Article

A biogeography of reptiles and amphibians in the Gomez Farias region, Tamaulipas, Mexico

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/56345/1/MP101.pdf

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... In this study, we evaluated the habitat use and microhabitat selection of two lizard species with different niche requirements in a resource availability gradient in El Cielo Biosphere Reserve, at north-eastern Mexico. The two species we considered here, the Rosebellied Lizard (Sceloporus variabilis) and the Madrean Tropical Night Lizard (Lepidophyma sylvaticum), are species that coexist in these areas, have different niche requirements (Martin 1958) and may respond differentially to anthropogenic disturbance. In El Cielo Biosphere Reserve, S. variabilis is found in open areas and on roadsides, while L. sylvaticum is usually restricted to dense forests with high humidity (Martin 1958). ...
... The two species we considered here, the Rosebellied Lizard (Sceloporus variabilis) and the Madrean Tropical Night Lizard (Lepidophyma sylvaticum), are species that coexist in these areas, have different niche requirements (Martin 1958) and may respond differentially to anthropogenic disturbance. In El Cielo Biosphere Reserve, S. variabilis is found in open areas and on roadsides, while L. sylvaticum is usually restricted to dense forests with high humidity (Martin 1958). To understand how changes in resource availability affect abundance and distribution of this two lizard species, we aimed to: 1) determine the variations in the use of the different types of environments present in the gradient; 2) determine if each species selected specific microhabitats characteristics from those available at random sites; and 3) determine if such preferences changed according to the different gradient environments. ...
... Sceloporus variabilis is a small-sized diurnal lizard with a maximum snout-vent length (max SVL) of 72 mm that is distributed from southern Texas, USA, through eastern and southern Mexico to northwest and central Costa Rica (Chaves et al. 2013). The species inhabits a wide variety of environments, both natural and modified, including beaches, coastal dunes, induced pastures, thorn scrub, tropical forests, cloud forests, and temperate forests (Martin 1958;Fitch 1973;Urbina-Cardona et al. 2006;Powell et al. 2016). These lizards maintain a high body temperature (31-36°C) when they are active and spend much of their time basking in sunny places (Bogert 1949;Fitch 1973;Benabib & Congdon 1992). ...
Article
Human alteration toward environment modifies the spatial distribution of available resources that influences habitat selection in animals. Thus, it is necessary to identify the resources that determine species occurrence in modified landscapes to provide the basis for future conservation efforts. We evaluated the habitat use and microhabitat selection of two lizard species with different niche requirements in a resource availability gradient caused by disturbance. Surveys were conducted in El Cielo Biosphere Reserve, Mexico, during 2016 and 2017. The gradient was grouped in four environmental types in the function of climatic (temperature and humidity) and structural variables (included different measures of soil, substrate, and vegetation coverage). For each lizard, 11 variables related to the microhabitat structure were recorded. Microhabitat selection for each environment type along the gradient was determined and compared via discriminant analysis. The results showed that Sceloporus variabilis, a species that uses a wide range of resources, can select different microhabitats along the gradient; while Lepidophyma sylvaticum, a species with a restricted use of resources, select microhabitats with similar specific characteristics and avoided disturbed areas with scarce canopy cover. This differential response was related to the degree of specificity in resources selection and physiological restrictions of each species.
... Gómez Farías region of Tamaulipas. Martin (1958) provided further details on specimens collected in the vicinity of Gómez Farías, with explicit localities and the associated vegetation zones. Subsequent to Martin (1955Martin ( , 1958, the occurrence of B. asper in Tamaulipas has been reflected in the literature; however, like many species, additional localities have rarely been reported despite the accumulation of specimens in museums for over a half a century (Farr et al., 2013). ...
... Martin (1958) provided further details on specimens collected in the vicinity of Gómez Farías, with explicit localities and the associated vegetation zones. Subsequent to Martin (1955Martin ( , 1958, the occurrence of B. asper in Tamaulipas has been reflected in the literature; however, like many species, additional localities have rarely been reported despite the accumulation of specimens in museums for over a half a century (Farr et al., 2013). Auth et al. (2000) reported one additional record from Tamaulipas (SMBU-BCBF 68-97; Appendix 2). ...
... Bothrops asper occurs in a relatively limited area of south-central Tamaulipas, where it is generally associated with humid, mid-low elevations on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental and adjacent lowlands (Fig. 1). Martin (1958) reported B. asper from tropical deciduous forest, tropical evergreen forest, and lower sections of cloud forest in Tamaulipas (vegetation zones defined therein). To that we add habitat in the municipality of Tula along the Río Gallos Grandes, where B. asper follows the river well into the Sierra Madre Oriental. ...
Article
Full-text available
A juvenile Bothrops asper (Terciopelo) collected in Tamaulipas, Mexico, is identified as the westernmost locality for the species range-wide. We review and map the distribution in Tamaulipas and adjacent areas of San Luis Potosí and Veracruz, Mexico, based on museum and literature records. The specimen was dissected and its stomach contained Cryptotis parva, a novel prey item for the species. We review previous literature reports for specific prey items.
... The above specimens and the photo voucher represent records for the corresponding municipalities, and range extensions of ca. 43 km SW, 31 km SE, 36 km SE, and 24 km SE, respectively, from the nearest locality, El Chihue (23?52'N, 99?25'W, seeFarr et al., 2007) to the northwest of Ciudad Victoria (Martin, 1958). Moreover, CAR-ITCV 228 and UTADC-8516 represent the lowest and highest elevational extremes (390?2,503 m) reported for this species (Stuart, et al., 2008).Iverson and Berry, 1979). ...
... n the locality of Las Albercas, this species cohabits with Trachemys ornata (McCranie et al., 2013). Although suitable habitat is present at Ocampo, we are unaware if S. triporcatus has been established in this area. Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the status of this species in the state, as well as its interactions with other species.Martin, 1958). This record also represents the northernmost locality for this species (Martin, 1958), as well as for the genus (Campbell and Frost, 1993). UTADC-8511 is a photograph of a juvenile found in cloud forest, on the leaves of a bush (Salvia sp.) at a height of 80 cm. A second individual (photo voucher UTADC-8500) from the municipality of G ...
... Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the status of this species in the state, as well as its interactions with other species.Martin, 1958). This record also represents the northernmost locality for this species (Martin, 1958), as well as for the genus (Campbell and Frost, 1993). UTADC-8511 is a photograph of a juvenile found in cloud forest, on the leaves of a bush (Salvia sp.) at a height of 80 cm. ...
... La informacion obtenida para este estudio deriva de una revisi6n exhaustiva de la literatura referente a datos de distribuci6n de la herpeto fauna de algunas areas que se encuentran dentro de la SMO . Martin (1955aMartin ( , 1958 y Gaige (1937) para Ta maulipas, Liner (1994) para Nuevo Leon, Taylor (1949, 1950, 1952, 1953 ron actuali zadas en 10 posible. El nivel al que fueron utilizados los taxones fue el de especie. ...
... Entre ambas loca1idades, ningun bos que de montana hiimedo 0 de niebla ha sido registra do, aunque en una altura de 1140 m al este de Ciudad del Mafz, SLP, se hace mencion de un bosque subhii medo de Quercus y Cercis . En Rancho EI Cielo, la presencia de tres salamandras, Chiropterotriton era cens, C. multidentatus y Pseudoeurycea scandens (ademas de 1a Sierra de Guatemala, Tams.) (Martin, 1958) es resultado de eventos vicariantes asociados con los periodos interg1acia1es y ligados a la distribu cion archipelagica del BMM. En particular, Pseudoeu rycea scandens habita en las paredes de cuevas del bosque de niebla de 1aSMO de Tamau1ipas y San Luis POtOSI (Liner 1998;Reddell 1981). ...
... Xenosaurus sp .). En quinto lugar se halla Tamaulipas; unicamente la regi6n noroeste recibi6 la atenci6n deMartin (1955aMartin ( , 1958 . Le siguen Nuevo Le6n, Vera cru z y Coahuila, que tienen solo listas puntuales y aisladasde Liner (1983de Liner ( ,1994 y Camarillo-Rangel y Casas-Andreu (1998), demostrando la falta de traba jo de campo. ...
... Xenosaurus platyceps (King y Thompson 1968) es una especie de lagartija aplanada dorsoventralmente, vivípara, de tamaño mediano, con una longitud hocico cloaca (lhc) de aproximadamente 115 mm; presenta una distribución restringida al estado de Tamaulipas, y es posible encontrarla en diferentes ambientes, desde bosques de encinos hasta bosques tropicales caducifolios (Martin 1958). Esta especie de lagartija pertenece a la familia Xenosauridae que está representada por un solo género y seis especies descritas , Nieto-Montes de Oca et al. 2001; esta familia es casi endémica de México de no ser por una población de Xenosaurus grandis que se encuentra en Guatemala . ...
... platyceps es una especie de lagartija aplanada dorsoventralmente, de tamaño mediano, de distribución restringida al estado de Tamaulipas. Es posible encontrarla desde bosques de encinos hasta bosques tropicales caducifolios(Martin 1958). Esta lagartija pertenece a la familia Xenosauridae, que está representada por un solo género y seis especies descritas(Ballinger et al. 2000a, Nieto Montes de Oca et al. 2001). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
There appears to be variation in life-history strategies even between populations of the same species. It has been proposed that adult mortality rates can affect the life-history strategy that a population exhibits. In ectothermic organisms such as lizards, tropical populations experience longer periods for activity compared with temperate populations. In tropical sites, longer annualactivity periods can promote higher adult mortality. In this study I analyze two populations of the lizard Xenosaurus platyceps that inhabit contrasting sites comparing reproduction, body growth and its sources of variation, and demographic behavior in one tropical low-altitude site (410 m of elevation) in an sub-perennial tropical forest and the other population in a temperate high-altitude site (1460 m of elevation) in an oak forest, both in Tamaulipas, México. Also, a comparison of the demographic strategies of 28 lizard species was conducted. In both populations a significant relationship between female size and litter size was found. Females from the temperate site produced significantly larger litters in comparison with those from the tropical site. No relationship between female size and offspring size was detected, which suggested that the latter trait could be either constrained or optimized. Larger females exhibited greater relative litter mass and this trait showed significantly higher values in the temperate locality. This pattern is explained by the fact that females at the temperate population produce more young of similar size than those produced by their tropical counterparts. We did not find significant interannual variation in any of the reproductive traits studied. We suggest reciprocal transplant or common garden experiments to determine the genetic and proximal causes of the observed intraespecific variation. Body growth trajectories in both populations agreed with the model of Von Bertlanffy. No significant differences in the body growth rates were found between males and females in any of the two populations. Body growth rates were faster in the tropical population, in which the projected age at maturity was three years, one year less tan the projected age at maturity in the temperate population. A common garden experiment showed that in both populations temperature is a factor that speeds up the body growth rates. This experiment suggests that responses of body growth to environmental variation are similar in both sites. Population growth rates in both types of environments indicated populations in numerical equilibrium. Of the two populations, we found that the temperate population experiences lower adult mortality. The relative importance (estimated as the relative contribution to population growth rate) of permanence and of the adult/reproductive size clases is higher in the temperate population. In contrast, the relative importance for average fitness of fecundity and growth is higher in the tropical population. These results are consistent with theoretical frameworks about life-historical differences between tropical and temperate lizard populations. We used elasticity analysis of population projection matrices to estimate the relative contribution of juvenile survival, adult survival, and fecundity for the population growth rate of 28 lizard species. Based on elasticity patterns we identified four main demographic strategies: 1) early-maturing species which survive more than one year, 2) annual species, 3) medium-sized species that mature after one year of age, and 4) late-maturing, long-lived and large-sized species. The relative importance of the life-cycle components showed a weak phylogenetic signal in the studied lizard species. Elasticity patterns of these lizards were correlated with juvenile and adult mortality, age at first reproduction, mean adult size, and population growth rate. In general, the results obtained in this thesis agreed with the “fast-slow” continuum hypothesis of life-history evolution.
