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Introduction: Articulating Intersections at the Global Crossroads of Religion and Migration

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Introduction: Articulating Intersections at the Global Crossroads of Religion and Migration

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Abstract

This introductory chapter examines the ways in which religion and migration have intersected in scholarship and suggests ways in which studies of these intersections can be enhanced. More specifically, it reviews significant terms and concepts, proposes expanding the scope of research by attending to marginalized perspectives, and creates avenues of dialogue between different methodologies. Bringing together a variety of voices (theologians, religious studies scholars, philosophers, ethnographers, and refugees and immigrants themselves) around a range of issues related to religion and migration; conceptions of the relationship of humans to each other and to God, the religious experiences of immigrants, and the organizations involved in humanitarian aid, and activism in a number of global contexts will enable us to understand these processes more fully.

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... The question of how migration and religion interrelate has been approached from a variety of perspectives in the social sciences, exploring themes such as integration policies, socioeconomic differences, gender relations, and race/ethnicity (Beckford 2016;Saunders et al. 2016;Frederiks and Nagy 2016). More recently, a related body of work has studied the increasing space religion occupies in the construction of right-wing populist rhetoric on immigrants and immigration in Western host societies. ...
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Why and in what ways do far-right discourses engage with religion in geographies where religious belief, practice, and public influence are particularly low? This article examines religion’s salience in the rhetoric of leading right-wing populist parties in eight European countries: the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. Based on a qualitative content analysis of various documents such as party programmes, websites, election manifestos, reports, and speeches of their leadership, the article offers insight into the functions that Christianist discourses serve for anti-immigration stances. The findings are threefold: first, they confirm previous research suggesting that while these parties embrace Christianity as a national/civilizational heritage and identity, they are also careful to avoid references to actual belief or practice. Second, the data suggests, their secularized take on Christianity rests not simply on the omission of theological content, but also on the active framing Christianity itself as an inherently secular and progressive religion conducive to democracy. Third, and finally, they starkly contrast this notion of Christianity with Islam, believed to be incompatible due to its alleged backward and violent qualities. Emphasizing religio-cultural hierarchies—rather than ethno-racial ones—plays an indispensable role in presenting a more palatable form of boundary-making against immigrants, and helps these parties mainstream by giving their nativist cause a liberal and enlightened aura. Preliminary comparisons with traditional conservative parties, moreover, reveal that while some of the latter partially embraced a similar nativism, variations remain across countries.
... Protestant Christians have also been reassessing their ecclesiastical histories and ecclesiological traditions to develop theologies making sense of forced migration and the search for refuge (Carroll R. and Sanchez 2015;Horstmann and Jung 2015;Saunders et al. 2016). Even white evangelicals in the United States, the demographic most likely to align with Republican Party policies (Schwadel and Smith 2019), have no shortage of theological refl ections available to them from para-church organizations encouraging them to identify with the plight of refugees from the Middle East and Central America and to think critically about whether Christian values of family and fairness are refl ected in their nation's immigration laws (Melkonian-Hoover and Kellstedt 2019). 2 Th is has given rise to new alliances and forms of advocacy. ...
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This special section explores the role of religious ideas and religious associations in shaping the response of states and non-state actors to asylum-seekers and refugees. It brings together insights from anthropology, law, history, and political theory to enrich our understanding of how religious values and resources are mobilized to respond to refugees and to circumvent usual narratives of secularization. Examining these questions within multicultural African, European, and North American contexts, the special section argues that religion provides moral reasons and structural support to welcome and resettle refugees, and constitutes a framework of analysis to better understand the social, legal, and political dynamics of inclusion and exclusion in contexts of migration.
... Not, however, in the sense of a fusion that homologates singularities but in the sense of a coexistence of different religious alternatives. In fact, although the nation States have for a long time tried to impose some homogeneity also from a religious point of view, so as to guarantee social cohesion, the international migratory processes have sustained religious pluralism (Saunders et al., 2016). This is particularly true in the case of Europe, where diversity based on religion is one of the most challenging . ...
