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A review of literature showed that numerous intensive surveys have been carried out on the ichthyofauna of the peat swamp forests (PSFs) of Malaysia. This review was aimed at providing a checklist of black water fish species in Malaysia from available published literature, addressing their economical importance, conservation status and problems of PSFs. A total of 189 peat swamp fish species from 32 families have been recorded from Malaysia. From that, a total of 114 species from 23 families, representing about 40% of the known fish fauna in Peninsular Malaysia was recorded from north Selangor PSF. Meanwhile, totals of 49 species belonging to 18 families, 13 species from seven families, 58 species belonging to 19 families, and nine species from five families were recorded from the peat swamps of Perak, Johor, Pahang and East Peninsular Malaysia (part of Pahang and Terengganu) respectively. Thirty-one species from 12 families and 40 species belonging to 13 families were recorded from Sabah and Sarawak respectively. Family Cyprinidae has the highest recorded species, followed with Osphronemidae, Bagridae and Siluridae. The IUCN Red List revealed 12 threatened species facing risk of extinction. The importance of conserving PSFs was outlined and suggestions made in line with the objectives of conservation. Findings from literature revealed that the Malaysia PSFs are rich in fish diversity contrary to previous belief, and should be conserved and protected to ensure the richness of their fish diversity.
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Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4): 421 - 458 (2016)
ISSN: 1511-3701 © Universiti Putra Malaysia Press
TROPICAL AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE
Journal homepage: http://www.pertanika.upm.edu.my/
Article history:
Received: 18 June 2015
Accepted: 27 May 2016
ARTICLE INFO
E-mail addresses:
sule.education001@gmail.com (Sule, H. A.),
aismail@upm.edu.my (Ismail, A.),
mnamal@upm.edu.my (Amal, M. N. A.)
* Corresponding author
Review Article
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
Sule, H. A.1,2, Ismail, A.1* and Amal, M. N. A.1
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor,
Malaysia
2Department of Integrated Science, School of Science, Kogi State College of Education, PMB 1033 Ankpa,
Nigeria
ABSTRACT
A review of literature showed that numerous intensive surveys have been carried out on the
ichthyofauna of the peat swamp forests (PSFs) of Malaysia. This review aims to provide
a checklist of blackwater sh species in Malaysia from available published literature, and
address their economical importance, conservation status and problems of PSFs. A total
of 198 peat swamp sh species from 32 families have been recorded in Malaysia. From
this number, a total of 114 species from 23 families, representing about 40% of the known
sh fauna in Peninsular Malaysia, were recorded from north Selangor PSF. Meanwhile,
a total of 49 species belonging to 18 families, 13 species from seven families, 58 species
belonging to 19 families, and nine species from ve families were recorded from the
peat swamps of Perak, Johor, Pahang and East Peninsular Malaysia (parts of Pahang
and Terengganu), respectively. Meanwhile, 31 species from 12 families and 40 species
belonging to 13 families were recorded from Sabah and Sarawak, respectively. Family
Cyprinidae has the highest recorded species, followed by Osphronemidae, Bagridae and
Siluridae. The IUCN Red List revealed 12 threatened species facing risk of extinction.
The importance of conserving PSFs was outlined and suggestions made in line with the
objectives of conservation. Findings from literature revealed that Malaysia’s PSFs are rich
in sh diversity, contrary to previous belief,
and should therefore be conserved and
protected to ensure the richness of their sh
diversity.
Keywords: Ichthyofauna, peat swamp forest, con serv atio n,
Malaysia
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
422 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
INTRODUCTION
Peat swamp forests (PSFs) are one of the
most unusual and harsh ecosystems in the
tropical rainforest biome. The PSFs of
Peninsular Malaysia are one of the most
threatened (illegal logging, irrigation of oil
palm and paddy elds), yet one of the most
poorly understood biotopes (Ng et al., 1994).
These swamps derive their name from
their substrate of peat consisting of plant
detritus, which gradually release tannins
and organic acids into poorly buffered water
and contribute to its characteristically low
pH (Ng et al., 1994; Yule, 2010; Posa et al.,
2011; Wantzen et al., 2011). Peat swamps
are typically decient in oxygen, which is
one consequence of plant decay (Beamish
et al., 2003). Peat swamps are generally
referred as ‘black waters’, while waters
originating from PSFs are highly acidic
with pH values ranging from 3.6 to 5.9,
tea-coloured when seen against transmitted
light, and black when seen en masse via
reflected light (Johnson, 1967ab; 1968).
Generally, the acidity of black waters is due
to the high concentrations of humic acids
and other phenolic acids (Goltenboth, 2006;
Irvine et al., 2013).
Most of the black waters of Singapore
and Peninsular Malaysia recorded by
Wyatt-Smith (1959; 1964), Johnson (1967a;
1968), Anderson (1983) and Whitmore
(1984; 1988) have been converted to
agriculture, industrial states and residential
areas (Ng et al., 1994). The peat swamp
forests of Johor, which were of staggering
vastness in Peninsular Malaysia, are almost
completely degraded. Peat swamp forests
of considerable size in Peninsular Malaysia
are now restricted to north Selangor, central
Terengganu and Pahang (Ng et al., 1994). In
Peninsular Malaysia, the sh fauna of the
PSF of north Selangor is comparably well
studied and recorded.
The unique characteristics of black
waters (dark colour, low dissolved
oxygen and high acidity) led to an initial
misinterpretation of ‘habitat inhospitality’,
and the conclusion that such habitat will
sustain very poor faunal diversity. One of
the earliest surveys of the fish fauna of
Malaysia peat swamps was by Johnson
(1967ab; 1968) who recorded only 26
species in black waters, of which only one
is stenotopic to black water. However, the
first well-recognised documentation of
blackwater sh species of the north Selangor
peat swamp forest (NSPSF ) was done by
Davies and Abdullah (1989). Numerous
other surveys have also been conducted on
the ichthyofauna of Peninsular Malaysia
(Shiraishi et al., 1972; Lim et al., 1982;
Mizuno & Furtado, 1982; Zakaria-Ismail,
1990; Ng & Lim, 1991; Ng et al., 1992,
1994; IPT-AWB, 1993; Lee & Ng, 1994;
Zakaria et al., 1999; Lee, 2001; Beamish et
al., 2003; Rezawaty, 2004; Shah et al., 2006;
Ahmad et al., 2013; Ismail et al., 2013; Siow
et al., 2013).
The objectives of this review are to
provide a checklist of black water fish
species in Malaysia, assess their economic
importance, update the conservation status
of the species and address the conservation
problems of PSFs. An exhaustive search
of published literature was conducted to
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
423
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
collate lists and determine the distribution
of the peat swamp shes from surveys in
Malaysian PSF sites (Figure 1). Fish species
provided in this review were recorded
from the surveys between 1989 and 2015.
Reference was made to Kottelat’s catalogue
of the shes of southeast Asia (Kottelat,
2013) to verify and update taxonomic
revisions of species.