... Entre los trabajos que resaltan la diversidad faunística en gradientes altitudinales en América se pueden mencionar los siguientes: sobre anfibios (Suárez-Badillo y Ramírez-Pinilla, 2004;Cortéz-Fernández, 2006;Martin, 1958) y reptiles (Martin, 1958), aves (Terborgh, 1971;Rotenberry, 1978;Navarro, 1992;Palomera et al., 1994;Gram y Faaborg, 1997;Martínez y Rechberger, 2007;Purcell, 2002;Graham, 1990;Patterson et al., 1998), roedores (Aguilar, 1977;Santillán, 1978;Barry et al., 1984), murciélagos (Humprey y Bonaccorso, 1979;Graham, 1983Graham, , 1990León-Paniagua, 1986;Bejarano et al., 2007y Carrera, 2003, mamíferos en general Hadly y Maurer, 2001;Patterson et al., 1998) y varios grupos de vertebrados (Martin, 1955), entre otros (Sanders et al., 2003). Dichos patrones pueden indicar la forma en que está conformada la diversidad de una determinada región. ...
... Entre los trabajos que resaltan la diversidad faunística en gradientes altitudinales en América se pueden mencionar los siguientes: sobre anfibios (Suárez-Badillo y Ramírez-Pinilla, 2004;Cortéz-Fernández, 2006;Martin, 1958) y reptiles (Martin, 1958), aves (Terborgh, 1971;Rotenberry, 1978;Navarro, 1992;Palomera et al., 1994;Gram y Faaborg, 1997;Martínez y Rechberger, 2007;Purcell, 2002;Graham, 1990;Patterson et al., 1998), roedores (Aguilar, 1977;Santillán, 1978;Barry et al., 1984), murciélagos (Humprey y Bonaccorso, 1979;Graham, 1983Graham, , 1990León-Paniagua, 1986;Bejarano et al., 2007y Carrera, 2003, mamíferos en general Hadly y Maurer, 2001;Patterson et al., 1998) y varios grupos de vertebrados (Martin, 1955), entre otros (Sanders et al., 2003). Dichos patrones pueden indicar la forma en que está conformada la diversidad de una determinada región. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The composition and structure of small non-flying mammals was studied in the Reserva Forestal Protectora Bellavista, Ambalá Alta, Ibague, in the Tolima’s Department (on the eastern slope of the Central mountain chain), along an altitudinal gradient divided in three sample zones (down zone: 1628 m; medium zone: 1800 m and high zone: 2469 m). The samplings were realized in May, August and September, 2007, each one had a duration of 15 days, where direct methods were used (Victor traps, Sherman traps and pitfall) in order to establish an inventory of the species, to determine their diversity, richness and relative abundance, and finally, to provide information about their altitudinal distribution. With an capture’s effort of 5537 traps/night and a capture’s success of 0.8%, it was collected a total of 44 specimens, grouped in 16 species (10 of Rodentia order, 3 of Didelphimorphia order and 1 of Soricomorpha, Paucituberculata and Carnivora order, respectively). The most abundant species was Nephelomys albigularis represented by 34.09% of the captures. On the other hand, among the studied zones the highest diversity (α = 5.966), abundance (n = 21) and species richness (S = 9) was presented in the 2469 m zone. It was demonstrated that the species distribution is not the same depending on the altitudinal gradient (x 2 = 58.77, GL = 28, p=0.0058315), in consequence the similarity between the elevational zones was minimal, this is why few shared species were observed between these zones (Neacomys tenuipes, between 1628 m and 1800 m, Microryzomys minutus and Nephelomys albigularis between 1800 m and 2469 m). The most efficient collection method was pitfall. Ten new reports were registered for the Tolima’s Department: Akodon affinis, Chilomys instans, Hylaeamys yunganus, Rhipidomys latimanus and Neacomys tenuipes (Rodentia order), Marmosops impavidus and Marmosa robinsoni (Didelphimorphia order), Cryptotis colombiana (Soricomorpha order), Caenolestes fuliginosus (Paucituberculata order) and Mustela frenata (Carnivora order), being Akodon affinis and Cryptotis colombiana endemic species for Colombia. Moreover, it was extended the altitudinal distribution range reported for Neacomys tenuipes, Marmosa robinsoni (now it is from 0 to 1800 m) and Didelphis pernigra (now it is from 1628 to 3900 m). This study makes evident that there are still regions that need to be systematically studied, because they contribute with important information about the community of small non-flying mammals in Colombia.
... Es una salamandra endémica a la Sierra Madre Oriental, la cual se distribuye en la Reserva de la Biósfera El Cielo, al sur de Tamaulipas; el sur de San Luis Potosí, en la Sierra de Álvarez; y el este de Querétaro (Darda, 1994), en la Sierra Gorda. Varios autores (Martin, 1958;Rabb, 1958;Parra-Olea et al. 2004;Frost, 2013) han señalado su presencia en el Parque Nacional El Chico, Hidalgo. Sin embargo, Darda (1994) proporciona evidencia sólida de que las poblaciones del El Chico son distintas desde un punto de vista genético, por lo que deben ser consideradas una especie distinta. ...
... Esta salamandra es endémica de México, Darda (1994) considera que C. multidentatus pertenece a un grupo norteño (Northern Assemblage) conformado por al menos siete especies de Chiropterotriton las cuales son endémicas a la Sierra Madre Oriental y partes límitrofes del Altiplano Mexicano. La distribución de C. multidentatus se caracteriza por la presencia de al menos cuatro poblaciones relictuales aisladas entre sí por amplias zonas secas (Martin, 1958;Wake, 1966). Darda (1994) ofrece evidencia de que las poblaciones de El Chico Hidalgo, previamente asignadas a C. multidentatus, deben ser asignadas a una especie diferente dado que existe una alta diferenciación genética respecto a las poblaciones de El Cielo, Tamaulipas, recomendación seguida en el modelaje de su distribución potencial del presente estudio, puesto que los modelos experimentales previos que incluían a las poblaciones de El Chico (situado dentro de la Faja Volcánica Transmexicana) tendían a sobrepredecir notoriamente la distribución geográfica de dicha especie, no reconociendo a las poblaciones aisladas conocidas para la especie (ver Figura 11). ...
... However, others are widespread, have more general habits, and occur in many states of the country, like C. acanthura, known as the Gulf Spiny-tailed Iguana, Tilcampo, Garrobo, or Chiquipile. It ranges mainly in the state of Veracruz, although it is also found in Llera and Tepehuaje, Tamaulipas, to the southeast to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and to the west in San Luis Potosí in the Huasteca region, the Tehuacán Valley in Puebla, and Cuicatlán in Hidalgo (Bailey 1928;Smith and Taylor 1950;Martin 1958;de Queiroz 1995;Köhler et al. 2000;Mendoza-Quijano et al. 2002;Canseco-Márquez and Gutiérrez-Mayén 2010). ...
... This iguana inhabits the coastal plains of the Gulf of México across many different habitats, including disturbed environments September 2014]). The information published on this species to date mainly concerns its systematics (Köhler et al. 2000(Köhler et al. , 2003Köhler 2004), geographical distribution (Martin 1958;Mendoza-Quijano et al. 2002;Canseco-Márquez and Gutiérrez-Mayén 2010), and behavioral and ecological aspects (Suárez-Domínguez et al. 2004. It is unknown whether this iguana is present in different protected areas within its distribution, or other conserved unprotected areas. ...
Article
Full-text available
Spiny-tailed iguanas are a diverse, taxonomically complex group. There are 11 Ctenosaura species in México, nine of which are endemic to the country. This work aims to present information on ecological and biological aspects of the Gulf Spiny-tailed Iguana in the state of Veracruz. Ctenosaura acanthura is distributed throughout the coastal plain of the state at altitudes below 500 meters above sea level. Based on 120 captures, males were significantly larger and longer than females, and their heads were wider. We documented that C. acanthura consumes a wide variety of food resources (24 species) including both native and ornamental plants, as well as a variety of arthropods. Average clutch size was 27.7 ± 9.1 eggs. There was no relationship between the body length or mass and clutch size. Laboratory incubation took 78.2 ± 6.3 days, at 29–31° C, and the hatching rate was 58.3%. Currently, populations of C. acanthura appear stable, due to its ecological plasticity and its presence in all protected areas with tropical forest and wetlands on the plains of Veracruz that we sampled. However, studies of population density, and biological, ecological, physiological, and behavioral research are needed. Resumen.—Las iguanas de cola espinosa son un grupo diverso y taxonómicamente complejo. Existen 11 especies de Ctenosaura en México, nueve de las cuales son endémicas del país. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar información sobre los aspectos ecológicos y biológicos de la iguana de cola espinosa del estado de Veracruz (Ctenosaura acanthura). Esta especie se distribuye por toda la llanura costera del estado, en altitudes inferiores a 500 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Basado en 120 capturas, registramos que los machos fueron significativamente más grandes y más pesados que las hembras, y sus cabezas fueron más anchas. Documentamos que C. acanthura consume una amplia variedad de recursos alimentarios (24 especies) incluyendo tanto plantas nativas y ornamentales, así como una variedad de artrópodos. El tamaño promedio de la puesta fue 27.7 ± 9.1 huevos. No encontramos relación entre la longitud del cuerpo o masa y el tamaño de la nidada. Realizamos pruebas de incubación en laboratorio y estimamos 78.2 ± 6.3 días, a una temperatura ± 29 a 31° C, y la tasa de eclosión de 58.3%. Actualmente, las poblaciones de C. acanthura parecen estables, debido a su plasticidad ecológica y su presencia en todas las áreas protegidas de bosques tropicales y humedales en las llanuras de Veracruz que muestreamos. Sin embargo, se necesitan estudios de densidad de poblaciones, así como de más información biológica, ecológica, fisiológica y conductual.
... They are relatively sedentary, crevice or hole-dwellers that rarely leave their crevices or holes (Lemos-Espinal et al., 1998, 2003b. This lifestyle and their typical habitats tend to limit their thermoregula- where it is found from oak forests to tropical deciduous forests (Martin, 1958). Xenosaurus platyceps shares several characteristics with other Xenosaurus, such as viviparity, ambush foraging, and being a strict inhabitant of rock crevices (Lemos-Espinal et al., 1997). ...
