanics
Question(s);
How does the quantum description of reality, which includes elements such as the
superposition of states and wavefunction collapse or quantum decoherence, give rise to the
reality we perceive?
Answers;
This is a Category error. Single QED phenomenon can only be observed by another QED
phenomenon. But as these Phenomenons’s interacts together, they can’t provide any own
undisturbed information. Meaningful information needs a statistically relevant amount of
QED phenomenon’s.
1.3 Grand Unification theory
Question(s);
(1) Is there a theory which explains the values of all fundamental physical constants? (2)
Do "fundamental physical constants" vary over time? (3)Are there unobserved fundamental
forces implied by a theory that explains other unsolved problems in physics?
Answers;
1) Yes.
2) Yes. I.e. Gravitational constant is not a constant.
3) Not really, the photons with Hz<1 are unobservable, but they don’t provide any new
fundamental forces.
1.4 Yang-Mills theory
Question(s);
Given an arbitrary compact gauge group, does a non-trivial quantum Yang–Mills theory
with a finite mass gap exist?
Answers;
There is no mass gap, as there is no mass. The energies can been set up correctly by
Froude-law.
1.5 Physical information
Question(s);
(1) Are there physical phenomena, such as wave function collapse or black holes, which
irrevocably destroy information about their prior states? (2) How is quantum information
stored as a state of a quantum system?
Answers;
1) Yes, radioactive decay destroys the information of matter and as the emitted photons are
scattered, there is finally nothing left from the prior states.
2) Matter is the quantum information.
1.6 Dimensionless physical constant
Question(s);
(1) At the present time, the values of the dimensionless physical constants cannot be
calculated; they are determined only by physical measurement. (2) What is the minimum
number of dimensionless physical constants from which all other dimensionless physical
constants can be derived? (3) Are dimensionful physical constants necessary at all?
Answers;
1) We are talking about “Fine Structure constant”? It’s pseudo dimensionless, if we define
it from scratch, having no past where mass was ever defined, we won’t have the ~137
which we now have.
2) Basically we only need the speed of light; and it defines time and Space for us.
3) No.
2. Cosmology and general relativity
2.1 Cosmic inflation
Question(s);
Is the theory of cosmic inflation correct, and, if so, what are the details of this epoch?
Answers;
No. There was no big bang.
2.2 Horizon Problem
Question(s);
Why is the distant universe so homogeneous when the Big Bang theory seems to predict
larger measurable anisotropies of the night sky than those observed?
Answers;
The total entropy of universe is Constant over time. With enough distance, you see it as
homogenous. There was no big bang.
2.3 Future of the Universe
Question(s);
Is the universe heading towards a Big Freeze, a Big Rip, a Big Crunch, or a Big Bounce?
Or is it part of an infinitely recurring cyclic model?
Answers;
No-No-No-No. Every atom is infinitely replenishing over time.
2.4 Baryon asymmetry
Question(s);
Why is there far more matter than antimatter in the observable universe?
Answers;
Because the whole concept of “antimatter”, is just a misunderstanding caused by the mass
in the Dirac equation. If this equation is written without a mass, there will be no prediction
of antimatter either. The observed “pair production” can be explained by the 2/3-rule of
Froude.
2.5 Cosmological constant problem
Question(s);
Why doesn't the zero-point energy of vacuum cause a large cosmological constant? What
cancels it out?
Answers;
Energy has a mass by definition. Defining energy without a mass cancels also this
discrepancy. Cosmological constant becomes zero.
2.6 Dark Matter / Dark Energy / Dark Flow
Question(s);
What is?
Answers;
All these are conceptual misunderstandings caused by the mass used in physics. It’s
interesting detail, that the Ratio of Dark Energy / Dark Matter is almost the same as the
Neuton mass problem; There is said to be 26.8% dark Matter and 68.3% dark energy.
0.683/0.268=2.5485 while 531.2
511.0
272.938565.939
epn
2.7 Ecliptic alignment of CMB anisotropy
Question(s);
Some large features of the microwave sky at distances of over 13 billion light years appear
to be aligned with both the motion and orientation of the solar system. Is this due to
systematic errors in processing, contamination of results by local effects, or an unexplained
violation of the Copernican principle?
Answers;
This is a systematic error caused by our own movement. The universe doesn’t move at all.
