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Plant Resistance to the Moth Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) in Tomato Cultivars



The resistance of 11 tomato cultivars (Ps-6515, Berlina, Poolad, Petoprid-5, Zaman, Matin, Golsar, Sandokan-F1, Golshan-616, Sadeen-95 and Sadeen-21) to the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) was investigated under field conditions. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Data analysis indicated that there were significant differences (P?<?0.05) among cultivars regarding leaflet damage, leaf damage, overall plant damage, number of mines per leaf, number of holes on the stem, and fruit. Our findings revealed that the cultivars Berlina, Golsar, Poolad, and Zaman were less suitable cultivars, suggesting that they are more resistant to the tomato moth than the other cultivars. The high density of leaf trichomes present in the cultivars Berlina, Zaman, and Golsar can be one of the possible causes of resistance to T. absoluta. Knowledge of the extent of susceptibility or resistance of cultivars to a pest on a crop is one of the fundamental components of integrated pest management (IPM) programs for any crop.
1 23
Neotropical Entomology
ISSN 1519-566X
Neotrop Entomol
DOI 10.1007/s13744-016-0441-7
Plant Resistance to the Moth Tuta absoluta
(Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) in
Tomato Cultivars
F Sohrabi, H R Nooryazdan, B Gharati &
Z Saeidi
1 23
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Plant Resistance to the Moth Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)
(Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) in Tomato Cultivars
Dept of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Persian Gulf Univ, Bushehr, Iran
Dept of Plant Protection, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Iran
Tomato moth, integrated pest management,
plant susceptibility, trichomes
F Sohrabi, Dept of Plant Breeding, Faculty
of Agriculture, Persian Gulf Univ, Bushehr,
Edited by Rafael Major Pitta - Embrapa
Received 21 April 2016 and accepted 29
August 2016
*Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 2016
The resistance of 11 tomato cultivars (Ps-6515, Berlina, Poolad, Petoprid-5,
Zaman, Matin, Golsar, Sandokan-F1, Golshan-616, Sadeen-95 and Sadeen-21)
to the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) was
investigated under field conditions. A randomized complete block design was
used with three replications. Data analysis indicated that there were signif-
icant differences (P< 0.05) among cultivars regarding leaflet damage, leaf
damage, overall plant damage, number of mines per leaf, number of holes
on the stem, and fruit. Our findings revealed that the cultivars Berlina,
Golsar, Poolad, and Zaman were less suitable cultivars, suggesting that they
are more resistant to the tomato moth than the other cultivars. The high
density of leaf trichomes present in the cultivars Berlina, Zaman, and Golsar
can be one of the possible causes of resistance to T. absoluta. Knowledge of
the extent of susceptibility or resistance of cultivars to a pest on a crop is one
of the fundamental components of integrated pest management (IPM) pro-
grams for any crop.
The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)
(Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae), is a devastating insect pest affect-
ing tomato production in Iran and many other countries
(Baniameri & Cheraghian 2011,Gharekhani&Salek-
Ebrahimi 2014). The larvae produce galleries in the leaves,
stems, terminal buds and fruits. The main damage is caused
through larvae feeding on the parenchyma between the epi-
dermal layers of the leaves, reducing the photosynthetic ca-
pacity of the plant with subsequent reduction of the yield
(Desneux et al 2010,2011). Under heavy infestation, the yield
loss between 80100% is common (Gebremariamd 2015).
In many agronomic and vegetable cropping systems, the
primary strategy employed to control this pest involves the
use of chemical insecticides. However, it has serious prob-
lems such as destruction of natural enemy populations
(Campbell et al 1991), build-up of insecticide residues on to-
mato fruits (Walgenbach et al 1991) and in the environment,
and, especially, evolution of T. absoluta resistance to many
of the active ingredients available on the market (Siqueira
et al 2000a,b, Lietti et al 2005, Silva et al 2011, Campos
et al 2015,Roditakiset al 2015).
One of the important control methods for sustainable
management of T. absoluta to minimize development of
pesticide resistance is the use of resistant host plants. The
use of resistant plants can be a useful component of an
integrated pest management (IPM) system that could affect
pest population density, herbivore damage, and decrease
pesticide applications in agricultural ecosystems. In addition,
in many cases, even partial resistant cultivars are useful to
enhance the effects of beneficial natural enemies (Hare &
Andreadis 1983,Bonget al 1991, Cogni et al 2002,Kaplan
2007, Kaplan & Thaler 2010). Plant resistance to a pest can
be caused by antixenosis, a mechanism employed by the
host plants, deters the insects from oviposition, feeding,
seeking shelter, and colonization (Oyetunji et al 2014); anti-
biosis, which has a direct influence on the life history of a
pest (Ofomata et al 2000,Liet al 2004); and tolerance, the
plants capacity of keeping its production under attack for
Neotrop Entomol
DOI 10.1007/s13744-016-0441-7
Author's personal copy
herbivore insect (Vargas 1970, Stowe et al 2000, Stevens
et al 2008). Many researchers have investigated the resis-
tance of host plants to tomato moth (Gilardón et al 2001a,
Leite et al 2001,Suinagaet al 2004,Silva2009, Gharekhani &
Salek-Ebrahimi 2014). In this study, we present data on sus-
ceptibility of 11 tomato genotypes to T. absoluta.Thedata
obtained fromthese experiments are used to understand the
mechanism of population build-up of this pest on different
tomato genotypes to develop a comprehensive pest man-
agement program for tomato.
Material and Methods
The experiment was performed in a field in the Faculty of
Agriculture, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr province,
Borazjan region, Bondarooz (Southern Iran) (29°1254.1N,
51°1357.1E, and elev. 99 m) from February 2014 to
June 2015. Eleven cultivars of tomato were used in this study,
including five cultivars Ps-6515, Berlina, Poolad, Petoprid-5,
Zaman from FALAT Co., Iran; two cultivars Matin and Golsar
from GOLSAM Co., Iran; and four cultivars Sandokan-F1,
Golshan-616, Sadeen-95 and Sadeen-21 from BEHTA Co.,
Iran. The tomato seeds were planted in plastic transplant
trays containing peat moss soil and perlite on November
2014. With the appearance of the first true leaves, the seed-
lings were transplanted into the main field. The evaluation of
the resistance was performed in a randomized block design
with three replications. A total of 20 plants per cultivar were
planted in each replicate plot (plot area = 24 m
) in two 150-
cm spaced rows. The space between plants in each row was
50 cm, and the space between plots was 150 cm. The culti-
vars were exposed to the natural infestation by indigenous
population of tomato leaf miner in the field.
