Article

Experimental Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Swertia chirata-Aqurous Extract

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... Thirteen (13) rats will be used to determine the safety of the D. mespiliformis extract, while the remaining thirty six (36) will be used to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic potential of the plant extract. The animals would be maintained under standard laboratory conditions with free access to food and water within the cage at the animal house (Kavitha and Dattatri, 2013). Each group will consist of randomly six selected animals. ...
... After an 18hrs fasting, diabetes will be induced (Kavitha and Dattatri, 2013) in 50 rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan monohydrate dissolved in normal saline at (150 mg/kg body weight) in a volume 1 ml/kg body weight. Animals will be fed with 10% glucose solution in order to stabilize their glucose level and observed for first 24 hours following the injection of alloxan for any evidence of allergic reactions, behavioral changes and convulsions. ...
... The blood glucose level will be determined and recorded as per the following guidelines (Kavitha and Dattatri, 2013;Kumar et al., 2010). ...
Research Proposal
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The present research proposal provides a detail description on how to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of a widely known plant, Diospyros mespiliformis (African ebony) locally known as "Kenya" in Hausa language. Alloxan-induced diabetic rat models will be used as experimental materials during the course of this research.
... Whole plant (40-50 mL) infusion taken two times daily (before principal meals) for 3-4 weeks [14] Extracts exhibit antidiabetic activities [89] No record found [11,14,16] Aqueous extract of leaves has significant antidiabetic activity similar to glibenclamide in STZinduced diabetic rats [90] Swerchirin [91] , swertiamarin, sweroside [92] Lowers blood glucose level by stimulating insulin release from islets of langerhans; antidiabetic activity is due to up-regulation of peroxisomeproliferater activated receptor gene expression ...
... Swertia chirayita: Ethanolic extracts of this plant significantly reduced the levels of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in streptozotocinnicotinamide-induced diabetic rats [154] . Aqueous extract of leaves has significant antidiabetic activity as compared to standard drug glibenclamide in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats [90] . The antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extracts of this plant is partly due to the restoration of pancreatic β-cells and increasing insulin secretion, very similar to sulfonylureas [155] . ...
Article
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Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas, a part of Eastern Himalayan Hotspot, is characterized by its richness of plant diversity. Herbal medicine has been one of the most popular and reliable healing practices among the different ethnic groups of this region for ages. However, the lack of documentation practice by the traditional healers has led to obscurity regarding the efficacy of herbal medicine among the present generation, though they have to depend on the same quite often. Meanwhile, several reviews have attempted to document the plants used for the treatment of diabetes from this region, but interestingly, very few research works can be obtained regarding the characterization of antidiabetic properties of the plants of this region. Therefore, it demands a better understanding of the potentiality of these plants in the purview of scientific evidence. This review article reports 55 such plant species which have been reported to be frequently used in the treatment of hyperglycemia and our objective was to validate the potentiality of the plants in the light of recent phytochemical and pharmacological researches being carried out locally or elsewhere.
... Some medicinal plants have been demonstrated to have lesser side effects and have ability to treat various diseases[37]. Moreover, natural bioactive compounds isolated from medicinal plants that have anti-hyperglycaemic activities have been confirmed experimentally[38]. Bioactive compounds that are associated with antidiabetic effects are glycosides, alkaloids, citric acid, malic acid, polyterpenes, cyanhidric acid, essential oils, allicine, nerolidol, pectins, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, sterols, triperpenes and protein (bixine)[12]. ...
Article
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Keywords: Antidiabetic; Antioxidant; Anti-Inflammatory; Hypoglycaemic and Natural Products Type II diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by hyperglycaemia due to a defect in insulin production and/or resistance by the cells. Bioactive compounds with antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are potential solutions towards the management of type II diabetes mellitus. Bioactive compounds, which naturally occur in medicinal plants, such as antioxidants, play a vital role in scavenging free radicals. Free radicals are naturally formed in the body and play a pivotal role in many normal cellular processes. However, at high concentrations, free radicals can be hazardous to the body and damage all major components of cells, including DNA, proteins, and cell membranes. The damage to cells caused by free radicals, especially the damage to DNA, may play a role in the development of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and other chronic health conditions. Therefore, it is anticipated that increased knowledge of plants with hypoglycaemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity will not only impact, but also revolutionize phytomedicine industrial and pharmaceutical processes. This review will look into the investigation of plants used for the treatment and management of diabetes type II.