2.8 Shape of the Universe
Question(s);
What is the 3-manifold of comoving space, i.e. of a comoving spatial section of the
Universe, informally called the "shape" of the Universe?
Answers;
The question has no meaning. Time is not moving, so the “comoving time coordinate”
doesn’t have any contact to the reality.
3. Quantum Gravity
3.1 Vacuum catastrophe (see also 2.5)
Question(s);
Why does the predicted mass of the quantum vacuum have little effect on the expansion of
the universe?
Answers;
There is no mass. Neither there is an expansion of the universe.
3.2 Quantum gravity
Question(s);
Can quantum mechanics and general relativity be realized as a fully consistent theory?
Answers;
Yes. There is no mass, though, so there is also no Gravity. Gravitational effects are
quantum mechanical. The relativity is practically relevant only for the length contraction.
3.3 Black holes.
Question(s);
What Black holes?
Answers;
There is no such thing as black holes. As there is no mass or gravity, it’s also impossible
that we have black holes. The Original idea of John Michell stated that the 500 to 1
proportion to our sun would cause such a high gravity that no light can escape.
There is Sun’s/Stars being (ie. UY Scuti) 1700 times in radius.
This means 5 000 000 000 to 1 proportion to our sun in volume. As the Mass is said to be
20-40 Solar masses, the density of such a star must be 1/160 000 000 compared to sun. Sun
has a density of 1.4 g/cm3 so this Sun has an average density similar to Earths
thermosphere, where mean free path of a particle is 10 km.
3.4 Extra dimension
Question(s);
Does nature have more than four spacetime dimensions?
Answers;
No.
3.5 The cosmic censorship hypothesis and the chronology protection conjecture
Question(s);
Can singularities not hidden behind an event horizon, known as "naked singularities", arise
from realistic initial conditions, or is it possible to prove some version of the "cosmic
censorship hypothesis" of Roger Penrose which proposes that this is impossible?
Answers;
No. Time travel is impossible. There is also no event horizons, as there is no gravity.
3.6 Locality
Question(s);
Are there non-local phenomena in quantum physics?
Answers;
No. All phenomenon’s are only local.
4. High-energy physics /particle physics
4.1 Higgs mechanism
Question(s);
Are the branching ratios of the Higgs boson decays consistent with the standard model?
Answers;
The consistency is not given, the neutron mass is a problem; β+ decay is thought to be
energy consuming, as it’s basically the decay of the Proton to Neutron. This is assumed to
require energy due to the mass of the neutron being greater than the mass of proton.
Radioactive decay is process where nucleus loses energy. This is just another contradiction
caused by the mass.
4.2 Hierarchy problem
Question(s);
Why is gravity such a weak force?
Answers;
Force has mass by definition; F=ma. As mass doesn’t really exist, it’s effects disappear
below Planck scale.
4.3 Magnetic monopoles (see 2.4)
Question(s);
Did particles that carry "magnetic charge" exist in some past, higher-energy epoch? If so,
do any remain today? (Paul Dirac showed the existence of some types of magnetic
monopoles would explain charge quantization.)
Answers;
Magnetic monopoles can’t exist. This is conceptual error similar to antimatter.
4.4 Proton decay and spin crisis
Question(s);
(1)Do protons decay? (2)If so, then what is the half-life? (3)Can nuclear binding energy
affect this? (4)How do the quarks and gluons carry the spin of protons?
Answers;
1) Yes. All matter decays finally if they don’t receive any compensating radiation.
2) The half-life is concept which is not a constant. It’s impossible to define a half life to a
proton which is surrounded by radiation it can absorb. Through half-life could be measured
only in quantum-vacuum. But this kind of vacuum doesn’t exist.
3) Nuclear binding energy is a concept where observed mass defect of a nucleus represents
the mass of the energy binding of the nucleus, being the difference between the mass of a
nucleus und the sum of the masses of the nucleons of which it is composed. Conceptually it
has nothing to do with radioactive decay.
4) Their spin direction of quarks is defined randomly, only depending from the phase when
the proton happens to be spitted. The spin of photon is not necessarily even conserved
/transmitted to these quarks.