Leaflet damage, leaf damage, and overall plant damage
caused by the insect were evaluated at days 20, 40, and 60
after infestation. Five plants were randomly selected in each
plot and marked notes and the different characteristics on
these plants were measured. Leaflet and leaf damage was
evaluated based on the percentage of leaflet or leaf area
affected by T. absoluta. In this case, three leaves were se-
lected from the upper third ofeach of the five selected plants
and the damaged area of each whole leaf and its leaflets was
recorded. The overall plant damage estimates were also per-
formed for each of the five selected plants. In addition, the
number of mines per leaf, holes on the stem, and holes per
fruit were assessed at the last sampling date. The number of
mines per leaf was counted on three leaves selected from
the upper third of each of the five randomly selected plants.
The number of holes on the stem and the number of holes
on the fruit were evaluated by performing a direct counting
of these features throughout the stem and five fruits from
each of these five selected plants, respectively. In addition,
Table 1 The mean percent of leaflet damage, leaf damage, and overall plant damage in tomato cultivars submitted to infestation of Tuta absoluta in different evaluation periods.
Leaflet damage Leaf damage Overall plant damage
Sampling time Sampling time Sampling time
Cultivar 20 40 60 20 40 60 20 40 60
11.33 ± 3.36a
3.00 ± 1.73d
11.33 ± 3.36a
7.00 ± 2.64bc
5.67 ± 2.38 cd
10.67 ± 3.26a
3.67 ± 1.90d
5.00 ± 2.24 cd
8.00 ± 0.00abc
30.00 ± 5.47a
8.67 ± 2.94d
33.67 ± 5.80a
33.00 ± 5.74a
21.00 ± 4.58b
34.00 ± 5.83a
10.67 ± 3.26 cd
24.33 ± 4.90b
13.00 ± 3.60 cd
20.67 ± 4.54b
53.67 ± 7.30b
14.33 ± 3.80f
58.33 ± 7.60ab
65.00 ± 8.00a
36.67 ± 6.00d
24.00 ± 4.90e
63.00 ± 7.90a
19.00 ± 4.30ef
45.00 ± 6.70c
22.00 ± 4.70ef
37.33 ± 6.10d
11.33 ± 3.40a
3.33 ± 1.80e
9.67 ± 3.10abc
12.33 ± 3.50a
6.67 ± 2.60bcde
6.00 ± 2.50bcde
10.33 ± 3.20ab
4.33 ± 2.10de
9.33 ± 3.00abc
5.67 ± 2.30cde
8.33 ± 2.90abcd
36.67 ± 6.00a
11.00 ± 3.30e
34.00 ± 5.80ab
33.67 ± 5.80ab
22.33 ± 4.70 cd
17.66 ± 4.20de
15.00 ± 3.90e
27.33 ± 5.20bc
24.33 ± 4.90 cd
63.67 ± 8.00bc
20.67 ± 4.50 g
67.00 ± 8.20abc
71.00 ± 8.40ab
43.67 ± 6.60de
35.67 ± 6.00ef
74.67 ± 8.60a
29.33±5.40 fg
58.00 ± 7.60c
30.33 ± 5.50f
46.67 ± 6.80d
12.67 ± 3.50a
10.00 ± 3.20abc
12.33 ± 3.50ab
5.33 ± 2.30 cd
9.00 ± 3.00abcd
4.67 ± 2.10d
10.67 ± 3.30ab
8.00 ± 2.80abcd
36.00 ± 6.00a
15.67 ± 4.00bc
22.67 ± 4.70abc
13.67 ± 4.00c
30.67 ± 5.50ab
16.00 ± 4.00bc
23.33 ± 4.80abc
19.67 ± 4.40bc
16.67 ± 4.00bc
55.67 ± 7.40a
48.00 ± 7.00ab
50.00 ± 7.00a
37.00 ± 6.00abc
25.67 ± 5.00c
49.67 ± 7.00a
27.00 ± 5.20c
37.67 ± 6.10abc
28.67 ± 5.30bc
28.67 ± 5.30bc
Means followed by the same letters in columns do not differ by the Duncan test (α=0.05).
Sohrabi et al
Author's personal copy
three leaves were selected from the upper third of each of
the five randomly selected plants for counting the density of
total trichomes and type VI glandular trichomes on the
leaves. Then, three leaflets separated from each leaf and
trichomes were counted using a stereomicroscope (×40) on
three 2-cm
regions of each leaflet. The total number of
trichomes and type VI glandular trichomes were also count-
ed on different 2-cm
sections of the stem.
The normality of data was assessed with Shapiro-Wilks
test (Proc Univariate, SAS Institute (2003), Cary, NC, USA).
Data which needed to be normalized were transformed be-
fore being analyzed. The percentage data were subjected to
arcsin square root transformation; however, no count data
transformation was performed before analysis because there
was no evidence of non-normality within these data. Analysis
of variance was performed using the general linear model
(GLM) procedure in the SAS software and means were com-
pared using Duncans multiple range test. Total damage in-
dex for each cultivar was presented as thesum of the indices
gained for different evaluated traits. Index for each trait was
calculated by dividing the lowest recorded number in a cer-
tain cultivar to the greatest recorded number for that trait in
all cultivars. Pearsons correlations (5% significance) were
used to evaluate the relationships between traits. Data were
then subjected to stepwise regression with overall plant
damage at 60 day as the dependent variable. Cultivar com-
parison and selection was accomplished by cluster analysis
according to Wards method using SAS software.
Results and Discussion
According to data of leaflet damage and leaf damage, and
overall plant damage, we found that the cultivars Berlina,
Golsar, Poolad, and Zaman more effectively avoided damage
caused by T. absoluta in the three evaluation periods
(Table 1). In contrast, Matin, Petopride5, SandocanF1, and
PS6515 showed significantly greater damage rates than other
evaluated cultivars (Table 1). There were also significant dif-
ferences in the number of mines on the leaf (F= 3.33, df = 10,
Table 2 The mean number of
mines on the leaf, number of
holes on the stem, and number
of holes on the fruit of tomato
cultivars submitted to infestation
of Tuta absoluta.