Article
Growth rates of ectotherms are frequently affected by environmental conditions, such as temperature, precipitation, and prey availability. However, local adaptation to environmental conditions could influence geographic variation in growth rates. We studied growth rates of the Flathead Knob‐scaled Lizard, Xenosaurus platyceps, from a tropical population and a temperate population in Tamaulipas, Mexico. We used a field study and a common garden experiment to examine the extent and potential causes of variation in individual growth rates between these two populations from contrasting environments. Field‐determined growth rates in the tropical population were greater than those in the temperate population. In a laboratory common garden experiment that manipulated food availability and temperature for neonates from each population, neonates from the tropical population grew faster than those from the temperate population. Neonates kept at higher temperatures grew faster than those kept at lower temperature. In addition, growth rates of neonates from temperate and tropical populations did not differ at low temperature, but neonates from the tropical population grew faster at the higher temperature than did the neonates from the temperate population. Food treatment did not affect individual growth rates in these lizards, although there was a trend for neonates grown with higher food availability to grow faster. Our results suggest that not only does the warm environment of the tropical population contribute to the observed differences in field growth rates, but there is a genetic difference in the ability of the tropical population to take advantage of the warmer temperatures to increase growth rates Abstract in Spanish is available with online material. Las tasas de crecimiento corporal de los ectotermos se ven afectadas con frecuencia por las condiciones ambientales, como la temperatura, la precipitación y la disponibilidad de presas. Sin embargo, la adaptación local a las condiciones ambientales podría influir en la variación geográfica de las tasas de crecimiento. Estudiamos las tasas de crecimiento corporal de la lagartija de Cabeza‐plana, Xenosaurus platyceps, de una población tropical y una templada en Tamaulipas, México. Usamos un estudio de campo y un experimento de jardín común para examinar el alcance y las posibles causas de variación en las tasas de crecimiento individuales entre estas dos poblaciones de ambientes contrastantes. Las tasas de crecimiento obtenidas en el campo en la población tropical fueron mayores que las de la población templada. En un experimento de jardín común de laboratorio que manipuló la disponibilidad de alimento y la temperatura para recién nacidos de cada población, los recién nacidos de la población tropical crecieron más rápido que los de la población templada. Los recién nacidos mantenidos a temperaturas más altas crecieron más rápido que los mantenidos a temperaturas más bajas. Además, las tasas de crecimiento de los recién nacidos de la población templada y de la tropical no difirieron a baja temperatura, pero los recién nacidos de la población tropical crecieron más rápido a temperaturas más altas que los neonatos de la población templada. El tratamiento con disponibilidad de alimento no afectó las tasas de crecimiento individual en estas lagartijas, aunque hubo una tendencia a que los recién nacidos criados con mayor disponibilidad de alimento crecieran más rápido. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el ambiente cálido de la población tropical no solo contribuye a las diferencias observadas en las tasas de crecimiento de campo, sino que existe una diferencia genética en la capacidad de la población tropical para aprovechar las temperaturas más cálidas para aumentar las tasas de crecimiento corporal This manuscript reports the combined results of a field mark‐recapture study and a laboratory common garden experiment to evaluate interpopulation variation in growth rates in Xenosaurus platyceps from two populations in contrasting environments, one tropical and the other temperate. This is the first such study on this unique genus of crevice‐dwelling lizards whose ecology and biology is constrained by their nearly exclusive use of crevices. As such it provides an interesting perspective on the factors driving variation in lizard growth rates between populations.
... En la década de los años cincuenta, Smith y Taylor (1950) reportaron la presencia de C. mexicanus en Tampico Tamaulipas, al utilizar la descripción hecha por Bocourt (1859). Posteriormente, Martin (1958) reportó ejemplares de C. moreletii en el Río Frío en el municipio de Gómez Farías, y Baker y Weeb (1966) en el Río Soto la Marina, lo cual amplió su distribución hacia el norte del estado. En la década de los años setenta, Powell (1973) reportó (aun cuando no registró ningún avistamiento), que pobladores locales afirmaron que existía una población de esta especie en el Río Soto la Marina; y habitantes de mayor edad indicaron que en 1930 había cocodrilos en abundancia en cuerpos de agua de los municipios de Padilla y Abasolo. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Determine and evaluate the current status of the swamp crocodile in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Design/methodology/approach: Maps of spatial distribution were made as a contribution to the management and conservation plans of crocodile. Hundred and twenty-three documents were reviewed, and 41 were selected (nine books, 12 scientific articles, three theses, five official pages, four project reports and eight documents from specialist groups). Field visits were carried out with the support of the fire department and civil protection to monitor the population of crocodiles in the area. Geo-referenced maps were prepared with the documented records and sightings in the distribution area. Results: It was found that C. moreletii has expanded its distribution to the north of the State and in the south region there are sightings in 14 new bodies of water where they had not been reported. The above could be an indicator that the crocodile population is recovering, and conservation plans should be proposed before the conflict with the human population has a negative effect on this species so important for aquatic ecosystems. Limitations on study/implications: In the State of Tamaulipas there is not enough information about the presence and location of crocodiles in the different bodies of water in the region. The capture of animals is difficult due to the proximity to the human population and due to the insecurity prevailing in the region. Findings/conclusions: The crocodile population is expanding to bodies of water where they were not documented within the registered distribution for this species.
... We recovered a similar pattern with the sister relationship of T. errans and T. exsul, which persist on the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental, respectively. It is possible that dispersal across the Mexican Plateau, through pine-oak corridors that developed during the last glacial maximum, could explain the tight relationships between species in these two ranges, as proposed for several other taxa (e.g., Bryson et al., 2011a,b;Martin, 1958;Van Devender, 1990). However, our divergence time estimates instead favor the TMVB as the probable link between the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental. ...
Article
Garter snakes (Thamnophis) are a successful group of natricines endemic to North America. They have become important natural models for ecological and evolutionary research, yet prior efforts to resolve phylogenetic relationships have resulted in conflicting topologies and weak support for certain relationships. Here, we use genomic data generated with a reduced representation double-digest RADseq approach to reassess evolutionary relationships across Thamnophis. We then use the resulting phylogeny to better understand how biogeography and feeding ecology have influenced lineage diversification and morphological evolution. We recovered highly congruent and strongly supported topologies from maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses, but some discordance with a multispecies coalescent approach. All phylogenomic estimates split Thamnophis into two clades largely defined by northern and southern North American species. Divergence time estimates and biogeographic analyses indicate a mid-Miocene origin of Thamnophis in Mexico. In addition, historic vicariant events thought to explain biogeographic patterns in other lineages (e.g., Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Rocky Mountain Range, and Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt) appear to have influenced patterns of diversification in Thamnophis as well. Analyses of morphological traits associated with feeding ecology showed moderate to strong phylogenetic signal. Nevertheless, phylogenetic ANOVA suggested significant differences in certain cranial morphologies between aquatic specialists and garter snakes that are terrestrial-aquatic generalists, independent of evolutionary history. Our new estimate of Thamnophis phylogeny yields an improved understanding of the biogeographic history and morphological evolution of garter snakes, and provides a robust framework for future research on these snakes.
... This pattern also is repeated by the spiny pocket mouse Liomys irroratus [21,22]. This relationship supports Martin's [93] proposal that a strong connection existed between the Sierra Madre Oriental and Mexican Plateau during the Late Pleistocene. That suggestion is based on biogeographic analysis of amphibians and reptiles, climate, vegetation types, and historical geology in the Gomez Farias Region. ...
Article
Full-text available
San Josecito Cave (2250 m elevation) is located nearby Aramberri, Nuevo León, northeastern Mexico, with excavations occurring in 1935–1941 and 1990. It is a paleontological cave and the significance of its faunal data rests in the understanding of the Quaternary ecosystems of the Mexican Plateau and the Southern Plains. This significance is underpinned by a consideration of associated stratigraphic and geochronological data. The fauna is composed of mollusks, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. More than 30 extinct vertebrate species have been identified, constituting one of the most important Quaternary localities in the Americas. Radiocarbon dates and faunal correlations indicate the excavated deposits represent an interval of time between 45,000 and 11,000 14C years BP. The current synthesis demonstrates that the previous view of the assemblage as a single local fauna is erroneous and that, instead, several successive local faunas are present within a stratigraphic framework. This finding underscores the need for detailed studies of single localities in building paleoenvironmental models. As a corollary, results point to the necessity of including all vertebrate classes represented from a locality in building those models. In addition, the field and analytical methodologies demonstrate the importance of very detailed paleontological excavations, with precise spatial and temporal controls, to assess the taphonomic history of a locality, construct a stratigraphic and geochronological framework, and infer the paleoecological conditions during the time span considered based on the number of local faunas represented. The recognition of San Josecito Cave as an important Late Pleistocene vertebrate paleontological locality is enhanced with the consideration of its faunal data for paleoenvironment reconstruction and possible contribution to Quaternary paleoclimatic modeling.
... The only species that was classed by Greer as a high elevation endemic (the lizard Algyroides alleni) was oviparous. Greene (1970), using data from Martin (1958), showed that the proportion of viviparous squamates increases fairly steadily with elevation from sea level to over 2000 meters in the Gomez Farias region of Mexico. At the highest elevation 100% of the species are viviparous (compared to as few as 10% at some low elevations). ...
Article
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/56398/1/MP154.pdf
... Typically, Laemanctus feeds on a wide variety of invertebrates; L. longipes in captivity ate crickets (McCranie, 2018). The stomach contents of L. serratus included snails, arthropods, insects (coleopterans and orthopterans), Anolis lizards (Martin, 1958), caterpillars, and the remains of leaves and stems of a monocot plant (Peters, 1948), the latter being the first report of ingestion of plant material. Therefore, we present the first data on L. julioi feeding in captivity and in its natural environment and what we consider to be the first record of fruit feeding in the genus Laemanctus. ...
... A partir de la segunda mitad del siglo XX se empezaron a realizar estudios descriptivos particulares sobre la florística y vegetación existente en Tamaulipas, algunos de ellos son los de Sharp et al. (1950), Hernández-Xolocotzi et al. (1951) y Hernández-Xolocotzi (1953) quienes describen diversos aspectos sobre la vegetación, biogeografía y florística de la región de Gómez Farías, Tamaulipas. A la par Martin et al. (1954) describen las relaciones biogeográficas de las aves y otros grupos de vertebrados con el bosque de pino-encino de la Sierra de Tamaulipas y Gómez Farías; y posteriormente, Martin (1958), establece las relaciones biogeográficas de los reptiles y anfibios existentes y su distribución en los diferentes tipos de vegetación en la región de Gómez Farías. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Dentro del ärea Natural Protegida Altas Cumbres, Tamaulipas, se determinaron 13 comunidades y asociaciones vegetales, las cuales son descritas y su distribución geográfica ilustrada. El inventario florístico comprende 138 familias, 483 géneros y 807 taxones de plantas vasculares, que figura con el 3.66% de la flora nacional, a nivel de géneros se encuentra el 20.04% de la riqueza nacional, y a nivel de familias con el 62.72%. Ésta riqueza florística es notable al existir el 31% de las especies, al 51% de los géneros y al 74% de las familias conocidas para Tamaulipas dentro del polígono del área protegida, así como al 39% de la flora registrada para la Sierra Madre Oriental en el estado.
