ArticlePDF Available

Educational Gamification Vs. Game Based Learning: Comparative Study

Authors:

Abstract

Abstract— Computer games have grown in many directions. Many studies and systems deals with different elements such as ”Fun” and ”pleasure” in the game structure to improve a learners motivation in the field of educational learning. In this paper, we will explain different theoretical support for the benefit of using game in education and learning. We will also demonstrate the difference among those methods such as , Game Base Learning(GBL), educational game and Gamification in education. A clear description among these new terms with explanation of the possible impact on teaching and learning will be presented. Games can make learning concept more enjoyable for students and provide a platform for their creative thought. Games will of- ten act as learning triggers inducing lively discussion on learning concepts amongst students following game play. A couple of new ways of teaching like Game Based Learning and Gamification can be applied to enhance the learning procedure of students in various age levels.
Abstract
Computer games
have grown in many
directions . Many studies and systems deals with
different elements
such
as ”Fun” and
”pleasure”
in the
game
structure
to
imp
r
ove
a
learners motivation in the
field of
educational
lear
ning
.
In this paper, we will
explain different
theoretical
support
f
or
the benefit of
using game in education and learning. We will also
demonstrate
the difference among those methods such as ,
Game Base
Learning(GBL), educational
game and
Gamification
in education. A clear
description
among
these new terms
with
explanation of the possible impact
on teaching and learning will be
pr
esented.
Games can make learning con cept more enjoyable for
students
and provide a platform f or their creative thought.
Games will of- ten act as learning triggers inducing lively
discussion on learning
concepts amongst students following
game play. A couple of new ways of teaching like Game
Based Learning and
Gamification
can be applied to
enhance the learning
procedure
of students
in
various age
levels.
Index TermsGame base learning (GBL), educational
game, gamification in education, learning method.
I. INTRODUCTION
Many studies and systems that use ”pleasure” and ”fun”
as inherent aspects of games to improve a learners
motivation have been developed in the field of the learning
environment. Game can be defined as an activity that
must have the following characteristics [1]-[5]:
Fun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted
character.
Separation: it is circumscribed in time and place.
Uncertainty: the outcome of the activity is
unforeseeable.
Non-productive: participation does not accomplish
anything useful.
Governed by rules: the activity has rules that are
different from everyday life.
Fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a
different reality.
An educational game is defined as a game being designed
and used for teaching and learning. In educational games,
we could combine the elements of fun and educational
concepts to increase student’s motivation and engagement.
We believed that using game-based learning is better than
traditional lecture instruction, producing better learning
Manuscript received May 19, 2016; revised July 2, 2016.
Rula Al-Azawi is with the Gulf College, Oman (e-mail:
rula@gulfcollegeoman.com, Fatma-alfaliti@hotmail.com, shinef-
ace90@hotmail.com).
effects and higher learning motivation. Being more
attractive to learning attention of students compared to
traditional instruction, they can increase learning motivation
promote problem-solving ability, and result in achieving
better learning effects [6].
Old teaching methods mechanism is no longer
beneficial to the students because of some reasons such as
the students will not be able to think out of the box and to
do some kind of practical assessment under the old
mechanisms. In old teaching mechanism, the students focus
only on the exams rather than trying to understand the
underlying concepts of the subject matters. So, there arises
a need to let the students learn in their own ways, rather
than focusing on the exams without understanding the
subject matters. In order to give opportunities to the
students to learn by experience, the researchers have been
persuaded to create virtual learning environments [7].
The rest of paper is organized as follows. Section two
describes the usage of computer game in education in both
directions, first as gamification in education and second as
Game Based Learning (GBL). Section three describes the
comparative study among different new teaching methods.
Finally, section four presents the conclusion and future
work.
II. COMPUTER GAME IN EDUCATION
In educational contexts, not only learners need to be
able to enter the world of the game, but also be critical
about the process, so as to be able to reflect upon their
relationship with the game when viewed from outside. This
suggests that creative learning through gaming requires
substantial efforts from teachers, in order to achieve
positive results [8].
In todays information society, digital learning has the
features of not being constrained by time and space. Being
more attractive to learning attention of students compared to
traditional instruction, can increase learning motivation;
promote problem-solving ability, which results in
achieving better learning effects [6].
Another definition of games is systems that involve
interaction with a user interface to generate visual
feedback on a computer or a video device to utilize fun,
play, and competition [9]. We can classify fun in an
education game into the following four types first, when a
player achieves a goal which is the basic fun in the game.
Secondly, when a player was unable to predict, in other
words, fun is the intellectual or aesthetic feeling which
occurs at the time of an unpredictable happening. Third,
elation when a player faces a challenging problem or when
a player considers whether he can solve a difficult
Educational Gamification Vs. Game Based Learning:
Comparative Study
Rula Al-Azawi, Fatma Al-Faliti, and Mazin Al-Blushi
International
Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 4, August 2016
132
doi: 10.18178/ijimt.2016.7.4.659
problem or achieve a difficult goal. Finally, honor for the
player. There is a feeling of satisfaction when a player
receives social praise or honor, such as “the player is praised”
or the player achieves first place [2].
