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A meta-analysis of the predictors and consequences of organization-based self-esteem

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... capable, significant, and worthy as an organizational member" (Pierce et al., 1989, p. 625). Over 40 years of research on OBSE has demonstrated its relationships with the well-being, engagement, motivation, and performance of employees because high OBSE employees are motivated to verify and/or enhance their level of OBSE (Bowling et al., 2010;Pierce et al., 1989;Pierce & Gardner, 2004). Employees' OBSE is something that organizations should try to maximize, and, theoretically, OS should enhance OBSE because it increases employee's sense of competence and social acceptance (Tafarodi & Swann Jr., 2001). ...
... Because OBSE is reliably related to many of the distal outcomes attributed to OS (e.g., commitment, satisfaction, performance), it may be an important mediator of OS à distal outcome relationships. If effective OS enhances OBSE (through adjustment), and OBSE is causally related to many valued outcomes (Bowling et al., 2010), it will shed light on how to best design OS programs for different types of employees. ...
... Two major reviews of OBSE research (Bowling et al., 2010;Pierce & Gardner, 2004) provide support for theorizing on the origins of OBSE (Pierce et al., 1989). Both reviews corroborate the importance of self-competence and self-liking to OBSE. ...
Article
One of the more important responsibilities for HRD professionals is to help employees fit into the organization. This fitting in, or adjustment, to the organization includes the skills to perform one's job, understanding the relationships of one's role to the broader organization, and feeling accepted by one's peers. Onboarding, or more broadly, organizational socialization, is a proven practice that enhances employee adjustment through learning and development. Prior research reveals favorable relationships between organizational socialization (OS) practices and employee adjustment. Much less is known about which aspects of OS the HRD professional should focus on, why employees are motivated to use the knowledge gained from socialization to improve job performance, or whether relationships discovered in past research on newcomers can or should be generalized to more experienced employees. The current research is based on the multidomain, continuous model of OS. Consistent with that model, we found that effective socialization enhances employee organizational adjustment, which subsequently raises their organization-based self-esteem (OBSE), and that OS has stronger relationships with adjustment for less experienced employees than those with more experienced employees. Our results also reveal that adjustment mediated growth in OBSE that accompanied the ongoing process of OS, and that employees who perceived higher levels of socialization had greater increases in OBSE. We discuss the implications of our results for HRD professionals in designing OS programs, particularly as they relate to the targeted employees, and the framing of the communications.
... In addition, employing selfverification theory (Swann, Johnson, and Bosson, 2009) and/or self-enhancement theory (Dipboye, 1979), it has been argued that employees will engage in behaviors and develop attitudes that are consistent with their self-concept. Thus, employees with a strong, high level of OBSE (i.e., I am a competent, capable contributing organizationalRecent reviews of the OBSE literature (seeBowling et al., 2010;Pierce and Gardner, 2004) confirm these relationships as empirical evidence reveals a positive relationship between jobs designed in accord with the principles of job enrichment (cf.Hackman and Oldham, 1980) and organization-based self-esteem. In addition, the evidence reveals a positive relationship between OBSE and such attitudes and behaviors as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance, and a negative relationship with dysfunctional work-related behaviors (e.g., turnover, absenteeism). ...
... Thus, we propose that employees with a strong job focus of attention will be more sensitive and have a more thorough understanding of the signals sent to them from the work environment as to their organizational worthiness, thereby having an impact upon their organization-based self-esteem. Perceived job complexity is one such signal and it is well-established that it has strong relationships with OBSE (Bowling et al., 2010;Pierce and Gardner, 2004). Employees with a strong job focus should be more aware of these job characteristics and develop high OBSE if those characteristics reflect enriched work, and low OBSE if those characteristics reflect impoverished work. ...
