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Sport-related branded entertainment: the Red Bull phenomenon



Purpose: This article aims to introduce a conceptual model of branded entertainment into sport marketing and highlight Red Bull’s strategy as a ‘best practice’. Branded entertainment, the full integration of advertising into entertainment content, is an innovative marketing strategy that can provide sport enterprises and sponsors with consumer attention and engagement. Approach: Branded entertainment was theoretically framed and conceptualised. Using an inductive approach Red Bull’s portfolio of self-generated action/extreme sport content as well as its production, distribution and viral processes were analysed. Findings: A communication model of sport-related branded entertainment was developed to distinguish actors such as athletes, sponsors, and co-operating companies, traditional and new (sport) media as well as sport consumers and prosumers and analyse their actions and relationships. Research limitations/implications: This study is limited to Red Bull’s branded entertainment activities. However, a thorough conceptualisation and analysis of branded entertainment and findings of unique characteristics and anomalies related to branded sport entertainment allows academics and professionals to understand and apply the concept. Practical implications: The research theme triggers a dialogue and encourages marketing practitioners to consider alternative ways to engage their target audiences and expand their integrated communication strategies via a unique and dynamic promotional tool. Originality/value: This article contributes to the sport value framework by addressing ‘value co-creation’ in a sport media and marketing context. By highlighting the Red Bull phenomenon as an innovative approach a successful integration of branding and sponsorship activities into sport entertainment content production, distribution and viral marketing is presented.
Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal
Sport-related branded entertainment: the Red Bull phenomenon
Reinhard E. Kunz, Franziska Elsässer, James Santomier,
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To cite this document:
Reinhard E. Kunz, Franziska Elsässer, James Santomier, (2016) "Sport-related branded
entertainment: the Red Bull phenomenon", Sport, Business and Management: An International
Journal, Vol. 6 Issue: 5, pp.520-541, doi: 10.1108/SBM-06-2016-0023
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Sport-related branded
entertainment: the
Red Bull phenomenon
Reinhard E. Kunz and Franziska Elsässer
Department of Media Management and Sport Media, Universitat Bayreuth,
Bayreuth, Germany, and
James Santomier
Department of Marketing and Sport Management, Sacred Heart University,
Fairfield, Connecticut, USA
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to introduce a conceptual model of branded entertainment into
sport marketing and highlight Red Bulls strategy as a best practice. Branded entertainment, the full
integration of advertising into entertainment content, is an innovative marketing strategy that can
provide sport enterprises and sponsors with consumer attention and engagement.
Design/methodology/approach Branded entertainment was theoretically framed and
conceptualised. Using an inductive approach Red Bulls portfolio of self-generated action/extreme
sport content as well as its production, distribution and viral processes were analysed.
Findings A communication model of sport-related branded entertainment was developed to
distinguish actors such as athletes, sponsors, and co-operating companies, traditional and new (sport)
media as well as sport consumers and prosumers and analyse their actions and relationships.
Research limitations/implications This study is limited to Red Bulls branded entertainment
activities. However, a thorough conceptualisation and analysis of branded entertainment and findings
of unique characteristics and anomalies related to branded sport entertainment allows academics and
professionals to understand and apply the concept.
Practical implications The research theme triggers a dialogue and encourages marketing
practitioners to consider alternative ways to engage their target audiences and expand their integrated
communication strategies via a unique and dynamic promotional tool.
Originality/value This paper contributes to the sport value framework by addressing value
co-creationin a sport media and marketing context. By highlighting the Red Bull phenomenon as an
innovative approach a successful integration of branding and sponsorship activities into sport
entertainment content production, distribution and viral marketing is presented.
Keywords Sport marketing, Action/extreme niche sport, Branded entertainment,
Content marketing, Media communication
Paper type Conceptual paper
The internet, mobile devices and social network sites (SNS) enhance the possibilities for
organisations to create and strengthen their brands (Weeks et al., 2008). Smartphones
and tablets as well as digital applications (apps) provide various options to receive as
well as create content (Benigni et al., 2014). Formerly passive consumers are now
prosumers(Toffler, 1980) that are able to actively access time-shifted and geo-shifted
sport content online as well as proactively create and share content themselves.
Consumer behaviour and media usage are changing and more research focussed on
Sport, Business and Management:
An International Journal
Vol. 6 No. 5, 2016
pp. 520-541
© Emerald Group PublishingLimited
DOI 10.1108/SBM-06-2016-0023
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
The authors would like to thank the editors and the three anonymous reviewers for their helpful
comments, support and constructive suggestions on a previous draft.
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the relationship of program and content brandsis required (Krebs and Siegert, 2015,
p. 45; Chan-Olmsted and Shay, 2015).
The current marketing environment is characterised by fragmentationof
audiences, media overflowand information overload. Thus, marketers are
challenged to think beyond traditional advertising strategies. Branded
entertainmentis an innovative strategy that to date has not been addressed
sufficiently in sport media and sport marketing literature. This paper introduces
branded entertainment within a sport media and marketing context. Its aim is to
define, characterise and evaluate sport-related branded entertainmentas a new
approach. Red Bulls action/extreme sport branded entertainment will be highlighted
as an example of best practices.
Branded entertainment can be described as an effective integration of commercial
advertising and editorial content (Kunz and Elsässer, 2015). In branded
entertainment, a brand (product or service) is no longer simply placedinto
existing content, but content is actually co-createdbyabrand(HudsonandHudson,
2006). In most cases, because the promotional integration is not always obvious,
the consumer does not perceive that the content is branded. Sport content is
predestined for branded entertainment. Engaging sports fascinate and attract people
and have proven to be capable of transferring positive images (Cornwell, 2013;
Motion et al., 2003). However, many niche sports still lack the attention of sport
consumers or sponsors and are not covered extensively by the media (Kunz and
Schnellinger, 2014). Branded entertainment, therefore, can provide niche sport
enterprises, athletes, and teams as well as sponsors with consumer attention and
prosumer engagement.
Even though the marketing of sports is a popular topic in research (Milne and
McDonald, 1999; Shank, 2005), the specific marketing of and with sports (especially
non-mainstream sports) via media reveals a research gap (Bennett et al., 2002).
Only a limited number of research studies (e.g. Chan-Olmsted and Shay, 2015; Kunz
and Elsässer, 2015) have addressed the relevance of sport in branded entertainment.
Sport-related branded entertainment can be described as sport content that is
co-created by sponsors, sport and media entities, while embedding brands subtlety.
Its purpose is to entertain sport fans and other audiences that voluntarily
consume and share the content or create their own related content (Kunz and
Schnellinger, 2014).
With this background, the following research questions should guide this study:
RQ1. How can branded entertainment be conceptualised?
RQ2. What are the unique characteristics and anomalies of branded entertainment
in a sport media and marketing context?
RQ3. What best practicelessons can be learned from Red Bulls action/extreme
sport-related branded entertainment activities?
Following an inductive approach, the Red Bull phenomenon will be analysed and
discussed, since Red Bull is a pioneer in sport-related communications in general and
branded entertainment in particular. The Red Bull portfolio of branded action/extreme
sport events and content will be described and the communication processes of selected
campaigns will be analysed in three stages: production, distribution and viral
consumption. Implications for sport media and marketing managers and academics
will be derived and an advanced communication model will be proposed.
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Service-dominant logic (SDL) in marketing and the sport value framework (SVF)
The introduction of the SVF (Woratschek et al., 2014) highlighted SDL (Vargo and
Lusch, 2004, 2008) relevance in sport management research. SDL generally posits that
all economies are service economies. Thus, service is the fundamental basis of
exchange in sport(Woratschek et al., 2014, p. 14). Sport organisations, athletes, teams,
sponsors, media, fans and other consumers are all providers of value propositions.