In this section, we have noticed that the use of games in
education provides five keys of claiming [10]:
Games are built on sound learning principles.
Games provide more engagement for the learner.
Games provide personalized learning opportunities
Games teach 21st century skills.
Games provide an environment for authentic and
relevant assessment.
Despite the use of educational computer games in
teaching many subjects, still there is a need for more
games to teach several other subjects.
In the next section, we will explain benefit of using
game in education.
A. Benefits of Games in Education
Video games have great positive potential in addition to
their entertainment value and there has been considerable
success when games are designed to address a specific
problem or to teach a certain skill. Video games can
clearly attract the attention of children and adolescents. For
over twenty years researchers have been using games in
education, providing the following reasons as to why games
are useful tools in teaching and learning concept. For
instance [11]-[16]:
Games can be used as research and/or measurement
tools.
Games attract participation by individuals across many
demographic boundaries (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity
and educational status).
Games can assist children in setting goals, ensuring
goal rehearsal, providing feedback, reinforcement, and
maintaining records of behavioral change.
Games can be useful, as they allow the researcher to
measure performance on a very wide variety of tasks,
and can be easily changed, standardized and
understood.
Games can be used when examining individual
characteristics such as self-esteem, self-concept, goal-
setting and individual differences.
Games are fun and stimulating for participants.
Consequently, it is easier to achieve and maintain a
person’s undivided attention for long periods of time.
Games also allow participants to experience novelty,
curiosity and challenge. This may stimulate learning
Games may help in the development of transferable
IT skills
Games can act as simulations. These allow participants
to engage in extraordinary activities and to destroy or
even die without real consequences
B. Gamification in Education
Gamificaiton
is the practice of using game design
elements, game mechanics and game thinking in non-game
activities to motivate participants. For the purpose of this
article, we will be discussing gamification in education.
There are many examples of how gamification motivates
behavior in loyalty programs, marketing and even recycling
programs.
On a basic level, gamification techniques tap into and
influence peoples natural desires for competition,
achievement, recognition and self-expression. Gamification
appears to be making a leap from game-play to the
workplace at a great pace. A growing number of
organizations are adopting gaming techniques and game-
style rewards in order to motivate and incentive employees
and customers [17].
We could define gamification in a simple way as it is the
use of game design elements, game thinking and game
mechanics to enhance non-game contexts. This is the main
function that gamification could provide to enhance a
situation through the use of gaming mechanics, the benefits
of gamification include: a) increased engagement; b) higher
motivation levels; c) increased interaction with the user
(customer or employee); and d) greater loyalty [18].
Young learners gain skills and a method to learn using
games in their everyday life but however they have to
use other methods to be successful in school or at university.
Somehow this situation can be put into question although
teachers and researchers have recognized this fact for almost
five years using the term gamification. [5].
Educational gamification proposes the use of game-like
rule systems, player experiences and cultural roles to shape
learners behavior. In the previous research study [19],
researcher found that many children used a trial-and-error
strategy through the games. For this reason, gamifying a
course would be a great help to primary students by taking
advantage of the motivational power of games and applying
it to the motivational problems in education so that
successful learning can take place [20].
In the classroom, gamification has been integrated in a
more authentic manner as some classrooms have become a
living, breathing game. Gamification systems like
ClassCraft add an adventure game layer on top of the
existing course infrastructure. Students create a character,
play as part of a team, and gain experience points and
rewards based on class-related behaviors. Students are
rewarded for helping other students, producing exemplary
work, etc. Likewise, students can receive consequences for
behaviors that are inconsistent with the desired learning
environment [21].
Another popular interest in gamification is also
reflected in an academic context: the number of
papers published on gamification is growing. This
suggests that gamification is becoming a more popular
subject for academic inquiry [21]. Gamification has been
defined as a process of enhancing services with
(motivational) affordances in order to invoke gameful
experiences and further behavioral outcomes [21].
According to this conceptualization, gamification can be
seen to have three main parts:
1) The implemented motivational affordances
2) The resulting psychological outcomes
3) The further behavioral outcomes
Fig. 1 illustrates the steps in Gamification [21].
Fig. 1. Gamification steps.