... In light of this we hypothesize: H4: Job focus of attention moderates the relationship between perceived job complexity and organization-based self-esteem such that the relationship is positive and stronger for employees with a high job focus than for employees with a low job focus. H5: Off-job focus of attention moderates the relationship between perceived job complexity and organization-based self-esteem such that the relationship isIn addition and as previously noted, it is well-established that OBSE correlates positively with constructive work attitudes and behaviors, and negatively with dysfunctional attitudes and behaviors (cf.Bowling et al., 2010;Pierce and Gardner, 2004). It may be that focus of attention intensifies or weakens these relationships. ...
Article
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Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to examine the questions "How does employees' focus of attention at work theoretically relate to organization-based self-esteem?", and "Does job focus and off-job focus moderate relationships between organization-based self-esteem, and employee attitudes and perceptions of job complexity?". Design/methodology/approach ‐ Participants in two different samples completed questionnaires containing measures of organization-based self-esteem, focus of attention at work, job complexity, and a variety of attitudes and behavioral intentions. Findings ‐ What and how much employees think about when they are at work changes relationships between organization-based self-esteem and employee perceptions of and attitudes towards their workplaces. Job focus and off-job focus of attention intensified or weakened relationships with organization-based self-esteem. Research limitations/implications ‐ Conclusions about causality are constrained by the cross-sectional data collected in this study. Practical implications ‐ It appears that managers should attempt to draw employees' attention to self-esteem bolstering aspects of their jobs; and away from debilitating ones. Social implications ‐ Societies benefit by having members with positive well-being, to which organization-based self-esteem may contribute. Originality/value ‐ This is the first theoretical analysis and empirical study of relationships between organization-based self-esteem and employee focus of attention at work.
... Abusive supervision and employees' OBSE OBSE refers to individuals' overall assessment of their worth, trust and competence within an organization as one of its members (Pierce et al., 1989). OBSE is a concrete reflection of employees' self-esteem in an organizational context and an essential part of their selfconcept, and thus is crucial to their behavior and performance (Bowling, 2010). Studies have explored several situational antecedents of OBSE. ...
... Specifically, in the interaction between employees and their supervisors and co-workers in an organization, the favorable or unfavorable information they obtain from these others directly influences how they assess their own value to the organization. In particular, the treatment they receive from supervisors is an essential factor influencing OBSE (Bowling, 2010). Supervisors often control employee promotions and the resources necessary to complete tasks and are regarded as representatives of the organization (Vugt and Ronay, 2013). ...
... Respect and politeness from superiors indicate that employees have a higher value and position in the organization, which is conducive to their development of a positive sense of self-worth (Chan et al., 2013). In contrast, negative treatment from supervisors may indicate that employees have a low value in the organization, which leads employees to feel rejected and useless (Bowling, 2010;Zhang and Frenkel, 2018). In addition, an individual's self-concept is often more susceptible to negative events (Baumeister et al., 2001). ...
Article
Purpose-This study aimed to explore the restrictive effect of abusive supervision on employees' feedback-seeking behavior (FSB) through organizational-based self-esteem (OBSE) and the moderation of this mediation by leader-member exchange (LMX). Design/methodology/approach-This study conducted hierarchical regression and path analysis to analyze the 312 manager-employee dyads data gathered from five companies in China. Findings-We found that abusive supervision had a detrimental effect on employee FSB, partially through OBSE, and that both the direct and indirect effects were moderated by LMX. Practical implications-Organizations should seek to inhibit supervisors' abusive behavior in the workplace. Supervisors should not occasionally mistreat subordinates with whom they have a good relationship. Originality/value-This study reveals the underlying influence mechanism of abusive supervision on employee FSB using self-concept theory and suggests that OBSE is critical in determining how abusive supervision influences employee FSB. Furthermore, LMX quality (especially high LMX) moderates the above mediation.