Key interrelated concepts of SVF and SDL include co-created value,value-in-use,
and value-in-context(Vargo et al., 2008; Vargo and Lusch, 2008; Woratschek et al.,
2014). In addition to the company as a value creator, customers and other actors
(stakeholders) are involved in value co-creation (Vargo and Akaka, 2009). However,
value only emerges when a service is actually used, i.e. when athletes and fans
participate in an event or engage in social media. Moreover, the context, i.e. external
conditions such as specific situations, also has an impact on value creation. Following
this theoretical underpinning sport events are understood as platforms, on which
different parties can be in contact and co-create business or leisure-related value.
The perspectives of SDL and the SVF imply innovative marketing strategies that
consider the network structure of value co-creation among various stakeholders, such
as collaborative brand buildingthat is also assumed to be influenced by fans and the
media (Woratschek et al., 2014, p. 21).
Brand management and sport sponsorship
In a branded world, where consumers are confronted with thousands of brand
messages offline and online on a daily basis, brands are challenged to attract
the consumers awareness, attention and engagement. Currently, sport sponsorship is
an important dimension of the marketing landscape and enterprises worldwide
are forced to compete in an environment that can be described as over branded.
Aaker (1991, p. 7) defined a brand as a distinguishing name and/or symbol (such as a
logo, trademark, or package design) intended to identify the goods or services of either
one seller or a group of sellers, and to differentiate those goods or services from those of
competitors. Building a strong brand implies several positive effects; one of which is
loyalty (Aaker, 1991, 1996).
Branding has a significant impact on the economic success of sport organisations
(Gladden and Milne, 1999), since strong brands contribute to building trust among
sport fans and increasing their loyalty to a specific sport brand (Richelieu and Pons,
2006). Ströbel and Woratschek (2013) identified increased attention and research
activity on brand management in the sport context. According to them, and following
Gladden et al. (1998), sport managers should consider both brand strength and financial
brand equity. It can be assumed that brand strength, i.e. customer-based brand equity,
affects (financial) brand equity (Keller, 1993, 2013).
In previous studies the influence of certain communication tools on brand equity
and brand value was explored (Donlan, 2014); e.g. Kim (2001) focussed on advertising,
Alexander (2009) and Henseler et al. (2011) on sponsorship and both were compared by
Hoek et al. (1997) and Cornwell (2013), who discussed the current state of research on
sponsorship-linked marketing, also referring to sport. Sponsorship has the power to
build brand affect, trust and loyalty among consumers (Mazodier and Merunka, 2012).
This paper follows Demir and Södermans (2015) generic framework considering
sponsorship as a strategic lever in professional sport regarding investment-, animation-,
and relation-focussed sponsorship strategies.
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Sport media consumer behaviour
According to the uses and gratifications approach, first developed by Katz (1959),
different media are used and content is consumed if they gratify existent needsof the
consumers. As sport content is usually based on actual events, it possesses an
authenticity that may satisfy affective, social and psychological needs (Trail and James,
2001) as well as cognitive needs (Raney, 2008). Reviewing the literature on sport viewing
motivation, Raney (2006, 2008) provided overviews of sport-related consumer motives
that were categorised as emotional (i.e. entertainment, eustress, self-esteem, escape),
cognitive (i.e. learning, aesthetic), behavioural and social (release, companionship, group
affiliation, family, economics) motivations. Expected and experienced emotional rewards,
e.g. entertainment, were identified as key motivations for viewing sport. According to
Vorderer (2011) affective gratification is in great demand.
As Gantz et al. (2006) found, fans of televised sport were more active, purposive,
content oriented and emotionally involved than fans of any other televised programme.
These characteristics indicate the relevance of sport fans in terms of consumption,
prosumerismand viral activities in media content production and distribution.
Theoretical and conceptual framework
For the purpose of this paper, branded entertainment is categorised within content
marketing, defined, differentiated and characterised.
Content marketing
Content marketingprovides a conceptual frame for branded entertainment, however,
there are several definitions and explanations from academic as well as professional
literature. Du Plessis (2015) refers to content marketing as a range between being a recent
marketing paradigminvolving pulling and sharing brand contentandanumbrella
term for online marketing techniques involving creative and active consumers (p. 2).
Harad (2013, p. 18) defined content marketing as the art and science to regularly sharing
valuable information with your target audience. Thus, a simple Twitter feed or the
companys presence and activities on other SNS can be classified as content marketing
(Stein, 2010). Berke (2015, p. 22) described content marketing as the production and
distribution of content and a strategic approach of reaching target audiences.
Branded content may be described as any content that can be associated with a
brand in the eye of the beholder(Oxford Brookes University and Ipsos MORI, 2014,
p. 99). Berke (2015) cited research that revealed four key strategies in the production of
branded content (e.g. Pulizzi, 2007): it can be entertaining, informative, educational, or
functional (e.g. an app).
Chan-Olmsted and Shay (2015, p. 21) described the integrated contentapproach of
SNS such as Facebook and Twitter as an integration of communication and
entertainment, in which brands integrate contextually relevant brand messages from
sponsors with professionally produced media content [] in any capacity that allows
advertisers to organically reach consumers. They emphasise the importance of the
fit between the sponsor message and the subject matter of the media(p. 21).
Branded entertainment
Definition. The term branded entertainmentfirst appeared in academic literature in
the mid 2000s and can be found in a variety of research fields (Duttenhöfer, 2006).
It should be classified as a unique sub-category of content marketing (BCMA, 2013).
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The outcome of content marketing and its sub-category strategies is branded content.
However, the focus of branded entertainment is on content that is entertaining. Berke
(2015) posits a definition of branded entertainment as an instrument of corporate
communications. It includes any piece of content that involves the brands message,
objectives, or personality(p. 22). Also, according to Berke (2015, p. 22), what
differentiates branded entertainment from other advertising is that it is developed and
produced by and/or together with the brand and competes with existing media
entertainment formats by focusing on the entertainment experience of the viewer.
Branded entertainment can be described as a subtle integration of commercial (brand)
advertising and entertainment (editorial) content that is usually produced professionally
and is of high quality, free of charge, designed to be consumed voluntarily and effective
in releasingviral effects. Due to this smart integration, consumers perceive the content as
entertainment rather than advertisement (Kunz and Elsässer, 2015). It was Kunz and
Schnellinger (2014) who introduced the term branded sport entertainment, which was
described as brands being embedded in content around sport events, etc.
Related concepts. Duttenhöfer (2006) classified branded entertainment as an
independent tool in the promotional mix. Tsvetkova (2007) also emphasised the
distinctiveness of the concept from a communication studiespoint of view. In order to
clarify the branded entertainment concept it is crucial to separate the promotional tool
from other hybrid forms that can be found in the literature.
Johnston (2009) distinguished sponsorship(programme sponsorship) from
branded entertainment. In sponsorship the advertising message normally is not
integrated into the content, but placed immediately before or after the actual content.
Branded entertainment is more closely related to the concept of product
placement, which can be considered as the origin of all hybrid forms (Hudson and
Hudson, 2006) and defined as the paid inclusion of branded products or brand
identifiers through audio and/or visual means, within mass media programming
(Karrh, 1998, p. 33). Hudson and Hudson (2006) discussed whether branded
entertainment was a new technique or a new term for product placement.
By tracking the evolution of product placement from a marketers perspective,
branded entertainmentwas selected as a new term. Numerous scholars confirmed
this classification and categorised branded entertainment as a distinct concept (Lehu,
2007; Huber et al., 2008). A significant difference between the two is that product
placement offers the brand only a passive integration that in most cases has a limited
connection to the content ( Johnston, 2009). In contrast to branded entertainment, the
content in which the product is placed is not produced or co-created by the brands, but
by media companies that are willing to integrate any brand that fits the specific context
(Hudson and Hudson, 2006).