... Some medicinal plants have been demonstrated to have lesser side effects and have ability to treat various diseases [37]. Moreover, natural bioactive compounds isolated from medicinal plants that have anti-hyperglycaemic activities have been confirmed experimentally [38]. Bioactive compounds that are associated with antidiabetic effects are glycosides, alkaloids, citric acid, malic acid, polyterpenes, cyanhidric acid, essential oils, allicine, nerolidol, pectins, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, sterols, triperpenes and protein (bixine) [12]. ...
Article
Keywords: Antidiabetic; Antioxidant; Anti-Inflammatory; Hypoglycaemic and Natural Products Type II diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by hyperglycaemia due to a defect in insulin production and/or resistance by the cells. Bioactive compounds with antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are potential solutions towards the management of type II diabetes mellitus. Bioactive compounds, which naturally occur in medicinal plants, such as antioxidants, play a vital role in scavenging free radicals. Free radicals are naturally formed in the body and play a pivotal role in many normal cellular processes. However, at high concentrations, free radicals can be hazardous to the body and damage all major components of cells, including DNA, proteins, and cell membranes. The damage to cells caused by free radicals, especially the damage to DNA, may play a role in the development of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and other chronic health conditions. Therefore, it is anticipated that increased knowledge of plants with hypoglycaemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity will not only impact, but also revolutionize phytomedicine industrial and pharmaceutical processes. This review will look into the investigation of plants used for the treatment and management of diabetes type II.
... Just to give one example, leaves of Cassia fistula, Swertia chirayita (aerial parts containing leaves), Azadirachta indica, and Clerodendrum viscosum were mixed and advised to be taken orally by the FMP for treatment of diabetes. It can be seen from Table 3 that leaves of all four plant species has been scientifically shown to have hypoglycemic properties [101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120]. It is therefore very much possible that the synergistic hypoglycemic effect produced by the combination can lead to better control of elevated blood glucose levels arising during diabetes. ...
... The S. chirata is also known to contain three main phytochemicals amarogentin, mangiferin, and Swertia merin. Mangiferin is known to have blood glucose lowering property and also shows suppressive effect on lipid profile [25,26]. ...
Article
Background: Indinavir is widely used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is known to cause hyperglycemia or insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of Swertia chirata leaf extract with metformin and pioglitazone on indinavir treated rats. Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into five Groups of six animals each. All the groups (except control) were treated with indinavir 216 mg/kg (oral) for 15 days. Group I (control) received normal saline (oral) from day 8 to day 15, Group II received indinavir 216 mg/kg (oral), Group III received S. chirata plant extract 500 mg/kg (oral) from day 8 to day 15, Group IV received pioglitazone 4 mg/kg (oral) from day 8 to day 15, and Group V received metformin 36 mg/kg (oral) from day 8 to day 15. The biochemical parameters such as serum glucose, insulin, and lipid levels were measured on day 15. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test. Results: Indinavir (216 mg/kg) treated rats showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in glucose and insulin levels and also altered lipid levels. This indicates indinavir produces diabetic-like state in rats. S. chirata extract (500 mg/kg) decreases glucose and insulin levels and also improves lipid levels the effect is almost similar to metformin and pioglitazone. Conclusion: Indinavir causes elevated glucose, insulin and lipid levels, so care must be taken while prescribing indinavir for HIV patients. Treatment with S. chirata extract improved the altered glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in indinavir treated rats.
... Many animal models are available for the investigations of DM, in which STZ induce diabetes is most frequently used. [17][18][19][20] It is a toxin obtained from Streptomyces achromogenes. Intraperitonial (i.p.) administration of STZ accumulates in pancreatic β-cells of the islets of Langerhans via the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and release Nitric oxide (NO). ...
Article
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Objective: Musa paradisiaca belonging to family Musaceae is a well-known herb having many pharmacological properties including antidiabetic activity. In ancient text, Basavaraju was reported the stamen of this plant as antidiabetic agent in a dietary recipe. The main aim of this study was to explore the in-vivo antidiabetic property of its stamen. Materials and Methods: Aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca stamen (AqMP, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated for hypoglycemic effect in normoglycemic rats and consequences on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) by measuring the tail blood glucose concentrations. Further, blood glucose level was measured after 7th, 14th, and 21th days in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ 65 mg/kg, i.p. and NDA 110 mg/kg, i.p.) induced-diabetic rats treated with AqMP and reference drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, b.w. p.o.). Results: The result with normoglycemic rats shows that the AqMP (400 mg/kg, p.o.) did not have any hypoglycemic effect, and it effectively control the blood glucose level in OGTT within 30-60 min after glucose (2 g/kg) administration without causing any hypoglycemic effect. Moreover, the drug (400 mg/kg, p.o.) was also found to be effective in controlling the blood sugar level in STZ-NDA induce diabetic rat as compare to glibenclamide. Conclusion: The study shows that the drug exhibit significant in-vivo antidiabetic potential as well as support its traditional use in diabetes.
