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An Evolutionary Architecture

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Abstract

In "An Evolutionary Architecture", John Frazer presents an overview of his work for the past 30 years. Attempting to develop a theoretical basis for architecture using analogies with nature's processes of evolution and morphogenesis. Frazer's vision of the future of architecture is to construct organic buildings. Thermodynamically open systems which are more environmentally aware and sustainable physically, sociologically and economically. The range of topics which Frazer discusses is a good illustration of the breadth and depth of the evolutionary design problem. Environmental Modelling One of the first topics dealt with is the importance of environmental modelling within the design process. Frazer shows how environmental modelling is often misused or misinterpreted by architects with particular reference to solar modelling. From the discussion given it would seem that simplifications of the environmental models is the prime culprit resulting in misinterpretation and misuse. The simplifications are understandable given the amount of information needed for accurate modelling. By simplifying the model of the environmental conditions the architect is able to make informed judgments within reasonable amounts of time and effort. Unfortunately the simplications result in errors which compound and cause the resulting structures to fall short of their anticipated performance. Frazer obviously believes that the computer can be a great aid in the harnessing of environmental modelling data, providing that the same simplifying assumptions are not made and that better models and interfaces are possible. Physical Modelling Physical modelling has played an important role in Frazer's research. Leading to the construction of several novel machine readable interactive models, ranging from lego-like building blocks to beermat cellular automata and wall partitioning systems. Ultimately this line of research has led to the Universal Constructor and the Universal Interactor. The Universal Constructor The Universal Constructor features on the cover of the book. It consists of a base plug-board, called the "landscape", on top of which "smart" blocks, or cells, can be stacked vertically. The cells are individually identified and can communicate with neighbours above and below. Cells communicate with users through a bank of LEDs displaying the current state of the cell. The whole structure is machine readable and so can be interpreted by a computer. The computer can interpret the states of the cells as either colour or geometrical transformations allowing a wide range of possible interpretations. The user interacts with the computer display through direct manipulation of the cells. The computer can communicate and even direct the actions of the user through feedback with the cells to display various states. The direct manipulation of the cells encourages experimentation by the user and demonstrates basic concepts of the system. The Universal Interactor The Universal Interactor is a whole series of experimental projects investigating novel input and output devices. All of the devices speak a common binary language and so can communicate through a mediating central hub. The result is that input, from say a body-suit, can be used to drive the out of a sound system or vice versa. The Universal Interactor opens up many possibilities for expression when using a CAD system that may at first seem very strange.However, some of these feedback systems may prove superior in the hands of skilled technicians than more standard devices. Imagine how a musician might be able to devise structures by playing melodies which express the character. Of course the interpretation of input in this form poses a difficult problem which will take a great deal of research to achieve. The Universal Interactor has been used to provide environmental feedback to affect the development of evolving genetic codes. The feedback given by the Universal Interactor has been used to guide selection of individuals from a population. Adaptive Computing Frazer completes his introduction to the range of tools used in his research by giving a brief tour of adaptive computing techniques. Covering topics including cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems and artificial evolution. Cellular Automata As previously mentioned Frazer has done some work using cellular automata in both physical and simulated environments. Frazer discusses how surprisingly complex behaviour can result from the simple local rules executed by cellular automata. Cellular automata are also capable of computation, in fact able to perform any computation possible by a finite state machine. Note that this does not mean that cellular automata are capable of any general computation as this would require the construction of a Turing machine which is beyond the capabilities of a finite state machine. Genetic Algorithms Genetic algorithms were first presented by Holland and since have become a important tool for many researchers in various areas.Originally developed for problem-solving and optimization problems with clearly stated criteria and goals. Frazer fails to mention one of the most important differences between genetic algorithms and other adaptive problem-solving techniques, ie. neural networks. Genetic algorithms have the advantage that criteria can be clearly stated and controlled within the fitness function. The learning by example which neural networks rely upon does not afford this level of control over what is to be learned. Classifier Systems Holland went on to develop genetic algorithms into classifier systems. Classifier systems are more focussed upon the problem of learning appropriate responses to stimuli, than searching for solutions to problems. Classifier systems receive information from the environment and respond according to rules, or classifiers. Successful classifiers are rewarded, creating a reinforcement learning environment. Obviously, the mapping between classifier systems and the cybernetic view of organisms sensing, processing and responding to environmental stimuli is strong. It would seem that a central process similar to a classifier system would be appropriate at the core of an organic building. Learning appropriate responses to environmental conditions over time. Artificial Evolution Artificial evolution traces it's roots back to the Biomorph program which was described by Dawkins in his book "The Blind Watchmaker". Essentially, artificial evolution requires that a user supplements the standard fitness function in genetic algorithms to guide evolution. The user may provide selection pressures which are unquantifiable in a stated problem and thus provide a means for dealing ill-defined criteria. Frazer notes that solving problems with ill-defined criteria using artificial evolution seriously limits the scope of problems that can be tackled. The reliance upon user interaction in artificial evolution reduces the practical size of populations and the duration of evolutionary runs. Coding Schemes Frazer goes on to discuss the encoding of architectural designs and their subsequent evolution. Introducing two major systems, the Reptile system and the Universal State Space Modeller. Blueprint vs. Recipe Frazer points out the inadequacies of using standard "blueprint" design techniques in developing organic structures. Using a "recipe" to describe the process of constructing a building is presented as an alternative. Recipes for construction are discussed with reference to the analogous process description given by DNA to construct an organism. The Reptile System The Reptile System is an ingenious construction set capable of producing a wide range of structures using just two simple components. Frazer saw the advantages of this system for rule-based and evolutionary systems in the compactness of structure descriptions. Compactness was essential for the early computational work when computer memory and storage space was scarce. However, compact representations such as those described form very rugged fitness landscapes which are not well suited to evolutionary search techniques. Structures are created from an initial "seed" or minimal construction, for example a compact spherical structure. The seed is then manipulated using a