4.5 Supersymmetry
Question(s);
Is spacetime supersymmetry realized at TeV scale? If so, what is the mechanism of
supersymmetry breaking? Does supersymmetry stabilize the electroweak scale, preventing
high quantum corrections? Does the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP or Lightest
Supersymmetric Particle) comprise dark matter?
Answers;
The whole hypothetical theory is too far from reality to be reasonably commented.
4.6 Neutrino mass
Question(s);
What is the mass of neutrinos, whether they follow Dirac or Majorana statistics? Is mass
hierarchy normal or inverted? Is the CP violating phase 0?
Answers;
Even the existence of Neurino is not clear. The 2+1 resulting gamma rays from Cowan-
Reines neutrino experiment can be interpreted as a proof of neutrino-existence. But it’s
merely a proof of 3 gamma ray emissions.
4.7 Color confinement
Question(s);
Why has there never been measured a free quark or gluon, but only objects that are built out
of them, like mesons and baryons? How does this phenomenon emerge from QCD?
Answers;
This “hadronization” is one of the least understood processes in particle physics. It’s too far
from reality to be reasonably commented.
4.8 Strong CP problem and axions
Question(s);
Why is the strong nuclear interaction invariant to parity and charge conjugation? Is Peccei–
Quinn theory the solution to this problem?
Answers;
Another problem wich don’t exist, if physics is defined without a mass.
4.9 Anomalous magnetic dipole moment
Question(s);
Why is the experimentally measured value of the muon's anomalous magnetic dipole
moment ("muon g2") significantly different from the theoretically predicted value of that
physical constant?
Answers;
Because muon is a particle witch hasn’t “grown up” to the stabile levels. The Muon are the
“missing link” on the new matter-production made by light. It’s the particle between
electron and proton.
4.10 Proton size puzzle
Question(s);
What is the electric charge radius of the proton? How does it differ from gluonic charge?
Answers;
This is really interesting, maybe it’s a mistake, but I think the Radius measured with
muonic hydrogen (0.8409 fm) must be smaller than the accepted charge radius (0.8768 fm)
The Energy (mass) of the Muon is much higher than the one of electron, part of the radius
“disappears” similarly like part of the mass disappears to nuclear binding energy.
4.11 Exotic hadrons
Question(s);
What combinations of quarks are possible? Why were pentaquarks so difficult to discover?
Answers;
There is no “pentaquarks.” It’s simply impossible.
5. Astronomy and astrophysics
5.1 Astrophysical jet
Question(s);
(1)Why do the accretion discs surrounding certain astronomical objects, such as the nuclei
of active galaxies, emit relativistic jets along their polar axes? (2) Why are there quasi-
periodic oscillations in many accretion discs? (3)Why does the period of these oscillations
scale as the inverse of the mass of the central object? (4) Why are there sometimes
overtones, and why do these appear at different frequency ratios in different objects?
Answers;
1) Also galaxies are moving; this movement in the direction of polar axes causes the
galactic rotation. It’s not that these jets are emitted. These jets are on the orbits of the
galaxies, and they are the cause why the galaxy is there in the first place.
2) these oscillations are caused by the energy transfer from the jets to the galaxy.
3) It doesn’t. But because the mass of the galaxy has been calculated through the velocities,
this is the result of the math as it’s made.
4) These all depends from the velocity of the jet; this velocity is not constant. Depending on
the phase of “cos phi” it provided different frequency ratios.
5.2 Coronal heating problem
Question(s);
Why is the Sun's Corona so much hotter than the Sun's surface?
Answers;
Here the particles are colliding and changing direction of movement and the (kinetic)
energy of “gravity” becomes visible.
5.3 Diffuse interstellar bands
Question(s);
(1)What is responsible for the numerous interstellar absorption lines detected in
astronomical spectra? (2)Are they molecular in origin, and if so which molecules are
responsible for them?
Answers;
1) They are absorbed by the few molecules able to “survive” in Interstellar-space without
radioactive decay. 2) Mainly Protons and electrons, but also Alpha particles and some rare
molecules able to “live alone” and circulate their own energy; like Fullerene.
5.4 Gamma ray bursts
Question(s);
How do these short-duration high-intensity bursts originate?
Answers;
Their source is the final phase of the radioactive decay of material. They occur as bursts,
because this is decaying rest material from some old star which has died away long before,
and has accelerated up to the velocity where the rest of the material decays in very short
time.