... Many animal models are available for the investigations of DM, in which STZ induce diabetes is most frequently used. [17][18][19][20]It is a toxin obtained from Streptomyces achromogenes. Intraperitonial (i.p.) administration of STZ accumulates in pancreatic β-cells of the islets of Langerhans via the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and release Nitric oxide (NO). ...
... Many animal models are available for the investigations of DM, in which STZ induce diabetes is most frequently used. [17][18][19][20] It is a toxin obtained from Streptomyces achromogenes. Intraperitonial (i.p.) administration of STZ accumulates in pancreatic β-cells of the islets of Langerhans via the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and release Nitric oxide (NO). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Musa paradisiaca belonging to family Musaceae is a well-known herb having many pharmacological properties including antidiabetic activity. In ancient text, Basavaraju was reported the stamen of this plant as antidiabetic agent in a dietary recipe. The main aim of this study was to explore the in-vivo antidiabetic property of its stamen. Materials and Methods: Aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca stamen (AqMP, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated for hypoglycemic effect in normoglycemic rats and consequences on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) by measuring the tail blood glucose concentrations. Further, blood glucose level was measured after 7th, 14th, and 21th days in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ 65 mg/kg, i.p. and NDA 110 mg/kg, i.p.) induced-diabetic rats treated with AqMP and reference drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, b.w. p.o.). Results: The result with normoglycemic rats shows that the AqMP (400 mg/kg, p.o.) did not have any hypoglycemic effect, and it effectively control the blood glucose level in OGTT within 30-60 min after glucose (2 g/kg) administration without causing any hypoglycemic effect. Moreover, the drug (400 mg/kg, p.o.) was also found to be effective in controlling the blood sugar level in STZ-NDA induce diabetic rat as compare to glibenclamide. Conclusion: The study shows that the drug exhibit significant in-vivo antidiabetic potential as well as support its traditional use in diabetes.
... Breeding behaviour of the plant is self pollinated [4] where it was first time reported to be self along with cytological observations but other reports were found to be cross pollinated in other regions of western Himalayan region [3] [5]. The authenticity of medicinal properties of Swertia chirayita are found in different published reports as antidibatic [6]- [11], anti inflammatory [12], hepato-protective [2], anti leishmaniak [13], anti-cancerous [14] [15] and activity against herpes simplex virus [16]. ...
Article
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Swertia chirayita is a highly endangered and very well known medicinal plant enlisted in the IUCN list of endangered plants in the world. The plant is currently having a very low population in eastern Himalayan region due to its very low germinability in its own natural habitat. The plant population was found to have a range of diversity in morphological observations and some of the mor-phovariants were found to be very low among the variant populations which created a concern due to its diminishing range of genetic base in this region. A basic group of 5 morphovariants and 24 sub variants were identified and separately maintained. It is a pluriannual plant and reproductive or flowering stage was observed after completion of two years of vegetative stage from the time of seed germination. A range of morphovariant diversity was observed in the populations of Neora Valley and Lava region of eastern Himalaya in our investigation. Diversity was critically observed in some of the parameters of different morphovariants in the population. Conservation practices were generally done by not making groups or sub groups of this endangered plant while we proposed the way of conservation by making groups for proper conservation of this vulnerable plant.
... Reduction in blood glucose level [268] Swerchirin Blood sugar lowering effect, lowers blood sugar level by stimulation of insulin release from islets of Langerhans [269] Plant extract Fall in blood sugar, effective inregulating blood sugar levels [270] Swertia chirayita ...
Article
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The present review focused on plant extracts or phytochemicals role in diabetes management has been tried by many researchers. I have attempted to compile a list of total 419 plant species belongs to 133 families have been used for in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The plant extract or phytochemicals have involved in decreasing or increasing or stimulating different mechanisms in reducing diabetes and they have been listed in tabular form. By this review, few molecules are used in diabetes management and they possess molecular mechanisms or involved in signal transduction to initiate the insulin production or utilization of blood glucose level bring down to normal stage. The researchers have used different parts of the plant extracts or individual phytochemicalsfor antidiabetic activities. This review brings the researcher data on antidiabetic activities of different plant extracts role in reducing of diabetic problems.