series of processes or transformations, for example stretching, shearing or bending. The structure would grow according to the transformations applied to it. Obviously, the transformations could be a predetermined sequence of actions which would always yield the same final structure given the same initial seed. Alternatively, the series of transformations applied could be environmentally sensitive resulting in forms which were also sensitive to their location. The idea of taking a geometrical form as a seed and transforming it using a series of processes to create complex structures is similar in many ways to the early work of Latham creating large morphological charts. Latham went on to develop his ideas into the "Mutator" system which he used to create organic artworks. Generalising the Reptile System Frazer has proposed a generalised version of the Reptile System to tackle more realistic building problems. Generating the seed or minimal configuration from design requirements automatically. From this starting point (or set of starting points) solutions could be evolved using artificial evolution. Quantifiable and specific aspects of the design brief define the formal criteria which are used as a standard fitness function. Non-quantifiable criteria, including aesthetic judgments, are evaluated by the user. The proposed system would be able to learn successful strategies for satisfying both formal and user criteria. In doing so the system would become a personalised tool of the designer. A personal assistant which would be able to anticipate aesthetic judgements and other criteria by employing previously successful strategies. Ultimately, this is a similar concept to Negroponte's "Architecture Machine" which he proposed would be computer system so personalised so as to be almost unusable by other people. The Universal State Space Modeller The Universal State Space Modeller is the basis of Frazer's current work. It is a system which can be used to model any structure, hence the universal claim in it's title. The datastructure underlying the modeller is a state space of scaleless logical points, called motes. Motes are arranged in a close-packing sphere arrangement, which makes each one equidistant from it's twelve neighbours. Any point can be broken down into a self-similar tetrahedral structure of logical points. Giving the state space a fractal nature which allows modelling at many different levels at once. Each mote can be thought of as analogous to a cell in a biological organism. Every mote carries a copy of the architectural genetic code in the same way that each cell within a organism carries a copy of it's DNA. The genetic code of a mote is stored as a sequence of binary "morons" which are grouped together into spatial configurations which are interpreted as the state of the mote. The developmental process begins with a seed. The seed develops through cellular duplication according to the rules of the genetic code. In the beginning the seed develops mainly in response to the internal genetic code, but as the development progresses the environment plays a greater role. Cells communicate by passing messages to their immediate twelve neighbours. However, it can send messages directed at remote cells, without knowledge of it's spatial relationship. During the development cells take on specialised functions, including environmental sensors or producers of raw materials. The resulting system is process driven, without presupposing the existence of a construction set to use. The datastructure can be interpreted in many ways to derive various phenotypes. The resulting structure is a by-product of the cellular activity during development and in response to the environment. As such the resulting structures have much in common with living organisms which are also the emergent result or by-product of local cellular activity. Primordial Architectural Soups To conclude, Frazer presents some of the most recent work done, evolving fundamental structures using limited raw materials, an initial seed and massive feedback. Frazer proposes to go further and do away with the need for initial seed and start with a primordial soup of basic architectural concepts. The research is attempting to evolve the starting conditions and evolutionary processes without any preconditions. Is there enough time to evolve a complex system from the basic building blocks which Frazer proposes? The computational complexity of the task being embarked upon is not discussed. There is an implicit assumption that the "superb tactics" of natural selection are enough to cut through the complexity of the task. However, Kauffman has shown how self-organisation plays a major role in the early development of replicating systems which we may call alive. Natural selection requires a solid basis upon which it can act. Is the primordial soup which Frazer proposes of the correct constitution to support self-organisation? Kauffman suggests that one of the most important attributes of a primordial soup to be capable of self-organisation is the need for a complex network of catalysts and the controlling mechanisms to stop the reactions from going supracritical. Can such a network be provided of primitive architectural concepts? What does it mean to have a catalyst in this domain? Conclusion Frazer shows some interesting work both in the areas of evolutionary design and self-organising systems. It is obvious from his work that he sympathizes with the opinions put forward by Kauffman that the order found in living organisms comes from both external evolutionary pressure and internal self-organisation. His final remarks underly this by paraphrasing the words of Kauffman, that life is always to found on the edge of chaos. By the "edge of chaos" Kauffman is referring to the area within the ordered regime of a system close to the "phase transition" to chaotic behaviour. Unfortunately, Frazer does not demonstrate that the systems he has presented have the necessary qualities to derive useful order at the edge of chaos. He does not demonstrate, as Kauffman does repeatedly, that there exists a "phase transition" between ordered and chaotic regimes of his systems. He also does not make any studies of the relationship of useful forms generated by his work to phase transition regions of his systems should they exist. If we are to find an organic architecture, in more than name alone, it is surely to reside close to the phase transition of the construction system of which is it built. Only there, if we are to believe Kauffman, are we to find useful order together with environmentally sensitive and thermodynamically open systems which can approach the utility of living organisms.

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... Prigogine proposes that thermodynamic systems in equilibrium are an exception rather than a rule. He argues that self-organizing matter operates in an open system of energy exchange that maintains a steady state far from equilibrium, such that a slight local energetic fluctuation can be amplified to have substantial global effects (Frazer 1995). In contrast to a system in equilibrium requiring large amounts of energy to change its state, the energy sensitive nature of dissipative structures means that self-organizing formations can quickly and efficiently adapt to changes in their environments. ...
... Designers are urged to engage processes that correspond to ACADIA 08 › Silicon + Skin › Biological Processes and Computation Proceedings 76 this flexible landscape of dynamic equilibrium in which a local change is "relayed throughout the system … to affect, in turn, conditions all across the event surface". Where "global behavior is an emergent property unpredicted by local rules" (Frazer 1995). Architects are challenged to explore "a unique field of unfolding … in which forms exist only in evolution or equilibrium, that is, as event-generated diagrams" (Kwinter 1992). ...
... Frazer's strategy makes use of computing to model physical, material and environmental characteristics. Through a simulated process of self-organization and evolution, architecture becomes "the expression of an equilibrium between the endogenous development of the architectural concept and the exogenous influences exerted by [its] environment" (Frazer 1995). Evolutionary architecture is defined by a set of designer rules, a Biomimetics Concepts of Nature and Technology ...