International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 4, August 2016
133
C. Game Based Learning (GBL)
Game Based Learning (GBL) is being used to encourage
students to participate in learning while playing, and make
the leaning process more interesting by adding fun to the
learning process. It has a positive effect on cognitive
development [22]. Game and courses are combined because
traditional learning process is boring and game-based
learning can improve learning motivation of students. When
students enter into a flow state in playing, their
concentration is higher than usual [23]. Game-Based
Learning is not just about using games for review and
reinforcement. While that is an important and useful
component, it has been going on for a long time, and is not
what has really changed. What is new and different and
makes people really excited is that computer games can now
be used for primary learning of really hard subjects,
including people management, difficult-to-learn software,
complex financial products, and intricate social interactions
[24].
GBL is increasingly used for the following areas [25],
[26]:
Material that is dry, technical and boring
Subject matter that is really difficult
Audiences that is hard to reach
Difficult assessment and certification issues
Complex understanding process
Sophisticated what if analyses
Strategy development and communication
Increasing the learning interest and motivation of
students
Game-based learning makes people feel as if they are
playing computer games. In the learning process, we
observe two important elements which are interesting and
fun. Actually, games can help learners to being in an
effective learning environment that is at ease and with
stronger learning motivation [27], so that learners can use
digital game-based learning to develop the basic techniques
and knowledge in specific fields necessary in the digital
technology age [28]. Children also believe that digital
game- based learning helps them to learn faster, and have
greater interest in focusing on learning topics. We believe
that game-based learning can considerably help middle
school science, technology, and mathematics education
[6].Most students for example feel that mathematics is a
difficult subject, and many students lose their learning
motivation in response to the repetitive and monotonous
mathematical learning in the classroom, having lost morale
for learning mathematics [29]. If it is possible to use digital
game-based learning for mathematics, students not only
think that mathematics has become more interesting, but
also teachers and parents think that if students use games
to learn mathematics, it can effectively enhance their
mathematical knowledge and abilities [6].
III. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
The purpose of this section is to analyze the difference
among gamification in education and GBL in many
compromising categories.
Gamification is turning the learning process as a whole
into a game, while GBL is using a game as part of the
learning process.
Gamification turns the entire learning process into a
game. It takes game mechanics and gameplay elements and
applies them to existing learning courses and content in
order to better motivate and engage learners. Examples of
these mechanics include: Achievement badges, Points,
Leaderboards, Progress bars and Levels/quests. In theory,
one can gamify any activity, not just learning ones. Indeed,
everything from fitness apps to LinkedIn profile pages can
and have been gamified to increase user participation and
engagement. Unlike gamification, game- based learning
relates to the use of games to enhance the learning
experience. Educators have been using games in the
classroom for years.
All of the studies in education/learning contexts
considered the learning outcomes of gamification as mostly
positive, for example, in terms of increased motivation and
engagement in the learning tasks as well as enjoyment over
them. However, at the same time, the studies pointed to
negative outcomes which need to be paid attention to, such
as the effects of increased competition, task evaluation
difficulties, and design features [21].
Gamification is different from Learning Based Games
because it takes the entire learning process and turns it into
a game. To do this instructional designers will use game
design elements which are digital objects and elements
that make an experience game like. Examples of
gamification design elements include: fixed rules, negative
consequences, ranks, player effort, reputation and variable
outcomes. Instructional designers will also use game
mechanics and game thinking. Game mechanics are rules
and feedback loops which include tactics like point systems,
leaderboards, levels, rewards and time constraints. Game
thinking, on the other hand, aims to create immersive
experiences like storytelling, challenges and requests.
This is where it gets slightly confusing because learned
based games also use the aforementioned gaming
mechanics, elements and thinking. The difference is that
learning based games will turn a singular learning
objective from an e-learning course into a game
whereas Gamificaiton takes the entire eLearning process
and turns it into a game. Table I helps to further
distinguish Gamification and game based learning for
further clarification.
TABLE I: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS TABLE
Comparison
points
Gamification in education
Game based learning
Concept
Gamification is the idea of adding
game elements of a non-game
situation. They reward users for
certain behaviors.
Use of games to enhance the
learning experience
International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 4, August 2016
134
Objective
Learn a motivation from
game
To achieve in the game
motivate students
Challenge
Looking for a new way to
approach challenges
Challenges are part of the
game must be solved.
Character
Player avatar weak story
Characters situation
Techniques
1.Progressing to different
levels 2.Scores 3.Avatars
4.Virtual currencies 5
.Competition with friends
1.Motivation 2.Relevant
practice 3.Specific timely
4.Story, emotional 5.Game
goals , challenges
Benefits
1.Better Learning
Experience 2.Better
Learning Environment
3.Instant Feedback
4.Prompting Behavioral Change
5.Can Be Applied For Most
Learning Needs
1.Increases A Childs
Memory Capacity
2.Computer , Simulation Fluency
3.Helps With Fast Strategic
Thinking , Problem-Solving
4.Develops Hand-Eye
Coordination
5.Skill-Building (e.g. map
reading)
Rewards
Earn experience points and level
up
Intrinsically rewards,
Losing may or may not be
possible because the point is to
motivate people to take action
and learn.