Article
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In the present study the aqueous leaf extracts of Swertia chirayita and Punica granatum were analyzed for antidiabetic activity against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in albino rats. The blood glucose level was recorded before and after administration of drug. The blood glucose levels of animals of group 4 was recorded before and after administration of glibenclamide. The results pellucidly revealed that the leaf extracts of Swertia chirayita and Punica granatum act as antidiabetic agent. The blood glucose levels in Swertia chirayita and Punica granatum treated diabetic rats were 250.62 ± 2.35 mg/dl and 265.58 ± 3.00 mg/dl on day 0, which gradually decremented by the cessation of 21st day to 86.5 ± 2.85 mg/dl and 90.23 ± 2.03 mg/dl respectively. Thus it can be concluded that the aqueous leaf extracts of Swertia chirayita and Punica granatum act as antidiabetic agents, albeit their impact is less efficacious as compared to the standard drug glibenclamide, but their positive impact against diabetes is a promising development, which may become a substratum of future medicines of plant inchoation for remedying diabetes.
Article
There is the need of development of liposomes based nanomedicines formulation for the better efficacy and safety of the available drugs in the market. Liposomes have various applications in the field of pharmaceutical and medical field for their drug target potential, diagnostic importance and imaging techniques. Natural plant based drugs and their derivative have been used in the medicine, nutraceuticals, perfumery, cosmetic and beverages industry. More than half of the prescribed drugs in the worldwide are mainly derived from different natural sources. Development of plant derived product is an emerging field of food, pharmaceutical and health industries. Plants belonging to Gentianaecae family are well known for their bitter taste and Swertia chirata is one of best plant among them. Various active phytochemical of Swertia chirata are bitter secoiridoids like gentiopicroside, amarogentin, swertiamarin, isovitexin and isogentisin. Peoples are using different species of Swertia in the form of decoction, infusion, paste and juice for the treatment of fever and enteric diseases. Swertia chirata possess anticarcinogenic, antioxidative, hypoglycemic, antihepatotoxic, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Amarogentin is a bitter secoiridoid glycoside present in Swertia chirata plant is an activator of human bitter taste receptor. Pharmacologically amarogentin is having antibacterial, antihepatitis, anticholinergic and chemopreventive activities, moreover amarogentin has been proven for their anti-lieshmanial activity. Other studies also suggested that amarogentin act against liver carcinogenesis, skin carcinogenesis and reduced tumour progression. In the present review, we have collected and compiled the data's regarding biological sources, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, anticancer and anti-infective potential of amarogentin. For better understanding of various aspects of amarogentin we have also discussed Swertia chirayita in very concise manner. Further data related to various patents on amarogentin were also discussed in this manuscript. However we also admit that new advance biological research will also increase the medicinal and pharmacological value of amarogentin. Information regarding the chemistry of amarogentin, its biological sources, bioavailability as a pharmacological agent for the treatment and management of skin disorders and various forms of cancers will be beneficial to the scientist of the medicinal field.
Article
Diabetes mellitus, both insulin dependant and non-insulin dependent is a common and serious metabolic disorder throughout the world. Medicinal plants have been historically used for the treatment of diabetes throughout the world. Several herbs are known to cure diabetes and additionally they have no side effects. Many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from plants. There have been many studies on hypoglycemic plants, still a need to look for new drug as no drug has been shown to modify the course of diabetic complications. The present review presents the profiles of the plants with hypoglycemic properties reported in the literature from 2012 to 2013. This review has been presented in a very interactive manner the geographical source, plant part used, phytoconstituents responsible for particular action, solvent used for extraction and animals used for testing. There are 14 such plants described in this review which clearly shows the importance of herbal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Article
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Linaria ramosissima (Wall.)Janch as an antidiabetic agent in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in rats by single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ) 60 mg/kg body weight. Animals with BGL more than 200 mg/dl, 48 hrs after STZ injection were considered as diabetic and were used for experiment. Hydroalcoholic extract of Linaria ramosissima (Wall.)Janch was administered for 21 days. During treatment period daily food and water intake and weekly body weight and BGL were checked in each group of rats. Histopathology of pancreas was performed at the end of experiment. Results: Mean food and water intake in diabetic group of rats increased as compared to normal control group. Administration of test drug (200mg/kg & 400mg/kg) significantly reduced water intake without significant reduction in food intake as compared to normal control group. Significant decrease in body weight was observed in diabetic group of rats, but administration of extract significantly improved the body weight. Elevated BGL observed in diabetic animals was significantly reduced by administration of extract.Blood glucose lowering effect of extract was confirmed by results of histopathology of pancreas. Conclusion: The results of the studies confirmed the ethanomedicinal use of Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch in treatment of diabetes by reducing BGL, improving parameters like food and water intake, body weight and regeneration of the islets of langerhans.
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