... Over the last decade the authors have been involved in the development of a number of computer-based systems in the UK for intelligent design support. These systems employed Artificial Intelligence techniques including machine learning and evolutionary computing techniques to support architectural design, engineering design, software design and small molecule design [Frazer 1995 and. ...
... Frazer described an evolutionary model of architecture design in a book entitled "An Evolutionary Architecture" [Frazer, 1995]. In this model, a descriptive language is used to represent an architecture concept in a generic and universal form capable of being expressed in a variety of structures and spatial configurations in response to different environments. ...
... In this approach, knowledge in architectural design is formulated in terms of generic code-script, rules for the development of the code and for mapping the code to a virtual model, the environment for the development of the model and, most importantly, the criteria for selection. In particular, an architectural concept is processdriven; that is, by form-generating rules which consist not only of components, but also of processes [Frazer, 1995]. ...
... In "The Automated Architect", Cross has forecast the future of "the machine as architect", which "giving the machine facilities, skills and independence until it can be regards as a virtual architect in its own right", even when in his time the machine was still "brutish and stubbornly moronic" [4]. Frazer argued that with the increasing computational power, the role of the architect is "enhance rather than diminished", and more design options with higher sophistication level could be generated [5]. Today, significant development in computational logic and computational graphic has basically addressed all the proliferation of 'bad digital architecture' norm. ...
... Commenting on the research on human brain of Igor Aleksander, Frazer point out that the holistic capability of human brain on making guess based on experience, retrieving memories, perceiving analogies and forming associations between unrelated items are aspect of intuition, perception and imagination which are the fundamental fuel for creative architectural ideas [5]. At the moment, those neurological concepts are accelerating the recent development of deep learning artificial neural network, which capable of intuitively making decision based on previous training, clustering unrelated data, and predicting output from large input dataset [9]. ...
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This paper will focus on the development and application of an Automated System on the design and construction of a timber block construction. The aim of this research is to question autonomous process in architecture and construction, mainly focus on the robotic assembly process to build a house. The computational task within the design project is to develop Machine Learning algorithms for on-site construction robots which are geometrically identical with the modular building components, operating on a three-dimensional grid and aggregate a discrete reconfigurable structure. The beta BIM application created within this design research with the main task as to train the control system of the robots will also formulate constraints and guidelines for the generative design process and on-site construction execution. Hence, the architects who have the knowledge of design house and home, should be the creator of the algorithms to digitalize the making process of inhabitable spaces. The main source of reference is emerged from philosophical approach of perception, behavioral and cybernetic in architectural design, to technological research in AI development and robotic control system for virtual simulation and on-site self-adjustment to function with real con- struction limitation.
... This strategy has already been explored sporadically over many years (e.g. Frazer, 1995) and its development is facilitated by the availability of new and increasingly cheaper and smaller embedded systems technology. In many cases, the embedding of sensors, actuators and controllers into spaces and physical objects can allow models that unite the advantages of both digital and physical models, to provide logic functionality to simulate complex aspects of mechanical performance and realistic user interaction patterns while at the same time expressing properties of proportions, materiality, construction principles and so forth. ...
... This could lead to new kinds of "intelligent" architecture with new capabilities at all stages of a building's life cycle. For example, sensors, motors, displays and so forth could be driven by large networks of embedded microcontrollers to facilitate construction work, following approaches such as Autotectonics (Frazer, 1995 and or kits-of-parts theory (Howe, 1997) or to offer new capabilities to adapt architecture to changing needs. ...
... Cruz et al. 2017). First used in architecture by Frazer in 1995(Frazer 1995, CA has since been used as a morphogenetic "bottom-up" design approach in which predetermined results are avoided, and generated outcomes are complex and unpredictable (Herr and Ford 2016). The main advantage of CA derives from its capacity to reach status from the local dynamics, making it suitable for context-sensitive design exploration. ...
... Cruz et al. 2017). First used in architecture by Frazer in 1995(Frazer 1995, CA has since been used as a morphogenetic "bottom-up" design approach in which predetermined results are avoided, and generated outcomes are complex and unpredictable (Herr and Ford 2016). The main advantage of CA derives from its capacity to reach status from the local dynamics, making it suitable for context-sensitive design exploration. ...
... Se l'introduzione degli algoritmi genetici in ambiente scientifico si deve agli studi di John Holland (1975), la loro introduzione in architettura può essere ricondotta alla ricerca di John Frazer culminata nella pubblicazione di An Evolutionary Architecture (Frazer, 1995) presso l'Architectural Association di Londra. Attraverso lo studio di algoritmi evoluzionari e l'utilizzo della computazione digitale, Frazer vuole sperimentare una forma di architettura che possa essere considerata come estensione dell'intelligenza umana, ovvero dotata di un'intelligenza artificiale. ...
... Per condurre processi di ottimizzazione genetica, di qualsiasi tipo si tratti, è necessario descrivere il problema in termini genetici (Madeddu, 2011): la definizione del genotipo, descritto dai parametri variabili opportunamente codificati in stringhe di valori, e l'analisi del fenotipo, che descrive la funzione di fitness, sono alla base della corretta definizione del processo. Sulla scia degli studi di Frazer (1995), possiamo affermare che l'applicazione di questa metodologia operativa permette di dotare l'architettura di un corredo genetico, di DNA, ed una specifica combinazione di geni o parametri. Il genotipo, rappresenta i caratteri intrinsechi della forma mentre il fenotipo rappresenta l'insieme dei caratteri che l'architettura manifesta con evidenza, la sua morfologia. ...
... The observations from the nature have been greatly used as foundation of form-finding strategies exemplified in structural design experiments from F. Otto and B. Fuller to contemporary digital avant-garde applications of digital media generative tools -digital morphogenesis. In a way comparing an object to a living organism, a form of artificial life [4] morphogenetic approach seeks ways to create an architectural condition by which the object adapts, reacts and mutates according to the external environmental and internal parameters of the designed systems. ...