FISH SPECIES RECORDED IN
MALAYSIAN PEAT SWAMP
FORESTS
Peat swamp forests have unique water
quality and as a result, fish species that
can survive and breed in the black water
environment are limited. Researchers have
reported many species of sh in PSFs that
are not found in other habitats (Davies
& Abdullah, 1989; Ng et al., 1994). A
comprehensive list and a summary of the
sh species of Malaysia PSFs are given in
Tables 1 and 2.
North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest
The NSPSF has been well studied relative to
other PSFs in Malaysia. The most extensive
surveys of the sh fauna of NSPSF were
done by Davies and Abdullah (1989), IPT-
AWB (1993), Ng et al. (1994), Beamish et
al. (2003), Ahmad et al. (2013), Ismail et al.
(2013) and Siow et al. (2013).
Davies and Abdullah (1989), in a
survey of freshwater sh of NSPSF in 1989,
recorded 42 sh species (actually 41 species,
with the exception of Osteochilus hasselti,
the synonym of O. vittatus recorded as
another different species) belonging to 11
families (Table 1). A lot of scientic names,
from family to species level, have been
changed over the past decade. The most
recent comprehensive list of such changes is
outlined in Kottelat’s catalogue of the shes
of Southeast Asia (Kottelat, 2013).
An intensive survey in 1992 by IPT-
AWB (1993) recorded 76 fish species
belonging to 24 families (23 with exception
of Belontiidae, now included in the family
Osphronemidae). This is one of the most
successful surveys in NSPSF in terms of
diversity. Ng et al. (1994) recorded 47
species of sh living in the black waters of
NSPSF, and 14 species of the shes were
stenotopic to acidic black waters. Six unique
sh species relatively new to science were
rst recorded at NSPSF in 1989 (Ng et al.,
1994).
Studies by Beamish et al. (2003)
conducted from 1997 to 1998 recorded 35
sh species from NSPSF belonging to 14
families (actually 13 because Belontiidae and
Luciocephalidae which are now included in
Osphronemidae, were recorded separately),
while Giam et al. (2012) recorded eight
blackwater sh species belonging to the six
families from NSPSF.
Recently, during the Selangor Scientic
and Biodiversity Peatland Expedition of
2013, Ahmad et al. (2013), Ismail et al.
(2013) and Siow et al. (2013) recorded 30
species from 13 families, 41 species from
13 families, and 24 species 10 families,
respectively. The comprehensive list of sh
species recorded from NSPSF is given in
Table 1.
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
424 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
Figure 1. Location of PSFs and black water sites surveyed
Key:
1- North Selangor peat swamp forest (NSPSF), Selangor 6- Segama River, Sabah
2- Paya Beriah peat swamp forest (PBPSF), north Perak 7- Maliau basin, Sabah
3- Black water sites, west Johor 8- Rajang basin, Sarawak
4- Southeast Pahang peat swamp forest (SEPPSF) 9- Black water sites, Batang Kerang and Sadong, Sarawak
5- Black water sites, part of Pahang and Terengganu 10- Black water sites, Nanga Merit area, Sarawak
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
425
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
Table 1
Checklist of black water sh in Malaysia
Family Species IUCN
Status
NSPSF PBPSF Johor
PSFs
SEPPSF EP
PSFs
Sabah
PSFs
Sarawak
PSFs
References
Akysidae Acrochordonichthys ischnosoma
Bleeker, 1858
NE xDavies & Abdullah, 1989
Acrochordonichthys rogosus
(Bleeker, 1846)
NE xIPT-AWB, 1993
Akysis cf. hendricksoni Alfred,
1986
LC xIPT-AWB, 1993
Parakysis verrucosus Herre, 1940 NE xIPT-AWB, 1993;
Ng et al., 1994
Anabantidae Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792) DD x x x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Rezawaty,
2004; Ahmad et al., 2005;
Shah et al., 2006; Khairul-
Adha et al., 2009; Ahmad
et al., 2013; Ismail et al.,
2013; Siow et al., 2013
Anguillidae Anguilla borneensis Popta, 1924 VU xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Aplocheilidae Aplocheilus panchax (Hamilton,
1822)
LC xZakaria et al., 1999;
Rezawaty, 2004; Shah et
al., 2006
Ariidae Cryptarius truncatus
(Valenciennes, 1840)
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Batrachocephalus mino
(Hamilton, 1822)
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Cephalocassis borneensis
(Bleeker, 1851)
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Engraulididae Setipinna melanochir (Bleeker,
1849)
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
426 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
Balitoridae Homaloptera cf. nebulosa (Alfred,
1969)
NE x x IPT-AWB, 1993;
Ahmad et al., 2005
Homaloptera ogilviei (Alred,
1967)
DD xIPT-AWB, 1993
Homaloptera zollingeri (Bleeker,
153)
LC xIPT-AWB, 1993
Neohomaloptera johorensis
(Herre, 1944)
NE x x x Ng et al., 1994; Ng & Tan,
1999; Beamish et al., 2003;
Giam et al., 2012;
Ahmad et al., 2013
Barbuccidae Barbucca diabolica Roberts, 1989 DD x x Ahmad et al., 2005;
Giam et al., 2012
Bagridae Bagrichthys hypselopterus
(Bleeker, 1852)
NE xDavies & Abdullah, 1989
Bagrichthys macrocanthus
(Bleeker, 1854)
NE xSiow et al., 2013
Bagrichthys macropterus
(Bleeker, 1854)
NE xHassan et al., 2010
Hemibagrus baramensis (Regan,
1906)
NE xDavies & Abdullah, 1989;
Martin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Hemibagrus capitulum (Popta,
1904)
NE xAhmad et al., 2005
Hemibagrus nemurus
(Valenciennes, 1840)
LC x x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003;
Khairul-Adha et al., 2009;
Shah et al., 2006; Jimmy
et al., 2010; Ismail et al.,
2013; Siow et al., 2013
Hemibagrus planiceps
(Valenciennes, 1840)
NE xHassan et al., 2010
Hemibagrus sabanus (Inger &
Chin, 1959)
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
cont’d Table 1
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
427
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
Hyalobagrus ornatus (Duncker,
1904)
NE x x Ng & Kottelat, 1998;
Ahmad et al., 2005;
Giam et al., 2012
Leiocassis leiacanthus (Weber &
de Beaufort, 1912)
NE xDavies & Abdullah, 1989
Leiocassis micropogon (Bleeker,
1852)
NE xNg et al., 1994;
Beamish et al., 2003
Leiocassis poeciloptera
(Valenciennes, 1840)
NE xSiow et al., 2013
Leiocassis stenomus
(Valenciennes, 1839)
NE xIPT-AWB, 1993
Mystus bimaculatus (Volz, 1904) NE xIPT-AWB, 1993;
Ng et al., 1994; Beamish et
al., 2003; Giam et al., 2012;
Ahmad et al., 2013;
Ismail et al., 2013
Mystus nigriceps (Valenciennes,
1840)
NE x x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Shah et
al., 2006; Hassan et al.,
2010; Ismail et al., 2013;
Siow et al., 2013
Pseudomystus robustus (Inger &
Chin, 1959)
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Chacidae Chaca bankanensis Bleeker, 1852 LC xGiam et al., 2012
Chaudhuriidae Bihunichthys monopteroides
(Kottelat & Lim, 1994)
NE xIPT-AWB, 1993;
Ng et al., 1994
Chendol keelini Kottelat & Lim,
1994
NE xAhmad et al., 2005
Nagaichthys lipes Kottelat &
Lim, 1991