5.5 Supermassive black holes
Question(s);
What is the origin of the M-sigma relation between supermassive black hole mass and
galaxy velocity dispersion? How did the most distant quasars grow their supermassive
black holes up to 1010 solar masses so early in the history of the Universe??
Answers;
Mathematical error is the origin of these hypotheses. There is no mass which “pulls”, there
is only kinetic particles which “push” and thus whole “black hole” concept is only an error,
caused by the wrong idea of Gravity.
5.6 Kuiper cliff
Question(s);
Why does the number of objects in the Solar System's Kuiper belt fall off rapidly and
unexpectedly beyond a radius of 50 astronomic units?
Answers;
Cause at this distance the energy density of the space, becomes too low to be able to
maintain matter. It’s “half way” to Heliopause. This is also the reason why there is the
Kuiper belt; at this distance the energy of the sun condensates to the matter with the energy
from outer space. 2/3 of the volume is inside the Radius of 50 AU. The 3/3 volume makes
the outer radius of matter to be 57 AU. This radius x 2 = 114 AU; is the Heliopause.
5.7 Flyby anomaly
Question(s);
Why is the observed energy of satellites flying by Earth sometimes different by a minute
amount from the value predicted by theory?
Answers;
Because the origin of Gravity has a Kinetic nature. This anomaly is at biggest just above the
height of approx 400 km. At this height the N2 amount becomes meaningless (< 5%) and all
the particles have dissociated molecular bonds, being single atoms O, He and H plasma,
being able to completely transmit the kinetic movements of gravity. The acceleration after
Apsis/perigee is caused by these colliding particles to being preferably colliding towards
the direction of the Earths rotation. Thus the existence of this anomaly depends also from
the fact if the Earth’s LOD was accelerating, or decelerating. At 8.12.1990 (Galileo) Earth
was just starting to accelerate. At 08.12.1992 (Galileo) it was accelerating, but the height of
the contact was too low. 23.1.1998 the LOD was generally more or less constant, but the
UTC time 7:23 was almost optimum for the acceleration. Also the height of the contact was
perfect; 532 km, providing almost the maximum particle density. 18.08.1999 (Cassini)
made it’s flyby at almost the maximum deceleration time, at 03:28 UTC. Thus the other
vice quite accelerating Earth didn’t made any positive impact. 04.03.2005 Rosetta was
eccelerated through very heavy acceleration of LOD; 0.15 ms in one day. The in first view
unsuitable time 22:09 UTC was compensated on the height, 1954 km, meaning that the
Rosetta was there together with the last ones of the high-speed-particles.
5.8 Galaxy rotation problem
Question(s);
Is dark matter responsible for differences in observed and theoretical speed of stars
revolving around the center of galaxies, or is it something else??
Answers;
Definitely something else, the theory is wrong; There is no mass, and no gravity. There is
external field caused by electro-dynamics and there is velocity of the stars. These
observations can be found to be exactly in balance, if we use the (massless) Froude-law to
predict the theoretical speed.
5.9 Supernovae
Question(s);
What is the exact mechanism by which an implosion of a dying star becomes an explosion?
Answers;
There is no Gravity, so the collapse and explosion is caused just by raised energy density of
space. Basically the fact that there are too many stars too close each others.
5.10 Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray
Question(s);
(1)Why is it that some cosmic rays appear to possess energies that are impossibly
high,given that there are no sufficiently energetic cosmic ray sources near the Earth?
(2)Why is it that (apparently) some cosmic rays emitted by distant sources have energies
above the Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit?
Answers;
1) These particles are originally being small meteorites. They have been accelerated
through radioactive decay and radiation pressure, which has caused almost their whole
mass, is transferred to a velocity, as long as it has not collided to any other particle. And
even though these collisions have happened, these have caused the material only to split.
2) As can been understand from the accelerating nature of all moving particles, there is no
theoretical limit (other than speed of light) to the energies of cosmic rays.
5.11 Rotation rate of Saturn
Question(s);
Why does the magnetosphere of Saturn exhibit a (slowly changing) periodicity close to that
at which the planet's clouds rotate? What is the true rotation rate of Saturn's deep interior?
Answers;
Too detailed question to be answered shortly. Deeper analysis is needed.