... The clear distinction should be made between nature as a source of explanation and source of inspiration. While in the first case, in the context of natural sciences, it is essentially important that analogy is valid, in the case when it is used as a starting point for design experiment weaker form of analogy is tolerable and according to Frazer[4] even misunderstand or heretic ideas could be stimulating. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper explores the concept of bio-appropriation as a problem-solving methodology for the production of designs based on principles derived from nature. In specific, the effectiveness of this approach was tested through the generative design process for bioinspired space structures. A source of inspiration was interface surfaces forming a common boundary among two different phases of matter, or in the case of organisms bio-interfaces formed between a biomaterial and another material. Design potentials of the functions that govern interface processes and interactions were reviewed. Identified patterns were re-evaluated, re-fined, and used for the creation of formal solutions and their dynamic transformations. http://mongeometrija.com/attachments/article/377/PROCEEDINGS%20-%20Volume%201%20.pdf#page=90
... The use of evolutionary algorithms has increased in architecture in order to achieve an optimisation of desired criteria, starting with Frazer J.H. in 1995. The final purpose was that their high potential for the built environment should be made use of, since they describe a much more complex system, with similarities to the natural one (Frazer, 1995) ...
... A further development of evolutionary theory is the theory of self-organization, both meant to describe and explain complex and chaotic natural systems (Frazer, 1995). The main principle of self-organization implies that an organized system evolves out of a chaotic one only through the interaction of its parts and subsystems, without any higher controlling entity (Camazine et al., 2001). ...
... While connecting the physical with the digital through scanning devices is crucial for hybrid concept modelling, the project aims additionally to introduce artificial neural networks as interpreters in the design process. Some of the earliest attempts to implement AI as a participatory system in the early stage of design are the projects by John and Jane Frazer presented in the book An Evolutionary Architecture (Frazer 1995). In their work, the role of AI is to recognize patterns and react to the design suggestions, generating a responsive design loop. ...
Book
Proceedings of the Design Modelling Symposium Berlin 2022, Towards Radical Regeneration
... Perhaps the contradiction-NC was conceived essentially as a form of automation-is conspicuous since these oppose some of the central concepts in computational architecture. I think of John Frazer's notion of an "army of clerks" (Frazer 1995); computing's diminishing costs are significant. ...
... Projedeki yürüyen merdivenler ve taşınabilir duvar panelleri, çeşitlilik ve esneklik sağlamaktadır (Hobart ve Colleges, 2005). 1976-1980 yılları arasında John ve Julia Frazer, Cedric Price ve Walter Segal "Generator" projesinin çalışan ölçekli prototipini üretmişlerdir (Frazer, 1995;Dunn, 2012). ...
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... Pask's works in cybernetics, especially his conversation theory and his understanding of architecture as a system (Pask, 1969), became highly influential for much of the following work in the domain of responsive architecture. Among many projects influenced and advised by Pask are experiments of Nicholas Negroponte (Negroponte, 1973) carried on in 1960s and 1970s, and later of John Frazer (Frazer, 1995) in 1980s and early 1990s. In theirs and other related works, the concept of modernist open plan is replaced by "non-plan" (Hughes & Sadler, 2000), a blueprint of an architectural system not predetermining its own future evolution. ...
... Today's cities can be termed artifices, but have failed to evolve relative to the dynamics of our own nature such that past patterns, in their majority retain an influence on our nature. "Natural patterns are generative, the constituents recyclable" (Frazer 1995). Our patterns fail to evolve and are deserted rather than recycled. ...
... These algorithmic approaches (and variants thereof) are utilized to solve complex multi-objective problems across various disciplines and scales (Luke 2013;Rothlauf 2011;Branke et al. 2008;Deb 2008;Coello 2006). Within architecture, the algorithmic application of evolutionary principles as a design method is well documented and observed in the work of seminal architects, planners, and researchers throughout the past 50 years (Batty 2013;Coates 2010;Weinstock 2010;Marshall 2008;Frazer 1995;Steadman 1979). However, there are alternative approaches to optimization not derived from biological paradigms (examples include hill-climbing, simulated annealing, tabu search, direct search, random optimization, and gradient-based optimization (Cavazzuti 2013;Luke 2013;Weise 2009). ...
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The application of population-based optimization algorithms in design is heavily driven by the translation and analysis of various data sets that represent a design problem; in evolutionary-based algorithms, these data sets are illustrated through two primary data streams: genes and fitness functions. The latter is frequently examined when analyzing the algorithm’s output, and the former is comparatively less so. This paper examines the role of genomic analysis in applying multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) in design. The results demonstrate the significance of utilizing the genetic analysis to understand better the relationships between parameters used in the design problem’s formulation and differentiate between morphological differences in the algorithmic output not commonly observed through fitness-based analyses.
... The thinking of Johnathan Frazer is interesting here. In his desire to understand complexity as generated in complex biological systems, Frazer suggests that creative morphology and intentionality are a science that merits development on its own (Frazer 1995). Frazer ...
... - (Frazer 1995) As mentioned, variations can also lead to exploration. For a topologist, a coffee cup and a donut might possess the same structure. ...
... CA theory (von Neumann 1951) was introduced by John von Neumann and Stanislaw Ulam in the 1940s and was later developed by many others, such as John Conway and Stephen Wolfram (2002). There are various examples of CA used by designers to create architectural forms which have self-similar characteristics (Frazer 1995;Krawczyk 2003). In addition to the form generator capabilities of CA, it can be used as a tool to support the conceptual design process (Herr 2008). ...
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Thesis
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... Although some of the design processes can be adapted to the built environment, designers are still widely challenged with 1) the selection of biological models to address multiple requirements that are sometimes contradictory [14] , and 2) how to actually combine the chosen functions or strategies into a design that can be implemented into a building [8]. Today, even though transposition from a biological model to a technological design is assisted by recent progress in materials and innovative construction techniques [15]- [17], it is in practice very often unachieved; the benefits provided by the bioinspired design do not counterbalance the resources or means at stake for its implementation. ...