... An individual with high OBSE perceives himself or herself as important, meaningful, effectual, and worthwhile within the organization. OBSE is distinguishable from general self-esteem in that general self-esteem represents an individual's overall belief about his or her self-worth and competence, whereas OBSE represents one's belief about his or her value and competence as a member of an organization (Bowling, Eschleman, Wang, Krikendall, & Alarcon, 2010). Researchers have contended that people have different perceptions of their value and competence, depending on the role they are playing, and that self-esteem should be divided into different dimensions, including OBSE (Pierce & Gardner, 2004). ...
... In addition, Gardner and Pierce (1998) showed that OBSE is the strongest predictor of supervisor-rated performance. A recent meta-analysis also provided strong evidence that OBSE is positively related to in-role job performance (r = 0.34) (Bowling et al., 2010). However, a recent survey investigation, using middle manager samples from Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in the telecommunications, hotel, and construction industries did not find a significant relationship between OBSE and task performance (Hui, Lee, & Niu, 2010). ...
... Previous research has indicated that age, gender, and tenure in the organization are likely to be associated with OBSE and performance (Bowling et al., 2010;Liao & Chuang, 2004), so we control for these variables in further analyses. Age and tenure in the organization were self-reported in years, and gender was dummy-coded, with male coded as '0' and female coded as '1'. ...
Article
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The present study examines the link between abusive supervision and frontline employees' service performance by focusing on the mediating role of organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) and the moderating role of relational-interdependent self-construal (RISC). The results of analysing 324 supervisor–subordinate dyads in five large hotels in China revealed a negative relationship between abusive supervision and service performance via OBSE. In addition, RISC moderates the mediating effect of OBSE on the abusive supervision–service performance relationship such that the mediating effect is stronger when RISC is high rather than low. Theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
... First, is a meta-analysis by Bowling et al. (2010) of predictors of organizationbased self-esteem (OBSE), a construct which concerns self-evaluations in the workplace as opposed to general self-esteem. Potential situational predictors included perceptions of job characteristics (e.g. ...
... Thus it appears that management actions to improve these working conditions A Dependence-Regulation Account of Psychological Distancing 89 may also increase employees' self-esteem to some extent. Bowling et al. (2010) did, however, recognize the design limitations of many of the studies in the review (mostly cross-sectional correlational). ...
... We suggest that one's standings on dimensions relevant to workplace effectiveness and inclusion have similar ambiguities, opening possibilities for influence from a variety of conditions and experiences in the workplace. Some connection back to general self-esteem can be expected on the basis of the hierarchical model of self-esteem on which OBSE draws (Bowling et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Building on previous studies that documented psychological withdrawal or distancing from one's employing organization as one kind of response to major organizational change, this study developed and tested a dependence-regulation account of psychological distancing responses. This account was derived from social psychological analysis of interpersonal relationships and interdependence theory. It emphasizes the self-protective function of psychological distancing when the employment relationship is threatened by changes such as corporate mergers or acquisitions. The theory holds that people can reduce threatened losses to identity as a member of their organization or to the tangible benefits of organizational membership through psychological distancing actions such as devaluing the organization or disengaging cognitively or behaviourally (e.g. through reduced organizational identification, increased thoughts of quitting or absenteeism). Applicability of the theory to explain reactions to major organizational change was supported in findings of a survey of 62 bank employees whose organization was seeking a merger with another bank. Dependence on the employer (prospects for getting a comparable job elsewhere) was found to moderate the association between anticipated negative consequences of the merger (‘uncertainty’) and two indicators of distancing, namely affective commitment to the organization and satisfaction with the organization as employer. Other findings pointed to a degree of realism in employees' threat appraisals. Implications for management and for future research were derived, partly by considering the possible role of employee self-esteem in distancing oneself from the organization.
... Veränderung der Arbeitswelt durch den Einsatz von KI Seit 2012 verdoppelt sich die KI-basierte Rechenleistung nicht mehr entsprechend Moore's Law alle zwei Jahre (Moore, 1975(Moore, , 1965 Bowling et al., 2010;Judge & Bono, 2001;Coopersmith, 1967), Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung (z. B. Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 2002;Bandura, 2001Bandura, , 1997Bandura, , 1992 Selbstwertgefühl (self-esteem) wird grundsätzlich als die affektive Bewertung der eigenen Person definiert (Bowling et al., 2010;Judge & Bono, 2001;Coopersmith, 1967;Rosenberg, 1965). ...