5.12 Origin of magnetar magnetic field
Question(s);
What is the origin of magnetar magnetic field?
Answers;
It’s not clear that Neuron Star have such a high masses as currently expected. They are
rather near normal-density objects placed on the high-energy-density space. This high
energy density causes them to be shining stars, despite there low amount of matter. But it
also causes them to rotate at high speed. This rotation is the cause for their strong magnetic
field.
5.13 Large scale anisotropy
Question(s);
Is the Universe at very large scales anisotropic, making the cosmological principle an
invalid assumption?
Answers;
This is just another crisis of the Big Bang Model, which doesn’t need much of a comment.
5.14 Photon underproduction crisis
Question(s);
Why do galaxies and quasars produce about 5 times less ultraviolet light than expected in
the low-redshift universe?
Answers;
The hydrogen and helium is not there (between galaxies) in the expected scales. It decay’s
away in “quantum vacuum”.
5.15 Space roar
Question(s);
Why is space roar six times louder than expected? What is the source of space roar?
Answers;
(See 5.14) The decay of hydrogen and helium can be observed as this Space roar. 21 cm
hydrogen line is one clear example of this decay.
5.16 Age-metallicity relation in the Galactic disk
Question(s);
Is there a universal age–metallicity relation (AMR) in the Galactic disk (both "thin" and
"thick" parts of the disk)? Although in the local (primarily thin) disk of the Milky Way
there is no evidence of a strong AMR?
Answers;
Not enough information available to comment this question.
5.17 The lithium problem
Question(s);
Why is there a discrepancy between the amount of lithium-7 predicted to be produced in
Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the amount observed in very old stars?
Answers;
Because there was no Big Bang.
5.18 Solar wind interaction with comets
Question(s);
In 2007 the Ulysses spacecraft passed through the tail of comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) and
found surprising results concerning the interaction of the solar wind with the tail?
Answers;
The tail slowed the Solar wind to half it’s normal speed. What else should we even expect
to see? This is another perfect example of the kinetic nature of gravity.
5.19 Ultraluminous pulsar
Question(s);
The ultraluminous X-ray source M82 X-2 was thought to be a black hole, but in October
2014 data from NASA's space-based X-ray telescope NuStar indicated that M82 X-2 is a
pulsar many times brighter than the Eddington limit.
Answers;
Eddington limit is the balace between the force of radiation acting outward and the
gravitational force acting inward. The fact that M82 X-2 is many times brighter, only prove
that there is no such gravity which causes such limits.
5.20 The injection problem
Question(s);
Fermi acceleration is thought to be the primary mechanism that accelerates astrophysical
particles to high energy. However, it is unclear what mechanism causes those particles to
initially have energies high enough for Fermi acceleration to work on them.?
Answers;
This is a conceptual error. See the 5.10.
5.21 Fast radio bursts
Question(s);
Transient radio pulses lasting only a few milliseconds, from emission regions thought to be
no larger than a few hundred kilometers, and estimated to occur several hundred times a
day. While several theories have been proposed, there is no generally accepted explanation
for them. They may come from cosmological distances, but there is no consensus on this,
either?
Answers;
This is the observation which could be expected because of radioactive decay from the
trailing edge of an object. At least this would explain the short duration (orbiting object),
and the fact that it’s circularly polarised (axial rotation of the object).
6. Nuclear physics
6.1 Quantum chromodynamics
Question(s);
(1)What are the phases of strongly interacting matter, and what roles do they play in the
evolution of cosmos? (2) What is the detailed partonic structure of the nucleons? (3) What
does QCD predict for the properties of strongly interacting matter? (4) What determines the
key features of QCD, and what is their relation to the nature of gravity and spacetime? (5)
Do glueballs exist? (6) Do gluons acquire mass dynamically despite having a zero rest
mass, within hadrons? (7) Does QCD truly lack CP-violations? (8) Do gluons saturate when
their occupation number is large? (9) Do gluons form a dense system called Color Glass
Condensate? (10) What are the signatures and evidences for the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuarev-
Lipatov, Balitsky-Kovchegov, Catani-Ciafaloni-Fiorani-Marchesini evolution equations?