Levels , costs
Cheaper , easier
Expensive , hard
Content
Features are added to the
LMS or any other system.
Usually morphed to fit the story
and scenes of the game
Examples
Joanne Chen, Lifesaver,
Ashi Tandon, Alphonso
Hendricks, Bob Kaart, Christina
Stephenson,Nick Russell
SimCity, Civilization,
World of Warcraft,
Mineraft, and Portal
IV. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
This paper aimed at clarifying the importance of using
new trends in education. We have noticed that creating an
effective educational game entails much more than simply
creating an engaging game and building in age-
appropriate educational content. Through
gamification,
we
can not only create a mindset that encourages students to try
new things and not be afraid of failing, but also can enable
students to engage in enjoyable experiences for the purpose
of learning. In addition, gamification is an innovative
approach to learning, as new technologies and applications
are continuously emerging, it is still developing. Further
studies shall continue to examine the new mechanics and
new applications associated with emerging gamification
technologies [20]. However, the most important goal of any
digital game-based instructional material is to increase
learning. Compared with traditional lectures, digital game-
based approaches can indeed produce better learning effects,
which underscore the need to develop appropriate
instructional materials [6]
The next generation of jobs will be characterized by
increased technology use, extensive problem solving, and
complex communication. These are skills that go beyond
typical reading, writing, and arithmetic of years past. It’s not
only what students need to learn, e.g. shifting, but also how
and when they learn. Students are growing up with laptops,
tablets, cell phones, and video calls, and they expect to use
this technology in their daily interactions [10].
As a result, gamification is touted as a next generation
method for marketing and customer engagement in popular
discussion. The usage of game elements or game mechanics
design depends on the systems main contexts and purposes.
In general the most used elements in gamified applications
are feedbacks, leaderboards, points, and levels. The key
advantage of gamification is the low cost of development
and the possibility of making learning content more
delicious or interesting using game elements. In traditional
instructional methodology where the lecture classes are
perceived to be boring by students, the gamification
technology has a great advantage to solve the problem [30].
REFERENCES
[1] R. S. J. Bourgonion, M. Valcke, and T. Schellens, Exploring the
acceptance of video games in the classroom by secondary school
students, in Proc. ICCE2009, pp. 651658.
[2] R. Takaoka, T. Okamoto, and M. Shimokawa, “A framework of edu-
cational control in game-based learning environment, in Proc. the
2011 11th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning
Technologies,
ICALT
2011, pp. 3236, 2011.
[3] J. K. A. Ogan, V. Aleven, and C. Jones, “Instructional negotiation
with virtual humans: The effect of social goals on gameplay and
learning,” in Proc. ITS2010, 2010.
[4] C. Seelhammer and M. Niegemann, “Playing games to learn - does it
actually work?” in Proc. ICCE2009, pp. 675681.
[5] K. Erenli, “The impact of gamification: A recommendation of
scenarios for education, in Proc. 2012 15th International
Conference on Inter
active
Collaborative Learning, ICL 2012, 2012.
[6] H. R. Chen, C. H. Jian, W. S. Lin, P. C. Yang, and H. Y.
Chang, “Design of digital game-based learning in elementary school
International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 4, August 2016
135
math-ematics, in Proc. 2014 7th International Conference on Ubi-
Media Computing and Workshops, pp. 322325, 2014.
[7] U. Jayasinghe and A. Dharmaratne, “Game based learning vs.
gamification from the higher education students’ perspective,in
Proc. International Conference on Teaching, Assessment and
Learning for Engineering, no. August, pp. 683688, 2013.
[8] E. U. Member and S. Iceac, “Innovation and creativity in
education and training in the EU member states: Fostering creative
learning and supporting innovative teaching literature review on
innovation and creativity in E & T.
[9] S. S. Shabanah, J. X. Chen, H. Wechsler, D. Carr, and E. Wegman,
“Designing computer games to teach algorithms, in Proc. 2010
Seventh International Conference on Information Technology:
New Generations, 2010, pp. 11191126.
[10] K. L. Mcclarty, P. M. Frey, and R. P. Dolan, “A literature review of
gaming in education research report, June, 2012.
[11] R. Vacca, M. Bromley, J. Leyrer, M. Sprung, and B. Homer,
Designing Games for Emotional Health, 2014.
[12] M. Ulicsak, “Games in education: Serious games,
A Future Lab Literature Review, p. 139, 2010.
[13] D. Moursund. (2006). Introduction to using games in education: A
guide for teachers and parents. [Online]. 6. pp. 1155. Available:
https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/handle/1794/3177
[14] A. Introduction, Teaching Toolkit, October 2011.
[15] K. Facer, “Computer games and learning, Screen, vol. 6, p. 35, 2006,
December 2007.