Branded entertainment also should be distinguished from more elaborate variations
of product placement. The terms brand immersionor brand integrationdescribe a
hybrid form that integrates brands more naturally into content. However, advertisers
or brand managers do not have any impact on the editorial content (Duttenhöfer, 2006).
The focus of advertainmentis clearly on the advertising messages instead of
entertaining content (Duttenhöfer, 2006). The concept of advertiser funded
programming(AFP) can be categorised as a television-limited version of branded
entertainment where advertisers or brand managers do have an impact on the nature of
the content (Siegert and Brecheis, 2010). Editorial print and online media use the
concept of native advertisingas a hybrid form (Knowles, 2013).
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Branded entertainment, therefore, can be seen as the ultimate intertwining of
advertisement and editorial content (see Figure 1) that can be distributed via all media
platforms. It is not a substitute for advertisement and other forms of content-
advertisement integration, but they complement each other (Kunz and Elsässer, 2015).
Key characteristics. One major characteristic of branded entertainment is the (co-)
creation, production and distribution of content by brands in order to entertain their
target groups. As the brand company itself creates and produces content that embeds
its brand instead of integrating it in external content (Huber et al., 2008), a shift in
involved actors in production can be detected: brands operating as producers and
creating brandedcontent (Duttenhöfer, 2006; Tsvetkova, 2007).
Branded entertainment connects to consumers via the creation of content that is
intended to develop long lasting relationships between brands and consumers. The
reception of branded content by consumers reveals another characteristic; content is
not presented at a specific day or time or on a specific channel. Consumers must seek
the content actively and are able to consume it whenever (time-shifting) they want and
wherever (geo-shifting) they are (cf. Duttenhöfer, 2006; Huber et al., 2008).
The entertainment element reveals additional characteristics. As the selection of
content and its reception by consumers is designed to be voluntary, content necessarily
has to be entertaining, conveying the brand message in a more subtle way. Since the
consumer also is intended to be a distributor of the content via likeson SNS, for
example, it has to fulfil the needs of the targeted group. In terms of personal relevance
and contextual consideration direct connections to consumers applying consumer
engagement strategies are needed (Chan-Olmsted and Shay, 2015).
Tsvetkova (2007) mentioned another important characteristic of branded entertainment.
Due to the internet and mobile devices, the distribution of content can be achieved by
brands via their own digital platforms, turning them into content-providers.
Communication: branded entertainment model
Tsvetkova (2007) developed the first conceptual model showing how branded
entertainment content is generated from producers (company, production company,
advertising agency), and distributed over different channels such as TV and internet to
reach consumers who further distribute content via word-of-mouth (WoM). Kunz and
Elsässer (2015) enhanced the model, showing a more elaborate version of how created
and produced branded entertainment content can reach different targeted groups by
including more actors (such as media houses) as well as understanding some
consumers as prosumers that co-create and produce their own content concurrently
with the branded content.
Advertisement AFP, Native
Sources: Adapted from Kunz and Elsässer (2015, p. 56);
ased on Duttenhöfer (2006); Tsvetkova (2007)
Figure 1.
Intertwining of
advertisement and
content in hybrid
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In this model the relationships among the different parties involved in a branded
entertainment strategy and the possible communication and reception processes
were analysed. The different actors are communicators that are labelled with K, content
types that are labelled with C, and media consumers that are labelled with R for
recipients. The diagram below describes how branded entertainment content is
produced, distributed, and consumed (see Figure 2).
A company applying communication (K
), such as an advertising company or a
sponsor, a media production company (K
,), an advertising agency (K
), and a
testimonial (K
), such as a celebrity or a sponsee, collaborate in creating and
producing content (C) that contributes to a content pool (CP). The CP serves as a base
for different elements/types of content (C
) that are actively sought by different
consumer target groups, the recipients (R
), in order to satisfy their (media related)
needs. Some content (C
) is transformed by content management (CM) systems in
order to be distributed on different media channels (C
) to reach other consumers
). In addition, some consumers (R
) may create their own content (user-generated
content (UGC)) that is sought by other consumers (R
), who seek the original branded
content as well, with which they did not havepreviouscontact.Producersmay
recycle such UGC, either by actually using the content or by gaining intelligence
about their audience. Next to this distribution and reception of content, there are more
communication-paths: from the very beginning, communicators collect information
about their possible audience by customer relationship management. Every
consumer, therefore, is a possible communicator when the consumed content is
redistributed to other consumers via WoM.
Case study: red bull
Research methodology
On the basis of the branded entertainment model that was presented in the previous
section we applied a case study approach (Yin, 2014) analysing Red Bulls
communication activities in sport-related branded entertainment. Following an
inductive approach, the analysis attempts to develop and extend theory that is based
on empirical evidence. By describing elements of a communication model specific to
sport-related branded entertainment, it is intended to derive assumptions for further
feedback, participation
Sources: Adapted from Kunz and Elsässer (2015);
Tsvetkova (2007)
Figure 2.
entertainment model
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research rather than to prove existing theoretical hypotheses. Red Bull was analysed as
a best practice since Red Bull has been a pioneer in sport-related communications in
general and branded entertainment in particular. Data were gathered from various
sources that addressed Red Bulls communication strategy.
The effectiveness of Red Bull sponsorships has been addressed in previous studies.
While Gorse et al. (2010) highlighted Red Bulls general entrepreneurship through
sports marketing, Kunz and Elsässer (2015) focussed on Red Bulls branded
entertainment activities in general and discussed advantages and disadvantages.
Since academic research studies and articles related to branded sport entertainment
are scarce, the approach was to collect, review and include as many relevant documents
as possible (Lipsey and Wilson, 2001; Santomier, 2008). Moreover, observations of Red
Bulls sport-related branded entertainment activities were summarised.
The Austrian-based company was founded in 1984 by Dietrich Mateschitz. Its core
product is the Red Bull energy drink, which is distributed currently in more than
166 countries. In 2013 it generated revenue of more than five billion Euros. While most
of Red Bulls revenue expansion is related to increased marketing, its brand
management appears as a superordinate marketing objective.
During Red Bulls early growth it focussed on action/extreme sport sponsorships
(athletes, teams, events) in order to gain awareness and popularity in niche target
markets. With increasing brand awareness Red Bull expanded their strategy by
focussing on sponsorships of sport events capable of attracting large audiences, such
as football/soccer and Formula 1 (F1) racing. Actually, Red Bull follows an ownership-
strategy rather than a pure sponsorship with football/soccer clubs such as FC Red Bull
Salzburg, RB Leipzig and New York Red Bulls, as well as the Infinity Red Bull Racing
team. In addition, Red Bull has created or taken over their own sport events and media
channels, creative producers, and agencies that support their brand strategy. Red Bull
has applied a consequent approach to integrating its brand message into
professionally produced content(Chan-Olmsted and Shay, 2015).
A major purpose of this case study is to identify the many opportunities a
sport-related branded entertainment strategy can offer a brand (sponsor). In analysing
Red Bulls content portfolio as well as the different communication, reception, and
content recycling activities, the specific characteristics and anomalies that emerge in
branded sport entertainment campaigns are identified.
To detect the many sport-specific characteristics that distinguish sport-related
branded entertainment from fictional or non-sport-related campaigns, the analysis of Red
Bulls communication strategy is divided into three stages of a media analysis:
production, distribution and viral stage. The analysis of Red Bulls communication
activities can demonstrate how sport-related branded entertainment is integrated into its
marketing strategies and facilitates the generation of a comprehensive model that
ultimately will provide a conceptually focussed template for research and marketing.