Cultivar Number of mines
on the leaf
Number of holes
on the stem
Number of holes
on the fruit
6.47 ± 2.50a
3.27 ± 1.80b
5.20a ± 2.30b
5.73 ± 2.40a
4.60 ± 2.10ab
3.20 ± 1.80b
6.13 ± 2.50a
3.53 ± 1.80b
4.67 ± 2.10ab
3.47 ± 1.80b
3.47 ± 1.80b
3.67 ± 1.90a
1.33 ± 1.00c
2.80 ± 1.60abc
2.33 ± 1.50abc
1.40 ± 1.10c
2.40 ± 1.50abc
1.40 ± 1.10c
1.90 ± 1.10c
11.67 ± 3.40ab
4.07 ± 2.00e
11.00 ± 3.30ab
9.67 ± 3.10bc
6.87 ± 2.60cde
5.53 ± 2.30de
13.00 ± 3.60a
5.20 ± 2.30de
7.67 ± 2.70 cd
7.00 ± 2.60cde
8.67 ± 2.90bc
Means followed by the same letters in columns do not differ by the Duncan test (α= 0.05).
Table 3 Estimates of damage indices for different plant parts at day 60 after infestation and total damage index for tomato cultivars submitted to
infestation of Tuta absoluta.
Cultivar Leaflet damage
Leaf damage
Plant damage
Number of holes
on the stem index
Number of mines
on the leaf index
Number of holes
on the fruit indx
Total damage
Resistance of Tomato Cultivars to the Moth Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)
Author's personal copy
20, P= 0.0107), number of holes on the stem (F=3.37,
df = 10, 20, P= 0.0110), and fruit (F=9.10, df=10, 20,
P< 0.0001) caused by T. absoluta among the tomato culti-
vars (Table 2). The lowest number of mines on the leaf and
holes on the stem were observed in the cultivars Berlina,
Zaman, Golsar, Poolad, and Sadeen21. The cultivars Berlina,
Zaman, Golsar, and Poolad also had the lowest number of
holes on the fruit (Table 2).
Total damage index for evaluated tomato cultivars has
been presented in Table 3. Based on the results, the cultivars
Berlina, Golsar, Zaman, Poolad, and Sadeen21 with the low-
est total damage index (1.75, 2.05, 2.15, 2.23, and 2.76, re-
spectively) were the most resistant cultivars against
T. absoluta. The greatest total damage index was obtained
for the cultivars Petopride5, PS6515, Matin, and SandocanF1
(4.76, 4.6, 4.47 and 4.24, respectively) sustained less dam-
age from pest (Table 3).
Genetic variability is one of the characteristics of the
germplasm bank subsamples that gives higher or lower sus-
ceptibility to pest insects (Fernandes et al 2012). So, observed
differences between the levels of damages caused by
T. absoluta on different tomato cultivars in the present study
may have occurred because of genetic variability among
them. Resende et al (2006), Gonçalves et al (2008),
Oliveira et al (2009), Gonçalves Neto et al.(2010), Maciel
et al (2011), and Gharekhani & Salek-Ebrahimi (2014)have
also observed resistance to T. absoluta as non-preference
and antibiosis in some evaluated tomato cultivars.
The genetic diversity of tomato cultivars may display in-
appropriate morphophysiological features to oviposition of
T. absoluta adults and/or restrict the larvae feeding (Sobreira
et al 2009). Trichome density is the most important structur-
al feature of plants known to confer resistance to insect pests
(Sharma et al 2009,Heet al 2011). In the present study,
Table 4 Average densities
(number/2 cm
trichomes and type VI glandular
trichomes on the leaf and stem
for the plants used in the
Cultivar Leaf Stem
Type VI glandular
Type VI glandular
38.27 ± 6.20 cd
55.33 ± 7.40ab
43.00 ± 6.50c
36.40 ± 6.00 cd
60.4 ± 7.70a
50.13 ± 7.00b
26.80 ± 5.10e
55.33 ± 7.40ab
42.27 ± 6.50c
34.33 ± 5.90d
38.20 ± 6.20 cd
28.67 ± 5.30c
34.70 ± 5.90b
23.70 ± 4.80c
37.70 ± 6.10a
34.33 ± 5.80b
17.70 ± 4.20e
37.70 ± 6.10a
30.70 ± 5.50c
23.33 ± 4.80d
25.67 ± 5.00d
64.70 ± 8.00a
78.30 ± 8.80a
70.40 ± 8.40a
84.10 ± 9.20a
87.7 ± 9.30a
101.7 ± 10.00a
86.8 ± 9.30a
110.00 ± 10.40a
94.50 ± 9.70a
72.30 ± 8.50a
69.30 ± 8.30a
20.00 ± 4.47abc
18.00 ± 4.24 cd
19.70 ± 4.43bc
16.00 ± 4.00d
21.70 ± 4.65ab
21.33 ± 4.62ab
22.00 ± 4.69ab
22.33 ± 4.72a
20.00 ± 4.47abc
16.70 ± 4.08d
18.00 ± 4.24 cd
Means followed by the same letters in columns do not differ by the Duncan test (α= 0.05).
Table 5 Estimates of Pearsons correlations among the evaluated characteristics in tomato cultivars submitted to infestation of Tuta absoluta.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
(1) Total number of trichomes on the stem –––
(2) Number of Type VI glandular trichomes on the stem 0.19 –––
(3) Total number of trichomes on the leaf 0.32 0.30 –––
(4) Number of type VI glandular trichomes on the leaf 0.30 0.30 0.91* ––
(5) Number of mines on the leaf 0.04 0.09 0.40* 0.40* –––––
(6) Number of holes on the stem 0.02 0.1 0.40* 0.40* 0.10* ––––
(7) Number of holes on the fruit 0.10 0.03 0.63* 0.61* 0.75* 0.74* –––
(8) Leaflet damage 0.17 0.02 0.58* 0.58* 0.76* 0.76* 0.82* ––
(9) Leaf damage 0.14 0.04 0.58* 0.56* 0.73* 0.73* 0.82* 0.97*
(10) Overall plant damage 0.07 0.08 0.42* 0.40* 0.10* 0.10* 0.73* 0.78* 0.76*
*Significant at 5% by the ttest.
Sohrabi et al
Author's personal copy
significant differences were observed in the total number of
trichomes on the leaf (F= 21.47, df= 10, 20, P<0.0001),num-
ber of type VI glandular trichomes on the leaf (F= 46.58,
df = 10, 20, P< 0.0001), and number of type VI glandular tri-
chomes on the stem (F= 7.54, df = 10, 20, P< 0.0001) among
the cultivars (Table 4). However, differences in the total
number of trichomes on the stem were not significant
(P˃0.05) (Table 4). The cultivars with more total trichome
density on the leaf were Sadeen95, Berlina, and Golsar. The
most density of type VI glandular trichomes on the leaf was
observed in Sadeen95 and Golsar (Table 4). Golsar,
Sadeen95, Zaman, Petopride5, PS6515, and Golshan616 had
the greatest number of type VI glandular trichomes on the
stem. The lowest total number of trichomes and also type VI
glandular trichomes on the leaf was observed in Petopride5.