Chapter
Within an ample study on the role of religion in the migratory and integration processes, this chapter illustrates some of the results of an original research carried out in Italy and based on different sources, among those 20 in-depth interviews with migrants and asylum seekers who, regardless of the entry channel and of their current legal status, have been significantly influenced by their religious belongings, as for both their decision to migrate and the development of migration and insertion processes. In particular, the Chapter explores the “space” dedicated to the religious dimension and to the spiritual needs of migrants, also during the delicate phase of first reception and re-elaboration of the migratory distress. Thanks to the involvement of a sociologist of migration and of a theology scholar as co-author, the Chapter also investigates the “functions” and meanings that (forced) migrants for religious reasons attribute to religion and spirituality, seen both in their individual and communitarian declinations. Finally, through a de-instrumentalization of religion and the acknowledgement of migrants’ human subjectivity, the Authors discuss the results of the study through the concepts of identity, religious freedom, citizenship, and common good
... Not, however, in the sense of a fusion that homologates singularities but in the sense of a coexistence of different religious alternatives. In fact, although the nation States have for a long time tried to impose some homogeneity also from a religious point of view, so as to guarantee social cohesion, the international migratory processes have sustained religious pluralism (Saunders et al., 2016). This is particularly true in the case of Europe, where diversity based on religion is one of the most challenging . ...
Chapter
Within an ample study on the role of religion in the migratory and integration processes, this chapter illustrates some of the results of an original research carried out in Italy and based on different sources, among those 20 in-depth interviews with migrants and asylum seekers who, regardless of the entry channel and of their current legal status, have been significantly influenced by their religious belongings, as for both their decision to migrate and the development of migration and insertion processes. In particular, the Chapter is devoted to analysing the role of religion within the procedure for the scrutiny of asylum applications. Given the legislative framework in force in Italy, the Author discusses how the actual implementation of rules and procedures allows (or does not allow) for the emergence and the acknowledgement of those aspects variously connected with asylum seekers’ religious belongings. Here, religiosity has emerged as both an obscured and a sensitive issue.
... Whereas some refugees are camp based at Dadaab refugee camp in North Eastern Kenya, others find their way to the city and become urban refugees. There is an increasing trend in migration into cities with informal patterns of settlement alongside the existing population (Saunders et al. 2016). The Somali migrants who do not make it to the Dadaab refugee camp end up settling in the major cities in Kenya. ...
Article
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In the last decade, since the Third Lausanne Congress on World Evangelization (2010) in Cape Town, South Africa, the world has significantly changed. The majority of the world’s Christians are located in the Global South. Globalization, conflict, and migration have catalyzed the emergence of multifaith communities. All these developments have in one way or another impacted missions in twenty-first-century sub-Saharan Africa. As both Christianity and Islam are spreading and expanding, new approaches to a peaceful and harmonious coexistence have been developed that seem to be hampering the mission of the Church as delineated in the Cape Town Commitment (2010). Hence a missiological assessment of the Cape Town Commitment is imperative for the new decade’s crosscutting developments and challenges. In this article, the author contends that the mission theology of the 2010 Lausanne Congress no longer addresses the contemporary complex reality of a multifaith context occasioned by refugee crises in Kenya. The article will also describe the Somali refugee situation in Nairobi, Kenya, occasioned by political instability and violence in Somalia. Finally, the article will propose a methodology for performing missions for interfaith engagement in Nairobi’s Eastleigh refugee centers in the post Cape Town Commitment era. The overall goal is to provide mainstream evangelical mission models that are biblically sound, culturally appropriate, and tolerant to the multifaith diversity in conflict areas.
... The global flows of migration in Western Europe and the USA, as well as the Global South (Saunders et al. 2016) and in Latin America (Cerrutti and Parrado 2015), have meant increasing cultural and social diversity. This diversity can be seen in the fact that some countries are dealing with flows of immigrants that produce a pluralization of the cultural realm; for example, the Haitian migration in the region and Chile has produced a diversification in terms of cultural and ethnic characteristics. ...