Branded entertainment portfolio. Red Bulls portfolio was analysed in detail to
demonstrate how branded entertainment is integrated specifically with sport-related
content. Red Bull produces multiple media formats related to sport (texts, pictures,
audios, broadcasts, videos, films) in order to distribute them across its own and others
media platforms (print products, TV-stations, video and films, games, mobile apps, as
well as various internet services) to reach consumers.
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Red Bulls portfolio involves different branded entertainment channels (see Figure 3).
Next to the print-magazine, The Red Bulletin, which has a run of 2.3 million, Red Bull-
owned shows such as Momentsare broadcast on the companys website or YouTube
channel. With its TV-stations Servus TVand the Red Bull TV-window in Austria and
Germany, or its internet services covering live events as well as providing highlight
videos, Red Bull can broadcast its owned content to a wide audience across multiple
audio-visual media channels. Red Bull also produced TV programs such as No limits
for ESPN in theUSA and debuted a movie, Heroes by Nature, in cinemas across Europe
in 2013. Other films such as The Art of Flightare distributed via ApplesiTunesstore.
There is also a variety of online video games such as Red Bull Raceror mobile
applications such as Red Bull Kart Fighter World Tourto choose from. Other Red Bull
websites as well as their engagements on SNS such as Facebook, Twitter or Instagram
complete Red Bulls portfolio of branded entertainment channels.
Red Bull Media House, which started print, television, online and film production in
2007, operates in Europe and the USA. Through the creation of branded events such as
the Red Bull Air Raceand the production and editing of various texts, photos, audios,
videos, broadcasts and films a comprehensive CP is generated and distributed that can
also be used by other media outlets. Thus, sport-related Red Bull content is either
produced by Red Bull and distributed via Red Bull-owned platforms and channels or sold
to other media companies worldwide and viewed by consumers via TV, online or mobile.
This means Red Bull has become a powerful media house that creates content and
opportunities for partnerships, manages licensing rights, and operates multiple platforms
for a global audience (Red Bull Media House, 2015a, b).
Action/extreme sport content. Red Bulls sport content is related primarily to high-
speed action or extreme sports. Bennett et al. (2002, p. 175) defined action-sports as
sports that are not mainstream or traditional and often include a risk, danger or
unconventional rules and/or techniques.
Sport content resides in a highly restricted field because of unique media rights and
licensing requirements. Red BullsF1 content is an example of this. Even though Red
Bull participates in F1 with the Infiniti Red Bull Racingteam, the company has no
rights to broadcast any official content from training, race qualifying or grand
prix-races. This demonstrates why sport-related branded entertainment works well for
relatively new action-sports, where no global associations market the worldwide media
rights. This also is why Red Bulls skateboarder, BMX cycler, motocross biker or
The Red Bulletin
TV Stations
Servus TV, Red Bull TV
Video and Film
Moments, Herces by Nature
Red Bull Racers, The Art of Flight
Mobile Apps
World of Red Bull, Red Bull Kart Fighter World Tour
Internet Services, Red Bull Content Pool, Red Bull Media House
Figure 3.
Red Bull's
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wingsuit jumper can be included in their sport-related content without violating any
regulations. Because Red Bull owns the property and, therefore the rights, it does have
control of all stages, from pre-production to distribution.
Production stage. The branded sport entertainment production stage begins with
pre-production activities, i.e. creating and planning certain events as well as involving
different stakeholders, primarily athletes who have to be briefed regarding branding,
media, and advertising/sponsorship partners. Sport-related content is appropriate for a
branded entertainment strategy as it is in general replete with advertising and
sponsorships (Horky and Kamp, 2012).
Regarding the different stakeholders involved in Red Bulls branded entertainment
production (see Figure 4), Red Bull is considered the main brand communicator (K
Moreover, a production company (K
), such as Red Bull Media House, an advertising agency
), which could also involve brands of other advertisers or sponsors, and an athlete or
sport team (K
) are all producer and co-producer of a CP including various sport content
(original content: C
; as well as adapted content via content management: C
Another specific issue in sport-related branded entertainment production arises when
an athlete or sport team represents additional communicators (K
) in the production
stage that are not present in other branded-entertainment campaigns. For example,
equipped with photo and video cameras such as Red Bull partners GoPro, athletes and
their entourage are able to produce content showing their individual perspectives (C
Figure 5). Skier Lindsey Vonn, for example, writes a blog and comments on her races.
Red Bull has a long list of famous athletes such as Vonn that appear in
branded content as partners of Red Bull. Branded sport content could influence
consumers and their attitudes towards the brand much more than actors in fictional
Source: Adapted from Kunz and Elsässer (2015)
Figure 4.
The production
stage of sport-related
Figure 5.
The athlete as
producer of self-
generated content
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advertising campaigns. This positive spillover-effect that athletes have on brands was
identified by Pope et al. (2009) in long lasting sponsorships.
Red Bulls long-term strategy of branded sport entertainment also is apparent in
Red Bull Crashed Ice, a mixture of ice hockey and boardercross created by Red Bull in
2000. By hosting the world championships Red Bull secured sport-specific branded
content for decades. With Red Bulls strategy there is no need for complicated
storylines, as exercise training regimens, portraits of or interviews with athletes or
promotions about upcoming competitions as well as competitions themselves build the
base for each element of created content.
Red Bulls use of a variety of formats for its sport-specific content makes it suitable
for a transmedia storytelling-strategy. The Red Bull Stratos (2012), a project in which
an extreme athlete jumped out of a helium balloon into the stratosphere, was filmed
only once, but produced and distributed in many different formats. Red Bull Stratos
was awarded Branded Art Reviewsbest transmedia campaignin 2012, because of its
prominent features across all media, either paid, owned or earned (Kellow, 2013).
The live-broadcast on YouTube of Felix Baumgartners jump reached more than eight
million viewers, setting a new all-time record for YouTube (Mortimer, 2012).
Distribution stage.Thelivecoverageofsportevents(C
branded entertainment content (C
) located in the stock of the CP is actively sought by sport
fans (R
) or recommended (WoM) to other sport media consumers (R
) that might view a
modified version (C
) by consumers of the original content. In addition to satisfying their
entertainment needs by viewing sport, consumers (R
) may also create their own content
(UGC), e.g. by being present at events and recording videos on their smartphones and
making them available via SNS. These videos may be viewed by other sport consumers (R
that could become aware of the original content (C
) afterwards. In addition to WoM-effects,
the UGC may also be recycled by Red Bull (Media House) expending the CP (see Figure 6).
Therefore, Red Bulls sport-related branded content provides additional
opportunities that form a distinct step in the distribution process (see Figure 7).
The content is not only distributed via Red Bulls own platforms, but generates a high
level of interest among a variety of media houses. Established traditional TV
channels (K
) either report Red Bulls edited content surrounding events such as the
Red Bull Air Race(C
) or co-operate with Red Bull in the production or distribution.
For the Red Bull Air Race, Red Bull co-operated with more than 66 host broadcasters
Pull WoM
Pull Pull
Sources: Adapted from Kunz and Elsässer (2015);
Tsvetkova (2007)
Figure 6.
entertainment model
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worldwide for live-broadcasting or exclusive coverage of the event (Gorse et al., 2010),
making the event and related content (C
) available on their own platforms.