... Veränderung der Arbeitswelt durch den Einsatz von KI Seit 2012 verdoppelt sich die KI-basierte Rechenleistung nicht mehr entsprechend Moore's Law alle zwei Jahre (Moore, 1975(Moore, , 1965 Bowling et al., 2010;Judge & Bono, 2001;Coopersmith, 1967), Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung (z. B. Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 2002;Bandura, 2001Bandura, , 1997Bandura, , 1992 Selbstwertgefühl (self-esteem) wird grundsätzlich als die affektive Bewertung der eigenen Person definiert (Bowling et al., 2010;Judge & Bono, 2001;Coopersmith, 1967;Rosenberg, 1965). Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung (self-efficacy) beschreibt den subjektiven Glauben einer Person an sich selbst, neue oder schwierige Anforderungssituationen aufgrund eigener Kompetenzen bewältigen zu können (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 2002;Bandura, 2001Bandura, , 1997Bandura, , 1992. ...
Research Proposal
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Der Begriff "Künstliche Intelligenz" (KI) ist momentan in aller Munde, wenn es um die Zukunft der Arbeit geht. Im Mittelpunkt stehen hierbei häufig Veränderungen des Arbeitsmarktes, die im Zuge zunehmender technologischer Möglichkeiten erwartet werden. Bisher wird jedoch kaum die Frage gestellt, ob diese Veränderungen psychische Konsequenzen haben, die für eine erfolgreiche Transformation der Arbeitswelt berücksichtigt werden müssen. Die Fortschritte im Bereich KI treiben die Automation beruflicher Tätigkeiten voran. Folge dessen sind veränderte Arbeitsaufgaben und Tätigkeiten, die Anpassungen seitens Beschäftigter erfordern. Arbeitspsychologische Modelle, wie das Job Demands-Resources Model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti et al., 2001), zeigen, dass Arbeit eine wichtige psychologische Funktion hat und berücksichtigen Aspekte, die von den Veränderungen der Arbeitsaufgaben und Tätigkeiten betroffen sind. Entsprechend kann davon ausgegangen werden, dass die Veränderungen der Arbeitswelt psychische Konsequenzen haben. Ziel der Dissertation ist es deshalb, die Veränderungen der Arbeitswelt durch KI-getriebene Automation aus psychologischer Perspektive im Sinne von Chancen und Risiken empirisch zu untersuchen. Hierfür sind vier Projekte geplant, die qualitative und quantitative methodische Ansätze vereinen.
... Values fit was related to OBSE (r ¼ 0.25, p < À.01), prosocial motivation (r ¼ 0.26, p < 0.01), and intent to stay (r ¼ 0.40, p < 0.01). Together these results support those from past research on OBSE (Bowling et al., 2010) and values fit (Oh et al., 2014). ...
... Related, prosocial behaviors are associated with increases in psychological flourishing (Nelson et al., 2016). A recent study by Seggewiss et al. (2018) found that people-centered organizational values predicted employee commitment (a strong correlate of OBSE; Bowling et al., 2010), irrespective of whether there was congruence between employees' personal values and those of the organization. Seggewiss et al. concluded that organizations should focus on promulgating social focus values rather than trying to match the personal values of all of its employees. ...