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This research aims to analyze cultural diversity and its relationship with the personal belief in an Immigrant Parish. The discussion is framed within the topic of intercultural churches and parishes, although in a setting that has not been researched (Santiago, Chile). The research was carried out in the Latin-American Parish placed in Providencia, Santiago, and a qualitative framework was used to obtain and analyze the data. Cultural diversity is understood concerning religious reflexivity and under the idea that pluralism leads to a weakening of religious conviction, as Peter Berger argued. The theoretical framework makes the difference between the vision of Berger on cultural pluralism (pluralism inter-religion) and the viewpoint by Charles Taylor (pluralism intra-religion). On the contrary to Berger, the findings of this research showed that cultural diversity and pluralism are elements that produce a strengthening of individual beliefs.
... The wide-ranging collection of articles edited by Beckford (2015) combines the most important contributions to the subject, covering its private, social, and political dimensions published in the last two decades. Another notable work, Intersections of Religion and Migration: Issues at the Global Crossroads, edited by Saunders et al. (2016), addresses the interface between religion and migration in different contexts, ranging from the effects of the migratory experience on religious identity and religious coping to faith-based humanitarianism. Zaman's (2016) qualitative research, conducted among the Iraqi refugees in Syria, may be of special interest when considering forced migration in the Islamic context. ...
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The goal of our article is to present the subject of forced migration as a very interesting and socially relevant research field that could contribute to further development of the psychology of religion. We focus on further development of the toolbox of the psychology of religion, seeking further application of Sunden’s role theory and introducing new approaches originating from indigenous and environmental psychology. After a short review of existing research, new theoretical approaches, and methodologies are presented, along with suggestions for improving the validity of qualitative research pertaining to the role of religion at all stages of the migration process.
... Global migration, particularly from the global south to the global north has long been known to produce social dynamics oppressive towards migrants. For instance, refugees experiencing hardship and subject to state controls upon migration (Fiddian-Qasmiyeh: 2016Inhorn: 2018, the care industry which oppresses migrants such as female domestic workers (Yeoh: 1999, Cheah: 2009 to name a few. ...
Thesis
The thesis examines marriage and masculinities in motion through the experiences of Pakistani migrant husbands in Birmingham, UK. Drawing on the detailed life history narratives of sixty-two migrant husbands, and fourty-three community member interlocuters who were aware of and/or in contact with migrant husbands, over a thirty-month period (February 2016-August 2018), the thesis explores and is organised in three key sections: (a) aspirational masculinity, (b) liminal masculinity, and (c) (re)assertive masculinity. The first section of the thesis traces the shifts in the aspirations of migrant husbands before and after marriage and migration, showing that these shifts are experienced in relation to the masculine ideal of ‘transnational patriarch’. The second section explores the impact of marriage and migration on the experiences of masculinity. I trace the ways that migrant husbands can experience precarity, heightened levels of vulnerability, and domestic violence. As a result, I argue that migrant husbands experience a ‘liminal’ [in-between] masculinity. The final section of the thesis explores the ways in which migrant husbands practice agency and resistance. Three significant arenas of agency and resistance are highlighted: (1) engaging with Songs of Sorrow, a musical form that extends from Sufi Qawwali, (2) by engaging in religious practices that are unique to Birmingham’s ‘Sufi-scape’ in which migrant husbands develop a ‘prophetic masculinity’, (3) and by way of appearing financially secure in order to maintain their identity as ‘transnational patriarch’. The thesis engages with and contributes to the field of men and masculinity studies, migration studies, human geography, and the anthropology of Islam. The research also contributes to and paves a way forward for the ‘decolonization of Muslim men’.