In sport-related branded entertainment campaigns another distribution path is possible
and often effective (see Figure 7). Next to traditional TV-stations (K
) many sport-focussed
media companies (K
) are also willing to distribute Red Bulls content. The biggest
European car and motor community Motor-Talk.dedevelops stories around Red Bulls
branded content and is, therefore, allowed to use exclusive photos from Red Bullsstock
). Others, Germanys sport-network Sport 1, for example, simply buy a package of
videos such as the Red Bull Crashed Ice-World Cup in 2012 (C
). In distributing their
content to special interest media platforms and channels, Red Bulls branded content is far
more likely to reach the targeted group of sport consumers (R
Red Bulls branded entertainment strategy demonstrates that sport-related branded
content also is likely to be distributed by companies (K
) outside the sport media nexus
(see Figure 8). GoPro Inc., an American corporation that produces mini-cameras, was
the official partner of the Red Bull Signature Seriesin 2013. In addition, there are
numerous clips of branded Red Bull content on the GoPro Website (C
). Also a partner
of the Red Bull Stratos project, GoPro produces its own branded content while
distributing Red Bulls logo to more than five million viewers in their YouTube clip and
many more in their 2014 Super Bowl commercial. Automobile producer Audi and Red
Bull launched a branded entertainment project with Baumgartner on both of their
platforms. By doing this, Red Bulls content was distributed to a wider audience due to
their co-operation, reaching consumers (R
) who otherwise would not have viewed it.
When it comes to distributing sport-related content, the athletes (K
) again play an
important role (see Figure 9). They can reach consumers (R
) by posting the branded
CM Push
Figure 7.
The distribution of
branded content via
media houses
Figure 8.
The distribution of
branded content via
other companies
Figure 9.
The distribution
of branded content
via the athlete
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content (C
) on their own websites and on SNS. Skateboarder Ryan Sheckler, for
example, embeds Red Bulls show Sheckler Sessionon his personal website next to
sharing Red Bull branded content on SNS, ostensibly reaching another segment of the
sport-related audience.
Some athletes do not only distribute Red Bulls content, but also produce and
distribute their own content (C
) in parallel (see Figure 9). This demonstrates that
athletes or sport teams also have to be recognised as partners in a branded
entertainment strategy especially in the distribution stage.
Viral stage. Another important element is the appeal of sport-related branded
entertainment to sport fans (R
). Red Bull encourages prosumers to create and share
their own content together with Red Bulls branded content, in which sponsored
athletes are highlighted (K
). Thus UGC and WoM-effects occur in different forms (see
Figure 9). For example, Red Bull called on its followers to send in spectacular Action-
Selfiesthat were presented on the companys website and Facebook page alongside
selfiesfrom Red Bull athletes. Video-based SNS such as YouTube facilitate the fan
communitys communication about Red Bull branded entertainment as well as
consumer experiences (Chan-Olmsted and Shay, 2015).
The Red Bull Stratos also demonstrated how UGC can emerge from branded
content. By the end of 2015 YouTube returned more than 31,000 clips when stratos
parodywas entered in the search box and some videos reached 46,000 views.
SNS integrate professionally produced branded content as well as content from athlete
prosumers. In the viral stage focus is on Red Bulls target groups, which are often
highly identified fans and especially young prosumers. In the context of SNS Red Bull
connects directly with consumers and establishes engagement by employing different
initiatives (Chan-Olmsted and Shay, 2015).
The variety of Red Bull channels demonstrates another advantage of
connecting with sport fans. The same F1 Austria Grand Prix video clip was
posted on Red Bulls Facebook page as well as the targeted Infinity Red Bull
Racings Facebook page. Even though Red Bulls Facebook page had more likes
(44 million) compared to the Infiniti Red Bull Racingpage (4.96 million), it was
shared and likedmore times by followers of Infiniti Red Bull Racingwithin one
hour of posting.
The same process occurs if individual athletes post Red Bulls branded content on
SNS. The video This is Home, about motocross rider Levi Sherwood, received
more than 1,700 likes on the Red Bull Facebook page. On his own Facebook page,
Sherwood generated more than 3,000 likes. A number even more impressive
compared to just slightly over 290,000 fans of the athletes Facebook profile.
These examples suggest that sport fans are efficient prosumers likely to share or
generate content.
Proposed sport-related branded entertainment model
In addition to the branded entertainment model presented by Kunz and Elsässer (2015),
which also is valid for a sport context, sport-related branded entertainment
communication includes additional dimensions. By integrating all possible
production, distribution and viral paths of sport-related branded entertainment
between and among the relevant parties involved, a final model was developed
(see Figure 10). With Red Bull as an integrated creator, sponsor, media producer and
agent, and with Red Bull-owned media as well as third party media partners and with
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different audiences both passive and active recipients there emerge new
communicators (K), content (C) and consumers (R) highlighted in red.
Especially in action/extreme sports, athletes are important communicators (K
) who
may be seen as authentic and identified as celebrities by consumers. They also may be
considered distributors of any sport-related content via SNS or posting event/sport
content on their digital platforms such as websites and blogs.
In the distribution stage, in addition to general interest media companies (K
), sport
media houses (K
), may be involved. These special interest distribution channels are
able to reach fragmented or niche audiences more effectively, targeting consumers with
sport-affinity. The Red Bull analysis demonstrates that other companies (K
) are
willing to distribute sport-related branded entertainment, therefore enabling Red Bull
to reach additional target groups. Another important dimension that sport-related
entertainment inherits is the appeal of sport fans (R
). This group of prosumers is
engaged, active and willing to search for, consume, like, and share sport content as
well as generate their own content in the viral stage.
CM Push
feedback, participation
Figure 10.
model of
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Summary and discussion
Red Bull can be considered as a best practicefor sport-related branded entertainment.
Through an analysis of Red Bulls integrated content portfolio as well as activities
related to the production, distribution and viral stages, it was demonstrated how
action/extreme sports (i.e. niche sports) could generate media value in the digital era
through branded sport entertainment.
The Red Bull production process begins with attractive content that involves
popular and engaging action/extreme sports (events, stunts, etc.), with the advantage of
numerous sponsored athletes who are authentic communicators. Distribution
incorporates a range of networking partners providing additional sport content from
selected media companies, sport media houses and other companies. Cross-platform
and multi-channel distribution improves economies of scale and scope and addresses
fragmented target groups. In addition, Red Bull may sell elements of their branded
sport content to other media enterprises. In order to reach a wider audience in a
fragmented global media environment, a variety of traditional and new media
platforms and channels are incorporated in their strategy. Thus, in order for such a
strategy to be effective, compelling sport-related stories have to be developed and
communicated transmedially.
In addressing entertainment content, branded entertainment seems to be an ideal
way of meeting the consumers emotional needs and encouraging voluntary
consumption and prosumerism. As mentioned previously, in a branded
entertainment strategy, the content has to be demanded by the consumer and affects
viral activities. Therefore, branded entertainment does fit a theory of active and
proactive consumers.
The Red Bull case has demonstrated that by selecting sport-related content within
all three stages of a branded entertainment campaign (production, distribution and
viral) more partners (sport organisations, athletes/teams, sport media houses,
sponsoring companies, sport fans and consumers), are involved in distributing the
content via established and new media platforms and channels to a wider audience.
Comprehensively, sport-related branded entertainment can be considered
as a unique marketing communication tool with inherent potential for sport
organisations and sponsors. The key findings of the analysis can be summarised
as follows:
it represents an ideal combination of sport content co-creation, production, and
distribution affecting viral effects;
it is an integrated portfolio of sport-related content, media platforms and
communication channels;
the focus is on engaging action/extreme sports;
it supports a long-term marketing strategy due to its ongoing events and close
relationships to the athletes;
it includes co-creation and co-production opportunities for sponsors, agencies,
athletes/teams, sport media, and consumers/prosumers;
it includes cross-platform and multi-channel distribution;
the emphasis is on transmedia storytelling; and
it involves a high degree of consumer engagement/prosumerism by sport fans.