The cultivars Matin, Poolad, Berlina, and Sadeen21 had the
lower number of type VI glandular trichomes on the stem
(Table 4).
Pearsons correlations revealed that the total number of
trichomes on the leaf had negative and significant correla-
tions with the overall plant damage (r=0.42), leaf damage
(r=0.58), leaflet damage (r=0.58), number of mines on
the leaf (r=0.40), number of holes on the stem (r=0.40),
and number of holes on the fruit (r=0.63) (Table 5).
Persons correlation estimates between type VI glandular
trichomes on the leaf with overall plant damage (r=0.40),
leaf damage (r=0.56), leaflet damage (r=0.58), number of
mines on the leaf (r=0.40), number of holes on the stem
(r=0.40), and number of holes on the fruit (r=0.61) were
also negative and significant (Table 5). These results suggest
trichomes may have direct negative influence on both larval
feeding and oviposition by insects (Handley et al 2005), re-
sult in the lowest number of larvae and consequently lower
damage to leaves and plants. Gilardón et al (2001a)and
Neves et al (2003) also reported significant positive correla-
tion between the density of trichomes on the leaves and
resistance to Tuta species, as well as its relation to
trichomes type VI. Thus, the high density of leaf trichomes
present in the cultivars Sadeen95, Berlina, and Golsar can be
one of the possible causes of resistanceto T. absoluta known
as the antixenosis mechanism. Oliveira et al (2009)alsoob-
served that the HGB 1497 subsample of Solanum
lycopersicum L. presented resistance by antixenosis to the
tomato plant miner T. absoluta. The high density of tri-
chomes on tomato leaves can be extremely important for a
cultivar to avoid the presence of T. absoluta. In addition,
different metabolites are secreted from trichomes on the
stems and leaves of the tomato plants, which cause different
resistance against T. absoluta (Gilardón et al 2001b).
Compounds such as tridecan-2-one and undecan-2-one, es-
pecially secreted by type VI glandular trichomes on the to-
mato leaves, perform as physical and chemical barriers for
Table 6 Results of stepwise
multiple regression analysis
between overall plant damage at
day 60 (y) and the evaluated
Variable Parameter estimate Model R-square C(p) Fvalue
Number of mines on the leaf 8.85 0.92 2.30 360.29*
Total number of trichomes on the stem 0.06 0.93 0.40 5.04*
*Significant at P 0.05.
Fig 1 Dendrogram of 11 tomato
cultivars for six studied variables
using hierarchical cluster analysis
Resistance of Tomato Cultivars to the Moth Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)
Author's personal copy
insects and pathogens (Farrar & Kennedy 1991,Eigenbrode&
Espelie 1995,Justuset al 2000, Picoaga et al 2003). Such
features can be used in plant breeding programs aimed at
resistance to pests with selections toward genes that express
a higher number of trichomes. An exception was Poolad with
a low number of trichomes on the leaf (Table 4), which
showed high resistance to T. absoluta (Tables 1,2and 3).
Also, Sadeen95 with the most density of its trichomes
(Table 4), showed partially resistance to the pest (Tables 1
and 3). This result can be explained by the presence and role
of other potential resistance factors such as allelochemicals
that confer resistance to T. absoluta as shown by Leite et al
(1999) and Suinaga et al (2004).
Persons correlation estimates between leaf and leaflet
damage with the number of mines on the leaf, number of
holes on the stem, and fruit were positive and significant
(Table 5). Overall plant damage also had positive and signif-
icant estimates of correlation with leaf damage (r= 0.76),
leaflet damage (r= 0.78), number of mines on the leaf
(r= 0.10), num ber of holes on th e stem (r= 0.10), and number
of holes on the fruit (r=0.73) (Table5). The number of holes
on the fruit had positive and significant correlations with the
number of mines on the leaf (r= 0.75) and number of holes
on the stem (r= 0.74) (Table 5). The number of holes on the
stem had positive and significant correlation with the num-
ber of mines on the leaf (r=0.10) (Table5).
Stepwise regression is an automated tool used in the ex-
ploratory stages of model building to identify a useful subset
of predictors. The process systematically adds the most sig-
nificant variable or removes the least significant variable dur-
ing each step. In order to remove the effect of non-effective
characteristics in the regression model on grain yield, step-
wise regression was used. The results of the stepwise regres-
sion analysis are presented in Table 6. The number of mines
on the leaf (x
) was the variable that best explained overall
plant damage at day 60 after infestation (y) as shown by
stepwise regression (Table 6). The total number of trichomes
on the stem (x
) was the second variable that exerted influ-
ence on overall plant damage. Parameter estimates showed
that the number of mines on the leaf had positive significant
effect, while the number of trichomes on the stem negatively
affected overall plant damage at day 60 (Table 6).
The results of cluster analysis separated 11 evaluated tomato
cultivars in three distinctive categories including Petopride5,
Matin, SandokanF1, and PS6515 as susceptible; Golshan616,
Sadeen21, and Sadeen95 as partially resistant; and Berlina,
Zaman, Golsar, and Poolad as resistant cultivars (Fig 1).
Significant differences in relative resistance of the studied
tomato cultivars demonstrate that the ones have potential
for use in backcrosses in processing tomato breeding pro-
grams. However, our results are preliminary and require fu-
ture studies for identifying the other resistance factors, other
than trichome density, associated with these cultivars. Also,
additional analyses with molecular markers will be needed
for indicating the probable genetic variation between these
tomato cultivars.
Acknowledgments Financial support provided by the research deputy
of Persian Gulf University is gratefully acknowledged.
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Resistance of Tomato Cultivars to the Moth Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)
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... Resistance to TLM may be due to antibiotic traits that are constitutively expressed in the uninfested plant, or by physiological responses induced by TLMinfestation (Han et al., 2019). The glandular trichomes of tomato plants not only cause a physical barrier against pest but also produce specific defensive compounds that can provide some resistance to TLM via antibiotic effects on oviposition, larval development, and immature survival (Sohrabi et al., 2016(Sohrabi et al., , 2017. In certain tomato cultivars, TLM infestation can elicit the production and release of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that attract TLM natural enemies such as predatory mirid bugs (De Backer et al., 2015;Naselli et al., 2017). ...