... Bustelo (2006) vorbește despre scriitori argentinieni care s-au stabilit în Franța. Alți autori preferă să abordeze migrația persoanelor înalt calificate (Rolland, 2014;Gaillard, 1997;;) sau a medicilor (Andreś, 2014;Baijou, 2014 (Bonifacio, 2010;Heerma, 2002;Anthias, 1992), islam, migrație și integrare (Kaya, 2012), dintre migrație (forțată, voluntară și economică) și religie (Saunders, 2016). Alții la comunitățile islamice din Europa (Abumalham, 1995), din ...
Thesis
El conocimiento del fenómeno migratorio rumano y las estrategias utilizadas para su inserción en la sociedad española, es muy importante y de actualidad. Para hacer frente a la crisis iniciada en el año 2007, los migrantes rumanos han adoptado diferentes tipos de movilidad territorial: migración de retorno, migración permanente, migración circular, migración interna, migración doble, migración múltiple y la nueva orientación migratoria. Esto proporciona una visión general de lo que realmente sucedió y ofrece información valiosa sobre el impacto de la población migrante entre Rumanía y España, visto desde la dinámica del capital socio-territorial y el desarrollo local, lo que representa el objetivo principal de esta tesis doctoral. Toda la tesis se basa en abordar ambos territorios (de origen y de destino) que han definido el problema específico y la enunciación de las hipótesis generales de partida. En la realización del estudio de caso, partí de estas ideas: la razón principal de la migración rumana fue la economía; la mayoría se fue con la idea de regresar a Rumanía con algunos ahorros. Los métodos de investigación y recolección de datos fueron variados: análisis documental, métodos cuantitativos (análisis estadístico y cuestionario), métodos cualitativos (observación, estudios de caso y entrevista), análisis de los medios de comunicación y la exploración de la web social Facebook. El estudio de caso realizado en el territorio de origen (Valea Hârtibaciului – provincia Sibiu - Rumanía) permitió visualizar el impacto positivo y negativo de la migración. El impacto positivo puede ser resumido en: bajada del desempleo, crecimiento de las remesas, nuevas ideas y tecnologías traídas por los migrantes, capitalización de los nuevos oficios aprendidos. Por otro lado, el impacto negativo se ha notado por: el declive demográfico, la baja tasa de natalidad, el envejecimiento de la población, la fuga de cerebros y la corrupción. Además, se identificó la parte positiva del capital social (redes migratorias) y la parte negativa del capital territorial (pérdida de recursos humanos). En cambio, el estudio de caso realizado en el territorio de destino (Barcelona – provincia Cataluña - España) revela un impacto diferente al del territorio de origen. El impacto positivo consta en: el crecimiento demográfico, el aumento del empleo, las nuevas habilidades y la integración sociocultural. Por otro lado, el impacto negativo se refiere al: aumentó de la crisis financiera y económica, aumentó de la delincuencia local y falta de ofertas de trabajo. Además, la identificación del capital social (organizaciones, instituciones, asociaciones) y del capital territorial (densidad de la población, distribución de la población migrante, distribución de los migrantes rumanos) indica una diversidad muy diferente al territorio de origen. Los resultados de esta investigación revelan el hecho de que muchos rumanos todavía "sueñan" con regresar a Rumanía. Sin embargo, podemos estar viendo una generación perdida en el extranjero, que tuvo que abandonar su lugar de origen para encontrar su meta en un país adoptivo. Esta generación puede describirse como "La pandemia de la migración rumana de los años 2000", debido a los efectos de la despoblación de muchas regiones de Rumanía. La migración múltiple, impulsada por la crisis económica y financiera que afectó a España, hizo que los migrantes rumanos buscasen trabajo en otros países. Sin embargo muchos no se adaptaron en su nuevo país de acogida y regresaron a España. Esto marcó una nueva orientación, ya que la mayoría de los rumanos que han regresado a España tiene la intención de hacerlo, dicen: "¡Aquí me siento en CASA!".
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Whenever one reflects on the scriptures through the lens of a profound human experience, one discovers a deeper understanding of the biblical text and its meaning, while at the same time bringing the illumination of the scriptures to our human experience. Fired by the Spirit of God the biblical story yet remains a human saga, drenched in human experience and human history Surely migration, the displacement of peoples, the suffering and longing it creates, and the complex web of causes that produce it, make it a profound human experience. Migration, along with the human and spiritual issues it raises, has been an intimate part of the biblical saga from the beginning.1.