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Marketing management implications
In sport-related branded entertainment Red Bull applies a high level marketing
strategy from which other sponsors as well as sport organisations and sport media
could benefit. On the first level, Red Bull sponsors athletes, teams and events of action/
extreme sports and mainstream sports. They also create their own events and produce
or co-produce branded entertainment content. Red Bull manages and controls
production and distribution, using their own production facilities and distribution
channels as well as co-operating partners. Finally, they license and market
international sport rights, i.e. generating revenue from their branded sport content.
Since branded entertainment is an ancillary marketing tool, a long-term marketing
strategy would be the most effective for a variety of sport enterprises.
The analysis of Red Bulls branded sport entertainment also revealed that it could
be used as an initial marketing/promotional tool if content is produced consistently
and over an extended time period. It further revealed the importance of direct
co-operation and networking with other companies, media houses and sport
organisations. However, sport marketers initiating a sport-related branded
entertainment strategy should focus on co-operation and networking throughout
all stages (pre-production, production, distribution, viral) in order to generate
opportunities to access a wider audience.
The Red Bull case indicated from a best practiceperspective that branded
entertainment works best if content is distributed via multiple platforms and channels,
thus reaching different segments of the primary target group or different target groups.
Sport-related branded entertainment is likely to strengthen the relationships between and
among sponsors, athletes and other sport entities. Kunz and Schnellinger (2014) indicated
that non-mainstream sports often receive poor media value by selling their media rights
exclusively to a traditional TV broadcaster. They should consider co-operating with
sponsors in order to co-create value. Producing branded entertainment and delivering
[free] non-exclusive content [] can increase their media value and total viewership,
thus, revenues and economic success(Kunz and Schnellinger, 2014, p. 349).
The analysis of Red Bull suggests that sport content is powerful in a branded
entertainment strategy, confirmed by the efficacy of sport fans as highly committed
prosumers in the viral stage. As sport fans increase their search behaviours related
to athlete background information, and consume content more actively, they are more
likely to recap and/or share the new content they have viewed with others on SNS.
Therefore, prosumer fans may be classified as ideal target groups for a branded
entertainment strategy. Sport marketers and media managers should recognise
this potential and focus on sport fans in order to facilitate viral content effectively.
Also, the analysis indicated that sport content works well in a transmedia marketing
campaign, as sport content can be converted into many formats and distributed on
multiple channels. Brands and sport enterprises pursuing a branded entertainment
strategy should identify and integrate the channels and platforms favoured by their
target audiences.
Theoretical implications, limitations and further research
This paper confirmed Duttenhöfer (2006), Tsvetkova (2007), Kunz and Elsässer (2015)
and others concerning the categorisation of branded entertainmentas a new, distinct
marketing tool within the promotional mix. The theoretical and conceptual framework
that embeds branded entertainment in marketing communication allows professionals
and academics to fully grasp the concept and to operationalise it for further research.
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Through its derivation from content marketing and comparisons with other
promotional tools, distinctive features of (sport-related) branded entertainment emerge.
The concept was framed theoretically and analysed using the Red Bull case, revealing
characteristics and anomalies.
Sport-related branded entertainment includes co-creation of sport content by
sponsors, athletes, sport and media entities as well as other actors such as sport
consumers and prosumers; i.e. value is co-created (Woratschek et al., 2014). The
sponsorsbrands, products and services are integrated seamlessly in entertaining sport
content (Kunz and Schnellinger, 2014). High quality sport content has the potential of
being distributed to and via a variety of media and partners. The focus of branded
sport entertainment is primarily on events, athletes and teams. Consumers perceive
branded sport content as entertainment. It is designed to be consumed voluntarily and
thus effective in releasing viral effects (Kunz and Elsässer, 2015).
Being theoretically embedded in SDL and the SVF, brand management and sport
sponsorship, and sport media consumption theories as well as content marketing,
sport-related branded entertainment offers a range of new starting points for future
research, focussing on concepts such as value co-creation,strategic sponsorship,
sport fan identificationand media prosumer motivations.
As the selection of the content and the reception by consumers is designed to be
voluntary, content necessarily has to be entertaining, conveying the brand message in
a subtle way. Since the consumer also is intended to be a distributor of the content
(i.e. viral marketing) as well as a communicator of the brand message (i.e. WoM),
branded entertainment has to fulfil the needs of the targeted group: authenticity
and trustworthiness (Hartmann, 2004); interesting transmedia stories; and exciting
activities and spectacular scenes. Sport fans are assumed to consume content much
more actively, recap content once viewed, and search more background information
than fans of any other category (Gantz et al., 2006). Thus, sport should be recognised
as a source of ideal content for a long-term and successful branded entertainment
strategy because of its ongoing inherent value and its popularity across societies
and cultures.
It would be worth exploring consumer motivation to view and share sport-related
branded entertainment content via a variety of channels and platforms. By providing
various formats of branded entertainment content, Red Bull addresses fragmented
target groups and the affective, cognitive, and social needs of consumers. A deeper
knowledge of branded entertainment uses and gratifications (Raney, 2008), may
enhance the effectiveness and ultimate success of sport marketers in the future.
Since it is favourable to have as much control as possible to enable content
production in the first place and to commercialise content distribution, contracting with
niche sports and creating new sports gives a sponsor full access to events without
limitations over the content that can be used for various purposes and in different
situations by the sponsor. This implies that sport-related branded entertainment
should become a relevant sponsorship tool in terms of investment,animation, and
relationstrategies (Demir and Söderman, 2015).
Sport enterprises, especially non-mainstream sport enterprises, should focus
sharply on sponsors in order to strengthen their relationships and to co-create value.
Producing branded entertainment and delivering free non-exclusive content may
increase their media value by attracting added viewership, resulting in increased
revenue and economic success. Therefore, action/extreme sports, teams and athletes
should be considered as predestined for branded entertainment.
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However, branded entertainment should not be limited to action and extreme sports.
Content provided by other niche sports as well as by mainstream sports would
certainly be of interest to a wide range of target groups. If applied consistently, branded
entertainment can benefit all parties involved (sponsors, sport organisations, teams,
athletes, media enterprises and prosumers).
This paper was limited to a literature and observation-based qualitative study that
addressed one case only. Analysing Red Bulls activities around sport-related branded
entertainment cannot be representative for all dimensions of the concept. The proposed
communication model and the assumptions and conclusions that were derived on
this basis require empirical validation and should be addressed in future studies,
i.e. observations of other cases, qualitative interviews with industry experts or
quantitative surveys with practitioners and consumers.
The analysis of other enterprises that pursue a similar marketing strategy is needed
for validation. As Red Bull is a best practicefor a branded content producer and
distributor, the unique dimensions and specifics identified may not be representative
for all sports and their sponsors. The question as to whether branded entertainment is a
strategy that can be pursued by any organisation or is limited to a select few, should be
further investigated.
Red Bull branded sport entertainment is focussed on action/extreme sports, in which
athletes, for the most part, compete individually. Thus, further research is needed
concerning the production of sport-related content for team-sports. Red Bulls other
marketing strategies, for example, their football/soccer or motor sports initiatives, as
well as protests by sports fans against Red Bull, were not the focus of this paper and
may present opportunities for further research.
As this paper analysed sport-related branded entertainment from a companys
(brands) point of view, the role of sport organisations and their opportunities and
threats related to such a strategy should be investigated more closely. This paper
suggests that a shift in the sport media nexus may occur if more sponsors use a
branded entertainment strategy. Qualitative and quantitative research is necessary to
determine how branded entertainment will affect different stakeholders in the sport
media nexus. Research should focus especially on the changing roles of sponsors,
media companies, and sport rights holders and agencies.