Answers;
1) There is no “evolution of cosmos”
2) There is 2/3 of energy rotating in away which can be feld as an electron mass. 1/3 of this
energy produces the “charge”. The electron negative charge is “push”. Proton is the
minimum amount of energy collected in a particle able to independetly pull this charge
without being disturbed. Neutron is a Proton which has absorbed the electron.
3) Strong interacting mass is 2x energy of a photon. There is no antimatter; it’s 2x
conventional matter.
4) Gravity doesn’t exist. 5) No.
6) There is no mass. It’s a fictitious phenomenon similar like centrifugal force.
7) There is antiparticles, so the discussion of the lack of CP-violations is meaningless.
8) 9) 10) Meaningless questions.
6.2 Nuclei and nuclear astrophysics
Question(s);
(1) What is the nature of the nuclear force that binds protons and neutrons into stable nuclei
and rare isotopes? (2) What is the origin of simple patterns in complex nuclei? (3) What is
the nature of exotic excitations in nuclei at the frontiers of stability and their role in stellar
processes? (4) What is the nature of neutron stars and dense nuclear matter? (5) What is the
origin of the elements in the cosmos? (6) What are the nuclear reactions that drive stars and
stellar explosions?
Answers;
1) It’s the radiation exchange between other similar nuclei. The isotopes are radiating,
emitting and absorbing energy efficiently in only certain wavelengths. Other wavelengths
can’t be absorbed, they are merely scattered, which adds up only marginally to the energy
level of an atom. Rare isotopes radiates rare wavelength, thus these photons are mainly not
usable by other particles. These photons are yet scattered and partially absorbed by the
stable nuclei, and thus they disappear before they reach the particle which could fully
absorb their energy. This leads to a vicious cycle of rare isotopes; they are continuously
emitting more energy than absorbing. As their energy level sinks, they decay. The half-life
describes merely the rarity of their nominal wavelength.
2) The above mentioned wavelength.
3) Exotic excitations are also based on wavelengths.
4) “Neutron stars” are not extremely dense. They are normal stars located to high energetic
space.
5) I don’t understand the question.
6) I don’t see the problem.
6.3 Plasma physics and fusion power
Question(s);
Fusion energy may potentially provide power from abundant resource (e.g. hydrogen)
without the type of radioactive waste that fission energy currently produces. However, can
ionized gases (plasma) be confined long enough and at a high enough temperature to create
fusion power? What is the physical mechanism of the transition from Low to High
confinement scenarios?
Answers;
Another approach for Fusion energy is enough to give the aswer to this question, which is
shortly said; “Is Fusion energy feasible?” The Answer is “No”, if high amounts of energy is
produced in Earth, the thermal-equilibrium is disturbed, and the whole planet will be boiled.
7. Atomic, molecular and optical physics
7.1 Hydrogen atom
Question(s);
What is the solution to the Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom in arbitrary electric
and magnetic fields?
Answers;
The solution is not meaningful, as the equation tries to calculate with mass which doesn’t
exist.
7.2. Abraham-Minkowski controversy
Question(s);
What's the momentum of photons in optical media?
Answers;
There is the common Radiation pressure, but this offers no additional physical base for a
reactionless drive.
8. Condensed matter physics
8.1 High-temperature superconductors
Question(s);
(1) What is the mechanism that causes certain materials to exhibit superconductivity at
temperatures much higher than around 25 kelvin? (2) Is it possible to make a material that
is a superconductor at room temperature?
Answers;
1) The movement caused by the Heat in the atoms is smaller than the distance of magnetic
field. Thus the Charge can be transmitted without any resistance.
2) If this is possible, the solution will be found from magnetic materials which are good
thermal isolators.
8.2. Amorphous solids
Question(s);
What is the nature of the glass transition between a fluid or regular solid and a glassy
phase? What are the physical processes giving rise to the general properties of glasses and
the glass transition?
Answers;
The added Heat makes the atoms to move in higher velocities, this is also seen as a thermal
expansion. At certain temperature the atoms are able to flip covalent Bondings. In the case
of Glass the atomic structure is basically Silica; SiO2. This silica has normally a chrystalline
lattice structure (sand). In the glass this structure is random. To compare, the flow of water
is mostly based on the continuously reforming hydrogen bonding. This means that the
molecules of water are constantly moving in relation to each other, and the hydrogen bonds
are continually breaking and reforming at timescales faster than 200 femtoseconds. At the
glass transition temperature the atoms are able to start breaking and reforming their
covalent bonds. This alouds the material to deformate rubber-like, though still being clearly
solid.