[16] M. Griffiths, The educational benefits of videogames, Education
and Health, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 4751, 2002.
[17] Gartner, Gartner says by 2015, more than 50 per cent of
or
ganizations that manage innovation processes will gamify those
processes, 2011.
[18] APM Thames Valley, Introduction to Gamification, 2014.
[19] J. Sandberg, M. Maris, and K. de Geus, “Mobile English learning:
An evidence- based study with fifth graders, Computers and
Education, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 13341347, 2011.
[20] C.-H. Su and C.-H. Cheng, “A mobile game-based insect learning
system for improving the learning achievements,Procedia - Social
and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 103, pp. 4250, November 2013.
[21] J. Hamari, J. Koivisto, and H. Sarsa, “Does gamification work? A
literature review of empirical studies on gamification,in Proc. the
Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2014,
pp. 30253034.
[22] W. C. Lin, J. Y. Ho, C. H. Lai, and B. S. Jong, “Mobile game-
based learning to inspire students learning motivation, in Proc.
2014 International Conference on Information Science, Electronics
and Electrical Engineering, ISEEE 2014, vol. 2, pp. 810813, 2014.
[23] K. Squire, Video games in education, International Journal of
Intelligent Games and Simulation, vol. 2, 2003.
[24] M. Prensky, The digital game-based learning revolution, pp. 120,
2001.
[25] F. Ke, Alternative goal structures for computer game-based learning.
International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative
Learning
,
vol. 3, pp. 429-445, 2008.
[26] H. Andreas and M. Ebner, “Successful implementation of user-
centered game based learning in higher education: an example from
civil engineering,Computers and Education, vol. 49, no. 3, pp.
873-890, November 2007.
[27] H. C. Hsiao, A brief review of digital games and learning, in
Proc. Fir
st
IEEE International Workshop on Digital Game and
Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning, 2007.
[28] C. J. An, Y.-J. Bonk, “Finding that special place: Designing digital
game-based learning environments,TechTrends, vol. 53, no. 3, pp.
4348, 2009.
[29] V. Kalloo, Kinshuk, and P. Mohan, “Personalized game based
mobile learning to assist high school students with mathematics,” in
Proc. IEEE
Inte
rnational
Conference on Advanced Learning
Technologies, 2010, pp. 485487.
[30] G. Surendeleg, V. Murwa, H. K. Yun, and Y. S. Kim, “The role of
gamification in education a literature review, Contemporary
Engineering Sciences, vol. 7, no. 2932, pp.1609
1616
,
2014
.
Rula Al Azawi is Senior Lecturer and programme
leader of computer science department in Gulf Collage
affiliated with Stafford Shire university/UK, where she
has been since 2005. She received a B.Sc. from Al
Mansourl University in 1995, and a M.Sc. in software
engineering from National Computer Center/ Higher
Educational Institute of Computer and Information
Research in 2000. She received her Ph.D. in Intellegent
Software Engeering from De-Montfort University / UK in 2015.
She has over fifteen years of teaching experience. Ten years of which as
senior lecturer with proficiency in teaching several computer science topics
of UK modules. Five years as a lecturer in Jordan and Iraq. Actively do
researching in the areas of serious games, educational games, game
development methodology and Agent Oriented Software Engineering
(AOSE) and their applications on the game domain. Furthoremore, she has
worked in Quality Assurance to create Self Evaluation Document (SED) for
computing department and with Ministry of Higher Education in Oman.
Mazin Albalushi is an Omani mobile developer. He has four years of work
experience. He is a student in Gulf College affiliated with Staffordshire
University/UK and will graduate in 2016/2017. He is aiming to be a
spectacular and innovative and one of the best app programmers.
Fatma Alfuliti has four years experience of computer science. She is a
student in Gulf College affiliated with Staffordshire University/UK and will
graduate in 2016/2017. She has experience of mobile application. It aims to
excel in creating innovative applications and creative.
International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 4, August 2016
136
... Game-based learning is defined when the educational content is incorporated into a game to engage students [6]. Game-based learning differs from gamification in education since the last one uses elements from the games (e.g., avatars, scores) whereas the a game-based learning approach uses properly a game [1] to enhance the learning experience. In this work, we have used a game not only to engage students but also to provide them examples and metaphors. ...
... Al-Azawi et al. [1] state that the Game-based learning uses techniques such as motivation, relevant practice, story, emotional elements, goals and challenges. Some elements from the gamification is also used, for example, the competition in an activity that will be discussed in Section 7. ...