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Every conflict brings its refugees, but the wars of the twentieth century produced population movements on a new scale. The peace of these wars was almost as bad as the fighting: for every border re-drawn, every treaty signed, millions shifted. They shift still. Traumatic testimony has long been the life-writing genre of choice for those wanting to give voice to the dispossessed. But can trauma really capture the complexity of this territorial violence? There are many ways of moving across a border, or, as is the case for millions today, living on a border. In his 1976 essay, 'The Borderline Concept', the psychoanalyst, André Green wrote: 'I can be a citizen or heimatlos (homeless), but to "be" borderline - that is difficult for me to imagine'. This article takes Green's writing on the borderline as a starting point for reflecting on the condition of statelessness. For Green, to think seriously about the borderline is to risk an imagination adequate to its shifting geographies - frequently, he compares the task of imagining borderline states to the writing and reading of poetry. How might we describe a poetry of the borderline? And how might such descriptions help us think again about the geographies of modern writing? The second part of this article turns to two poets from different ends of the same history of exile and displacement: Auden, whose voluntary 1939 departure from England coincided with the first convulsions of national frontiers in Europe, its colonies, protectorates and mandates, and the Oxford-based Palestinian, Yousif M. Qasmiyeh, whose writing captures the reality of borderline existence with a particular clarity.
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You Shall Love the Stranger as Yourself addresses the complex political, legal, and humanitarian challenges raised by asylum-seekers and refugees from a Biblical perspective. The book explores the themes of humanity and justice through exegesis of relevant passages in the Old and New Testaments, skillfully woven into accounts of contemporary refugee situations. Applying Biblical analysis to one of the most pressing humanitarian concerns of modern times, Houston creates a timely work that will be of interest to students and scholars of theology, religion, and human rights.
Article
The concept of ‘racism’ has faced many difficulties in migration studies. Depending on definitions, islamophobia is a form either of religious discrimination or of racism. The same is true in contemporary debates in Europe about xenophobia against immigrants from the Global South. This article provides an alternative way of thinking about racism and its relationship with questions of intersectionality and discusses the relationship of these issues to migration theory. In the first part, we discuss intersectionality in relation to Fanon’s definition of racism. Then, we establish a dialogue between the work of de Sousa Santos and Fanon that could enrich our understanding of intersectionality in the framework of modernity and the capitalist/imperial/patriarchal/racial colonial world-system. Finally, we analyse this discussion’s implications for migration theory, highlighting how migration studies tend to reproduce a northern-centric social science view of the world that comes from the experience of others in the zone of being.
Article
Based on ethnographic research conducted with four faith-based organizations (FBOs) in Nakuru and Nairobi, and among internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Mai Mahiu IDP camp, this paper explores the multiple roles played by faith, religious convictions and practices in contexts of displacement, examining the ways in which these serve to integrate displaced persons into their new circumstances. The paper has three main aims. Firstly, through an examination of the roles played by four churches in Nakuru and Nairobi it documents the diverse forms of practical, emotional and spiritual support provided by faith-based actors to IDPs; secondly, it examines how and why certain churches were transformed from spaces of refuge to targets of violence; and finally, it examines the practical and psychological impact of faith on the formation of IDPs’ religious identities and new forms of belonging in IDP camps. The second half of the article therefore argues that IDPs have not simply relied upon externally provided support such as that delivered by the churches of Nakuru and Nairobi, but in fact draw upon their own personal and collective sense of faith and religious belief to overcome challenges compounded by displacement. Whilst recognizing the significance of assistance provided by FBOs to IDPs, the paper therefore ultimately centralizes the agency of IDPs themselves.