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Building envelopes have a key role to the occupant comfort. Their design, implementation and functionalities highly influence the overall building performance. Some current research focus on strategies to improve buildings energy efficiency while minimizing their impact on the environment. Bioinspiration i.e., the inspiration of biological organisms for technical solutions, has been for the past decades an emerging field in the building construction. Living systems are the results of successive adaptations that occurred during the last billions of years to sustain under a constrained environment. They usually demonstrate optimization strategies rather than maximization, including adjusting to climatic variations and managing multiple physical factors, such as heat, light, air with local natural and renewable resources. While the potential of bioinspiration for the building sector is beyond doubt, its implementation still needs developments, as the transfer of a biological principle to a technical solution often requires scales and materials transpositions to technology. This paper presents a bioinspired design issued from an experimental framework; the authors first selected and characterized biological models, then used the generated data during a conceptualisation workshop gathering engineers and architects. It emerged a concept of an adaptive double-skin building envelope, inspired from the morpho butterfly, that can manage heat and light transfers towards the building envelope.
... The building and its users would thus engage in a Musicolour-like emergent and decentred conversation. In the end, the Fun Palace was never built, but it has been the inspiration for developments in interactive and adaptive architecture up to the present (Frazer 1995, Furtado 2008, Negroponte 1970, Velikov 2015 ...
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I review the history of cybernetic art with examples. Headings include Agency Realism, Emergence and Control, Feedback Art, Adaptive Art, Art as Interface, Happenings, Technologies of the Self.
... In design, novel studies of route networks, structural systems and spatial organisation have also touched upon the concept of branching (Frazer, 1995;Panchuk, 2006). They have been proven to be an optimised form of creating node-edge networks. ...
... Although Friedman's solutions can be considered as utopian and radical in a way, they show a proper base for a spectrum of possibilities how the combinatoric strategy can be used in an architectural and urban design, concentrating on an adaptability of space, following the simple rules for an assembly and characteristics of improvisation and transformation condensed into simple comic-like explanatory manuals for non-specialists. Taking into account current research in the field of adaptive environments in combination with information technology, the agenda at the AA DRL explores new ways of materiality, responsiveness and prototyping methods using digital technologies in systems that actively seek to engage and participate in their environment (Spyropoulos 2016), started in early 80-ies by Walter Segal and later by Frazer et al. (1995). He continued in Segal's idea of a self-built housing system, developing the Self-builder design Kit where self-designers were allow to design the building layout before it is built in an interactive electronic way. ...
... Genetik algoritmalar ilk olarak 1960 yılında John Holland tarafından Darwin'in Evrim Teorisi baz alınarak geliştirilmiş, ardından Holland'ın öğrencisi David E. Goldberg 1989 yılında genetik algoritmaların kullanım alanlarını genişleten çalışmalarda bulunmuştur (Mitchell, 1997). John Frazer (1995), Reptile Structure adını verdiği çalışmasında evrimsel algoritmaları kullanarak mimari strüktürler geliştirmeye çalışmıştır. John Gero, 1996 yılında evrimsel sistemler ve sinir ağlarını kapsayan çalışmasını paylaşmıştır. ...
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Deep learning is a machine learning method that uses artificial neural networks for complex tasks and problems that require the processing of large data sets. Deep learning has shown that it is possible to process the properties of the data that previously needed to be transferred to the computer by an expert person, only by a computer. Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) algorithm, one of the subsystems of deep learning, takes advantage of the contention of two neural networks working opposite each other. While the Generator produces fake images, the Discriminator evaluates the images and generates the information that the image is fake or real. This contentious situation between two networks repeats until the Discriminator cannot distinguish the image is fake. For this reason, researchers prefer to use the GAN especially in image processing and image translation problems. With the image processing techniques offered by deep learning, it is possible to process complex spatial data and to reproduce spatial fictions through images. The study aims to investigate the new spatial potentials of interior spaces with different characteristics. In this context, modern interiors are reinterpreted as distopic science fiction spaces by using the GAN algorithm, which is a suitable technique for image processing. In this study, we created two different data sets from modern interior photographs and science fiction movies. Thus, we tried to investigate how modern interiors can change morphologically when they become a part of science fiction movies.
... The questions on attribute of evolvability [15] (p.119) and the system's propensity to acquire the status of an evolutionary system [15 (p.119), 13 (p.191, 192), 16], starting from the current stage of dynamic performance, have been left open and without more detailed analysis. This has been done due to the specific initial focus of the object's operation which still differs from those of biosystems in certain aspects, and in this respect tries to avoid any arbitrariness in applied protocols. ...
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As a part of the series of studies that have investigated different aspects of the Exo project and its arguments for the format and technical solution of the computed architecture-instrument, this paper focuses on main attributes and criteria that qualify this kind of architectural design for the categories of dynamic and kinetic responsive architectural systems, inquiring spatial and technological integration and design they claim. The concepts of these systems, theoretically presumed and practically tested in this project, have been contextualized within the wider field of research in this area (including relevant literature, comparative and referential examples), activating hereby interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary potentials for resolving critical issues of the desired and analyzed architectural format. By converging sentience (remote and close-up sensing), electronic integration, algorithmic (software) command-and-control and automation, smart or intelligent performance, kinetics, performativity, adaptability, responsiveness, and interaction in relation to the variable (dynamic) input parameters, Exo claims the status of the representative example of the argued and investigated system design. Since the first stage of the experiment (the proof of a concept) has left the full application of targeted attributes partly unresolved, their detailed analysis and critical observation will be provided and presented so as to refine and more precisely direct further prototyping and project development. In parallel, the particularity of this case will be led towards the universal set of principles within the aim of its wider application in different design situations.