NE x x x Giam et al., 2012
cont’d Table 1
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
428 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
Channidae Channa bankanensis (Bleeker,
1853)
NE x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Martin-Smith & Tan,
1998; Beamish et al., 2003;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Ahmad
et al., 2013; Ismail et al.,
2013
Channa gachua (Hamilton, 1822) LC xNg et al., 1994
Channa lucius (Cuvier, 1831) LC x x x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
Ng et al., 1994; Zakaria et
al., 1999; Beamish et al.,
2003; Ahmad et al., 2005;
Parenti & Lim, 2005; Shah
et al., 2006; Khairul-Adha
et al., 2009; Ahmad et al.,
2013; Ismail et al., 2013
Channa marulioides (Bleeker,
1851)
LC xAhmad et al., 2005
Channa melosoma (Bleeker, 1851) LC xIPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003
Channa micropeltes (Cuvier,
1831)
LC x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
Ahmad et al., 2005
Channa striata (Bloch, 1797) LC x x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Beamish
et al., 2003; Rezawaty,
2004; Ahmad et al., 2005;
Shah et al., 2006; Ahmad et
al., 2013; Siow et al., 2013
Channa sp.? - x Shah et al., 2006
Cichlidae *Oreochromis mossambicus
(Peters, 1852)
NT xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
cont’d Table 1
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
429
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
Clariidae Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus,
1758)
LC x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Khairul-
Adha et al., 2009; Siow et
al., 2013
Clarias leiacanthus Bleeker, 1851 NE x x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
Ng et al., 1994; Beamish
et al., 2003; Ahmad et al.,
2005; Khairul- Adha et al.,
2009; Ahmad et al., 2013
Clarias macrocephalus Günther,
1864
NT x x x x Rezawaty, 2004; Ahmad et
al., 2005; Khairul-Adha et
al., 2009; Siow et al., 2013
Clarias meladerma (Bleeker,
1846)
LC xNg et al., 1994; Ismail et
al., 2013
Clarias nieuhoi (Valenciennes,
1840)
LC x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et
al., 1994; Beamish et al.,
2003; Ahmad et al., 2005;
Khairul-Adha et al., 2009;
Ismail et al., 2013
Encheloclarias baculum Ng &
Lim, 1993
NE xNg & Tan, 2000; Giam et
al., 2012
Encheloclarias curtisoma Ng &
Lim, 1993
CR x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Giam et al., 2012
Encheloclarias kelioides Ng &
Lim, 1993
CR xGiam et al., 2012
Encheloclarias prolatus Ng &
Lim, 1993
VU xGiam et al., 2012
Cobitidae Acanthopsoides molobrion
(Seibert, 1991)
LC xIPT-AWB, 1993
Acantopsis cf. dialuzona (van
Hasseltt, 1823)
LC x x IPT-AWB, 1993;
Rezawaty, 2004
Kottelatlimia katik (Kottelat &
Lim, 1992)
NE x x Giam et al., 2012
cont’d Table 1
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
430 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
Kottelatlimia pristes (Roberts,
1989)
NE xIPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003
Pangio kuhlii (Valenciennes,
1846)
NE xIPT-AWB, 1993
Pangio muraeniformis (de
Beaufort, 1933)
NE xAhmad et al., 2005
Pangio shelfordii (Popta, 1903) NE xAhmad et al., 2005
Lepidocephalichthys tomaculum
(Kottelat & Lim, 1992)
NE xNg et al., 1994; Ahmad et
al., 2013
Cyprinidae Boraras maculatus (Duncker,
1904)
LC xAhmad et al., 2005
Barbodes banksi (Herre, 1940) NE xAhmad et al., 2005
Barbodes sealei (Herre, 1933) NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998;
Jimmy et al., 2010
Barbonymus balleroides
(Valenciennes, 1842)
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Barbonymus gonionotus (Bleeker,
1949)
LC x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
Rezawaty, 2004; Siow et
al., 2013
Barbonymus schwanefeldii
(Bleeker, 1854)
LC x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Rezawaty,
2004; Ismail et al., 2013
Brevibora cheeya (Liao & Tan,
2011)
NE xIsmail et al., 2013
Crossocheilus cobitis (Bleeker,
1854)
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Crossocheilus cf. oblongus (Kuhl
& van Hasselt, 1823)
LC xIPT-AWB, 1993
cont’d Table 1
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
431
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
Cyclocheilichthys apogon
(Valenciennes, 1842)
LC x x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Zakaria et
al., 1999; Rezawaty, 2004;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Shah et
al., 2006; Ismail et al., 2013
Cyclocheilichthys heteronema
(Bleeker, 1853)
LC x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Hassan et
al., 2010
Cyclocheilichthys repasson
(Bleeker, 1853)
LC x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Martin-
Smith & Tan, 1998
Desmopuntius hexazona (Weber &
de Beaufort, 1912)
NE x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et
al., 1994; Zakaria et al.,
1999; Beamish et al., 2003;
Rezawaty, 2004; Ahmad et
al., 2005; Shah et al., 2006;
Ahmad et al., 2013; Ismail
et al., 2013
Desmopuntius johorensis
(Duncker, 1904)
NE x x x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et
al., 1994; Kottelat, 1996;
Beamish et al., 2003;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Parenti
& Lim, 2005; Giam et al.,
2012; Ahmad et al., 2013;
Ismail et al., 2013; Siow et
al., 2013
Desmopuntius pentazona
(Boulenger, 1894)
NE xParenti & Lim, 2005
Hampala macrolepidota (Kuhl &
van Hasselt, 1823)
LC xDavies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Ismail et
al., 2013
Hampala sabana Inger & Chin,
1962
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
(Valenciennes, 1844)
NE xRezawaty, 2004
cont’d Table 1
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
432 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
Kottelatia brittani (Axelrod,
1976)
NE xZakaria et al., 1999;
Rezawaty, 2004
Lobocheilos bo (Popta, 1904) NE x x Martin-Smith & Tan, 1998;
Hassan et al., 2010
**Labiobarbus leptocheilus
(Valenciennes, 1842)
LC x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
Rezawaty, 2004; Shah et
al., 2006
Labiobarbus sabanus (Inger &
Chin, 1962)
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Luciosoma pellegrinii Popta, 1905 NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Macrochirichthys macrochirus
(Valenciennes, 1844)
NT xDavies & Abdullah, 1989
Mystacoleucus marginatus
(Valenciennes, 1842)
LC xDavies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993
Nematabramis everetti Boulenger,
1894
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998;
Sade & Biun, 2012
Osteochilus chini Karnasuta, 1993 NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Osteochilus enneaporos (Bleeker,
1852)
LC xIPT-AWB, 1993
Osteochilus ingeri Karnasuta,
1993
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Osteochilus microcephalus
(Valenciennes, 1842)
LC xSade & Biun, 2012
Osteochilus spilurus (Bleeker,
1851)
LC x x x x x Ng et al., 1994; Beamish
et al., 2003; Ahmad et al.,
2005; Giam et al., 2012