... Craugastor yucatanensis is sexually dimorphic in many characters, notably snout-vent length and tympanum diameter. Males in most of the species in the bocourti species series have a larger tympanum than females, with the exception of C. spatulatus (Smith, 1939), but we must consider that there are species where data for males are not available (e.g., C. batrachylus (Taylor, 1940), C. bocourti (Brocchi, 1877), C. megalotympanum, and C. silvicola (Lynch, 1967);Martin 1958;Campbell et al. 1989). The tympanum-to-eye ratio of all species in the series for which males are known is ≥ 50%, except for C. galacticorhinus (40%), C. polymniae (32%), and C. spatulatus (30%). ...
Article
Full-text available
The male of Craugastor yucatanensis (Lynch, 1965) is described for the first time, as the original description was based on four females. The advertisement call is described and additional morphological data on females are presented. Also, information is provided on the sexual dimorphism and natural history of the species.
... Mountain ecosystems in "El Cielo" involve a transition zone between Neotropical and Nearctic regions. The geographic location of "El Cielo" represents the most northern limit of three types of vegetation in the American continent: cloud forest, medium evergreen forest, and tropical deciduous forest (Martin 1958;Puig 1989;Valiente-Banuet et al. 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
The family Tephritidae, known as fruit flies, is one of the most species-rich in the order Diptera. This study aimed to analyze the diversity of Tephritidae through different ecosystems over a Neotropical transitional region in Mexico. Medium evergreen forest (MEF), transitional vegetation between tropical and temperate environments (TVE), and cloud forest (CF) were sampled in the biosphere reserve “El Cielo.” The abundance and diversity of tephritids were analyzed by a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and Hill numbers using rarefaction and extrapolation (R/E) sampling curves, respectively. Also, we computed a diversity ranking over the altitudinal gradient based on a β diversity approach and functional tools. Anastrepha was the most rich-genus with 11 species, followed by Hexachaeta with two species, and Blepharoneura and Rhagoletis with one species each. Twelve species were registered in the MEF, six in the TVE, and two species in the CF. The GLMM revealed unclear differences between MEF and TVE in the abundance of tephritids. Hill numbers showed the highest species richness in the MEF, but the TVE hosted the most diverse species assemblages of Tephritidae. The diversity ranking exhibited the most diverse community of Tephritidae at 900 m asl. Overall, TVE showed the highest evenness in Tephritidae assemblages. Data on new occurrences of Tephritidae species are provided. This Neotropical limit may be considered as the most northern reservoir of the diversity of Tephritidae in the American continent. Moreover, practical implications of the analysis of such diversity in the context of pest management and conservation are discussed.
... ltado de la vegetación ricamente diversificada que cubre la región, la fauna refleja también una gran variedad, consecuencia de la mezcla de especies neárticas y neotropicales.'El Cielo' es un paraíso natural donde abundan gran cantidad de especies del reino animal, desde grandes mamíferos hasta microorganismos, insectos, aves, anfibios y reptiles.Martin (1958) identificó 60 especies de reptiles y 21 especies de anfibios durante un corto periodo de colecta. En la zona existen poblaciones de grandes felinos, incluyendo al jaguar, ocelote, gato montés, puma y tigrillo. El coyote y el oso negro también habitan en esta área. La reserva de la biosfera de 'El Cielo' fue decretada en 1986 por la Orga ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores four different site-specific sound projects called Soundings, and unpacks various reasons for ‘engagement with place’ as an arts practice. This practice is based on a collaborative approach to sound-making in various Australian environments, interactively undertaken between the author and Brisbane-based composer-performer Erik Griswold since 2007. The practice of Soundings meditates on the following questions: • How can site-specific performance lead to new knowledge, new relationships, and new experiences for the performers and listeners? • How can site-specific performance help to activate listening and, therefore, understanding of place? • Who and what is listening, and who and what is playing?
... However, since the 1930s, different reports of evergreen sclerophyllous vegetation sharing the same or congeneric species with similar "convergent" traits were reported for different parts of Mexico under a tropical climate of summer rains (Muller, 1939(Muller, , 1947Shreve, 1939;Le Suer, 1945;Miranda, 1948Miranda, , 1952Martin, 1958;Miranda and Hernández, 1963;Rojas-Mendoza, 1965;Rzedowski, 532 Encyclopedia of the World's Biomes, Volume 3 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9. 12041-X 1966, 1978Rzedowski and Mac Vaugh, 1966;González-Quintero, 1968;Puig, 1970;Axelrod, 1975Axelrod, , 1989Quero, 1977;Cruz-Cisneros and Rzedowski, 1980;Hiriart, 1981;García, 1983;Valiente-Banuet et al., 1998;Rivera-Hernández et al., 2019). ...
... The third species that persists within the Plethodontid Gap is Tlaconete Pinto (Pseudoeurycea bellii). This magnificent plethodontid is widely distributed in southern and central Mexico, extending north along the Sierra Madre Oriental to the northernmost cloud forests in Tamaulipas (Martin 1958). In western Mexico, Dunn's (1926) distribution map of the species shows it no further north than Nayarit, and Taylor (1938Taylor ( , 1941 concluded that the lost specimens cited by Dunn from Fort Whipple, Arizona, were questionable. ...
... Actualmente se conocen 5 patrones generales sobre la relación de la diversidad de especies con la elevación: 1) el número de especies disminuye monotónicamente con la elevación; 2) riqueza alta en la porción inferior del gradiente que se mantiene en forma de meseta, seguida por una disminución de la riqueza; 3) riqueza alta en elevaciones bajas con un máximo de diversidad encontrado en alturas intermedias; 4) pico de riqueza de especies en altura intermedia, es decir un pico unimodal de diversidad. 5) la riqueza de especies aumenta con la elevación (Martin, 1958;Wake et al., 1992;Grytnes et al., 2007;novillo & ojeda, 2012, novillo & ojeda, 2014. Algunas de las posibles explicaciones para estos patrones, establecen que los sitios de mayor diversidad se relacionan con regiones de condiciones ambientales óptimas, o bien pueden registrarse en zonas donde las especies se superponen, o en lugares donde comunidades de vegetación distintas se encuentran en estrecha proximidad (Lomolino, 2001). ...
Article
the Andes constitutes an extensive mountain range and a true laboratory for the study of the evolution of South American biota. In recognition to José Yepes, one of the pioneers in characterizing the distribution of mammals of Argentina we seek in this contribution to synthesize, from ecological biogeography, the knowledge we have about the diversity patterns of small mammals of the central Arid Andes (AcA). We characterize regional and local patterns of rodent richness and endemism as a function of latitude, altitude and area. At regional scale, we con- structed a species database using species range maps, meanwhile at the local scale, we conducted small mammal surveys using standardized techniques along 4 elevational transects between 32oS and 35oS. Among the results, we highlight, at regional level: a) a high number of endemisms (> 50%); b) richness increase with elevation, and c) endemic species – area relationship. Among the results at local level we stress: d) richness increases with el- evation, mean precipitation and topographic heterogeneity, and e) greater abundance at intermediate elevations. Biogeographic-ecological research allows us to depict patterns of composition and distribution of the central Andean biodiversity, and assess some of its causal factors. However, the long term conservation of the Andes re- quires not only solid biological / ecological knowledge but also conservation policies that integrate the biological, social and cultural dimensions of the Andean ecosystem. this approach seems the most appropriate alternative in the face of the different impacts induced by man and the climate change in the region.
... Commonly described elevational patterns include: (a) monotonically decreasing richness with elevation, (b) lowelevation richness plateau followed by a decrease with elevation, (c) low-elevation plateau with mid-elevation richness peak, and (d) unimodal mid-elevation peak in species richness (Guo et al., 2013;McCain, 2009;Rahbek, 1995). Species richness rarely increases with elevation along complete gradients (e.g., Martin, 1958;Wang et al., 2011;Wake, Papenfuss, & Lynch, 1992). Surprisingly, little effort has targeted mechanisms driving differences in the elevational patterns of subgroups (e.g., frugivores) comprising of a given taxon (e.g., birds) that could reflect differences in physiological tolerance or niche partitioning among these groups (Gaston, 2000;Guo et al., 2013;Terborgh, 1977). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim We examined whether the available surface area, temperature, or habitat complexity (foliage height diversity index) determine species richness of birds (and species richness of individual feeding guilds) along a complete forest elevational gradient. Further, we focused on the relationship between species richness of insectivorous birds and the availability of their food resources. Location Elevational gradient (200–3,700 m) of Mt Wilhelm (4,509 m a.s.l.), Central Range, Papua New Guinea. Taxon Birds. Methods We collected data on bird communities at eight sites (500 m elevational increment) during three surveys encompassing both dry and wet seasons over a 2‐year period. We used point counts, mist‐netting, and random walks throughout a standardized area. We tested three predictors of diversity and all of their combinations, in conjunction with sensitivity analyses for spatial effects. Habitat complexity (foliage height diversity index) and temperature were locally measured; surface area available within 200 m elevational intervals was obtained using GIS software. We further locally surveyed insect biomass and related it to species richness of insectivorous birds. Results Birds displayed a monotonic decline in species richness (from 113 to 35 bird species) with increasing elevation, and a nested pattern of species loss. The observed patterns were best explained by habitat complexity for the insectivores, frugivore‐insectivores, and total number of bird species. The available surface area was the best predictor for frugivorous birds. The mean temperature had a high correlation with species richness of all birds and gave the best fit of species richness for insectivore‐nectarivores and pure nectarivores. The biomass of insectivorous birds correlated with the biomass of arthropods. We ruled out the possibility that the elevational pattern observed in birds could be driven by a single phylogenetic radiation. Main conclusions We observed species richness patterns correlate well with habitat complexity and mean temperature, but mean temperature was not ranked as high as expected. Our results thus challenge the generally expected high importance of temperature as a regulator of water availability, production, and biochemical process that influence species richness, and underscore the importance of vegetation structure and the food resources as the driver of observed species richness.
... The shrinking and replacement of grasslands in the Tamaulipan Biotic Province and their replacement by chaparral has been well documented by Clover (1937), Johnston (1963), Gonzalez-Medrano (1992), Schmidley (2002), and others. As recently as the 1950s, Martin (1958) reported "a thorn savanna on an uninhabited rolling plain ca. 30 kms (18 mi) east of Llera at the base of the Sierra de Tamaulipas that was covered with a dense grass sward with yuccas and populated by the tree Piscidia communis." ...