Article
Examining theological reflection in an age of migration, the author focuses on four foundations of a theology of migration and refugees: (1) Imago Dei: Crossing the Problem-Person Divide; (2) Verbum Dei: Crossing the Divine-Human Divide; (3) Missio Dei: Crossing the Human-Human Divide; and (4) Visio Dei: Crossing the Country-Kingdom divide. As a call to cross borders and overcome barriers, migration is a way of thinking about God and human life and an expression of the Christian mission of reconciliation.
Article
This essay offers a critical introduction to a new field in literary studies: writing and rights. The connections between writing and rights are complex, nuanced and thoroughly historical. Any attempt to ground the new field of writing and rights in anything other than the wishful hope of a better world must begin with literature's complex relation to this history. Categories such as humanitarianism, empathy, humanity, rights, writing, the novel, and testimony are not givens or grounds out of which knowledge is produced. Instead we argue that literary writing is a central forum for an engagement with what human rights could and should mean. Starting with the recognition that human rights have historically marked a moment when politics fail, the essay makes a case for a wider and more robust history of rights and writing. Focusing in particular on the mid twentieth century, we claim that the current emphasis on an ethics of suffering and injury in human rights rhetoric has obscured the extent to which writers have been engaged with questions of political and national sovereignty. Writing, we propose, does not simply describe human suffering; it is the means by which claims about political life claims about free speech, about the plotting of lives, about being human are given form.
Article
The paper examines the narratives of three professional transnational Muslim women of Turkish, Pakistani and Indian heritage living and working in Britain. Developing a post colonial black feminist framework of embodied intersectionality, the analysis explores ways in which the regulatory discursive power to 'name' the 'Muslim woman' in the 'West' as either dangerous or oppressed is lived out on and within the body. Embodied practices such as choosing to wear the hijab, which one woman described as a 'second skin', allows an insight into the ways in which the women draw on their subjecthood and inner sense of self to negotiate the affective 'postcolonial disjunctures' of racism and Islamophobia which framed their everyday lives. Embodied intersectionality as a feminist critical theory of race and racism shows how gendered and raced representation is powerfully written on and experienced within the body, and how Muslim women's agency challenges and transforms hegemonic discourses of race, gender and religion in transnational diasporic spaces.
Article
Religion, spirituality and faith have suffered from long-term and systematic neglect in development theory, policy making and practice, although there has been a noticeable turnover the past 10 years. This paper explores the role of religion, spirituality and faith in development in the past, present and future by applying three core concepts from critical theory—grounding of knowledge in historical context, critique through dialectical process, and identification of future potentialities for emancipation and self-determination. It concludes that religion, spirituality and faith have a role to play in the future of development, particularly in ensuring that it is appropriate and sustainable. The paper also serves to counter critics who claim that critical theory has no resonance to contemporary social research.
Article
In recent years migration has been rediscovered as a key intervening apparatus in facilitating development, offering a route to mitigating deepening inequalities. National governments, international funding organisations and diasporic organisations have all mobilised migrants to fund development initiatives in ‘origin’ countries. This has led to a range of calculative processes whereby some forms of migration and particular forms of development come to be visible, while others become ‘invisibilised’. This paper explores some narratives of migration and development to illustrate how current debates on migration and development ignore certain scalar politics and specific temporalities, while scaffolding others. It suggests new ways of thinking about migration and development. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
-to the "non-traditional" immigration country of Japan--a country which many observers have argued does not "fit squarely into the 'global north'" in spite of its position as a highly industrialized state. See Peter Dauvergne and Déborah BL Farias
Catholics from Brazil--an "emerging" global super power which had in fact "overtaken the UK economy in 2011 to become the world's 6th largest economy"--to the "non-traditional" immigration country of Japan--a country which many observers have argued does not "fit squarely into the 'global north'" in spite of its position as a highly industrialized state. See Peter Dauvergne and Déborah BL Farias, "The Rise of Brazil as a Global Development Power," Third World Quarterly, 33, no. 5 (2012), 903-917, 905. Devon Knudsen, "South-South, Middle-South, or Just Non-Western? Categorizing Japanese ODA to Africa," African Arguments, 21 June 2011, http://africanarguments.org/2011/06/21/south-south-middle-south-or-just-nonwestern-categorizing-japanese-oda-to-africa/. On the complexities of conceptualizing "the global South", see Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, South-South Educational Migration (especially Chapter 2).