... We counted the density of type VI glandular trichome on the leaf surface of each tomato cultivar (Bergau et al., 2015;Sohrabi et al., 2016Sohrabi et al., , 2017, using five fully expanded leaves cut from the upper third of five tomato plants of each cultivar. The terminal leaflet was separated and its trichomes were counted on each of three one-cm 2 squares on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces using a stereomicroscope (40X). ...
... These trichomes could physically impede penetration of the leaves by first instar larvae and are known to contain tomato metabolites with anti-herbivore properties (Bergau et al., 2015), primarily methyl-ketones, sesquiterpines, and acyl sugars (Han et al., 2019). For example, Sohrabi et al. (2017) reported lower TLM damage on tomato cultivars with more type VI trichomes, which appear to provide a constituitive form of plant defense against folivores such as TLM. Bleeker et al. (2012) introduced the biosynthetic pathway of 7epizingiberene, a sesquiterpene, from a wild relative into cultivated tomato and demonstrated substantially increased resistance to whiteflies and spider mites, largely as a result of greatly reduced fecundity. ...
The Tomato Leaf Miner (TLM), Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a cosmopolitan tomato pest that has driven a renewed reliance on pesticides in tomato production, negatively affecting biological control of other pests and creating environmental and health hazards. We tested five locally important Iranian tomato cultivars (TD, Karon, Petoprid, Matin, and 8320) for constituitive resistance to TLM by comparing its biological performance and life table parameters under standardized laboratory conditions (27.5±1°C, 65±5% RH, 16 L:8 D hours photoperiod). Survival and developmental rates of immature stages varied significantly among cultivars, as did female fecundity and main parameters of the life table. Karon was most suceptible, affording 90% juvenile TLM survival, the fastest development, and the highest female fecundity, with cultivar 8320 not significantly different in these regards. By contrast, Matin ranked most resistant; i.e. only 59% of larvae survived, and female fecundity was almost halved. TD was the next most resistant, being not significantly different from Matin in these metrics. The intrinsic rates of increase (r), in descending order, were Karon (0.178), 8320 (0.169), TD (0.146), Petoprid (0.138), and Matin (0.111). Matin and TD had the highest densities of glandular trichomes on adaxial leaf surfaces. These findings indicate that the Matin, Petoprid and TD are more resistant than the other cultivars and have potential as one component of an IPM strategy to manage T. absoluta.
... However, many other studies showed differences among the tested cultivars ( Table 2). Susceptible tomato cultivars tested under laboratory or field conditions were characterized by a high number of mined (with or without larvae) leaves, stems or fruits, as well as a better suitability for egg-laying (Oliveira et al., 2009;Cherif et al., 2013;Khederi et al., 2014;Darbain et al., 2016;Sohrabi et al., 2016a;Sohrabi et al., 2016b;Allache et al., 2017;Ghaderi et al., 2017). Tomato cultivar 'Bravo' is commonly classified as one of the most susceptible cultivars, and was shown to be a better host plant than cultivar 'Tex 317': the latter led to a longer development time and a lower emergence rate (Silva et al., 2015). ...
... The length and density of glandular trichomes are negatively correlated with T. absoluta damage (Darbain et al., 2016). Sohrabi et al. (2016b) suggested that the high density of leaf trichomes present in three cultivars (cvs. 'Berlina', 'Zaman' and 'Golsar') tested under field conditions could be one of the possible causes of resistance to the tomato leafminer. ...
... Cultural practices, including crop rotation with non-Solanaceous plants as well as removing and destruction of infested plants and weeds, may provide adequate management of the pest and help to reduce insecticide applications. Development of resistant tomato cultivars, by the transfer of resistance factors to commercial tomato cultivars, may be useful in pest management programs preconized against T. absoluta (Sohrabi et al., 2016b). The use of RNAi technology by producing transgenic plants that express dsRNA molecules should be reinforced (Camargo et al., 2016). ...
Impact of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) on tomato production in Burkina Faso. Tuta absoluta is a leafminer native to South America and listed in Burkina Faso since 2016. Its larvae dig galleries in the leaves and fruits of the tomato. Through detailed surveys of 180 growers, we have assessed the impact of this pest on tomato production. The growers produce tomatoes on areas of less than ½ hectare. All of them have demonstrated their knowledge of T. absoluta and can describe its symptoms. On average, producers estimate that this leafminer causes yield losses of between 45 and 70%, resulting in financial losses of 1 to 2 million CFA francs per hectare. Almost 80% of producers use only plant protection products, of which only 42% are approved for tomatoes. Fifteen active substances are used, including emamectin benzoate, acetamiprid and cypermethrin. The resistance of the populations is such that many producers abandon plots because of uncontrollable infestation. Alternative methods are sometimes used: destruction of infested plants, crop rotation, weeding and biopesticides. This work is necessary to develop effective, accessible control methods that respect the environment and the health of producers.
... Previous studies have shown that survival and growth of T. absoluta in tomato plants can be negatively correlated to high glandular trichomes densities (Sohrabi et al. 2017;Resende et al. 2022), high levels of phenolic compounds (Larbat et al. 2016) and low leaf nitrogen content (Han et al. 2014;Salazar-Mendoza et al. 2023). Here, we found that lower levels of glandular trichome density and total phenolics, and greater nitrogen content in cultivated tomato leaves might have caused the shorting larval developmental time and increased pupal weight of T. absoluta. ...
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Main conclusion Cultivated tomato presented lower constitutive volatiles, reduced morphological and chemical defenses, and increased leaf nutritional quality that affect its resistance against the specialist herbivore Tuta absoluta compared to its wild relatives. Abstract Plant domestication process has selected desirable agronomic attributes that can both intentionally and unintentionally compromise other important traits, such as plant defense and nutritional value. However, the effect of domestication on defensive and nutritional traits of plant organs not exposed to selection and the consequent interactions with specialist herbivores are only partly known. Here, we hypothesized that the modern cultivated tomato has reduced levels of constitutive defense and increased levels of nutritional value compared with its wild relatives, and such differences affect the preference and performance of the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta—an insect pest that co-evolved with tomato. To test this hypothesis, we compared plant volatile emissions, leaf defensive (glandular and non-glandular trichome density, and total phenolic content), and nutritional traits (nitrogen content) among the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relatives S. pennellii and S. habrochaites. We also determined the attraction and ovipositional preference of female moths and larval performance on cultivated and wild tomatoes. Volatile emissions were qualitatively and quantitatively different among the cultivated and wild species. Glandular trichomes density and total phenolics were lower in S. lycopersicum. In contrast, this species had a greater non-glandular trichome density and leaf nitrogen content. Female moths were more attracted and consistently laid more eggs on the cultivated S. lycopersicum. Larvae fed on S. lycopersicum leaves had a better performance reaching shorter larval developmental times and increasing the pupal weight compared to those fed on wild tomatoes. Overall, our study documents that agronomic selection for increased yields has altered the defensive and nutritional traits in tomato plants, affecting their resistance to T. absoluta.