Book
Full-text available
We consider the plant and animal assemblages within the various grasslands depicted to not only be varied and large, but to contribute to a better understanding of each grassland’s history and evolution. This presentation therefore incorporates the biotic community concepts originally proposed by H. S. Swarth, Forrest Shreve, and V. E. Shelford; applied by D. I. Rasmussen, and formulated by C. H. Lowe, Jr.
... Actualmente se conocen 5 patrones generales sobre la relación de la diversidad de especies con la elevación: 1) el número de especies disminuye monotónicamente con la elevación; 2) riqueza alta en la porción inferior del gradiente que se mantiene en forma de meseta, seguida por una disminución de la riqueza; 3) riqueza alta en elevaciones bajas con un máximo de diversidad encontrado en alturas intermedias; 4) pico de riqueza de especies en altura intermedia, es decir un pico unimodal de diversidad. 5) la riqueza de especies aumenta con la elevación (Martin, 1958;Wake et al., 1992;Grytnes et al., 2007;novillo & ojeda, 2012, novillo & ojeda, 2014. Algunas de las posibles explicaciones para estos patrones, establecen que los sitios de mayor diversidad se relacionan con regiones de condiciones ambientales óptimas, o bien pueden registrarse en zonas donde las especies se superponen, o en lugares donde comunidades de vegetación distintas se encuentran en estrecha proximidad (Lomolino, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Andes constitutes an extensive mountain range and a true laboratory for the study of the evolution of South American biota. In recognition to José Yepes, one of the pioneers in characterizing the distribution of mammals of Argentina we seek in this contribution to synthesize, from ecological biogeography, the knowledge we have about the diversity patterns of small mammals of the Central Arid Andes (ACA). We characterize regional and local patterns of rodent richness and endemism as a function of latitude, altitude and area. At regional scale, we constructed a species database using species range maps, meanwhile at the local scale, we conducted small mammal surveys using standardized techniques along 4 elevational transects between 32noS and 35noS. Among the results, we highlight, at regional level: a) a high number of endemisms ( > 50%); b) richness increase with elevation, and c) endemic species - area relationship. Among the results at local level we stress: d) richness increases with elevation, mean precipitation and topographic heterogeneity, and e) greater abundance at intermediate elevations. Biogeographic-ecological research allows us to depict patterns of composition and distribution of the central Andean biodiversity, and assess some of its causal factors. However, the long term conservation of the Andes requires not only solid biological / ecological knowledge but also conservation policies that integrate the biological, social and cultural dimensions of the Andean ecosystem. This approach seems the most appropriate alternative in the face of the different impacts induced by man and the climate change in the region. © 2018 Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia.
... Due to the relative rarity of the relevant taxa involved and potential threats to them posed by the ever expanding human population juggernaught, I have decided to publish this paper now, rather than potentially delay publication for many years in the hope I can re-acquire lost data, by which stage I may be dead and therefore never get to publish the paper. In terms of the taxonomy and other relevant aspects of the genus Laemanctus as recognized to date, relevant publications include: Barbour and Cole (1906), Boulenger (1887Boulenger ( , 1885, Canseco-Marquez and Gutierrez-Mayen (1998), Casas-Andreu et al. (2004), Cope (1864Cope ( , 1866aCope ( , 1866b, Dathe (1988), Dixon and Lemos-Espinal (2010), Duellman (1963), Duméril and Bibron (1837), García et al. (1996), Günther (1885), Hribal and Holanova (2004), Köhler (2000), Lee (1996Lee ( , 2000, Lemos-Espinal and Smith (2015), Martin (1958) (1834) and sources cited therein. ...
Article
A division of the Meso-American lizard genus Laemanctus Wiegmann, 1834 as currently recognized, with the formal description of a new genus, new species and a new subspecies. ABSTRACT The genus Laemanctus Wiegmann, 1834 has in recent years been treated as including two species, namely L. longipes Wiegmann, 1834 and L. serratus Cope, 1864. Various forms similar to each have been treated as both species and subspecies by different authors, although in the absence of molecular data, most recent herpetologists have conservatively treated these as subspecies. Notwithstanding the obvious similarities between L. longipes sensu lato and L. serratus sensu lato, indicating an obvious family-level relationship between the two, both taxa as recognized are sufficiently divergent from one another to warrant recognition in different genera. Furthermore, those forms recognized most recently as subspecies of L. longipes sensu lato and L. serratus sensu lato by authors such as McCoy (1968), are treated herein as full species, as effectively done by Boulenger (1887) for those previously named forms he had on hand. This is done on the basis that each are morphologically distinct from one another and geographically isolated from one another as well, thereby satisfying modern species delineation criteria. In the absence of a pre-existing genus name, the taxon L. serratus and those forms associated with it, are herein placed in the new genus Brunaviridisaurus gen. nov. in accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Ride et al. 1999). One geographically isolated and distinct form most recently treated as a variant of L. longipes, long recognized as distinct by authors including McCoy (1968) is herein formally named as a new species L. viridis sp. nov.. This paper therefore recognizes four species of L. longipes and three of L. serratus, the latter now in the genus Brunaviridisaurus gen. nov.. An isolated population until now referred to the species L. deborrei (Boulenger, 1887) is defined herein as a newly named subspecies.
... al. (1854), Flesch et. al. (2010, Gelbach and Collette (1957), Hall (1951), Hartweg (1940), Husak and Wright (1998), Jadin and García-Vázquez (2008), Jan (1860), Leviton and Banta (1964), Liner (2007), Martin (1958), McCranie and Wilson (2001), Schmidt (1940), Schmidt and Shannon (1947), Smith (1938Smith ( , 1941, Smith and Smith (1976), Smith and Taylor (1945), Stebbins (1985), Taggart et. al. (1994), Tanner (1954), Taylor (1938), Van Denburgh (1895), Vázquez Díaz and Quintero Díaz (2005) and Wright and Wright (1957). ...
Article
The Patch-nosed Snakes placed within the genus Salvadora Baird and Girard, 1853 have had a stable taxonomic history at the genus level since the genus was first named in 1853. However the division of the genus into two distinctive lineages has been well known for many years (Smith, 1938). A review of these snakes yields a need to divide the genus. Salvadora Baird and Girard, 1853 retains, Salvadora bairdi Jan, 1860, Salvadora grahamiae Baird and Girard, 1853, Salvadora hexalepis (Cope, 1867), Salvadora deserticola Schmidt, 1940 and Salvadora intermedia Hartweg, 1940. A new genus Aiselfakharius gen. nov. is erected to contain the species Salvadora lemniscata (Cope, 1895) and Salvadora mexicana (Duméril, Bibron and Duméril, 1854) according to the Zoological Code. The latter genus is most easily separated from the former by its higher subcaudal count (121-139 versus 82-103), one preocular (versus two or more) and an unenlarged rostral (versus one that usually is). Keywords: Patch-nosed Snake; Taxonomy; Aiselfakharius; Salvadora; new genus.
... al. (2000), Conant (1955Conant ( , 1965, Conant and Collins (1991), Cope (1860Cope ( , 1862Cope ( , 1866Cope ( , 1868Cope ( , 1870Cope ( , 1871Cope ( , 1885, Dixon (2000), Dixon andLemos-Espinal (2010), Duméril et. al. (1854), Flores-Villela and Canseco-Márquez (2004), Flores-Villela and Smith (2009), Goldberg andBursey (2007), Günther (1858), Hall (1951), Jan (1863Jan ( , 1865, Koller (2005), Lee (2000), Lehr (2002), Liner (2007), Mahrdt (1969), Martin (1958), McCoy et. al. (1986), McCranie (2011), McCranie and Castañeda (2005), McDiarmid (1963, Mejenes López (1999), Minton et. ...
Article
The black-striped snakes of North, Central and South America have had a relatively stable taxonomic history at the genus level. The genus Coniophanes Hallowell in Cope, 1860 has been well accepted by herpetologists since being defined. Notwithstanding this, six divergent and well-defined species groups are known. To better identify them, six subgenera are erected and defined to accommodate them according to the Zoological Code. The available names are Coniophanes for the fissidens species group and Hydrocalamus Cope, 1885 for the quinquevittatus group. The four newly named subgenera are, Smythserpens gen.nov., Cottonserpens gen.nov., Laidlawserpens gen.nov. and Daraninserpens gen.nov.. Relatively recent studies into the genus Conophis Peters, 1860 has seen species removed from this genus and placed elsewhere (e.g. Hoge 1958 and Villa 1971). Further to this, the most divergent member of the genus and type species C. vittatus Peters, 1860 is left in the genus and the others are placed in a new subgenus Whittonserpens gen. nov.. Keywords: Coniophanes; Conophis; Hydrocalamus; Smythserpens; Cottonserpens; Laidlawserpens; Daraninserpens; Whittonserpens; new subgenera; taxonomy; snake; colubrid.
... Apparently, the floristic diversity from this region is the result of physiographic and climatic conditions and these factors may explain, in part, a transitional zone found between these vegetation communities. Martin (1958) and Treviño-Carreón et al. (2012) also reported this condition at a zone of intermountain transitional communities occurring between the mountain systems and the desert vegetation in the state of Tamaulipas. ...
Article
Full-text available
A submontane scrub vegetation from the State of Tamaulipas, Mexico, is described based on the analysis of richness, diversity and structure. Results indicate that this scrub is diverse (29 species) when compared to other similar plant communities in Northeastern Mexico and an ecotone was observed with low deciduous forests. Most species are widespread and two recorded species (Neopringlea integrifolia and Iresine orientalis) are endemic to the Sierra Madre Oriental. Although the site is close to a natural protected area, there are signs of anthropogenic pressure threatening the conservation of this submontane scrub.
... It has recently been reported from Puebla, near Tepango de Rodríguez (Camarillo, 1995), and in the Sierra Norte (Canseco- Marquéz et al., 2000). The species occurs primarily in pine-oak woodland, humid pine forest, and cloud forest where it is found under bark, logs, and limestone rocks; and in rock crevices, walls, and buildings (Canseco-Marquéz et al., 2000;Dixon et al., 1972;Martin, 1958;Walker, 1955; R.L. Bezy and J.L. Camarillo, personal observations). It is sympatric with L. gaigeae in Querétaro. ...