Article
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Expatriate managers are often advised to adapt their leadership styles and organizational cultures to the culture of the country in which they operate. This advice appears to be reasonable, but it has rarely been empirically tested. In this study, we examine the degree to which congruence of organization and individual cultural values affect employees. We collected data from business managers and executives in Sri Lanka, a country that has not been well studied by international management scholars. We hypothesized that personally embraced values that are consistent with broader cultural values would have relationships with self-esteem. Further, because people are also motivated to verify and enhance their levels of self-esteem in culturally consistent ways, we hypothesized that self-esteem at work would mediate relationships of values with prosocial motivation and intent to maintain membership in the organization. We found that culturally consistent, self-transcendence personal values did relate uniquely to organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). In addition, OBSE mediated the relationships between self-transcendence values, and work-based prosocial motivation and intent to stay. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that strong values fit weakened the mediating effect of OBSE on self-transcendence—outcomes and conservation—outcome relationships, contrary to our hypotheses. It appears that the advice to modify organizational culture to fit local culture should be qualified by also recommending that such changes are not conflict with the organization’s existing, successful culture. Our study also sheds some light on the cultural values of Sri Lanka. This is the first study to explicitly examine these relationships within a work context as well as one of few studies to examine personal values in Sri Lanka.
... Finally, organizations should pay attention to situations where individuals come to develop high levels of both LA and OBSE, as this may engender particularly detrimental effects in terms of resource depletion. As research has established that organizational practices can be the source of higher OBSE (e.g.Bowling et al., 2010;Scott et al., 2008), organizations should take care that such effects are not accompanied by high levels of LA. In fact, some work practices may be associated with both enhanced OBSE and reduced LA. ...
... In fact, some work practices may be associated with both enhanced OBSE and reduced LA. For example, job complexity and autonomy, high-quality leader-member exchanges and organizational support have all been found to be positively (and strongly) associated with OBSE (Bowling et al., 2010). At the same time, job complexity and autonomy may increase employees' actual competencies and stronger leader-member exchange and organizational support may increase employees' confidence that their skills are valuable on the job market. ...
Article
We examined the relationship of four commitment dimensions (affective, normative, continuance-perceived sacrifices and continuance-lack of alternatives) to emotional exhaustion over time under the lens of conservation of resources theory. Using data from 260 employees, Time 1 lack of alternatives and normative commitment contributed positively to Time 2 emotional exhaustion, controlling for Time 1 emotional exhaustion. Organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) moderated the relationship of lack of alternatives commitment to emotional exhaustion such that the relationship was stronger when OBSE was high. We further theorized that the resource drain engendered by emotional exhaustion would cause the latter to be positively related to turnover, controlling for commitment dimensions. Results supported this prediction. The implications of these findings for future research on commitment, emotional exhaustion and turnover are discussed.
... Employees with high OBSE perceive themselves to have high value and competence as members of an organization. A meta-analytic study has provided evidence that OBSE and general self-esteem are distinguishable, and that OBSE provides stronger effects than general self-esteem in work-related matters such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, affective commitment, normative commitment, job involvement, and turnover intention (Bowling, Eschleman, Wang, Krikendall, & Alarcon, 2010). Hence, this study applies OBSE (a fine-grained approach) rather than general self-esteem (a coarse-grained approach) to help distinguish individual-level buffering characteristics. ...
... The second way to alleviate the effects of sexual harassment-if not the harassment itself-is to promote OBSE among employees. Previous research has indicated that job complexity and perceived organizational support are the most important antecedents of OBSE (Bowling et al., 2010). Hence, organizations should create favorable environmental conditions by ensuring adequate job complexity and organizational support for the employees' positive evaluation of their value, worth, meaning and competence. ...
Article
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This study examined the effects of workplace sexual harassment on family undermining. The investigation focused on the mediating role of moral identity and the moderating role of organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). The results, which were based on employee-spouse dyadic data collected in China, indicated that employees’ perceptions of sexual harassment were negatively related to their sense of moral identity and positively related to family undermining behavior. Moreover, reduced moral identity mediated the relationship between sexual harassment and family undermining. Furthermore, OBSE attenuated the main effect of sexual harassment on moral identity and the indirect effect of sexual harassment on family undermining via reduced moral identity. Our findings offer insightful theoretical contributions and managerial implications that indicate new directions for research on sexual harassment and work-family relations.