Veiled Meanings: Young British Muslim Women and the Negotiation of Differences
xxxii On the dangers of the veil becoming an "overdetermined signifier for Muslim women," see Claire Dwyer, "Veiled Meanings: Young British Muslim Women and the Negotiation of Differences," Gender, Place and Culture, 6 no. 1 (1999): 5-26, 5. xxxiii A key text in intersectionality is Kimberley Crenshaw, "Mapping the Margins:
For the application of intersectionality in feminist theory and politics, see Anna Carastathis
  • Intersectionality
Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color," Stanford Law Review 43, no. 6 (1991): 1241-1279. For the application of intersectionality in feminist theory and politics, see Anna Carastathis, "The Concept of Intersectionality in Feminist Theory," Philosophy Compass 9, no. 5 (2014): 304-314; and Nira Yuval-
Moving Beyond Hospitality
lx e.g. Miguel de la Torre, "Moving Beyond Hospitality," Journal of Lutheran Ethics 10, no. 4 (April 2010): 1-11.
Alternately Doucmented Theologies: Mapping Border, Exile and Diaspora
  • Lxi Carmen Nanko-Fernández
lxi Carmen Nanko-Fernández, Theologizing in Espanglish: Context, Community and Ministry (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2010), 1, 3-4; see also Carmen Nanko-Fernández, "Alternately Doucmented Theologies: Mapping Border, Exile and Diaspora," in Religion and Politics in America's Borderlands, ed. Sarah Azaransky (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2013), 33-55.
To Speak of God from More Than One Place: Theological Reflections from the Experience of Migration
  • Peter Lxii
  • Phan
lxii Peter Phan, "The Experience of Migration in the US as a Source of Intercultural Theology," in Migration, Religious Experience and Globalization, eds. Giaocchino Campese and Pietro Ciallella (New York: Center for Migration Studies, 2003), 150-151, 154; Nancy Bedford, "To Speak of God from More Than One Place: Theological Reflections from the Experience of Migration," in Latin American Liberation Theology: The Next Generation, ed., Ivan Petrella (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2005), 95-118, 112-113.
2012 High Commissioner's Dialogue on Protection Challenges Theme: Faith and Protection, Overview of Follow-Up Actions
  • Marquardt
lxviii See Kassam in this volume; Marquardt et al, "Challenging Laws." lxix UNHCR, "2012 High Commissioner's Dialogue on Protection Challenges Theme: Faith and Protection, Overview of Follow-Up Actions," UNHCR, 2013, accessed August 30, 2015, http://www.unhcr.org/524ac7fd9.pdf; UNHCR, Partnership Note.
Managing Muslim Mobilities
  • Isotalo Fábos
Fábos and Isotalo, eds., Managing Muslim Mobilities;
Asylum-Seekers and Refugees
  • Lxxvi Fiddian
  • Qasmiyeh Qasmiyeh
lxxvi Fiddian-Qasmiyeh and Qasmiyeh, "Asylum-Seekers and Refugees," 300-301;
Cultural Diversity and Cultural Differences," in The Post-Colonial Studies Reader, 2 nd Edition
  • See Homi
  • K Bhabha
See Homi K. Bhabha, "Cultural Diversity and Cultural Differences," in The Post-Colonial Studies Reader, 2 nd Edition, eds. Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin (New York: Routledge, 2006), 155-7, pp. 156 and 157 respectively.
lxxx On research participants as analysts of their own experiences of bureaucratic labeling and academic research, also see Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh
lxxx On research participants as analysts of their own experiences of bureaucratic labeling and academic research, also see Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, "On the Threshold of Statelessness: Palestinian Narratives of Loss and Erasure," Journal of Racial and Ethnic Studies 39, no. 2 (2016): 301-321.