... This kind of simulator is widely used in territorial studies and traduces human behaviors through utility functions. Thus, optimization methods are generally used for this kind of simulators to optimize the utility function: Multi-Agent Systems [Ruas et al., 2011] or meta-heuristics like evolutionary algorithms [Frazer, 1995] or simulated annealing [Bao et al., 2013] combined with geometric generative methods like primitive instancing [Perret et al., 2010, Kämpf et al., 2010 or shape grammars [Talton et al., 2011]. ...
... In his book An Evolutionary Architecture [12], Frazer introduced new techniques based on digital computing that simulate the rules of living creatures and then generate architectural forms as an "artificial life" ( Figure 5). He took the formation of DNA as an example, which itself is complicated but comes from simple rules involving the different permutations of the four nucleotides. ...
Thesis
This dissertation aims at developing a machine learning workflow in solving design-related problems, taking a data-driven structural design method with topological data using graphic statics as an example. It shows the advantages of building machine learning surrogate models for learning the design topology -- the relationship of design elements. It reveals a future tendency of the coexistence of the human designer and the machine, in which the machine learns the appearance and correlation between design data, while the human supervises the learning process. Theoretically, with the commencement of the age of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence, the usage of machine learning in solving design problems is widely applied. The existing research mainly focuses on the machine learning of the geometric data, however, the internal logic of a design is represented as the topology, which describes the relationship between each design element. The topology can not be easily represented for the human designer to understand, however it's readable and understandable by the machine, which suggests a method of using machine learning techniques to learn the intrinsic logic of a design as the topology. Technically, we propose to use machine learning as a framework and graphic statics as a supporting method to provide training data, suggesting a new design methodology by the machine learning of the topology. Different from previous geometry-based design, in which only the design geometry is presented and considered, in this new topology-based design, the human designer employs the machine and provides training materials showing the topology of a design to train the machine. The machine finds the design rules related to the topology and applies the trained machine learning models to generate new design cases as both the geometry and the topology.
... (Stiny and Gips, 1972) John Frazer introduced the idea of evolution in architectural design, exploring the ways of evolving design by using Genetic Algorithms (GA). (Frazer, 1995b) The increase in computational power and availability of integrated performance evaluation methods enabled the broader application of generative design tools in design exploration and evaluation in the last decade, one of the most popular methods to generative design exploration becoming Genetic ...
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Design as a process usually follows a linear path starting with an early design sketch to engineering and optimization. In this process, the information flows one directional. The later stages of the design optimization and execution do not inform the decisions in the early stages., Some of these early decisions complicate the optimization procedures that are usually applied in later stages. Consequently, design to realization becomes a time-consuming process, where optimization and execution require long periods. Consequently, a brief time period remains for the investigation of novel approaches and solutions. As computational power increases and data processing accelerates, simulating design performance becomes faster. Accordingly, the integration of design applications for optimization moves to earlier stages of design. While opening new horizons for design exploration and optimization, these processes also bring an obsession with numbers and performance where design is often mistaken with conventional problem-solving. However, unlike in problem-solving, early design exploration is a stage where the variables and goals that influence the optimization and search process are not clearly defined. Characteristically this stage is a cycle of iterative exploration, evaluation, and reflection, where the role of the designer becomes framing the questions rather than finding solutions. This research project explores design methods and work flows that can break the linearity of the traditional design process while still accommodating the flexible and ambiguous nature of creative exploration. Acknowledging potentials of technological developments in the field through the integration of heuristics and machine learning, the research investigates methodologies of collaboration between designer and computer to amplify the creative exploration. The project asks how architects and designers can use information-based processes in the early design phase to negotiate between performative design objectives and aesthetic aims and how this awareness can positively influence optimization procedures in later stages.
... Some scholars have been researching digital architecture since the 1960s. From Computer-Aided Design [23] to Evolution Architecture [24] to Shape Grammars [25], digital technology has set off a wave of exploration of architectural design theories and methods. Architecture design gradually shifted from top-down to bottom-up energy-saving design theory, then to digital building energy-saving design with the development and improvement of BPS software technology [26][27][28]. ...
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The goal of the current study was to determine the appropriate spatial shapes for classroom occupants while saving energy. The research used parametric design and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to achieve this. Four recognized performance indicators, Energy Use Intensity (EUI), Useful Daylight Illuminance (UDI), Daylight Factor (DF), and Daylight Autonomy (DA), were used as the evaluation indexes for the research. The tests took place in six east–west-oriented classrooms at Shanghai University, China. The methodology was based on four steps: (1) parametric 3D modeling by Rhino and Grasshopper; (2) using building performance simulation tools; (3) running algorithm optimization; (4) outputting the useful results. The results proved that the methodology worked successfully in reducing energy consumption: optimized classrooms could be reduced by 7.5%~14.5%, and classrooms with east directions were generally 4.8%~8.3% more efficient than west-facing ones. The indoor lighting environment was also significantly improved, being slightly better than north–south-oriented classrooms in terms of the UDI index (60%~75%) and inferior (but still high) in terms of the DF (4.0%~7.0%) and DA (60%~80%) indexes. The conclusion can help save design time in the early design process of teaching spaces.
... One simple but potentially very useful means to bring people together is to design a tangible user interface that are designed for lay-people to interact with their environment by playing with the interface. Frazer's Self-builder design kit for Segal and its more advanced version Calbuild kit (Fig.4) attempted to help ordinary people to design and understand their own buildings and study their ideas before they are built (Frazer 1995). Frazer developed the idea further to provide a more generic tangible interface called Universal Constructor for users to study and interact with their built environment. ...
... These products are evaluated according to their performance in a similar environment. The result is often unexpected" [23]. ...
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The studies on design and design methods increased towards the end of the twentieth century in industrialized societies, however, the act of design started to be carried out with different auxiliary tools. The digital and algorithmic structure behind the computer has begun to provide the designer with different possibilities outside of the traditional drawing environment. After this period, the queries and discussions on the content of the design, its components, the intellectual process of the designer, and similar issues gradually increased. Within this scope, new theories and methods have emerged. In today's design, especially with digital technologies, transformations in theory and practice in the design process have brought new methods with them. Architects and designers have now become design tool developers rather than using use of the design tool. Based on this, the assistive tools that determine the current architectural design style is aimed to be explored in this paper. The study contributes to the field by (i) exploring these tools and their latent features, (ii) assessing the pros and cons of these tools, and (iii) last, implementing these design tools on the case studies.