Osteochilus vittatus
(Valenciennes, 1842)
LC x x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Zakaria et
al., 1999; Rezawaty, 2004;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Shah et
al., 2006
cont’d Table 1
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
433
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
Osteochilus enneaporos (Bleeker,
1852)
LC xIPT-AWB, 1993
Oxygaster anomalura (van
Hasselt, 1829)
LC x x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Shah et
al., 2006; Khairul-Adha et
al., 2009
Paedocypris micromegethes
Kottelat, Britz, Tan & Witte, 2006
NE xGiam et al., 2012
Paedocypris sp. “North Selangor” - x Giam et al., 2012
Paedocypris sp. “Pahang” - x Giam et al., 2012
Parachela hypophthalmus
(Bleeker, 1860)
LC xAhmad et al., 2005
Parachela oxygastroides (Bleeker,
1852)
LC xDavies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Ismail et
al., 2013
Puntioplites bulu (Bleeker, 1851) DD xDavies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB., 1993; Martin-
Smith & Tan, 1998
Puntius binotatus (Valenciennes,
1842)
LC x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
Rezawaty, 2004; Shah et
al., 2006
Puntius fasciatus (Jerdon, 1849) LC xDavies & Abdullah, 1989
Puntigrus partipentazona (Fowler,
1934)
LC xAhmad et al., 2005
Rasbora argyrotaenia (Bleeker,
1849)
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Rasbora bankanensis (Bleeker,
1853)
NE x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ahmad et
al., 2005
Rasbora borapetensis Smith, 1934 LC xRezawaty, 2004
cont’d Table 1
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
434 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
Rasbora cf. sumatrana (Bleeker,
1852)
NE x x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Zakaria et
al., 1999; Rezawaty, 2004;
Shah et al., 2006; Sade &
Biun, 2012; Siow et al.,
2013
Rasbora dorsiocellata (Duncker,
1904)
NE x x Ng et al., 1994; Ahmad et
al., 2005
Rasbora maculata (Duncker,
1904)
NE xIPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994
Rasbora gracilis (Kottelat, 1991) NE x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Beamish
et al., 2003; Ahmad et al.,
2005
Rasbora kalochroma (Bleeker,
1851)
NE x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Ahmad
et al., 2013; Ismail et al.,
2013; Siow et al., 2013
Rasbora cephalotaenia (Bleeker,
1852)
NE x x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et
al., 1994; Zakaria et al.,
1999; Beamish et al., 2003;
Rezawaty, 2004; Ahmad et
al., 2005; Shah et al., 2006;
Ahmad et al., 2013; Ismail
et al., 2013
Rasbora dusonensis (Bleeker,
1850)
NE xIPT-AWB, 1993; Ismail et
al., 2013
Rasbora einthovenii (Bleeker,
1851)
NE x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Ahmad
et al., 2013; Ismail et al.,
2013
cont’d Table 1
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
435
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
Rasbora elegans Volz, 1903 LC xAhmad et al., 2005
Rasbora paucisqualis Ahl, 1935 LC xAhmad et al., 2005
Rasbora tornieri Ahl, 1922 LC xParenti & Lim, 2005
Rasbora trilineata Steindachner,
1870
LC x x Zakaria et al., 1999;
Rezawaty, 2004; Ahmad et
al., 2005; Shah et al., 2006
Striuntius lineatus (Duncker,
1904)
NE x x Zakaria et al., 1999;
Rezawaty, 2004; Shah et
al., 2006; Ismail et al., 2013
Sundadanio margarition Conway,
Kottelat & Tan, 2011
NE xGiam et al., 2012
Thynnichthys thynnoides
(Valenciennes, 1842)
LC xDavies & Abdullah, 1989
Trigonopoma pauciperforatum
(Weber & de Beaufort, 1916)
NE x x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Zakaria et al., 1999 ;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Khairul
Adha et al., 2009; Ahmad
et al., 2013; Ismail et al.,
2013
Trigonopoma gracile (Kottelat,
1991)
NE xIsmail et al., 2013; Siow et
al., 2013
Trigonostigma heteromorpha
(Ducker, 1904)
LC x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Zakaria
et al., 1999; Ahmad et al.,
2005
Eleotrididae Oxyeleotris marmorata (Bleeker,
1852)
NE x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Rezawaty,
2004
Gobiidae Gobiid sp. - x Martin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Pseudobiopsis oligactis (Bleeker,
1875)
NE xIPT-AWB, 1993
cont’d Table 1
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
436 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
Helostomatidae Helostoma temminkii (Cuvier,
1829)
LC x x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et
al., 1994; Rezawaty, 2004;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Shah
et al., 2006; Khairul-Adha
et al., 2009; Ahmad et al.,
2013; Ismail et al., 2013;
Siow et al., 2013
Mastacembelidae Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch,
1787)
NE xIPT-AWB, 1993
Macrognathus circumcinctus
(Hora, 1924)
LC xIPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003;
Ahmad et al., 2013; Ismail
et al., 2013
Mastacembelus armatus (La
Cepède, 1800)
LC xShah et al., 2006
Nandidae Nandus nebulosus (Gray, 1835) LC x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et
al., 1994; Zakaria et al.,
1999; Beamish et al., 2003;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Ahmad
et al., 2013
Nemacheilidae Nemacheilus selangoricus
(Duncker, 1904)
DD x x x Ahmad et al., 2005; Zakaria
et al., 1999; Beamish et al.,
2003; Ismail et al., 2013
Notopteridae Chitala chitala (Hamilton, 1822) NT xDavies & Abdullah, 1989
Chitala lopis (Bleeker, 1851) LC x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ahmad et
al., 2005; Shah et al., 2006
Notopterus notopterus (Pallas,
1976)
LC x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
Rezawaty, 2004; Shah et
al., 2006; Ismail et al., 2013
cont’d Table 1
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
437
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
Osphronemidae Belontia hasselti (Cuvier, 1831) NE x x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003;
Rezawaty, 2004; Ahmad et
al., 2005; Shah et al., 2006;
Ahmad et al., 2013; Ismail
et al., 2013
Betta akarensis Regan, 1910 NE xParenti & Lim, 2005
Betta bellica (Sauvage, 1884) LC x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Ahmad
et al., 2013; Ismail et al.,
2013
Betta brownorum Witte &
Schmidt, 1992
NE xGiam et al., 2012
Betta hipposideros Ng & Kottelat,
1994
VU xNg et al., 1994; Ahmad et
al., 2013; Ismail et al., 2013
Betta ibanorum Tan & Ng, 2004 NE xGiam et al., 2012
Betta livida (Ng & Kottelat, 1992) EN xIPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003;
Giam et al., 2012; Ahmad
et al., 2013; Ismail et al.,
2013
Betta imbellis (Ladiges, 1975) LC xIPT-AWB, 1993
Betta persephone Schaller, 1986 CR xGiam et al., 2012
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849) NE x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
Zakaria et al., 1999;
Beamish et al., 2003;
Ismail et al., 2013; Siow et
al., 2013
Betta pulchra Tan & Tan, 1996 NE xGiam et al., 2012
Betta splendens Regan, 1910 VU xRezawaty, 2004; Shah et