Performance metrics of marketing communications is becoming significantly more
relevant for most brands (PwC, 2014). The effectiveness of sport-related branded
entertainment campaigns with respect to the impact on brand awareness and brand
equity (Aaker, 1996; Keller, 2013), as well as the interest of consumers as important
stakeholders is especially in need of further research. Measuring the effectiveness of
sport-related branded entertainment campaigns and their potential to initiate consumer
engagement compared to other content campaigns should identify the significance of
the sport context in terms of brand communications. Whether or not sport-related
branded entertainment is capable of replacing other promotional tools such as pure
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... The FIFA World Cup, the National Football League (NFL) Super Bowl and the Olympic Games as well as the German Bundesliga or U.S. Major League Baseball (MLB) are examples. Sport is important content for global and local media and telecommunications companies across all digital platforms (Foster et al., 2014;Koronios et al., 2020;Kunz et al., 2016;O'Reilly and Rahinel, 2006;Santomier, 2006;Turner, 2007). ...
The aim of this research was to explain the importance of sport in the use of digital media services on mobile devices. Relevant factors related to mobile TV usage were identified and the strength of their influence was analyzed to show that sport is a driving force for mobile TV usage. Inspired by service-dominant logic (SDL) and the sport value framework (SVF), an innovative research model was specified and tested empirically among three samples from Australia, Germany, and the U.S.A. SDL and SVF suggest value is always co-created and context dependent. Thus, usage situations were integrated as contextual factors in a structural equation model with interest in sport and other psychological factors as independent variables and mobile TV usage intention as dependent variable. This study is one of the first empirically testing what motives lead to mobile sport viewing and how interest in sport drives mobile TV usage. The empirical findings imply that consumer interest in sport is highly relevant for media technology usage. They further demonstrate that usage context really matters.
... Sponsoring less popular sports can offer sponsors advantages such as avoiding the crowd of sponsorship, cost savings and the flexibility of the sports entity (Greenhalgh and Greenwell, 2013). Red Bull has sponsored action sports to be known among audiences (Kunz et al., 2016). Marketers can offer attractive sponsorship proposals that motivate companies to sponsor less popular sports (Miloch and Lambrecht, 2006). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine how sports marketing can attract audiences towards less popular sports. Design/methodology/approach A total of 22 interviews were conducted first to explore the opinions of sports professionals about how audiences can be attracted towards less popular sports. Then 479 responses to an online questionnaire were collected. The online questionnaire includes a pretest-posttest experiment in which each respondent has watched a video. Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability test and hierarchical regression analysis have been performed. Findings The elements of sports marketing that can help to attract audiences towards less popular sports are sports media, sports advertising, star athlete and sports sponsorship. The performance of national teams moderates the relationship between sports advertising and attraction towards less popular sports. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, a definition of sustainable sports marketing is introduced for the first time. Sustainable sports marketing can be defined as the continuous implementation of marketing activities in the sports context to ensure the continuous existence of the sports themselves (all types of sports) and the prosperity of future generations. Elements that can attract audiences towards less popular sports have been examined for the first time.
... Thus, the selection of relevant content and its appropriate communication are critical to consider. A best practice example of implementing content marketing is the company Red Bull, which is shaping the brand perception far beyond its core product of energy drinks by representing the company's values via relevant topics for its young target group, such as extreme sports, music festivals or esports (Kunz et al., 2016). ...
This article analyses the role of esports for sponsors and sport clubs in the context of their marketing activities. We start by positioning esports in the domain of sport technology, innovation, and entrepreneurship. Then, we examine foundations of the esports industry, including an analysis of the most relevant stakeholders in the ecosystem, and outline potential links to digital marketing. We interviewed nine experts, representing distinct sport clubs, sponsors and consulting agencies from Germany, with the aim of generating specific knowledge about characteristics of sponsoring and marketing operations in the gaming industry, including reasons for entry, choosing relevant marketing channels and implementation approaches. Additionally, we examine measures of success, prevailing risks as well as future perspectives of the industry. In writing this paper, we contribute to a better understanding of the nascent field of esports, specifically from a digital marketing perspective. A central contribution of the study is the illustration of esports' value for sport marketers, while shedding light on how digital marketing potential can be leveraged on an operational level. Based on our findings, we present several recommendations for sport marketing managers to jump-start their esports engagement and provide an agenda for future research at the intersection of sport management and digital marketing.
... Activities involve developing a relationship with sponsors, establishing new initiatives like sports academy for the club, bringing new businesses to the arena such as restaurants, ticket, and souvenir sales. The success of Red Bull phenomenon was an innovative approach of value co-creation through integration of branding and sponsorship activities into sport entertainment content production, distribution, and viral marketing (Kunz, Elsässer, & Santomier, 2016). ...
... Soda, sports drinks, and energy drinks are routinely marketed depicting youth, masculinity, and sporting prowess [62]. Sports drink and energy drinks, in particular, align their brands with elite sports and extreme sports and sports drinks are ubiquitously promoted via sports sponsorship [62][63][64]. ...
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Reducing consumption of free sugars, such as those found in high concentrations in manufactured products such as sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and 100% fruit juices, is a global public health priority. This study aimed to measure prevalence of widely available pre-packaged non-alcoholic water-based beverages (carbonated sodas, sports drinks, energy drinks, artificially-sweetened sodas, fruit juices (any type), and bottled water) and to comprehensively examine behavioral, environmental, current health, and demographic correlates of consumption. A cross-sectional, nationally-representative population survey of 3430 Australian adults (18+ years) was conducted using computer-assisted telephone (mobile and landline) interviewing. Past week prevalence of pre-packaged drinks containing free sugar was 47.3%; daily prevalence was 13.6%. Of all the pre-packaged drinks assessed, consumption of fruit juices (any type) was the most prevalent (38.8%), followed by bottled water (37.4%), soda (28.9%), artificially-sweetened soda (18.1%), sports drinks (8.1%), and energy drinks (4.2%). Higher soda consumption was associated with males, younger age, socio-economic disadvantage, frequent takeaway food consumption, availability of soda in the home, obesity, and a diagnosis of heart disease or depression. A diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes was associated with increased likelihood of consuming artificially-sweetened sodas and decreased likelihood of consuming sugar-sweetened soda. SSB consumption is prevalent in Australia, especially among young adults and males, foreshadowing continued population weight gain and high burdens of chronic disease. To reduce consumption, Australia must take a comprehensive approach, incorporating policy reform, effective community education, and active promotion of water.
The sports industry seems to be embedded in the global culture to such a degree that many activities positioning or using sports elements seem to emerge every day, such as esport, competitive video games. At the same time, other activities, which have the legal status of a sport, such as chess, are mostly not considered as sports by consumers. A paradox thus seems to exist between the classification of an activity as a sport and the categorization and mental representation that consumers have of it.Based on this observation, the first objective of this research is to understand and measure the elements that influence the perception of leisure activities as sports by consumers. This measurement, called perceived sportivity, is carried out through an initial historical and sociological review of the concept of sport. We go back to its origin and analyze its evolution to understand its components and influences. Then, based on a series of qualitative and quantitative studies, we develop a measurement instrument to measure this perception and categorization as a sport by consumers. This measurement instrument consists of 8 items divided into two dimensions called physicality (5 items) and equipment (3 items).Once this instrument measuring perceived sportivity has been created and validated from a convergent and discriminating point of view, but also within a nomological network, we propose to test it in two contexts. First, we test the effects of perceived sportivity in a field study. This field study uses one of the most-watched and most-played video games in the world: League of Legends. In this field study, we test and confirm the effects of perceived sportivity on brand perception, i.e. brand personality, brand identification, and perceived brand legitimacy. Finally, we also measure and confirm the influence of brand perception on 3 variables: consumer engagement, perceived value, and purchase intention. These results are then replicated in an experiment where the two dimensions of sportivity are manipulated through visual and textual stimuli.