... These dynamics are likely no less true of OBSE because satisfying the need for belonging in a specific domain such as the workplace is most likely to enhance self-esteem in that same domain. In turn, a meta-analysis byBowling et al. (2010)reported positive associations between OBSE and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, and employee health. Individuals tend to define themselves in part through affiliations that address their needs (Pratt, 1998). ...
... Regarding OBSE, Grover (2014: 37) argues that "[S]uccessful performance in an organization as demonstrated by external cues, such as objective outcomes, awards, raises, public recognition, or promotion, generate explicit self-esteem because they are self-relevant indicators proximal to the individual. " Also, a meta-analysis byBowling et al. (2010)found that more indirect external cues such as job complexity, autonomy, and salary were each positively associated with OBSE. Furthermore, given the need for status, individuals are motivated to seek and internalize positive feedback, which reinforces their self-esteem (e.g.,Hepper, Hart, Gregg, & Sedikides, 2011;Kuhnen & Tymula, 2012). ...
Article
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Research suggests that organizational members highly prize respect but rarely report adequately receiving it. However, there is a lack of theory in organizational behavior regarding what respect actually is and why members prize it. We argue that there are two distinct types of respect: generalized respect is the sense that “we” are all valued in this organization, and particularized respect is the sense that the organization values “me” for particular attributes, behaviors, and achievements. We build a theoretical model of respect, positing antecedents of generalized respect from the sender’s perspective (prestige of social category, climate for generalized respect) and proposed criteria for the evaluation of particularized respect (role, organizational member, and character prototypicality), which is then enacted by the sender and perceived by the receiver. We also articulate how these two types of respect fulfill the receiver’s needs for belonging and status, which facilitates the self-related outcomes of organization-based self-esteem, organizational and role identification, and psychological safety. Finally, we consider generalized and personalized respect jointly and present four combinations of the two types of respect. We argue that the discrepancy between organizational members’ desired and received respect is partially attributable to the challenge of simultaneously enacting or receiving respect for both the “we” and the “me.”
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During the past decade, considerable research attention has been given to core self-evaluations (CSEs). Although this research has found that CSE is related to several important work-related outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, job performance), we believe that researchers’ reliance on general rather than work-specific CSE has resulted in underestimates of the importance of CSE. Based on the literature on frame-of-reference effects in personality assessment, we predict that work-related CSE will yield stronger relationships with work-related criteria than general CSE will and that work-specific CSE will be related to work-specific criteria after general CSE has been controlled. Using two independent samples, we found that when compared with general CSE, work-specific CSE generally failed to yield significantly stronger zero-order relationships with work-related criteria. However, we found several instances in which work-specific CSE predicted incremental variance in work-related criteria after the effects of general CSE were controlled.
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Measures of global, specific, and task-specific self-esteem were administered to 78 male and 81 female college students and related to predicted and actual performance on a midterm examination. Significant correlations were found between global and specific measures and between specific and task measures, but not between global and task measures. The relationship between the esteem measures and actual performance was strongest for the task measures, next strongest for the specific measures, and nonsignificant for the global measures. Specific measures were also significantly related to predicted performance, but global measures were not. The findings were discussed in terms of four criticisms of global measures, and it was suggested that more specific self-esteem measures be developed.
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The present study examined the moderating effects of organization-based self-esteem on the relationship between two forms of organizational uncertainty perception and three outcome variables. The two forms of organizational uncertainty perception were job insecurity and anticipation of organizational changes, and the three outcomes were intrinsic motivation, organizational commitment, and absenteeism. Results supported the moderating effects of organization-based self-esteem. It was found that employees with high levels of organizationbased self-esteem were less responsive to the perception of organizational uncertainty. Moreover, it was found that the moderating effects of organization-based self-esteem differed across outcome variables.
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