al., 2006
cont’d Table 1
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
438 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
Betta taeniata Regan, 1910 NE xRezawaty, 2004
Betta tomi Ng & Kottelat, 1994 VU xGiam et al., 2012
Betta tussyae Schaller, 1985 NE x x Ahmad et al., 2005; Giam
et al., 2012
Betta waseri (Krummenacher,
1987)
NE x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ahmad et
al., 2005; Giam et al., 2012
Luciocephalus pulcher (Gray,
1830)
NE x x x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et
al., 1994; Zakaria et al.,
1999; Beamish et al., 2003;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Parenti
& Lim, 2005; Ahmad et al.,
2013; Ismail et al., 2013;
Siow et al., 2013
Osphronemus goramy La Cepède,
1801
LC xRezawaty, 2004
Parosphromenus alfredi Kottelat
& Ng, 2005
NE xGiam et al., 2012
Parosphromenus allani Brown,
1987
NE xGiam et al., 2012
Parosphromenus lamentosus
Vierke, 1981
NE xZakaria et al., 1999
Parosphromenus harveyi (Brown,
1987)
EN xIPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003;
Giam et al., 2012; Ahmad
et al., 2013; Ismail et al.,
2013
Parosphromenus nagyi Schaller,
1985
NE x x Ahmad et al., 2005; Giam
et al., 2012
Parosphromenus tweediei Kottelat
& Ng, 2005
NE xGiam et al., 2012
cont’d Table 1
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
439
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
Sphaerichthys osphromenoides
(Canestrini, 1860)
NE x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et
al., 1994; Zakaria et al.,
1999; Beamish et al., 2003;
Rezawaty, 2004; Ahmad
et al., 2005; Ahmad et al.,
2013; Ismail et al., 2013;
Siow et al., 2013
Trichopodus leerii (Bleeker, 1852) NT x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Ahmad et al., 2005;
Ahmad et al., 2013; Ismail
et al., 2013
Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan,
1910)
LC x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et
al., 1994; Rezawaty, 2004;
Shah et al., 2006; Khairul-
Adha et al., 2009
Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas,
1770)
LC x x x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Martin-Smith & Tan,
1998; Beamish et al., 2003;
Rezawaty, 2004; Ahmad et
al., 2005; Shah et al., 2006;
Khairul-Adha et al., 2009;
Ahmad et al., 2013; Ismail
et al., 2013; Siow et al.,
2013
Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier, 1831) LC x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Ahmad et al., 2005;
Ahmad et al., 2013; Ismail
et al., 2013; Siow et al.,
2013
Pangasiidae Pangasius lithostoma Roberts,
1989
NE xHassan et al., 2010
Pseudolais micronemus (Bleeker,
1846)
DD x x Martin-Smith & Tan, 1998;
Ahmad et al., 2005
cont’d Table 1
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
440 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
Pristolepididae Pristolepis grootii (Bleeker 1852) NE xIPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003;
Ismail et al., 2013
Pristolepis fasciata (Bleeker,
1851)
LC x x x Rezawaty, 2004; Ahmad et
al., 2005; Shah et al., 2006;
Siow et al., 2013
Siluridae Kryptopterus bircirrhis
(Valenciennes, 1839)
LC xDavies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993
Kryptopterus limpok (Bleeker,
1852)
NE xHassan et al., 2010
Kryptopterus macrocephalus
(Bleeker, 1858)
LC x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Ahmad
et al., 2013; Ismail et al.,
2013
Kryptopterus sp.? - x Siow et al., 2013
Ompok bimaculatus (Bloch, 1794) NT x x Davies & Abdullah, 1989;
Shah et al., 2006
Ompok fumidus (Tan & Ng, 1996) VU xBeamish et al., 2003; Siow
et al., 2013
Ompok leiacanthus (Bleeker,
1853)
DD xIPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994
Ompok sabanus Inger & Chin,
1959
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Ompok sp.? - x Zakaria et al., 1999; Shah
et al., 2006
Phalacronotus apogon (Bleeker,
1851)
LC xAhmad et al., 2005
Phalacronotus parvanalis (Inger
& Chin, 1959)
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
cont’d Table 1
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
441
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
Silurichthys hasseltii (Bleeker,
1858)
NE x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Ahmad et al., 2005
Silurichthys indragiriensis (Volz,
1904)
NE xBeamish et al., 2003; Giam
et al., 2012; Ahmad et al.,
2013; Ismail et al., 2013
Silurichthys phaiosoma (Bleeker,
1851)
NE xGiam et al., 2012
Wallago leeri Bleeker, 1851 NE x x Ahmad et al., 2005; Siow et
al., 2013
Wallago maculatus Inger & Chin,
1859
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Symbranchidae Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) LC x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al.,
1994; Beamish et al., 2003;
Ahmad et al., 2005; Shah et
al., 2006; Siow et al., 2013
Syngnathidae Doryichthys deokhatoides
(Bleeker, 1854)
NE xIPT-AWB, 1993
Doryichthys martensii (Peters,
168)
NE xIPT-AWB, 1993
Tetraodontidae Pao leirus (Bleeker, 1850) NE xDavies & Abdullah, 1989
Toxotidae Toxotes chatareus (Hamilton,
1822)
NE xMartin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Zenarchopteridae Dermogenys pusilla Kuhl & van
Hasselt, 1823
NE xShah et al., 2006
Hemirhamphodon byssus Tan &
Lim, 2013
NE xHassan et al., 2010
Hemirhamphodon kapuasensis
Collett, 1991
NE xHassan et al., 2010
Hemirhamphodon kuekenthali
Steindachner, 1901
NE xHassan et al., 2010
Hemirhamphodon phaiosoma
(Bleeker, 1852)
NE xHassan et al., 2010
cont’d Table 1
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
442 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
Hemirhamphodon pogonognathus
(Bleeker, 1853)
LC x x x IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et
al., 1994; Zakaria et al.,
1999; Beamish et al., 2003;
Rezawaty, 2004; Ahmad
et al., 2005; Ahmad et al.,
2013; Ismail et al., 2013
* Introduced species
**Confusing taxonomy
IUCN Status source: IUCN, (2015)
NE = Not Evaluated, DD = Data Decient, LC = Least Concern, NT = Near Threatened, VU = Vulnerable, EN = Endangered, CR = Critically Endangered, EW = Extinct in the
Wild, EX = Extinct
NSPSF = North Selangor peat swamp forest, PBPSF = Paya Beriah peat swamp forest, SEPPSF = Southeast Pahang peat swamp forest, EP = East Peninsular Malaysia (part of
Pahang and Terengganu), PSFs = Peat Swamp Forests
cont’d Table 1
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
443
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
Paya Beriah Peat Swamp Forest, North
Perak
The Paya Beriah peat swamp forest
(PBPSF), which is located near Bukit
Merah reservoir, Perak, has a total area
of 5,500 hectares that are bordered by
dykes, roads and railway tracks. Like most
PSFs in Malaysia, it has been signicantly
impacted through conversion to residential,
industrial and agricultural uses (Ismail &
Ali, 2002). Nonetheless, the sh population
and its biodiversity in PBPSF are not well
documented, in comparison with NSPSF.