... Campbell and Frost (1993) seems to reveal a biogeographic enigma-the absence of the genus from most of the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes. This apparent absence is curious given that the genus Abronia occurs in every major mountain range from the northern portion of the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico (Martin, 1958 (Brodie and Savage, 1993;Campbell and Frost, 1993), to northern El Salvador (Hidalgo, 1983) and southern Honduras (Wilson et al., 1986). The Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes is joined to the west with the Meseta Central in Chiapas where three species of Abronia occur: A. lythrochila, A. ochoterenai, and A. leurolepis. ...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a striking new lizard of the genus Abronia from the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes of Guatemala. Adults of the new Guatemalan species have a unique body pattern of white or yellow transverse markings on a black background and a suite of morphological characters that differentiate them from all congeners. It is the only species of Abronia known from Guatemala that lacks protuberant supra-auricular spines. The closest relatives of this new species appear not to be any of the members of the genus previously known from Guatemala, but rather may lie with certain species occurring in El Salvador and Honduras that previously have been placed in two different subgenera (Abaculabronia and Lissabronia). Re-evaluation of phylogenetic hypotheses of Abronia suggests that the subgenus Abaculabronia contains only two species (A. reidi and A. ornelasi) and that A. montecristoi should be placed in the subgenus Lissabronia (formerly containing only A. salvadorensis), along with the new species described herein. The Sierra de Los Cuchumantanes, like many regions in Latin America, currently is undergoing an ecological disaster. The demands by humans on the land and its forests have reduced much of the range to barren, grassy slopes or fields of exposed lateritic clays punctuated with karstic pinnacles. Undoubtedly, this range still contains a great biodiversity but currently receives no effective protection. With the burgeoning and uncontrolled human population growth, it appears likely that the once magnificent forests of the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes will be reduced to a few stands of trees on the steeper slopes by early in the next decade.
... Las grandes disyunciones en la biota de México han llamado la atención de los botánicos desde hace mucho tiempo. Por ejemplo, Martin y Harrell (1957) y Martin (1958) observan que en las montañas del este de México y este de Estados Unidos existen plantas y animales emparentados cercanamente, pero que su distribución es disyunta, esto es, que no se encuentran en la zona intermedia constituida por la zona desértica de Texas y zonas bajas adyacentes (Fig. 3). Asimismo, explican que esto puede deberse a 2 diferentes causas, ambas en el contexto de la biogeografía wallaceana: 1) que las montañas mexicanas hayan funcionado como refugio durante el Pleistoceno para albergar la biota desplazada por los hielos durante la época glaciar, 2) que el elemento templado haya llegado a México a mediados del Cenozoico y se haya vuelto disyunto de su contraparte norteña por el desarrollo de una zona árida en el sur de Texas y noreste de México durante el Pleistoceno. ...
Article
Full-text available
Biogeographical patterns of the Mexican flora are explained based on 3 different theories, considering number of species, endemisms, and relations among areas: 1) dispersalist theory, where Mexico has been considered as the receiver of elements of different sources or geographic areas, considering that it is located in the transition zone between the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, which along the autochthonous ones form a complex mixture of species with different origins, both spatial and temporal, 2) vicariant theory, that proposes a close relationship between the earth's history and the history of the biota, so that the number of species and their distribution may be explained by the complex geologic history of Mexico, and 3) pleistocenic glaciations, which explain the recent distributional patterns of plants based on ecological and historical arguments, based on paleoclimatic changes of the recent past. A continuous debate within historical biogeography has high lighted the importance of biogeography as source of evidence for taxonomy and vice versa. Historical biogeography has a close relationship with systematics, but is an independent discipline within comparative biology. Biogeography is undergoing a conceptual revolution that is causing a revision of its fundamentals and methods. The utilization of different methods in an integrative manner in the same analysis may maximize the advantages of each one.
... Texas A & M University also has large collections from there. However, no summary of the state herpetofauna has appeared, and although scattered notes have appeared on some material, the only area thoroughly covered is the southern region about Gómez Farías (MARTIN 1958). The Sierra de Tamaulipas has also attracted some attention (MARTIN et al. 1954;SITES & DIXON 1981). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Composición, distribución y estatus de conservación de las serpientes venenosas del estado mexicano de Tamaulipas.
Preprint
Full-text available
Biodiversidad Mesoamericana” es una publicación digital mensual de comunicación de la ciencia en torno al conocimiento y conservación de la Diversidad Biológica y Cultural de Mesoamérica.
Article
Full-text available
Environmental stress from abiotic conditions imposes physiological limits on individuals within communities, and these stressful conditions can act as a filter on the species present in any given environment. Such abiotic stressors can reduce a community's diversity and make its composition more phylogenetically clustered. Using a decade of staphylinid beetle (Staphylinidae, Coleoptera, rove beetles) collections made across a 1500 m elevation gradient in northwestern Costa Rica (2008–2017) we asked what species lived there, how large and overlapping were the communities across this gradient, and what relationship was there between elevation and diversity. Using DNA barcodes for identification and phylogenetic estimates of community structure, we found high turnover across elevation, and that staphylinid diversity increased linearly with elevation. Because of this, we found staphylinid diversity was negatively related to surface area and temperature, and positively with precipitation. We suggest that historical biogeography and contemporary environmental stress have combined to produce these observed patterns. The forests in which these beetles are found are heating and drying rapidly and our finding that diversity increases with elevation suggests that there will be catastrophic biodiversity loss in the coming decades.
Article
Loltún cave in Yucatán peninsula is an important fossil site. The cave preserves Pleistocene fauna and lithic tools, and it is among the few sites with amphibian and reptile fossils of the Mexican Pleistocene. We used the fossil amphibians and reptiles community to reconstruct the paleoclimate and paleoenvironment of Loltún cave in the Late Pleistocene. The Pleistocene amphibian and reptiles community in Loltún cave consists of one frog, three lizards, five snakes and one turtle. Applying the Habitat Weighting method to the fossil herpetofaunal assemblage, we inferred a vegetation mosaic non-analog with the present one, comprising evergreen seasonal forest, tropical deciduous forest and scrub forest, in contrast to the tropical semi-deciduous forest found nowadays around Loltún cave. Using the Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) method we inferred a mean annual temperature of 25.33 °C and a mean annual precipitation of 1183.74 mm; the temperature was 1.47 °C lower and the MAP was 85.14 mm higher than the present climate condition. Is the first time that a paleoclimatic reconstruction using amphibians and reptiles in a tropical region is made using the MCR method. Our results are in concordance with other paleoclimatic inferences using fossil pollen as a proxy, extending the use of the MCR method to different climatic regions. We found a range shift of the iguanid Ctenosaura subgenus Loganiosaura during the Late Pleistocene, of 446.4 km north of the present distribution, surely given by the climatic and vegetation structure changes in the past. RESUMEN En la península de Yucatán, la gruta de Loltún es un sitio importante por la presencia de fauna pleistocénica junto con herramientas líticas. Este es uno de los pocos sitios con fósiles de anfibios y reptiles del Pleistoceno en el sur de México. Se utilizó la comunidad fósil de anfibios y reptiles para reconstruir el paleoambiente y paleoclima de la gruta de Loltún para el Pleistoceno Tardío, debido a que la herpetofauna presenta características importantes para la reconstrucción de ambientes pasados. La comunidad de anfibios y reptiles del Pleistoceno Tardío de la gruta de Loltún consiste en un anuro, tres saurios, cinco serpientes y una tortuga. Por medio de la aplicación del método de Ponderación de Hábitat para la comunidad herpetofaunística fósil, se pudo inferir que existió un mosaico de vegetación, no análogo con el presente, constituido de selva perennifolia, bosque tropical caducifolio y matorral xerófito, en contraposición al bosque tropical subcaducifolio presente en la actualidad. También, se infirió una temperatura promedio anual de 25.33 °C y una precipitación promedio anual de 1,183.74 mm, siendo 1.47 °C inferior y 85.14 mm superior a las condiciones climáticas actuales; para estas estimaciones se usó el método de Intervalo Climático Mutuo (ICM). Es la primera vez que se realiza una reconstrucción paleoclimática utilizando el método de ICM con anfibios y reptiles en una región tropical. Nuestros resultados concuerdan con las inferencias paleoclimáticas realizadas con polen fósil, extendiendo el uso del método ICM a diferentes regiones climáticas. Se infiere un cambio en la distribución de Ctenosaura subgénero Loganiosaura durante el Pleistoceno, 446.4 km más al norte de su distribución actual, lo cual seguramente fue producido por los cambios en la estructura de la vegetación y los cambios climáticos.
Article
Full-text available
Tantilla cascadae Wilson and Meyer, 1981. Until recently, this species was known only from the type locality, Cascada de Tzaráracua, Uruapan, Michoacán, Mexico. A second locality now is known from 20 km NE Pihuamo, Jalisco, where a single individual was found (D. Cruz-Sáenz, pers. comm.; submitted). Peter Heimes also collected and photographed the individual illustrated, which he found at the type locality, but the specimen was not placed in a museum collection. This small centipede snake is one of a number of poorly known Mexican species of Tantilla. Its EVS is calculated as 15, which places it in the lower portion of the high vulnerability category. Its IUCN status is Data Deficient. ' © Peter Heimes 4 5 abstract: Thirty of the 62 species of the colubrid snake genus Tantilla are known to occur in Mexico. We summarize the taxonomy and distribution of each of the Mexican species, provide distributional maps, and where pertinent discuss geographical variation and ecological data. We base our identification key on color, pattern, and scutellation. The geographic and ecological ranges of most species are restricted. The genus Tantilla has been recorded from every state in Mexico, except for Campeche, Tabasco, and Tlaxcala. The largest number of species have been recorded from the state of Oaxaca (10), live in the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Pacific lowlands from Sinaloa to western Chiapas (nine in each), occur at moderate elevations (22), and inhabit Tropical Dry Forest and Subtropical Moist Forest vegetation zones (16 in each). Tantilla bocourti is the widest-ranging species, recorded from 17 states, six physiographic regions, at elevations from near sea level to 2,750 m, and in seven vegetation zones. Mexico is the center of diversity for the genus Tantilla, as it contains 17 endemic species. We utilized three systems for scoring conservation status. Assessments for only 15 of the species found in Mexico are available with the SEMARNAT system: six are judged as Threatened and nine under the category of Special Protection. Assessments for 27 species are available with the IUCN system: two are considered Endangered, 10 Data Deficient, and 15 of Least Concern. All the species are covered with the EVS system: four are categorized in the low, 13 in the medium, and 13 in the high levels of vulnerability. We provide morphological characteristics that define the genus Tantilla, indicate the phenetic species groups that have been assigned and comment on several unassigned species, and emphasize the need for future molecular studies.
Article
Full-text available
Clutch size (CS) and relative clutch mass (RCM) are considered important features in life history descriptions of species within Squamata. Variations in these two characteristics are caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. The present study provides the first account related to CS and RCM of Basiliscus vittatus in Mexico within a population that inhabits an open riverbed juxtapositioned to tropical rainforest habitat in Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico (170 m a.s.l.). Twenty-nine gravid females were collected and kept in captivity under favorable conditions that promote oviposition. The CS within this population was 6.2 ± 0.2 and was correlated positively with snout vent-length (SVL); while the RCM was 0.17 ± 0.006 and was correlated positively with both CS and width of egg. Factors, such as female morphology and environmental conditions, should influence these reproductive traits in B. vittatus . The data collected in this study could provide a framework for comparisons of the life history traits across populations of B. vittatus in Mexico and within other species of the family Corytophanidae and provide a model for testing how abiotic and biotic factors may influence the CS and RCM in basilisk lizards throughout their range.
Chapter
This chapter provides a sketch of the physiogeographic features of the Lacandon forest, in general, and of the northern region, in particular, with descriptions of vegetations formations and climate of this region.