... This line of thought dates back to the early pioneering work of Cedric Price, John Frazer and Gordon Pask. In Price's and Frazer's Generator project (Frazer 1995), a reconfigurable building not only responded to its inhabitants' wishes, but also self-initiated changes once the building became 'bored'. Pask's Musicolor software (Haque 2007) not only responded to, but also acted with -and thus truly interacted with -human musicians by being able to initiate actions. ...
... Many components of such an evolutionary process are stochastic (Eiben and Smith, 2003). While mostly applied in engineering problems, there are various applications of evolutionary approaches in design and arts (Frazer, 1995;Janssen, 2004;Bentley, 1999;Bentley and Corne, 2002). ...
... This paradigm suggests a shift in the role of the architect to become the catalyst of intelligent processes through effectively designed reward functions. As Pask said, the role of the architect here, is not so much to design a building or city as to catalyze them; to act that they may evolve (Frazer 1995). ...
... Various types of evolutionary algorithms have been applied to design, see Bentley and Corne (2001) for an extensive overview; however, within architecture there have been two primary uses of evolutionary computation. Janssen (2006) introduces two terms for these types of application: 'Parametric evolutionary design' which is used to optimise a set of parameters that define an architectural solution in the late stages of design and 'generative evolutionary design', initially pioneered by Frazer (1995), as a means of explorative 'form-finding' in the early stages of design. ...
... These can be optimized according to particular criteria, or can form a wide variety of hierarchically related design solutions, while supporting our design intuition. Detailed explanation of this innovative form of design computing is beyond the scope of this paper and can be found elsewhere (Frazer 1995). ...
... For Blaine Brownell "foresight shapes architecture that, like life itself, produces as well as consumes, reincorporates all of its waste, and maintains an ecological footprint in balance with the requirements of its context." 1 According to John Frazer, architecture should be a "living, evolving thing". 2 ...
Chapter
In digital design practice, the connection and feedback between physical and digital modelling is receiving increasing attention and is seen as a source of creativity and design innovation. The authors present a workflow that supports real-time design collaboration between human and machine intelligence through physical model building. The proposed framework is investigated through a case study, where we test the direct connectivity of physical and digital modelling environments with the integration of artificial neural networks. By combining 3D capturing tools and machine learning algorithms, the research creates an instant feedback loop between human and machine, introducing a hybrid immediacy that puts physical model building back at the centre of the digitally focused design process. By fusing physical models and digital workflows, the research aims to create interactivity between data, material and designer already at the early stage of the design.KeywordsComputational immediacyEarly design phaseANNPhysical model buildingHybrid design tool3D capturingMachine intelligence
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The following thesis will design the LAR-Algorithm for binaural late reverberation with a feedback delay network (FDN) based on JOT-reverberators. It is worked out here which factors are crucial for a realistic perception of late reverberation. In the end it is to be checked here whether a diffuse sound field can be generated with the method presented in this thesis. The algorithm is integrated into two different types of FDN cores. Here, scientific measurement data in form of the correlation coefficients of all delay lines and the T60 time will be collected and discussed in order to evaluate the diffuse sound image of the late reverberation created with the presented algorithm in this thesis. For this discussion two different virtual rooms, a small and a large one, will be defined. In the closing chapter it is discussed to what extent this method can be combined with ray-based methods for creating early reflections to form a hybrid reverberator. The problem with ray-based methods is that they are seen as not good enough for creating late reverberation, because real rooms tend to be more complex (see Alary, Benoit 2017a: n. P.). In the model developed in this thesis, the listener position is identical with the source position. For creating the reflections that make up late reverberation, physical properties like room modes, the speed of sound and the temperature as well as the relative humidity set by the user will be considered. The FDN will feature eight delay lines, whose delay time is determined by the first seventh prime numbers. Each signal will be distributed in a binaural image with head-related transfer functions (HRTF) using the SOFA format as eight virtual loudspeaker in each corner of the virtual room. It will also be discussed how the method worked out in this thesis stands in relation to room theory as well as how it can be integrated into a system that is based on the principle of liquid architecture by Marcos Novak, where digital spaces offer a natural habitat. The context of this development is the creation of a realistic late reverberation for hybrid reverberators for each desired room in a virtual world. The fields of application are film and game productions, as well as virtual reality experiences.
Thesis
La recherche s'intéresse à l'utilisation des jeux de construction sous la forme d’outils tangibles d'aide à la conception participative. La thèse identifie les liens étroits entre la contre-culture informatique des années 1960 jusqu'au mouvement néo-maker actuel et les outils de la conception architecturale, par le prisme des enjeux ludiques et éducatifs. La réflexion met en lumière l'influence formelle et procédurale des « Dons » de Friedrich Froebel dans l’émergence des utopies informatiques en architecture et en design, ainsi que la réhabilitation actuelle de leurs outils pédagogiques dans l’apprentissage de l’informatique, sous la forme de dispositifs tangibles d’aide à la conception.La recherche s’inscrit dans le champ de la révolution numérique par l’innovation ouverte et les technologies créatives, avec l’émergence des dispositifs de l’open culture qui se déploient autour des enjeux de la participation citoyenne. Les technologies ouvertes et créatives opèrent un vaste chantier théorique et expérimental sur la démocratisation de la culture architecturale et sur le rôle des acteurs qui peuvent désormais partager leur savoir faire pour le rendre accessible à l’ensemble de la société. Dans ce contexte en mutation, de nouveaux outils de la conception architecturale restent à inventer. Leur nature, leurs fonctionnalités, leur ergonomie, leur esthétique doivent permettre à tous les contributeurs, à toutes les générations, de comprendre la complexité du processus de conception, afin d’être en mesure de se l’approprier. La thèse s’intéresse principalement aux outils de conception permettant la collaboration de manière réflexive et ludique entre tous les acteurs. Son enjeu se situe du côté du développement des interfaces numériques et analogiques dites tangibles qui contiennent de grandes potentialités en termes d’écriture narrative et d’expérimentation collaborative.