This study seeks to identify the impact of a commercial turning point in the FIA World Rally Championship (WRC) in 1999 and the 2013 takeover by the current promoter’s media strategies. Drawing upon 21 qualitative interviews with key stakeholders in the WRC coupled with theories of institutional logics, mediatization and strategic legacy, the findings demonstrate that the decisions and culture of the sport can be powerful as the new owners seek to influence the direction of sport in their own image. Sport managers who are dealing with change processes and sport management researchers should identify where an organization’s self-reinforcing mechanisms and processes exist in order to balance sporting tradition with organizational culture.
Research question The business of sport has been radically challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic, impelling a rapid reassessment of practices to survive the disruption. One stakeholder comprehensively impacted has been the media, whose investments in augmenting sport’s commercial appeal have been immense. The media will need to rethink their strategies to adequately leverage their connections to sport products. Similarly, sport properties and content providers will need to reconsider their mediated offerings and how fan relationships can be sustained. In response, this article outlines a pathway to superior fan activation and engagement, noting the accelerated transformation of sport arising in consequence of the pandemic. Methods An original, multi-dimensional typology is posited into the progression of mediasport and its key components in the context of amplified disruption during COVID-19, and the predicted, lasting consequences in its aftermath. Findings A new typological framework for conceptualizing the media-sport-consumer triumvirate is presented, which illuminates the acceleration and nature of change brought about by the pandemic. It maps out and describes interrelated and escalating media and sport compositions, explains their pertinence and related exemplars in a COVID-19 context, foreshadows their deployment in a resurgence of sport, and theorizes about their technological, consumption and commercial properties. Implications The typology-driven analysis culminates with the proposition that sport’s relationship with its consumers has been irrevocably transformed by COVID-19 and that this shift will demand a media-sport-consumer dynamic characterized by a radically compressed engagement between the triumvirate that effectively constitutes a new, sui generis form.
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Color has long been considered important by both the manufacturing industry and academia because it affects people’s perceptions, emotions, and behaviors. However, the evaluation of purchasing behavior until now has mainly been only in an experimental environment, and there have been concerns that differed from the actual consumer behavior. Therefore, the causal effect of the strong impression of a manufacturer’s brand color on the purchase behavior in the Japanese automobile industry was verified. Covariate was homogenized by propensity score matching based on the online survey, and the causal effect on purchase intention was extracted. As a result, the impression of the brand color had a positive effect on the purchase intention. This effect was estimated to be 5.739 in odds ratio. Commercial brands, logos, emblems, car body colors, dealers, showrooms, and even professional baseball teams were found to be factors that foster brand color.
Die Digitalisierung hat in den letzten Jahren eine Vielzahl an Veränderungen in der Medienbranche hervorgerufen. Die jüngsten Fortschritte digitaler Technologien haben diverse Prozesse und Aktivitäten des Managements von Medienunternehmen grundlegend verändert. Heute existieren unterschiedliche neue Medien zur Rezeption von Sport und anderen Inhalten. Medien bilden eine zentrale Plattform für Unternehmen, um mit den Konsumenten und anderen Akteuren in Verbindung. Somit hat sich über die Zeit nicht nur das Mediengeschäft verändert, sondern auch die Rolle des Kunden. Dieser Beitrag stützt sich auf die Service-Dominant Logic sowie die Geschäftsmodell-Literatur und bietet einen interdisziplinären Überblick über die Zusammenhänge von der Service-Dominant Logic und den Geschäftsmodellen der Medienunternehmen im digitalen Zeitalter. Das zentrale Ziel dieses Beitrags ist die Beschreibung des Medienwandels, der durch die Digitalisierung immer weiter voranschreitet.
This Handbook draws together top international researchers and discusses the state of the art and the future direction of research at the nexus between sport and business. It is heavily built upon choosing, applying and evaluating appropriate quantitative as well as qualitative research methods for practical advice in sport and business research. © Sten Söderman and Harald Dolles 2013 and Cover graphics by Monika and Charlotte Dolles, 95503 Hummeltal, Germany. All rights reserved.
Dieser Herausgeberband bietet einen umfassenden Überblick über Besonderheiten der Markenführung von Medienmarken sowie über zentrale Aspekte der Markenführung mit neuen und klassischen Medien. Neben grundlegenden Managementtechniken betrachten renommierte Autoren aus Wissenschaft und Praxis Herausforderungen, Chancen, Trends und Geschäftsmodelle im Markenmanagement von und mit Medien sowie relevante rechtliche Aspekte. Der Praxisbezug der angestellten Überlegungen wird anhand vieler Beispiele und unterschiedlicher Fallstudien verdeutlicht. Der Inhalt • Grundlagen zur Markenführung mit und von Medien • Markenführung mit Medien • Führung von Medienmarken • Besondere Herausforderungen, Chancen und Geschäftsmodelle • Juristische Positionen zu Marken und Medien • Fallstudien Die Herausgeber Prof. Dr. Stefanie Regier ist Professorin für Marketing und Marktforschung an der Fakultät für Informatik und Wirtschaftsinformatik der Hochschule Karlsruhe. Prof. Dr. Holger Schunk ist Professor für Medienwirtschaft und Marketing am Fachbereich Design, Informatik und Medien der Hochschule RheinMain, Wiesbaden. Dr. Thomas Könecke ist Leiter einer Forschungsgruppe am Fachbereich Medien, Sozialwissenschaften und Sport der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the research output on media brands and media branding over the past 20 years. A meta-analysis was conducted to detect publications and investigate the structure, the theoretical approaches, as well as utilized methods and analyses of research output published in German and English. Thus, a broad overview on the developing area of media branding within the field of media economics and management is provided. Overall the meta-analysis revealed a prevalence of empirical studies and on TV as the dominant medium investigated. Furthermore, management and strategy is shown to be the primary theoretical research focus.
This piece examines recent changes and emerging trends in the media industry, their implications for branding, and specific research ideas that address these changes in the context of media branding. An overview of the characteristics and challenges facing today’s media brands is introduced, followed by an analysis of recent changes and how they might re-shape the parameters of media branding strategies. Next, a list of factors that are expected to affect media branding practices into the future and potential research topics addressing the new media branding 3.0 environment are presented.
This paper looks at how two sports teams, hockey club the Toronto Maple Leafs and Football Club Barcelona, have each built and leveraged their brand equity. The main differences between the two clubs lie in how they position their brands. For TML, the affective and experiential sides of the product are emphasised to make the brand grow; for Barcelona, the cognitive and affective dimensions of the product are prioritised to nurture the brand. Differences between hockey and soccer also contribute to branding discrepancies in terms of exposure and global influences.
In an effort to enhance the organization's image and increase its revenues, sport managers should incorporate the concept of brand equity, the strength of a team/university name in the marketplace, into strategic marketing efforts. This article, building on Aaker's (1991) theoretical structure, develops a conceptual framework of brand equity applied to Division I college athletics. The brand equity framework provides a closed-ended system whereby antecedents (team-related, university-related, and market-related) create brand equity that then results in marketplace consequences (e.g., national television exposure, ticket sales). These consequences then feed into a marketplace perception that impacts the antecedents of brand equity through a feedback loop. Directions for future research efforts that address evaluating the validity of the model, implications for different sports within Division I athletics, and relationships to other popular marketing concepts are offered.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSSC) to measure the motivations behind sport spectator consumption behavior. Previous efforts to develop scales to measure spectator motives have demonstrated weaknesses in content, criterion, and construct validity. According, the content validity, criterion validity, construct validity, and internal consistency of the MSSC were examined to determine whether the instrument accurately and appropriately measures the motivations of sport spectators. The weaknesses of previous scales are presented and then the psychometric properties of the MSSC are assessed. The results indicate that the MSSC does possess the psychometric properties requisite for accurately and reliably measuring the motivations of sport spectator consumption behavior.