... To evaluate foliar damage by chewing insects on 15 plants randomly selected per plot at 30, 45 and 60 DAE, we used the percentage damage scale of Dirzo & Domínguez (1995): (0) leaves without herbivory, (1) 1 to 5% damage, (2) 6 to 12% damage, (3) 13 to 25% damage; (4) 26 to 50% damage and (5) above 50% damage). At each sampling date, we also calculated a cumulative damage index for each accession by dividing the lowest damage value by the highest value for the accession (Sohrabi, Nooryazdan & Gharati, 2017). ...
... Phthorimaea absoluta also chooses tomato host plants for oviposition and/or feeding using semiochemicals produced by glandular trichomes [3,22,37,39]. Earlier studies also indicated that resistance is positively associated with trichome density, and it is well known fact that the diversity and concentrations of host-plant secondary metabolites may impart varied level of resistance [40][41][42]. Indeed, tomato plants possessing glandular trichomes that produce volatile and non-volatile secondary metabolites, e.g., acylsugars, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, can repel, deter, and cause antibiosis effect on insects' biology [25,34]. ...
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Invasive tomato leaf miner, Phthorimaea absoluta causes serious damage and yield loss in tomato production in open-field and protected cultivation. Use of chemical pesticides is uneconomical and adversely affects humans and the environment. Host-plant resistance is an effective, economical and eco-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides. In this study, four wild tomato accessions from the World Vegetable Center along with one susceptible check were evaluated for their antixenosis and antibiosis effects on P. absoluta. The accessions VI037241 (Solanum galapagense) and VI037240 (S. cheesmaniae) were highly resistant, leading to 85% larval mortality under no-choice conditions. Choice assay also showed less oviposition preference and reduced pupal weight. Both VI037241 and VI037240 showed the highest resistance under field conditions. The accessions of S. habrochaites (LA1777) and S. habrochaites var. glabratum (VI030462) demonstrated moderate resistance against P. absoluta. Wild accessions recorded significantly less eggs and leaf damage in field trials compared to the susceptible genotype, S. lycopersicum (CL5915). Trichome density, type and higher production of acylsugar contributed to the insect resistance. Acylsugar production in wild accessions was less during the rainy season but significantly higher than in susceptible genotype. These findings can be useful to develop P. absoluta-resistant tomato varieties in tropics.
... Commercial tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are highly susceptible to T. absoluta but recent screenings on tomato populations have led to identify moderately resistant cultivars [10][11][12][13]. Some resistance traits have, however, been identified in wild tomato relatives. ...
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Tomato plants are attacked by a variety of herbivore pests and among them, the leafminer Tuta absoluta, which is currently a major threat to global tomato production. Although the commercial tomato is susceptible to T. absoluta attacks, a better understanding of the defensive plant responses to this pest will help in defining plant resistance traits and broaden the range of agronomic levers that can be used for an effective integrated pest management strategy over the crop cycle. In this study, we developed an integrative approach combining untargeted metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses to characterize the local and systemic metabolic responses of young tomato plants to T. absoluta larvae herbivory. From metabolomic analyses, the tomato response appeared to be both local and systemic, with a local response in infested leaves being much more intense than in other parts of the plant. The main response was a massive accumulation of phenolamides with great structural diversity, including rare derivatives composed of spermine and dihydrocinnamic acids. The accumulation of this family of specialized metabolites was supported by transcriptomic data, which showed induction of both phenylpropanoid and polyamine precursor pathways. Moreover, our transcriptomic data identified two genes strongly induced by T. absoluta herbivory, that we functionally characterized as putrescine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases. They catalyze the biosynthesis of several phenolamides, among which is caffeoylputrescine. Overall, this study provided new mechanistic clues of the tomato/T. absoluta interaction.
... Therefore, resistant cultivars and plant-derived products depicting pest control potential should be further investigated for a fast introduction in the agricultural production daily routine. All current tomato varieties are attacked by the pest, but some cultivars tend to be less attractive (Proffit et al., 2011;Cherif and Verheggen, 2019) and some new hybrids under testing demonstrate potential to advance in the tomato breeding with resistance to tomato leafminer (Gharekhani and Salek-Ebrahimi, 2014;Ghaderi et al., 2017;Ataide et al., 2017;Sohrabi et al., 2017;Dias et al., 2019). The present paper summarizes the current knowledge regarding the efforts to obtain tomato and other solanaceous resistant lines based on characteristics found in different wild relatives of tomatoes and compiles references regarding other effective phytochemicals that could be alternatively used for T. absoluta control. ...
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For integrated pest management (IPM) and organic farming, breeding resistant varieties is one of the most eco-friendly approaches, that goes along botanicals and other different cultural practices, as the use of companion plants. Among the many pest species that invaded the whole world in the last decades, one of the most frightening is the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a devastating pest of cultivated tomato worldwide. Tomato is one of the most important agricultural commodities, including the main mean of subsistence in many countries from Africa and middle East. As chemical pesticides failed to control de pest spread and led to many reports of resistant populations, alternative methods for tomato leafminer management must be quickly developed. Many of such alternatives count on a wide range of chemical compounds. The chemical compounds most often responsible for “constitutive resistance”, synthetized by tomato are methyl-ketones (2-tridecanone), sesquiterpenes (zingiberene), and acyl sugars (acylglucose and acylsucrose) while the chemical compounds produced by other plants, used as isolated substances or mixtures, which have antifeedant, growth inhibiting, repellent, and insecticide effects, are azadirachtin, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, citronellal, eugenol, linalool, nicotine, pyrethrin, rotenone, thujone, thymol, α-terpineol, 1.8-cineol, etc. Many of them are already commercially available but their efficacy and use differ widely. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the resistance mechanism of solanaceous species related to chemical compounds and substances important for IPM plans developed against T. absoluta is required by the breeding programs.
... To evaluate foliar damage by chewing insects on 15 plants randomly selected per plot at 30, 45 and 60 DAE, we used the percentage damage scale of Dirzo & Domínguez (1995): (0) leaves without herbivory, (1) 1 to 5% damage, (2) 6 to 12% damage, (3) 13 to 25% damage; (4) 26 to 50% damage and (5) above 50% damage). At each sampling date, we also calculated a cumulative damage index for each accession by dividing the lowest damage value by the highest value for the accession (Sohrabi, Nooryazdan & Gharati, 2017). ...