Trends in International Migrant Stock
lxxxii United Nations (2013) Trends in International Migrant Stock, 2013 Revision. Table 1.
  • Jean-Pierre Ruiz
Jean-Pierre Ruiz, Readings from the Edges: The Bible and People on the Move (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2011).
14, 199. xiv On this point, also see Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, South-South Educational Migration, Humanitarianism and Development: Views from the Caribbean
  • Xiii Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh
xiii Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, The Ideal Refugees: Gender, Islam and the Sahrawi Politics of Survival (Syracuse N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2014), pp. 14, 199. xiv On this point, also see Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, South-South Educational Migration, Humanitarianism and Development: Views from the Caribbean, North Africa and the Middle East (Oxford: Routledge, 2015), especially pp. 1-2.
UNDESA, Population Division
xvi UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, International Migration Report, 2013 (New York: UNDESA, Population Division, 2013), accessed March 23, 2015, http://esa.un.org/unmigration/documents/worldmigration/2013/Full_Document_final. pdf.
Asylum-Seekers and Refugees from the Middle East and North Africa: Negotiating Politics, Religion and Identity in the UK
  • Elena Xx See
  • Yousif M Fiddian-Qasmiyeh
  • Qasmiyeh
xx See, for instance, Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh and Yousif M. Qasmiyeh, "Asylum-Seekers and Refugees from the Middle East and North Africa: Negotiating Politics, Religion and Identity in the UK," Journal of Refugee Studies 23, no 3 (2010): 294-
highlighting the extent to which policies regarding student mobility have been simultaneously "religionized," racialized and securitized in the twenty-first century. For instance, see Michael Ewers and Joseph Lewis
Middle East and both North and Sub-Saharan Africa--, highlighting the extent to which policies regarding student mobility have been simultaneously "religionized," racialized and securitized in the twenty-first century. For instance, see Michael Ewers and Joseph Lewis, "Risk and the Securitisation of Student Migration to the United States," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 99 (2008): 470-482;
The UK's Immigration Crackdown Will Lead to a Loss of International Talent, The Guardian
  • Sarah Mulley
Sarah Mulley, "The UK's Immigration Crackdown Will Lead to a Loss of International Talent, The Guardian, May 24, 2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/may/24/uk-immigration-crackdown-loss-international-talent;
Immigration Crackdown Deterring Foreign Students, Says Universities Chief, The Guardian
  • Matthew Taylor
Matthew Taylor, "Immigration Crackdown Deterring Foreign Students, Says Universities Chief, The Guardian, January 9, 2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/ 2013/jan/08/immigration-foreign-studentsuniversities.
The terminology we use here reflects McEwan's suggestion that "it is most useful to think of North/South as a metaphorical rather than a geographical distinction
  • Xxiii Fiddian-Qasmiyeh
xxiii Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, South-South Educational Migration. The terminology we use here reflects McEwan's suggestion that "it is most useful to think of North/South as a metaphorical rather than a geographical distinction." Cheryl McEwan, Postcolonialism and Development (Oxford: Routledge, 2009), 13. The terms global North/South transcend the connotations of typologies such as "First" and "Third World," "developed" or "developing" which "suggest both a hierarchy and a value judgement" (ibid., 12); the term "non-West" as the counterpoint to "West".
Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color
  • Claire See
  • Dwyer
xxxii On the dangers of the veil becoming an "overdetermined signifier for Muslim women," see Claire Dwyer, "Veiled Meanings: Young British Muslim Women and the Negotiation of Differences," Gender, Place and Culture, 6 no. 1 (1999): 5-26, 5. xxxiii A key text in intersectionality is Kimberley Crenshaw, "Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color," Stanford Law Review 43, no. 6 (1991): 1241-1279. For the application of intersectionality in feminist theory and politics, see Anna Carastathis, "The Concept of Intersectionality in Feminist Theory," Philosophy Compass 9, no. 5 (2014): 304-314; and Nira Yuval-