The most recognised and well-documented
surveys in PBPSF were done by Zakaria et
al. (1999), Rezawaty (2004) and Shah et al.
(2006).
Zakaria et al. (1999) conducted a study
of the swamp-riverine sh populations of
two spatially isolated fresh water swamp
ecosystems: Beriah Kiri River, which was
mistakenly identied as Beriah Kanan River
(Shah et al., 2006), located in northern
Peninsular Malaysia, and the Ulu Sedili
River in southern Peninsular Malaysia. The
Beriah Kiri and Ulu Sedili river systems
are separated by an extensive mountain
Table 2
Summary of black water sh species recorded in Malaysia
Peat swamp sites Location Region No. of
families
No. of
species
Reference
NSPSF Selangor Peninsular
Malaysia
23 114 Davies & Abdullah,
1989; IPT-AWB, 1993;
Beamish et al., 2003;
Ahmad et al., 2013;
Ismail et al., 2013; Siow
et al., 2013
PBPSF Perak Peninsular
Malaysia
18 49 Zakaria et al., 1999;
Rezawaty, 2004; Shah et
al., 2006
Black water ditches and
ponds of west Johor and
Ambat
Johor Peninsular
Malaysia
713 Kottelat, 1996; Ng &
Kottelat, 1998; Giam et
al., 2012
SEPPSF Pahang Peninsular
Malaysia
19 58 Ahmad et al., 2005
Endau drainage, black
water sites including
ponds and ditches
Pahang and
Terengganu
Peninsular
Malaysia
5 9 Kottelat, 1996; Ng &
Tan, 1999; Giam et al.,
2012
Segama River, Maliau
Basin
Sabah Malaysia
Borneo
12 31 Martin-Smith & Tan,
1998; Sade & Biun,
2012
Rajang Basin, Sadong,
Batang Kerang, Nanga
Merit
Sarawak Malaysia
Borneo
13 40 Parenti & Lim, 2005;
Khairul-Adha et al.,
2009; Hassan et al.,
2010; Giam et al., 2012;
Tan & Lim, 2013
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
444 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
range and a north-south distance of about
900 km, creating an effective dispersal
and/or migration barrier (Johnson, 1967a;
Prentice & Parish, 1992; Krebs, 2009).
Zakaria et al. (1999) reported a total of 24
sh species identied from their study, of
which 20 species were from Beriah Kiri and
10 species from Ulu Sedili swamp-riverine
area. Eight families were represented
from the Beriah Kiri swamp-riverine area.
However, only the fish species recorded
from the Beriah Kiri swamp-riverine are
outlined in this review.
A study from Rezawaty (2004) reported
a total of 30 sh species from 12 families
in a study carried out on the entire Sungai
Beriah drainage system, while during an
intensive survey of the PBPSF, specically
in Beriah Kanan, Beriah Kiri and Beriah
rivers, Shah et al. (2006) recorded a total
of 32 sh species belonging to 13 families
(Table 1).
Fishes Recorded from the Peat Swamps
of Johor
Information on the ichthyofauna of PSFs
of the state of Johor is relatively patchy
compared to the NSPSF. Kottelat (1996)
and Ng and Kottelat (1998) recorded
Systomus lineatus and Hyalobagrus ornatus
respectively from PSF of Johor. Giam et al.
(2012) recorded 13 sh species belonging
to seven families from black water ditches,
streams, pools, remnants of PSF and PSFs
of West Johor and Ambat (Table 1).
Fishes Recorded from Southeast
Pahang Peat Swamp Forest
Ahmad et al. (2005) recorded 58 sh species
(with an additional unidentified species
belonging to the family Mastacembelidae)
from 17 families (19 following the recent
taxonomic revisions detailed in Kottelat’s
catalogue) during a survey in Bebar River,
a large river that ows out of the southeast
Pahang peat swamp forest (SEPPSF, which
is also known as Pekan peat swamp forest).
This survey, which was conducted along
Bebar River and Serai River (a tributary of
Bebar River), brought the total sh species
known in SEPPSF to 65 species (see Ahmad
et al., 2005) (see Table 1).
Fishes Recorded from the Peat Swamps
of East Peninsular Malaysia
Kottelat (1996) and Ng and Tan (1999)
recorded S. lineatus and Neohomaloptera
johorensis respectively from east Peninsular
Malaysia. Similarly, Giam et al. (2012)
recorded nine sh species from six families
from the black waters of east Peninsular
Malaysia comprising of part of Malaysia’s
Johor, Pahang and Terengganu (Table 1).
Fish Species Recorded in the Peat
Swamp Forests of Sabah
Sabah, together with Sarawak, Kalimantan
Barat, Kalimantan Timur and Brunei is
situated in Borneo, the world’s third largest
island with some 743,107 km2 of land area.
As a result of “…difculties of access to
the interior part of tropical rainforest, a
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
445
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
lack of reliable dating of igneous rocks,
poorly fossiliferous sedimentary rocks
and an absence of a coherent stratigraphic
scheme for many parts of the island” (Hall
& Nichols, 2002), there is only fragmentary
information on the geology and sh fauna of
the island (Parenti & Lim, 2005). The sh
species of Sabah are relatively less surveyed
and documented than those of Peninsular
Malaysia. Even when intensive surveys
are carried out, they have not been widely
published by the researchers.
Martin-Smith and Tan (1998) carried
out an intensive collection of freshwater
shes over a period of two years from the
catchment of the upper Segama River near
Danum Valley Field Centre, headwater
streams in the catchment of the Kuamut
River and from the lower Segama River.
They reported a total of 65 species from
20 families. A total of about 30 sh species
were recorded in blackwater ditches, ponds
and streams from the lower Segama River
(Martin-Smith & Tan, 1998).
Also, Sade and Biun (2012) studied
the ichthyofauna of Maliau Basin, a
saucer-shaped depression enclosed by a
mountainous rim in the remote part of
Sabah, with an undisturbed ora and fauna.
Although 15 sh species were recorded from
the study, only three species were recorded
from acidic tea-coloured blackwaters in the
zone (Table 1).
Fish Species Recorded in the Peat
Swamp Forests of Sarawak
Like Sabah, the ichthyofauna of the peat
swamps of Sarawak has received little
attention in comparison to that of Peninsular
Malaysia. The ichthyofauna of Sarawak is
generally neglected in comparison to the
other political divisions of Borneo for which
detailed checklists have been documented
(Parenti & Lim, 2005).
Parenti and Lim (2005) carried out a
study of the ichthyofauna of the Rajang
Basin in Sarawak, Malaysia, Borneo, and
presented a checklist of 164 sh species
recorded from the headwaters all the way
to the brackish waters, including Belaga and
the Balui River, Kapit and the Baleh River,
and Sibu area. A total of seven blackwater
sh species were recorded from blackwater
ditches and pools along Teku River and
remnant of PSF behind the old Sibu airport.
A previous study from Khairul-Adha
et al. (2009) recorded 36 species of fish
belonging to 13 families from brownish
and blackish water habitats of Batang
Kerang in Balai Ringin, Sarawak, during
wet and relatively dry seasons. Thirty-two
species from 12 families were recorded in
the brownish water, while only 12 species
from seven families were recorded in the
black water habitat. In a study by Hassan
et al. (2010), seven out of 15 sh species
recorded from 11 families in Nanga Merit
area were from a water body with peat-like
characteristics.