Article
Full-text available
Snakes of the tribe Dipsadini feed mostly on annelids, slugs, and snails. Some species that feed exclusively on snails are able to de-shell their prey prior ingestion. On the basis of dissection of preserved specimens from museums, we report the dietary habits of three species of Sibynomorphus from Brazil. Eighteen to 26% of the snakes had stomach contents, varying from 1-8 items, and the number of prey was not correlated with snake size. Prey mass was positively correlated with snake mass, but relative prey mass decreased with increasing snake size. Prey mass represented less than 5% of the predator mass for all species. Sibynomorphus neuwiedi and S. mikanii only had Veronicellidae slugs in their digestive tract, whereas S. ventrimaculatus also included snails in their diet. Sibynomorphus mikanii ingested most prey rear-first, but there was no difference in direction of prey ingestion by the other two species. Snake morphology differed among species and provided insights into habitat use and feeding habits. Sibynomorphus neuwiedi was the largest species and had the longest tail. Its eyes were also larger than those of S. mikanii, which, together with tail size, suggests more arboreal habits. Sibynomorphus ventrimaculatus had the largest head relatie to the body, which might facilitate ingestion of snails. In summary, the three species of Sibynomporphus are slug specialists. Like other goo-eaters, these snakes feed on very small and low caloric prey, which might require them to feed frequently. This hypothesis is supported by the larger number of prey ingested by these snakes compared to non-goo-eater species of Dipsadini.
Book
Full-text available
Existen ya experiencias en México respecto a "reservas campesinas" o "reservas privadas", varias de ellas lidereadas por Pronatura A.C., como “Las Cañadas” en Huatusco, Veracruz, que fue decretada como la primera Servidumbre Ecológica de México en el mes de octubre de 1998, con una extensión de 118-77-61 hectáreas, protegiendo relictos de bosque mesófilo de montaña y áreas perturbadas por destinadas para su regeneración. Alta Cima se inscribe en ésta tendencia, lográndose el primer acuerdo por parte de la Asamblea Ejidal en noviembre del 2003, y suscribiéndose el acta respectiva el 30 de noviembre del 2004. El esquema que se eligió fue el de Reserva Campesina. Será una reserva privada de 1,720 ha que tiene como característica ser una de las áreas más biodiversas en la Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo, con al menos tres grandes tipos de vegetación, a saber, la selva mediana subcaducifolia, el bosque mesófilo de montaña y el bosque de pino-encino, en el Municipio de Gómez Farías, Tamaulipas. Con el objetivo de conservar esta área, especialmente para los hábitat de aves y plantas endémicas, y de promover su recuperación se establecieron una serie de reglas de manejo para eliminar la ganadería extensiva, el tráfico de especies de plantas en estatus y la prohibición de cuatrimotos desde el año 2004. Este documento fue el resultado tanto de investigación bibliográfica puntual como de recopilación de datos en el sitio durante las visitas de prospección y el monitoreo ecológico realizados por Pronatura Noreste A.C., Terra Nostra A.C. y Instituto de Ecología y Alimentos de la universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas durante 2003 y 2004. La información fue consensada en la Asamblea Ejidal de septiembre del 2004.
Book
Full-text available
Este documento es parte del Proyecto Interdisciplinario "Aves de El Cielo" que sentó las bases para la conservación de las aves en la Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo, Tamaulipas, México, y que incluía análisis de habitat y diversidad avifaunística, capacitación a guías campesinos locales, educación ambiental y la declaratoria formal por parte de la Asamblea Ejidal de Alta Cima de una reserva en la localidad dedicada exclusivamente a las aves residentes y migratorias,
Article
Loltún cave in Yucatán peninsula is an important fossil site. The cave preserves Pleistocene fauna and lithic tools, and it is among the few sites with amphibian and reptile fossils of the Mexican Pleistocene. We used the fossil amphibians and reptiles community to reconstruct the paleoclimate and paleoenvironment of Loltún cave in the Late Pleistocene. The Pleistocene amphibian and reptiles community in Loltún cave consists of one frog, three lizards, five snakes and one turtle. Applying the Habitat Weighting method to the fossil herpetofaunal assemblage, we inferred a vegetation mosaic non-analog with the present one, comprising evergreen seasonal forest, tropical deciduous forest and scrub forest, in contrast to the tropical semi-deciduous forest found nowadays around Loltún cave. Using the Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) method we inferred a mean annual temperature of 25.33 °C and a mean annual precipitation of 1183.74 mm; the temperature was 1.47 °C lower and the MAP was 85.14 mm higher than the present climate condition. Is the first time that a paleoclimatic reconstruction using amphibians and reptiles in a tropical region is made using the MCR method. Our results are in concordance with other paleoclimatic inferences using fossil pollen as a proxy, extending the use of the MCR method to different climatic regions. We found a range shift of the iguanid Ctenosaura subgenus Loganiosaura during the Late Pleistocene, of 446.4 km north of the present distribution, surely given by the climatic and vegetation structure changes in the past.
Article
Full-text available
The herpetofauna of the northeasternmost state in Mexico comprises 183 species, including 31 anurans, 13 salamanders, one crocodylian, 122 squamates, and 16 turtles. We documented the distribution of these species among the seven physiographic regions we recognize. The number of species in these regions varies from 32 in the Sierras y Llanuras Occidentales to 134 in the Gran Sierra Plegada. The species reside in from one to seven regions (x = 2.5). The greatest number of single-region species occurs in the Gran Sierra Plegada. About six out of ten species are restricted to one or two physiographic regions, which is of considerable conservation significance. We constructed a Coefficient of Biogeographic Resemblance (CBR) matrix that demonstrates that the number of shared species ranges from eight to 71. We employed these data in building a UPGMA dendrogram, which illustrates that … We allocated the members of the Tamaulipan herpetofauna to four distributional categories, of which the largest number comprises the non-endemics (120), followed by the country endemics (48), state endemics (10), and non-natives (five). We examined the conservations status of the native species by utilizing the SEMARNAT, IUCN, and EVS systems. Of these three systems, the EVS system proved to be the most useful for the herpetofauna of the state. The number of species in the three EVS categories increases from low (54) to medium (68), and decreased to high (51). Additionally, we employed the EVS ratings to judge how the species in the DD, NE, and LC IUCN categories might be evaluated more accurately. We also used a scheme for ascertaining relative herpetofaunal priority (RHP), which is a simple means of determining the rank order of a regional herpetofauna dependent on the numbers of state and national endemic species, as well as the numbers of high EVS vulnerability species. Using these two measures, we found the Gran Sierra Plegada to occupy rank order one in both cases. We also discussed the ability of the state’s protected areas, including a biosphere reserve, to protect the members of the herpetofauna. Based on our analyses, we erected a set of conclusions, in addition to some recommendations for the future protection of the Tamaulipan herpetofauna.
Book
Mammals of Mexico is the first reference in English on the more than 500 types of mammal species found in diverse Mexican habitats from the Sonoran Desert to the Chiapas cloud forests. Authoritative accounts are written by a Who’s Who of experts overseen by famed mammalogist and conservationist Gerardo Ceballos. Ten years in the making, Mammals of Mexico covers everything from obscure rodents to whales, bats, primates, and wolves. It is thoroughly illustrated with color photographs and meticulous artistic renderings, as well as range maps for each species. Introductory chapters discuss biogeography, conservation, and evolution. The final section of the book illustrates skulls, jaws, and tracks. This unparalleled collection of scientific information on and photographs of Mexican wildlife belongs on the shelf of every mammalogist, in public and academic libraries, and in the hands of anyone curious about Mexico and its wildlife.
Book
With many frog populations declining or disappearing and developmental malformations and disease afflicting others, scientists, conservationists, and concerned citizens need up-to-date, accurate information. Frogs of the United States and Canada is a comprehensive resource for those trying to protect amphibians as well as for researchers and wildlife managers who study biodiversity. From acrobatic tree frogs to terrestrial toads, C. Kenneth Dodd Jr. offers an unparalleled synthesis of the biology, behavior, and conservation of frogs in North America. This two-volume, fully referenced resource provides color photographs and range maps for 106 native and nonindigenous species and includes detailed information on - past and present distribution - life history and demography - reproduction and diet - landscape ecology and evolution - - diseases, parasites, and threats from toxic substances - conservation and management. © 2013 The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.
Article
The taxonomic status of the blind snakes Leptotyphlops dulcis dulcis, L. dulcis dissectus and L. dulcis myopicus was re-evaluated, based upon the study of 867 individuals from the United States and Mexico. The presence of either a single or a divided anterior supralabial was considered to be a conservative character; based on this character, the specimens were divided into two groups. Analysis of variance of total dorsal scales within these two groups, paired with Duncan's Multiple Range Test, suggests that these three taxa represent three full species. Within the group with a single anterior supralabial, L. dulcis comprises three races (L. dulcis dulcis, L. dulcis rubellum and an as-yet-unnamed race in eastern Oklahoma). Within the group with a divided anterior supralabial, L. dissectus is monotypic and L. myopicus consists of two races (L. myopicus myopicus and L. myopicus iversoni). Chihuahuan individuals previously classified as L. dulcis supraocularis were reassigned to L. dissectus.
Article
Aim: Studies of species turnover commonly assume that turnover is a critical determinant of species richness patterns. But the concordance in patterns of turnover and species richness along gradients is poorly known. Here we characterize elevational patterns of species turnover and test whether turnover and species richness are strongly related. Location: Sixty-two elevation gradients world-wide, from 17°S to 43°N. Methods: We used elevational range data for six terrestrial vertebrate groups to characterize species turnover between neighbouring elevational bands. We measured turnover as Simpson's dissimilarity, a metric that is unaffected by measured differences in species richness among recorded samples. To assess differences from random patterns, elevational turnover was compared with three null models (hard, soft and no boundaries). Lastly, elevational turnover was compared with the combined species richness of neighbouring elevational bands. Analyses were conducted at three grain sizes (200, 400 and 800m elevation). Results: We found no consistent, repeated patterns in elevational turnover. Variability among gradients was very high, with most datasets displaying multiple but inconsistently located peaks. Concordance between null predictions and empirical turnover was poor (average r2 for 200, 400 and 800m grains were: hard boundaries0.06, 0.12 and 0.15; softboundaries0.06, 0.11 and 0.14; unbounded0.03, 0.07 and 0.10; respectively), although many empirical values fell within the confidence intervals of the null model. Correlations of turnover and species richness were generally poor, but increased with analysis grain (average r2=0.19, 0.33 and 0.54, respectively). Main conclusions: Turnover cannot serve as a general explanation for richness patterns within elevational gradients. Elevational turnover patterns are highly idiosyncratic, change with scale, and are often indistinguishable from random patterns. Despite the common assertion that the highest species richness occurs where distinct, dominant communities turn over on mountains (e.g. low- and high-elevation communities at a middle ecotone), we found no strong support for such Clementsian-structured patterns.