... However, the main difference is that our work is more focused on unit testing and how to write it. In addition, we also incorporates part of gamification such as competition between students and activities with scores [1]. [10] x x [4] x x [14] x x x [20] x x [30] x ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Software testing is essential to ensure the quality of a system. One of the first levels of testing is the Unit Testing, which aims to test the smallest part of the software, such as objects, methods or classes or modules. Motivated by the relevance of unit tests in the software development process and the lack of undergraduate courses where students can relate the theoretical concepts of tests to practical classes, we propose a game-based learning approach, called GAMUT, linked by a narrative for teaching unit tests. The approach consists of three steps: a game to introduce the concepts of unit testing such as testing doubles and the given-when-then structure; a video lesson that uses similar code of the game to explain and exemplify the previous concepts; and an activity with a challenge, in which the students can practice what they learned for example the writing unit tests. The approach was applied to an undergraduate class of a Verification and Validation course at a university. The results showed that the approach helped to engage the students in the learning process of unit testing since most of them were able to successfully complete the proposed activity. Also, the students enjoyed the game, the narrative and the lucidity of the proposed activity.
... This rapidly changing technology would enable serious thinking and problem-solving in education when its limitless offer to education is understood. Educational games are defined as games premeditated for teaching and learning purposes [3]. Games are activities which possess the following characteristics fun, constrained to place and time, unknown outcome, does not necessarily accomplish useful things, directed by rules and not real [3]. ...
... Educational games are defined as games premeditated for teaching and learning purposes [3]. Games are activities which possess the following characteristics fun, constrained to place and time, unknown outcome, does not necessarily accomplish useful things, directed by rules and not real [3]. Studies abound on the use of games as educational tools [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. ...
... Although definitions are also evolving, there are a few differences in broad terms. For example, GBL is "simply learning through games," while gamification is "the application of game-like mechanics to non-game entities to encourage a certain type of behavior" [14]. GBL is unique in that the goal of facilitating learning creates tension in the design process that requires careful balancing of the need to cover the subject matter and the desire to promote gameplay [15]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
To develop a new digital game for children effectively, we must first recognize the underlying at which point the stakeholders accept to take this media. Prior research has shown that integrating games into education can lead to a more engaging way of learning. However, adding new interactions from a social problem like prolonged littering habits to game design concepts might not easily be accepted. This study attempts to examine the children’s acceptance of the expected Game-Based Learning for the waste problem through interaction scenario’s video using Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT 2) approach. It is still relatively rare for other studies to apply UTAUT 2 with the young audience of primary school students, especially to find out their acceptance of a game concept. In total, 129 primary school students in Greater Malang, East Java, Indonesia was involved in this study. The result shows that the highest scores are on the Effort Expectancy (84,9%) and Hedonic Motivation (82.9%). These scores show that students are confident in the app’s ease of use and enjoyment. On the other hand, the result also indicates that in order to be accepted by children, the game designer should carefully pay attention to the user’s Facilitating Conditions. Further, on Behavioral Intention, although there is a perception that using the game will be easy and pleasant (Hedonic Motivation) students perceive that using the game on a more regular basis may not be their intention.
... Gamification is a term in education that refers to the process of employing game mechanisms and game design approaches to increase motivation and maintain students' attention in class in order to achieve learning objectives and goals. Additionally, gamification may be defined as the practise of thinking in terms of games and the game elements that are used to engage people in problem-solving (Al-Azawi, Al-Faliti & Al-Blushi, 2016). According to , gamification is a strategy that is gaining traction as a new trend by integrating video game concepts and dynamics into non-game environments. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable economic growth and socioeconomic stability can be achieved through technical and vocational education (TVET). Improving TVET education can help empower students to play a significant role in achieving sustainable growth in their country. Teaching and learning in TVET institutions need to be reformed to achieve the international standard and increase students' understanding and motivation. Recently, gamification appears to be an emerging trend in education due to its conviction that it can support learning and motivate students. Thus, this study aims to identify vocational lecturers' perceptions and readiness to implement gamification in their teaching and learning. The findings have shown a high mean score in lecturers' perception and a moderate mean score in their readiness to implement the gamification approach in their teaching and learning. The findings from this study show that vocational teachers need to be trained and ready to use this method in their teaching and learning as a way to deal with the post-pandemic era, where teaching and learning should be more interactive by using the right technology.
... It is considered an effective strategy to engage users in desired behaviors by restructuring tasks and activities to integrate game elements and provide gameful experiences. Research in the fields of health (Cugelman, 2013), education (Al-Azawi et al., 2016), tourism (Xu et al., 2017), business (Hofacker et al., 2016), and many others has shown that gamification can promote healthy behaviors, improve learning performance/motivation, or contribute to brand awareness/loyalty. However, the underlying mechanism of gamification still needs further research. ...
Article
Full-text available
Engagement is a common goal pursued by most social and technical systems, because of its widely acknowledged effects on enhancing user acceptance and performance. Previous research has shown that a system’s ability to engage users involves two known aspects: the technology foundation that determines the interactive paths for engaging users and the design methodology that determines the atop user experience to be conveyed through those paths. In recent years, an emerging and promising engagement approach that integrates both an advanced technology stack and novel design methodology, i.e. IoT-enabled Gamification (IeG), has attracted wide interest from both public and private sectors. This article aims to conduct a systematic review to answer some fundamental questions. 75 papers were reviewed under a 3-axis analysis framework of user engagement, the majority of which indicated that IeG is linked to increased engagement in a variety of application domains, stages, and population scales.