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Plant-insect interactions are a determining factor for sustainable crop production. Although plants can resist or tolerate herbivorous insects to varying degrees, even with the use of pesticides, insects can reduce plant net productivity by as much as 20%, so sustainable strategies for pest control with less dependence on chemicals are needed. Selecting plants with optimal resistance and photosynthetic traits can help minimize damage and maintain productivity. Here, 27 landrace accessions of lima beans, Phaseolus lunatus L., from the Yucatan Peninsula were evaluated in the field for morphological resistance traits, photosynthetic characteristics, insect damage and seed yield. Variation was found in physical leaf traits (number, area, and dry mass of leaves; trichome density, specific leaf thickness and hardness) and in physiological traits (photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon, water-use efficiency, and transpiration). Five accessions (JMC1325, JMC1288, JMC1339, JMC1208 and JMC1264) had the lowest index for cumulative damage with the highest seed yield, although RDA analysis uncovered two accessions (JMC1339, JMC1288) with strong positive association of seed yield and the cumulative damage index with leaf production, specific leaf area (SLA) and total leaf area. Leaf traits, including SLA and total leaf area are important drivers for optimizing seed yield. This study identified 12 important morphological and physiological leaf traits for selecting landrace accessions of P. lunatus for high yields (regardless of damage level) to achieve sustainable, environmentally safe crop production.
The development of new operational techniques for monitoring adult populations of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is regarded as a pressing need for surveillance and control of this major pest of tomato crops. Trap design is an important component of a monitoring or mass trapping system, along with the semiochemical attractant. Here, we present the results of an experiment carried out in tomato farms to assess the efficacy of a newly designed pheromone trap (i.e., sticky trap) in capturing T. absoluta adults and compare it to traditional pheromone traps. Analysis of variance demonstrated significant differences in the number of captures between the three traps. The mean (± SE) number of captures/trap/week in sticky traps was 70.44 ± 4.57, significantly higher than those captured in delta traps (55.94 ± 4.77) and water pan traps (18.63 ± 1.49). The results showed that the newly designed pheromone trap is a promising solution to lessen T. absoluta populations, thereby protecting tomato crops from infestations.
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Resistant plant cultivars which used in breeding programs are considered one of the modern integrated management programs to reduce the usage of synthetic insecticides and environmental contamination. the present study aimed to characterize the resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars to Tuta absoluta based on biochemical and molecular levels, in Egypt. The biochemical characters of the tested tomato cultivars (tomato- 86, tomato- Alissa, tomato- Fayarouz, tomato- Omniya, tomato- 036, tomato- GS) were determined colorimetrically and characterized by using native- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and agarose gel. Our results showed that there were variations highly significant in all biochemical constituents of the resistant tomato cultivar (tomato- 86) compared with the susceptible one (tomato- GS). Also, native-(PAGE) for peroxidase (POD) isoenzymes techniques of the tested tomato cultivars showed variations in protein band numbers and densities in tomato-86 resistant compared with tomato-GS susceptible to Tuta absoluta infestation. The correlation coefficient between total phenols and peroxidases in infested tomato leaves and percentages of damaged leaves with the tested insect pest was negative and highly significant, while in case of total proteins and reducing sugars in infested tomato leaves as well as lycopene contents in infested tomato fruits was positive, highly significant and significant, respectively. The correlation coefficient between tomato yield means and the infested fruit percentage with T. absoluta larvae was negative and highly significant. Respecting molecular diagnosis random amplified polymorphism DNA- polymerase chain reaction (RAPD- PCR), the results demonstrated that the presence of polymorphism in the resistant tomato cultivar (tomato- 86) compared with (tomato- GS), the most susceptible to the tested insect pest infestation.
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O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a densidade de tricomas e os hidrocarbonetos associados à resistência por antixenose de 42 subamostras de tomateiro do Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da Universidade Federal de Viçosa (BGH-UFV) a Liriomyza trifolii. Essas subamostras foram estudadas e a cultivar 'Santa Clara' que foi utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade a insetos minadores. As características avaliadas foram os números de folíolos minados/planta, minas/planta, densidade de tricomas e compostos químicos presentes nas folhas. Detectaram-se diferenças entre as subamostras nas variáveis avaliadas. Foram identificados 20 picos nos cromatogramas dos extratos hexânicos das folhas das subamostras testadas. As subamostras HGBs - 216, 813, 985, 987, 991, 992, 993, 1532, 1989, 1991, 2048, 2055, 2064, 2068, 2073, 2075, 2089, 2096 e 2097 foram selecionadas como fontes de resistência a L. trifolii. O mecanismo de resistência associado dessas subamostras foi a antixenose. Além disso, a baixa densidade de tricomas e compostos químicos presentes nas subamostras avaliadas podem ser as possíveis causas da resistência à praga.
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O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial agronômico de híbridos de tomateiro a partir da linhagem TOM-687, rica em acilaçúcares e de resistência comprovada a pragas. O experimento foi instalado na HortiAgro, município de Ijaci, MG. Foi constituído de 30 genótipos (5 híbridos comerciais, 1 linhagem pré-comercial (TOM-687), e 24 híbridos nos quais TOM-687 foi utilizada como um dos pais), os quais foram conduzidos em tutoramento com haste dupla, no espaçamento de 1,30 x 0,50 m, totalizando 15.385 plantas por hectare. Foram realizadas nove colheitas, entre as datas de 01/11/08 a 28/11/08. Foram avaliadas as características de massa média por fruto (g fruto-1) e produção por hectare (t ha-1). Os 24 híbridos que tiveram TOM-687 como um dos pais apresentaram potencial produtivo similar ao das testemunhas comerciais Débora Max, Bravo, Bônus, Kombat e Atyna. Dos 24 híbridos experimentais, quatro (TEX-298, TEX-310, TEX-315 e TEX-316) foram avaliados quanto à resistência à traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta) e mostraram-se mais resistentes do que as testemunhas comerciais.