Recently, Tan and Lim (2013)
recorded four species of sh of the genus
Hemirhamphodon from blackwater ditches
and ponds in Sarawak, Malaysia, Borneo,
while Giam et al. (2012) recorded 13 sh
species belonging to five families from
the peat swamps of Rajang and Sadong in
Sarawak (Table 1).
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
446 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
TAXONOMIC NOTES
Some of the taxonomic names of the
sh species outlined in Table 1 and their
placement within families are slightly or
completely different from the originally
recorded names from the surveys, as a result
of the recent changes in the taxonomy of
the sh species. A comprehensive list of
taxonomic changes is given in Kottelat’s
catalogue (Kottelat, 2013). Davies and
Abdullah (1989) recorded O. vittatus,
along with its synonym O. hasselti, as two
completely different species. The species
Belontia hasselti now classified under
the family Osphronemidae was placed
in the Anabantidae family. Members of
Osphronemidae family were placed in
the family Belontia by IPT-AWB (1993)
and Ng et al. (1994). In the same vein,
Luciocephalus pulcher was classified
under the family Luciocephalidae.
Following the work of Britz (1994), and
Kottelat and Whitten (1996), the earlier
families of Osphronemidae, Belontiidae
and Luciocephalidae were constituted
as a single family, Osphronemidae.
Recently, Beamish et al. (2003) classied
Nemacheilus selangoricus under the family
Nemacheiliidae in the family Bagridae, along
with N. johorensis. In the same vein, Ahmad
et al. (2005) classied N. selangoricus of
the family Nemacheilidae and Barbucca
diabolica of the family Barbuccidae
under the family Balitoridae. Meanwhile,
Hemirhamphodon progonognathus of the
family Zenarchopteridae was placed in the
family Hemiramphidae by IPT-AWB (1993),
Ng et al. (1994), Beamish et al. (2003)
and Ahmad et al. (2005). The Parakysis
verucosus of the family Akysidae was also
classied under Parakysidae by IPT-AWB
(1993) and Ng et al. (1994), while Siow et
al. (2013) recorded Pristolepis fasciata of
the family Pristolepididae as belonging to
the family Nandidae. Also, a recorded sh
species belonging to the genus Kryptopterus
was not designated a species name and
the reason was not stated appropriately.
Considering there are about 17 distinct
species in the genus Krptopterus (Kottelat,
2013), it is possible that the sample could
be a newly discovered species.
The species recorded as Puntius lineatus
is now named Striuntius lineatus, which
is a “preferred” name or “authority”, the
latter being a synonym. Another species
recorded as Labiobarbus lineatus, which
is excluded from Kottelat’s catalogue was
regarded as a preferred name for the species
Dangila lineata in Fish Base, Species 200
and ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013,
and the NCBI Taxonomy (Torrres, 2000;
EOL, 2015). Dangila lineata was also
recorded as a synonym of L. leptocheilus
in Kottelat’s catalogue (Kottelat, 2013),
suggesting that both names may actually
be referring to the same species. However,
Rainboth et al. (2012) considered that L.
lineatus is a distinct species. There has been
some confusion about the taxonomy of the
species L. leptocheilus (L. lineatus). In the
taxonomic outline provided in this review,
the species is presented as L. leptocheilus in
line with Kottelat’s catalogue. Also, the sh
earlier recorded as Mystus micracanthus is
actually M. nigriceps (Roberts, 1993; Ng,
2002; Kottelat, 2013).
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
447
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF PEAT
SWAMP FISHES
Black water peat swamps are important
catchment areas. The peat has great water
retention ability and serves as reservoir of
rain water, which is utilised in agriculture for
irrigating the rice elds adjacent the NSPSF
(Low & Balamurugan, 1989). The sh of
NSPSF are harvested for consumption and
also for the aquarium trade due to their
ornamental value (Ng et al., 1994; Ismail
et al., 2013) (Table 4). Most of the species
harvested for consumption by the local
people are sold at very low prices relative to
their actual worth (Ng et al., 1994).
A breeding study has been carried
out on some of the ornamental fish of
peat black water such as pearl gourami
(Trichogaster leeri), chocolate gourami
(Sphaerichthys osphromenoides), clown
rasbora (Rasbora kalochroma), six-banded
barb (P. johorensis), bellicose Betta (Betta
bellica), giant ghting sh (B. waseri) and
pygmy rasbora (R. maculata), with the aim
of conserving the species and improving
their production (FFRC, 1995).
CONSERVATION STATUS OF PEAT
SWAMP FISH SPECIES IN MALAYSIA
The conservation status of a species indicates
if it still exists and how likely it is to become
extinct in the near future (InfoNatura, 2007).
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
is the best known conservation status listing
system in the world, which classies species
into nine categories based on the rate of
decline of the population, population size,
geographical range, and degree of population
and distribution fragmentation (Mace et al.,
2008; Biodic, 2013; IUCN, 2014). The
categories are “Extinct (EX), Extinct in the
Wild (EW), Critically Endangered (CR),
Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Near
Threatened (NT), Least Concern (LC),
Data Deficient (DD) and Not Evaluated
(NE)” (IUCN, 2001; InfoNatura, 2007;
IUCN, 2012; IUCN, 2015; IUCN, 2014). A
species is EX when there is no reasonable
doubt that the last individual has died, as
a result of failure to record an individual
through exhaustive surveys in known and/
or expected habitat, at appropriate times
(diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its
historic range. Extinct in the Wild is used
to refer to species that are known only to
survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a
naturalised population(s) well outside the
past range (InfoNatura, 2007; Biodic, 2013;
IUCN, 2014).
Out of the 198 black water sh species
recorded from Malaysia, 106 (53.54%)
species belonging to the category NE
indicate that their conservation status has
not been evaluated against the criteria.
Seven (3.53%) species are DD as a result of
inadequate information on their distribution
and/or population status. Sixty-two species
(31.31%) belonging to the LC category,
indicate lowest risk, widespread and
abundant species. Six species (3.03%)
are NT, signifying likelihood to become
endangered in the future. Six (3.03%)
and two (1.01%) species are VU and EN,
respectively, indicating a highly and very
highly risk of extinction in the wild. Besides
that, three species (1.52%) are CR and
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
448 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
facing an extremely high risk of extinction
in the wild, while six species (3.03%) were
not fully classied and so exempted from all
the categories (Table 1).
A total of only 12 species (6.70%)
are threatened, i.e. under CR, EN and VU
category. The IUCN classication may not
be a true expression of the conservation
status of black water fishes, particularly
in Malaysia as so many of the species
(57.54%) remain unevaluated against the
criteria for classification of threatened
species. In data-poor situations, it is not
uncommon for listing errors of species that
otherwise should be classied as threatened
(Gärdenfors, 2000; Keith et al., 2000;
Gärdenfors et al., 2001; Keith et al., 2004).