Thesis
Fraction knowledge is critical for the holistic development of mathematical knowledge. While fraction instruction typically begins in elementary school, children often encounter relational numerical concepts much earlier in their environment (e.g. sharing candies, varying the sweetness of a drink, baking muffins). A recently proposed theory, the Ratio Processing System (RPS) theory, posits that the understanding of symbolic fractions and non-symbolic relational magnitudes are fundamentally intertwined. However, research on the RPS theory and fraction learning interventions in the classroom are limited. In this dissertation, we examine both symbolic and non-symbolic relative magnitude processing from the perspectives of both cognitive neuroscience and educational game-based approach. First, performance accuracy on a match-to-sample task reveals individuals with varied mathematics skills to be perceptually sensitive to non-symbolic ratios but not to symbolic fractions. Second, univariate and multivariate analyses of neural activity patterns using a fMRI-adaptation paradigm suggest for an absence of overlapping brain activations for symbolic and non-symbolic magnitudes. Third, analyses of fifth grader’s fraction knowledge after playing a fraction educational game developed in the context of this thesis (Math Matthews Fractions) revealed that the game did not improve overall fraction skills above traditional classroom instruction. However, it was successful at improving decimal knowledge. The results of this thesis lead us to argue for fraction instruction focused on both perceptual methods as well as building connections between the multiple constructs of fractions. Future research holds great potential for examining fraction games that support teachers in building a holistic fraction understanding, rooted in the percept-concept links.
Article
Engagement forecasts positive education outcomes such as learning and skills development. Business simulation games (BSGs) are linked to skills development, and the flipped classroom is acknowledged as a successful approach for encouraging student-centered learning through engagement. This study investigated the impact of BSGs in a flipped classroom on student engagement, learning achievement, and higher-order thinking skills (HOTS). A quasi-experimental design was employed in an undergraduate entrepreneurship course. The sample consisted of 48 students in a business university. The flipped classroom was designed for both the control and experimental groups, but the instructional material was implemented using a BSG with the experimental group. The results of quantitative and qualitative analyses indicated that the use of the BSG had positive impacts on behavioral engagement, cognitive engagement, and learning achievement and improved HOTS such as problem-solving, critical thinking, and creativity.
Article
Full-text available
Games are a proven tool for learning at all ages and in many contexts. They increase the attractiveness of learning processes through arousing interest and enhancing motivation, and aid with the development of social skills. Educational games provide teachers with different approaches to teaching. ‘The Game of the Sea’ is an interdisciplinary board game, specifically designed to teach its players about the marine environment, regardless of their age. Through its 68 sections, coloured according to particular topics and organised as a fish shape, players encounter a wide range of questions and activities. Through playing this game, players acquire a broad knowledge of science, the marine environment and its importance, and literature. The game uses an interdisciplinary approach with question cards on a variety of topics (including maths, physics, biology, chemistry, art, etc.). A total of 222 players (111 children, aged 11–15, and 111 adults, aged 18–72) tested the game. These players were enrolled in different formal and non-formal educational contexts and had different educational backgrounds. For a qualitative analysis of game sessions (participant observation), researchers acted as game moderators and, while doing so, made subtle observations of players playing the game. On top of this, the value of the game, as a didactic tool, was evaluated with a test that players took before and after the game. After playing the game, knowledge of the marine environment, increased in both children and adults, with a slightly higher increase in children. Therefore, ‘The Game of the Sea’ is suitable for teaching all ages about the marine environment. Further, this game can impart to its players the importance of the marine environment and the importance of protecting this environment.
Article
Full-text available
Techno-pedagogical ability is a way and reasonable value education available to everyone. Indeed, although in the past it has been found that there are many benefits to using innovation in the classroom environment, there are still obstacles or experiences related to the use of innovation. The literature review was utilized to gather and choose the papers for this research. This article investigates the techno-pedagogical skills requirements of the science and art teachers of the Sukkur State Government College. In this paper, literature is collected from different real sites, such as Google, Google Scholar, Science Direct (Elsevier), Sage, Springer, Emerald, Taylor & Francis, and Eric databases. Ten themes emerged from the literature to analyze the techno-pedagogical skills of science and art educators and provide suggestions and solutions for improving educational institutions. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research papers are all included in this study. This research also identified the knowledge gap and methodological and implication gap in this research article as per the need for 21st Century Digital Classrooms. The results show that there is no significant difference in techno-pedagogical skills between science teachers and art teachers who use technology in teaching. This is because of the epidemic. Talking about the current scourge, COVID-19 has transformed traditional courses into digitization through ICT integration. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is seen as a tool that can help schools adapt to the transition from industry to information. It is also considered as a tool to provide, support, and strengthen educational reforms in accordance with the educational needs of the information society.