Article
Full-text available
La flora de las laderas orientales de la Sierra Madre Occídental, así como grandes extensiones de la región elevada del sur de · México, está caracterizada por una asociación vegetativa integrada por especies tanto de la zona templada como de la tropical. La formación de este tipo de asociación se debe indudablemente a la combinación de los factores ecológicos que exixten en la actualidad, y la historia evolutiva de nuestra flora en tiempos geológicos. Durante el proceso evolutivo de nuestra flora, se han registrado migraciones tanto de elementos florísticos de la zona templada hacia el sur, como de plantas tropicales hacia el norte.
Article
The flora of Mexico includes 143 dicotyledonous families with woody species. These may be classified on the basis of their distribution outside Mexico into the following categories which are listed according to the number of families in each: 1. Tropical (Araliaceae, Bixaceae, Bombacaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Chloranthaceae, Cochlospermaceae, Combretaceae, Connaraceae, Cunoniaceae, Dilleniaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Hernandiaceae, Hippocrateaceae, Krameriaceae, Loranthaceae, Moraceae, Myristicacaeae, Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Opiliaceae, Piperaceae, Rubiaceae, Sabiaceae, Sapindaceae, Simaroubaceae and Surianaceae) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2. Tropical and Subtropical (Acanthaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Buxaceae, Capparidaceae, Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Diospyraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Gesneriaceae, Icacinaceae, Lauraceae, Loganiaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Olacaceae, Oxalidaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Sapotaceae, Solanaceae, Sterculiaceae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae and Zygophyllaceae) . . . 26 3. Temperate, mostly Northern Hemisphere (Aceraceae, Aesculaceae, Amygdalaceae, Berberidaceae, Betulaceae, Cistaceae, Ericaceae, Fagaceae, Grossulariaceae, Juglandaceae, Malaceae, Nyssaceae, Papaveraceae, Platanaceae, Staphyleaceae, Styracaceae and Ulmaceae) . . . . . . . . . 17 4. Mainly American with a small number of Species elsewhere (Batidaceae, Burseraceae, Cactaceae, Escallionaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Loasaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomaceae, Passifloraceae, Polemoniaceae, Theophrastaceae, Turneraceae and Vochysiaceae) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Generally distributed but more in tropics (Anacardiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Celastraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Hypericaceae, Lobeliaceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Phytolacaceae, Rutaceae, Tiliaceae and Urticaceae) . . . . . . 12 6. Cosmopolitan except for coldest regions (Amaranthaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Boraginaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Oleaceae, Portulacaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Rhamnaceae and Violaceae) . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Endemic to the warmer areas of the Americas (Brunelliaceae, Caricaceae, Cyrillaceae, Julianaceae, Lacistemonaceae, Marcgraviaceae) . . . . . 6 8. Cosmopolitan (Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae, Fabaceae, Menthaceae, Rosaceae and Scrophulariaceae) . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 9. Mainly north temperate but some extending into southern hemisphere (Cornaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Hydrangeaceae, Myricaceae, Salicaceae) . . . 5 10. Generally distributed but more in temperate areas (Caprifoliaceae, Onagraceae, Polygalaceae, Polygonaceae and Ranunculaceae) . . . . 5 11. Almost endemic to Mexico (Crossosomataceae, Fouquieriaceae, Koeberlinaceae, Pterostemonaceae) . . . . . . . . . . . 4 12. Mainly southern hemisphere (Monimiaceae, Proteaceae and Thymeleaceae) 3 13. Not readily classified (Clethraceae, Coriariaceae, Frankeniaceae Goodeniaceae, Magnoliaceae, Symplocaceae, Theaceae and Winteraceae) . . . . 8 Although about three-fourths of Mexico has temperate vegetation, the tropical areas have a richer flora with many more families, genera and species. A review of the historical geology of Mexico suggests that after the development of the Angiosperms, but prior to the Pliocene, there was little continuous area with sufficient elevation to support a temperate vegetation all through that time. The present temperate element in the flora of Mexico must have come from the north during late Pliocene and the Pleistocene. Rich tropical vegetation could have covered such areas of Mexico as were exposed from early Mesozoic to the Pliocene. The tropical vegetation of the lowlands to-day may have elements which originated in Mexico and other elements which came from the north prior to the Pliocene, and still other elements which came and are coming from the south.
Article
N UMEROUS distributional accounts of Mexican animals have appeared in recent years, amplifying our understanding of a rich, complex, and highly diverse fauna. Few studies, however, have related local faunas to climatic and vegetation types as outlined by Leopold (1950). By the focusing of study on a single plant formation or vegetation type, rather than on a politi-cal or other nonenvironmental unit, certain zoogeographic problems, such as Pleistocene influences on distribution patterns, are opened to investigation. The following account illustrates an application of this viewpoint. In northeastern Mexico two small ranges, the Sierra San Carlos and Sierra de Tamaulipas, rise from the Tamaulipan Coastal Plain, completely isolated from the abrupt escarpment of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The higher parts of these ranges are covered by belts of open pine-oak woods, similar in structure and presumably in climate, to extensive forests of this nature in the adjacent Sierra Madre. They are isolated from the latter and from each other by the arid tropical thorn forest and thorn scrub of the intervening coastal plain (map l), and thus constitute environmental islands for species inhabiting the pine-oak formation. The coastal plain Sierras have been visited by comparatively few collectors and no fauna1 reports have appeared beyond that of Dice (1937) and others on the Sierra San Carlos. The pine-oak avifauna of the Sierra Madre Oriental in northeastern Mexico is somewhat better known and appears fairly homo-geneous, judging from published accounts (Burleigh and Lowery, 1942; Harrell, MS; Phillips, 1911; R o b ins and Heed, 1951; Sutton and Burleigh, 1939; Sutton and Pettingill, 1943; Sutton, Pettingill, and Lea, 1942). Our preliminary fauna1 survey of the Sierra de Tamaulipas has been compared with these in viewing the relationships between the pine-oak areas of north-eastern Mexico.
Article
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Texas at Austin, 1951. Vita. Bibliography: l. 31-32.
Article
Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Michigan, 1951. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 327-337). Microfilm.
Article
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/56981/1/OP543.pdf
Article
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/56340/1/MP096.pdf
Article
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/56314/1/MP069.pdf
Pseudoeurycea scandens The following humid montane localities a r e shown: Nuevo Le6n, hills above Pablillo
  • C Multidentata
C. multidentata, C. arborea, and C. mosaueri 8. Pseudoeurycea scandens The following humid montane localities a r e shown: Nuevo Le6n, hills above Pablillo;
Chihue region and G6mez Farfas region
  • Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas, Chihue region and G6mez Farfas region;
Jacala region, Durango region, El Chico-Guerrero region, and Zacualtipan-Tianguistengo region
  • Hidalgo
Hidalgo, Jacala region, Durango region, El Chico-Guerrero region, and Zacualtipan-Tianguistengo region;
These humid montane habitats a r e presently isolated by arid basins and valleys
  • Nexaca Puebla
Puebla, Nexaca. These humid montane habitats a r e presently isolated by arid basins and valleys.
  • Rollin H Baker
Baker, Rollin H. 1956 Mammals of Coahuila, Mexico. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 9:127-335.
A New Subspecies of the Mexican Moccasin
  • W Burger
  • William B Leslie
  • Robertson
Burger, W. Leslie, and William B. Robertson 1951 A New Subspecies of the Mexican Moccasin, Agkistrodon bilineatus. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 34:213-218.
  • Sherburne F Cook
  • Lesley Byrd Simpson
Cook, Sherburne F., and Lesley Byrd Simpson 1948 The Population of Central Mexico in the Sixteenth Century. Ibero-Americana, 31:l-241.
Mammals of the Mexican State of San Luis ~o t o s i . Louisiana State Univ. Studies
  • Walter W Dalquest
Dalquest, Walter W. 1953 Mammals of the Mexican State of San Luis ~o t o s i. Louisiana State Univ. Studies, Biol. Sci. Ser. No. 1:l-229.
Mammals of the San Carlos Mountains and Vicinity
  • Lee R Dice
Dice, Lee R. 1937 Mammals of the San Carlos Mountains and Vicinity. In The Geology and Biology of the San Carlos Mountains, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Univ. Mich. Studies, Sci. Ser., 12:245-268.
Studies of Some Early Tertiary Red Conglomerates of Central Mexico
  • John D Edwards
Edwards, John D. 1955 Studies of Some Early Tertiary Red Conglomerates of Central Mexico. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 264-H.
The Front Ranges of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico, from Ciudad Victoria to Tamazunchale
  • Arnold Heim
Heim, Arnold 1940 The Front Ranges of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico, from Ciudad Victoria to Tamazunchale..
A Unique Vegetational Area in Tamaulipas
  • X Hernkdez
  • Howard Efraim
  • William B Crum
  • Aaron J Fox
  • Sharp
Hernkdez X., Efraim, Howard Crum, William B. Fox, and Aaron J. Sharp 1951 A Unique Vegetational Area in Tamaulipas. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 78: 458-463.
Josd de Escand6n and the Founding of Nuevo Santander
  • Lawrence Hill
  • Francis
Hill, Lawrence Francis 1926 Josd de Escand6n and the Founding of Nuevo Santander. Ohio State Univ. Studies, Contrib. in History and Political Sci., 9: 1-149.
A Systematic Review of the Harvest Mice
  • Emmet T Hooper
Hooper, Emmet T. 1952 A Systematic Review of the Harvest Mice (Genus Reithrodontomys) of Latin America. NIisc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., No. '77:l-255.
Similarity of Surface Geology in Front Range of Sierra Madre Oriental to Subsurface in Mexican South Fields
  • Lewis B Kellum
Kellum, Lewis B. 1930 Similarity of Surface Geology in Front Range of Sierra Madre Oriental to Subsurface in Mexican South Fields. Bull. Amer. Assn. Petroleum Geol., 14: 73-91.
Notes on the Ornithology of Southeastern San Luis ~o t o s i Wilson Bull
  • George H Lowery
  • Robert J Jr
  • Newman
Lowery, George H., Jr., and Robert J. Newman 1951 Notes on the Ornithology of Southeastern San Luis ~o t o s i Wilson Bull., 63: 315-322.
1828 A Journal of a Residence and Tour in the Republic of Mexico in the Year 1826
  • George F Lyon
Lyon, George F. 1828 A Journal of a Residence and Tour in the Republic of Mexico in the Year 1826. John Murray, London. Vol. 1, 323 pp.
Herpetological Records from the Gdmez Farias Region of Southwestern Tamaulipas
Herpetological Records from the Gdmez Farias Region of Southwestern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Copeia, 1955, (3):173-180.
Ein neuer zaunleguan (Sceloporus) aus Mexiko
  • Robert Mertens
Mertens, Robert 1950 Ein neuer zaunleguan (Sceloporus) aus Mexiko. Wochenschrift fiir Aquarien-u. Terrarienkunde, 44: 13-15.
The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Stockton Plateau in Northern Terrell County
  • William W Milstead
  • S John
  • Haskcll Mecham
  • Mcclintock
Milstead, William W., John S. Mecham, and Haskcll McClintock 1950 The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Stockton Plateau in Northern Terrell County, Texas. Ibid., 2:543-562.