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The tomato borer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an invasive pest of tomato crops that is rapidly expanding around the world. It is considered a devastating pest and its control heavily relies on application of insecticides. Diamides are a novel class of insecticides acting on insect ryanodine receptors and are highly effective against lepidopteran pests. To date, chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide have been registered in the market and they have been extensively used to manage T. absoluta. In this study, a survey was conducted in Greece and Italy monitoring diamide resistance. The populations originating from Sicily (Italy) exhibited LC50s that ranged between 47.6–435 for chlorantraniliprole and 993–1.376 for flubendiamide, while for Crete (Greece) LC50s ranged between 0.14–2.45 for chlorantraniliprole and 1.7–8.4 for flubendiamide (LC50s in mg L−1). Comparing this result to the susceptible reference strain, high resistance levels for the Italian populations were detected, i.e., up to 2,414- and 1,742-fold for chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide, respectively. Resistance ratios for Greek populations were found up to 14-fold for chlorantraniliprole and 11-fold for flubendiamide, suggesting that diamide resistance is low but increasing considering monitoring data over time. Hereby, we report for the first time, cases of resistance development to diamide insecticides in T. absoluta. These findings underline the importance of committing to the resistance management strategies for diamide insecticides.
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Spinosad has been used to control Tuta absoluta in Brazil for more than a decade but will eventually be replaced by spinetoram despite the risk of cross-resistance. Therefore, the susceptibility to both molecules and the activity of detoxification enzymes were determined for eight representative populations of T. absoluta to assess resistance and the risk of cross-resistance. The LC50 values for spinosad varied from 0.007 (Pelotas) to 0.626 mg/L (Sumaré); the LC50 values for spinetoram varied from 0.047 (Pelotas) to 0.308 mg/L (Sumaré). The LC99 values for spinosad varied from 0.23 (Pelotas) to 11.56 mg/L (Venda Nova do Imigrante); the LC99 values for spinetoram varied from 0.55 (Pelotas) to 6.71 mg/L (Iraquara). The resistance levels ranged from 1.0- to 93.8-fold (RR50) and 1.0- to 51.5-fold (RR99) for spinosad and from 1.0- to 6.5-fold (RR50) and 1.0- to 12.1-fold (RR99) for spinetoram. The concentration-mortality responses to spinetoram were more homogeneous than those to spinosad. A strong correlation between the susceptibilities of T. absoluta populations to spinosad and spinetoram was observed, showing the similarity of the mode of action of both molecules and producing cross-resistance between them. The β-esterase activity of T. absoluta populations was correlated with spinosyn susceptibility, suggesting a potential contribution of the enzyme to evolved spinosyn resistance. The evolution of resistance to spinosyns in T. absoluta observed in this study suggests that strategies to mitigate resistance must be carefully implemented over the short term and that rotation with other products is encouraged.
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Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the major pest of tomato plant. Since using relatively resistant cultivars may reduce the number of sprayings as well as postpone the development of the resistance to pesticides, the present study focused on evaluating the damage of T. absoluta on eleven 45-day-old tomato cultivars under greenhouse condition. Larval mines on the leaves as well as the terminal bud damage were considered. Damaged leaves, active mines and damaged terminal buds were significantly different among the cultivars. Cluster analysis using SPSS software resulted in grouping the cultivars into four categories as relatively resistant, partially resistant, partially susceptible and susceptible. The host plant’s growing characteristics (height and leaflet number) were assessed and likewise the weight of the resulted pupae. Differences in vulnerability of the cultivars showed that tomato cultivars possess resistant traits and the identification and utilisation of these traits can give rise to resistant varieties.
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This work was carried out in a greenhouse in the Federal University of Viçosa, to evaluate the antibiosis of Lycopersicon peruvianum (CNPH 101) to tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and its possible chemical causes. The treatments were represented by the species of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum (cv. Santa Clara and IPA-5: susceptibility patterns to T. absoluta) and the introduction CNPH 101 of L. peruvianum. The characteristics assessed were: larval mortality, pupal weight, sexual proportion, length of larval and pupal phases and the number of eggs/female. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer was used to identify the substances in the hexanic extract of leaves. The introduction CNPH 101 of L. peruvianum showed resistance to T. absoluta affecting the larval mortality and length of pupal phase. Two compounds (probably the 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-buthylphenol and another with retention time of 18.8 min. by chromatogram) were associated to fact that L. esculentum is more susceptible to T. absoluta than L. peruvianum. Two compounds were associated to plants of the cultivar Santa Clara (probably the transcarophyllene) and L. peruvianum (probably the hexadecane) most susceptible to T. absoluta. A compound (with retention time in the of 22.796 min. by chromatogram) was associated the plants of L. peruvianum most resistant to T. absoluta.
Control failures of insecticides used against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Brazil led to the investigation of the possible occurrence of resistance of this insect pest to abamectin, cartap, methamidophos and permethrin. The insect populations were collected from seven sites in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. These populations were subjected to concentration–mortality bioassays using insecticide-impregnated filter papers. We were unable to obtain a single population which provided a susceptibility standard for all insecticides tested. Therefore, the resistance levels were estimated in relation to the most susceptible population to each insecticide. Resistance to abamectin and cartap were observed in all populations when compared with the susceptible standard population, with resistance ratios ranging from 5.2- to 9.4-fold and from 2.2- to 21.9-fold for abamectin and cartap, respectively. Resistance to permethrin was observed in five populations with resistance ratios ranging from 1.9- to 6.6-fold, whereas resistance to methamidophos was observed in four populations with resistance ratios ranging from 2.6- to 4.2-fold. The long period and high frequency of use of these insecticides against this insect pest suggest that the evolution of insecticide resistance on them has been relatively slow. Alternatively, the phenomenon might be widespread among Brazilian populations of T. absoluta making the finding of suitable standard susceptible populations difficult and leading to an underestimation of the insecticide resistance levels in this pest. Higher levels of resistance to abamectin, cartap and permethrin are correlated with greater use of these compounds by growers. This finding suggests that local variation in insecticide use was an important cause of variation in susceptibility.
The secondary metabolite 2-tridecanone, secreted by the type VI glandular trichomes present in the leaves of Lycopersicon hirsutum L., make it resistant to a great variety of insects, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). The 2-tridecanone concentration, the type VI glandular trichome densities and the pinworm infestation degree were evaluated on the Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. susceptible cultivar 'Uco Plata', on the Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum resistant accession PI 134417 and on their F1 and F2. The mean infestation degree with pinworm larvae was significantlyhigher in 'Uco Plata' than in PI 134417. The 2-tridecanone concentration was significantly higher in the resistant parent, but the presence of this metabolite could only partially account for the resistance (R2 = 8.17%). No significant differences were detected in the type VI glandular trichomes densities between the susceptible and resistant parents. This trait was independent of the 2-tridecanone level and the pinworm infestation degree.