Article
Full-text available
"Gamification" is a concept which aims to increase user experience and engagement with a system, while education is an area with high prospective for application of this concept. A lot of research is ongoing since it seeks to improve the quality of learning of students. Current situation on research of "Gamification in education" is still at initial stages where all of them aim to improve the effectiveness of education activity using game elements. Several gaps on the studiesdone on gamification in education have been identified. In this paper, we seek to answer the following questions; "how can we make education more interesting?" and "what is the role of gamification in adult learning process?" by method of literature review. © 2014 Garamkhand Surendeleg, Violet Murwa, Han-Kyung Yun and Yoon Sang Kim.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, the mobile devices develop rapidly. Both smart phones and Tablet PCs replace the desktop PCs gradually to finish simple work or word processing. Because of the mobile devices rapid growth the developer need to develop a lot of applications which are useful, for instance: playing videos, taking pictures, video recording, and playing games. Most of people would play games to kill time when they taking public transportations, waiting, using the toilet, even they walking on the street. Learning Technology development so far, there are more and more study in game-based learning and m-learning. There are fewer survey to combine these two elements to discuss, so that this study combines the game-based learning and m-learning to develop an application on Android smart phone and then we guide students to use it in fragmented time. In this learning model, we make students in mobile learning environment, further more we could enhance their learning motivation. This study chooses a more abstract course contents for designing the application game. Students would learn the course contents when they use their fingers to touch the screen to change something, it will make students impressed. Finally, we compare with the mobile game-based learning and computer game-based learning which could enhance students learning motivation more. The result shows that the students agree the way of using game-based learning. And in each mobile devices group or computer group were got higher learning motivation than before.
Chapter
Full-text available
Key Summary Points There is a growing understanding of key skills that can help individuals better manage emotions to improve well-being, such as emotional understanding, executive functioning, and emotion regulation skills. In promoting emotional health, games can operate at the low-order brain training level (e.g., drill-and-skill), as well as the higher order meaning-making level. Emotional health is broad, and efficacious approaches to skills development in emotional health are highly contextual, taking into account expected outcomes, environmental context, and individual psychometric conditions.
Article
Full-text available
This paper aimed to investigate how gamified learning approach influence science learning achievement through a context- aware mobile learning environment and to explain effects on student learning outcome. A mobile learning environment has been developed based on MILS (Mobile Insect Learning System) gamified learning activity. A series of gamified learning activities based on MILS was developed and implemented in an elementary school science curriculum to improve student learning achievement and help students to actively engage in learning activities. A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the effectiveness of gamification approach by combining game elements with the use of MILS in a real-world scenario. The response to questionnaire indicates that students valued the outdoor learning activities made possible by use of the smartphone and its functions. Pre- and post-test results demonstrated that incorporating mobile and gamification technologies into botanical learning process could achieve a better learning achievement than using non-gamified mobile learning and traditional instruction. In managerial implications, the results could provide parents, teachers, educational organizations to make related educational decision.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The term Edutainment, has been fabricated by combing the two words “Education” and “Entertainment”, and as this term expresses, this concept provides educational entertainment or entertainment-education. That means this let the student to learn subject matters with entertainment, so that the students get attracted to learning rather than getting used to learning through the teacher centered learning concept. Under this novel concept called “Edutainment” there comes a couple of new ways of teaching like Game Based Learning and Gamification. These concepts can be applied to enhance the learning procedure of students in various age levels. This paper gives you an analysis of Game Based Learning vs. Gamification in higher education from Computer Science students' perspective.
Conference Paper
Even though in the past significant research in digital game-based learning has been published, scholars all believed that digital game-based learning is better than traditional lecture instruction, producing better learning effects and higher learning motivation, previous studies have ignored the urban-rural differences in mathematics learning effects and influences of incorporating digital games into instructional strategies for mathematics learning. This paper uses the quasi-experiment method to examine the learning effects of using digital game-based learning in mathematics class for urban and rural elementary schools. Research results show that digital game-based learning produced better mathematics learning effects for urban and rural students compared to traditional classroom instruction.
Article
Computer and video games are a maturing medium and industry and have caught the attention of scholars across a variety of disciplines. By and large, computer and video games have been ignored by educators. When educators have discussed games, they have focused on the social consequences of game play, ignoring important educational potentials of gaming. This paper examines the history of games in educational research, and argues that the cognitive potential of games have been largely ignored by educators. Contemporary developments in gaming, particularly interactive stories, digital authoring tools, and collaborative worlds, suggest powerful new opportunities for educational media.