8.3 Cryogenic electron emission.
Question(s);
Why does the electron emission in the absence of light increase as the temperature of a
photomultiplier is decreased?
Answers;
This is the clear proof of the nature of radioactive decay. The atoms of photomultiplier is
spontaneously emitting single electrons, as the some atoms are slowly decaying and simply
loose the binding energy they need to be able to hold their electrons. They occur in bursts,
because there is also a weak photon emitted when this decay happens. This photon then
causes a small chain reaction of “decays” to happen.
8.4 Sonoluminescence
Question(s);
What causes the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when
excited by sound?
Answers;
The Relativity theory/Lorentz transformation (Length contraction) offers the answer. If the
volume goes to zero, photon is emitted. Photon is energy with a zero volume.
8.5 Turbulence
Question(s);
Is it possible to make a theoretical model to describe the statistics of a turbulent flow (in
particular, its internal structures)? Also, under what conditions do smooth solutions to the
Navier–Stokes equations exist?
Answers;
There is one aspect missing in the current Turbulence calculations; Surface tension.
“Turbulence” is basically fluid internal surface formation. This formation consumes energy
(Surface energy), and adds freedoms to the movement; it’s Friction and collision instead of
viscous forces and material tensions. Example with water; The formation of surface can be
understood as a disturbance in the mechanism where hydrogen bonds are continually
breaking and reforming at timescales faster than 200 femtoseconds. The Surfaces becomes
electrically charged when the velocity is so high that these hydrogen atoms are able to
travel away and cause the electrical imbalance. This causes electromagnetic propulsion to
hold the surfaces apart and slide with much lesser friction than predicted by viscosity.
As a conclution the basic Problem-setting of Navier-Stokes problem is wrong; it’s not a
single homogenous fluid. It’s multiple fluids colliding each other. Inside the fluid the
solution is always smooth. Between the fluids other physical laws apply. (Elastic collisions)
8.6 Alfénic turbulence
Question(s);
In the solar wind and the turbulence in solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and
magnetospheric substorms are major unsolved problems in space plasma physics?
Answers;
These problems can be solved when the present Gravitational theory is replaced by the
kinetic theory.
8.7 Topological order
Question(s);
(1) Is topological order stable at non-zero temperature? (2) Equivalently, is it possible to
have three-dimensional self-correcting quantum memory?
Answers;
1) No, it can’t be stable by definition. It can be made stabile only by external magnetic
field.
2) No; Definitely not. Single quantum state can irreversibly disturbed by single photon.
Anything with should last over some time, must have statistically relevant amount of
matter.
8.8 Fractional Hall effect
Question(s);
What mechanism explains the existence of the v=5/2 state in the fractional quantum Hall
effect?
Answers;
The mechanism behind this is the Froude law; 2/3 of potential energy and 1/3 of kinetic
energy is in balance. But the “5/2 state” is the same conceptual “2.5-mistake” seen in
difference between the comparison of Electron + Proton mass to Neutron mass. And even
in the dark Matter/Dark energy ratio. As soon as the physics is defined without a mass, all
these conceptual errors are removed.
8.9 Bose-Einstein condensation
Question(s);
How do we rigorously prove the existence of Bose–Einstein condensates for general
interacting systems?
Answers;
There is no Bose-Einstein condensates. If the matter is cooled to very close to absolute
zero, it will completely decay to photons. This can produce the impression of “slow light”
as the atoms are almost decaying, while absorbing the photon and then emitting it after a
certain delay.
8.10 Liquid crystals
Question(s);
Can the nematic to smectic (A) phase transition in liquid crystal states be characterized as a
universal phase transition?
Answers;
No. This is the same phenomenon as the Glastransition is. (See 8.2 Amorphous solids)
8.11 Semiconductor nanocrystals
Question(s);
What is the cause of the nonparabolicity of the energy-size dependence for the lowest
optical absorption transition of quantum dots?
Answers;
I don’t understand the question.
8.12 Electronic band structure
Question(s);
Why band gaps can not be calculated accurately?
Answers;
This question seems to be broad to be answered.
Jouni Jokela, Frutigen, Switzerland 30.3.2016
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