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Jede Befassung mit 'Kunst' - sei sie produzierend, rezipierend oder affizierend - kommt an Kunsterfahrung nicht vorbei. In ihr sind die konstitutiven Entscheidungen bereits getroffen, ob das Wahrgenommene ein Gefühl, ein Geräusch oder ein Eindruck bleibt, oder ob wir es als ›Kunst‹ begreifen. Kunst 'existiert' nicht außerhalb eines Beobachters, sondern ist imaginierte Realität eines Beobachters. Eine solche Argumentation zwingt zu einem radikalen Beobachterstandpunkt für jedwede Kunsterfahrung, die nicht mehr traditionsgeflissentlich ergründet: 'Was ist Kunst?', sondern: 'Wie ist Kunst möglich?'. Damit ist ein fundamentaler Perspektivenwechsel gezeitigt vom Werk zum Beobachter, indem man nach den Bedingungen von Kunst fragt: Wie Kunst zur Kunst wird, und was Kunst für die Gesellschaft leistet. In dieser Lesart offenbart sich Kunst mit einer zentralen Funktion in der Gesellschaft. Sie überwindet das unüberbrückbar erscheinende Verhältnis von Wahrnehmung und Kommunikation. Kunst aber 'macht Wahrnehmung für Kommunikation verfügbar' (Niklas Luhmann). Dies vermag Kunst, indem sie in der Lage ist, Wahrnehmbares zu inszenieren, mithin dem Beobachter Anlässe für Wahrnehmung anzubieten. Die Autorinnen und Autoren greifen diese Problemstellung offensiv auf und diskutieren sie kritisch unter epistemologischen, differenztheoretischen, ästhetischen sowie diskurshistorischen Aspekten. – Mit Beiträgen von Oliver Baron, Angelika Böck, Gernot Böhme, Remigius Bunia, Alberto Cevolini, Malda Denana, Julien Dolenc, Karin Dörre, Michael Dürfeld, Christian Filk, Christiane Heibach, Bernhard Langer, Harry Lehmann, Peter Mahr, Thomas Morsch, Norbert M. Schmitz, Silke C. Schuck, Anja Schürmann, Holger Simon und Carsten Zorn.
Book
The binary conventions "architecture vs. nature" and "architecture or nature" are obsolete today. On the contrary, it turned out that it requires new paradigms in architecture. Buildings must be understood as interfaces - linking and integrative between the most diverse framework conditions, especially between technology and the environment. The considerable responsibility, from an economic and especially an ecological point of view, that has been on the shoulders of architecture for some time, drastically challenges the conventional characteristics of architectural design. On the other hand, the environment can be understood as a natural environment surrounding us, which can range from urban to rural. Architecture can no longer ignore nature;
Chapter
This paper introduces a machine learning tool for generating novel furniture designs. We employ a network graph to represent object structure and utilise two deep neural nets in combination to learn these network graphs, reproduce them, and generate variations on them. We apply the tool to the domain of furniture design and describe how the tool can create unique designs quickly and in large volume. This original generative approach allows a designer to efficiently consider novel design candidates. The option to train the system on multiple product types allows designers to explore designs that live between and outside the traditional concept of the domain object. We suggest that this workflow could be generalised for use beyond the domain of furniture design.KeywordsDesign languageGraph networkDeep neural netsGenerative design
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This paper explores the concept of reverse analogies in the biomimetic design of architectural structures. Design paradigms based on biological models are engaged in the appropriation of the biological forms, processes, and terminology. They are grounded in multidisciplinary studies of modes of transposition and implementation of identified principles and natural laws in the discourse of spatial design with the goal of realization of optimal solutions that have certain desired attributes of the biological systems. On the other hand, reverse analogies are related to the application of concepts initially developed in architecture for research in different fields. It should be made a distinction between nature as a source of explanation and a source of inspiration. While in the context of natural sciences validity of the analogy is essentially important, in the case when the natural phenomena are used as a starting position for design research week form of analogy is tolerable. Even misinterpretations and heretical concepts could be simulative to design. The main advantage of the reverse analogies is in the application of the freedom and liberal nature of the architecture that enables the development of the concepts out of pure design reasons. Sometimes in the modeling of the phenomena not explained by the nature, this approach could be simulative and catalytic. The goal of this paper is to exploit the potential of reverse analogies for deriving patterns or feedback data that can be used for the conception and development of strategies and tools, or as an inspiration for the formulation of intern morphological processes in the design of architectural structures. https://raf.arh.bg.ac.rs/bitstream/handle/123456789/575/Book_of_Proceedings_PT2017SarajevoMilosevicNestorovic.pdf?sequence=1
Article
对现有参数化建模和智能寻优算法技术在基于性能的设计优化方面的特点和局限性进行了剖析;根据设计师在方案阶段侧重于建筑设计探索和概念发生的工作特点,介绍了具有自主设计生成和探索能力的设计优化工具EvoMass,并展示了其在方案设计中的应用。应用结果表明,设计师可以通过EvoMass提取与建筑性能相关的设计信息,并将其融入概念发生和设计综合的过程之中。同时,EvoMass为性能设计优化流程提供了面向“人机协同的设计综合”的新方法范式。 This paper centers on the need for design exploration and concept development at the early-stage architectural design and investigates the limitations of current application of parametric modelling and computational optimization in performance-based design generation and exploration. In response to these limitations, the paper introduces an integrated design tool, called EvoMass, for building massing generation, optimization and exploration and demonstrates its utility in architectural design processes. The result shows that the designers can extract design information related to building performance from the optimization result and proactively use this information as a driving factor in the concept development and design synthesis processes. Finally, EvoMass facilitates a human-machine co-evolutionary design process in the early stages of architectural design.
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