For instance, ve of the ten black water
sh species (B. brownorum, Sundadanio
margarition, B. ibanorum, Parosphromenus
allani and H. ornatus), listed as “most VU”
by Giam et al., (2012) using the criteria of
decline in population, geographical range
and basin extinction, were classied under
the NE in Red List category (Tables 1 and 3).
It is important to point out that the
species recorded as ‘rare’ at a distinct time
may be more abundant at other times. For
example, the abundance of individual sh
and species composition vary during the
wet and dry seasons, which may be related
to variations in migratory movements of sh
species (Ng et al., 1994; Renato et al., 2000;
Khairul-Adha et al., 2009). Some species
migrate from downstream to upper reaches
of a river during high water levels for
breeding or food, then migrate back to the
lower reaches after spawning as the water
level reduces (Lowe-McConnell, 1975;
Welcomme, 1979). Therefore, conservation
surveys should be exhaustive, in all known
and/or expected habitats, at appropriate
times covering seasons of high and low
water levels over an extended period of
time before a species is pronounced as rare
or threatened.
Considering the extensive destruction
of tropical PSFs worldwide and the decline
in PSF biodiversity, more black water sh
species will fall into the threatened (CR,
EN and VU) category if evaluated against
the criteria. However, it is important to
note that the category of threat simply
provides an assessment of the extinction
risk under current circumstances, and is not
necessarily sufcient to determine priorities
for conservation action (Mace & Lande,
1991).
CONSERVATION OF PEAT SWAMP
FORESTS
Peat swamp forests are an important
component of the world’s wetlands,
providing a wide variety of goods and
services in the form of carbon sequestration,
flood mitigation and globally important
biodiversity reservoirs (Parish, 2002;
UNDP, 2006; Posa et al., 2011; Ismail et al.,
2013), with many endemic species (Kottelat
& Ng, 2005; Kottelat & Widjanarti, 2005;
UNDP, 2006; Tan & Kottelat, 2009; Conway
et al., 2011; Conway & Kottelat, 2011; Posa
et al., 2011; Giam et al., 2012; Taskforce
REDD, 2012; PIU-SERT, 2013; Muchlisin
et al., 2015).
Malaysian PSFs make up about 75%
of the country’s total wetlands, with 80%
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
449
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
found in east Malaysia (Sabah 8%; Sarawak
72%) and 20% in Peninsular Malaysia. Peat
swamp forests in Malaysia have undergone
severe degradation over the years. For
example, the PSF cover of NSPSF was
estimated to be 0.67 million hectares in
1981 but reduced drastically to 0.34 million
hectares in the 1990s (UNDP, 2006) and
there has been further destruction since
then. As the nation becomes aware of the
need to conserve PSFs, some percentage of
PSFs have been protected within Permanent
Forest Reserves and stateland forests
(UNDP, 2006). However, this protection is
inadequate. Agricultural conversion and re
have destroyed PSF within these protected
areas and furthermore, unless the entire
forests are protected, any drainage around
the edges impacts the entire forest.
The main threats of PSFs in Malaysia
are forestry (overexploitation), illegal
logging, pollution (including oil, industrial,
nutrient and sedimentation), waste
disposal, airports, land reclamation, large
scale land conversion for agriculture,
industrialisation and settlement-urbanisation
(Ng & Shamsudin, 2001; Chong et al.,
2010). In addition, draining and clearing
of the PSFs for agriculture and palm oil
plantations have resulted in peat land res
(Parish, 2002; Page et al., 2011), which
contribute to the annually recurring episodes
of transboundary haze pollution in the
Southeast Asian region (Lo & Parish, 2013).
Several studies on the diversity of
sh in PSFs have revealed the existence
of economically important fishes
for consumption, aquarium trade and
Table 3
Peat swamp shes listed as Threatened in IUCN Red List
Family Species Status Reference
Anguillidae Anguilla borneensis VU Martin-Smith & Tan, 1998
Clariidae Encheloclarias
curtisoma
CR IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al., 1994; Giam et al., 2012
Encheloclarias
keliodes
CR Giam et al., 2012
Encheloclarias
prolatus
VU Giam et al., 2012
Osphronemidae Ompok fumidus VU Beamish et al., 2003; Siow et al., 2013
Betta hipposideros VU Ng et al., 1994; Ahmad et al., 2013; Ismail et al.,
2013
Betta livida EN IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al., 1994; Beamish et
al., 2003; Giam et al., 2012; Ahmad et al., 2013;
Ismail et al., 2013
Betta splendens VU Rezawaty, 2004; Shah et al., 2006
Betta tomi VU Giam et al., 2012
Betta persephone CR Giam et al., 2012
Parosphronemus
harveyi
EN IPT-AWB, 1993; Ng et al., 1994; Beamish et
al., 2003; Giam et al., 2012; Ahmad et al., 2013;
Ismail et al., 2013
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
450 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
endangered species (IPT-AWB, 1993;
Ng et al., 1994; Lee, 2001; Beamish et
al., 2003), where the majority of sh are
highly dependent on the rivers in the PSFs
(Beamish et al., 2003; Yule, 2010). The
degradation of PSFs is expected to affect
the sh community structure in such a way
that extinction of some already endangered
species in the near future is probable. Gibson
et al. (2011) reported that converted land-
use types vary in their ability to support
forest biodiversity, generally having a
reduced capacity for biodiversity support
than in their original unconverted form.
Giam et al. (2012) predicted the number
of sh species that would become extinct
under different land-use conditions using
the Matrix-Calibrated Species-Area Model
(MCSAM) (Koh & Ghazoul, 2010) and
Mote Carlo simulations to project PSF
Table 4
Commonly consumed and ornamental black water sh species in Malaysia
Consume Ornamental
Anabas testudineus Betta bellica
Belontia hasselti Betta livida
Channa bankanensis Betta hipposideros
Channa lucius Belontia hasselti
Channa melosoma Channa gachua
Clarias meladerma Helostoma temminkii
Clarias nieuhoi Hemirhamphodon progonognathus
Clarias leiacanthus Krvptopterus macrocephalus
Helostoma temminkii Leiocassis micropogon
Kryptopterus macrocephalus Luciocephalus pulcher
Monopterus albus Macrognathus circumcinctus
Mystus bimaculatus Mystus bimaculatus
Macrognathus circumcinctus Osteochilus spilurus
Hemibagrus nemurus Parosphromenus harveyi
Pristolepis grootii Desmopuntius hexazona
Trichopodus leerii Desmopuntius johorensis
Trichopodus pectoralis Rasbora cephalotaenia
Trichopodus trichopterus Rasbora dorsiocellata
Rasbora einthovenii
Rasbora gracilis
Rasbora kalochroma
Rasbora maculata
Trigonopoma pauciperforatum
Silurichthys hasseltii
Sphaerichthys osphromenoides
Trichopodus leerii
Trichopodus trichopterus
A Review of the Ichthyofauna of Malaysian Peat Swamp Forest
451
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (1): 421 - 458 (2016)
basins extinctions. Under the scenario, the
10 most vulnerable species (Encheloclarias
prolatus, B. brownorum, S. goblinus, S.
margarition, B. ibanorum, B. burdigala, E.
tapeinopterus, Paedocypris progenetica,
P. allani and H. ornatus) were recognised
and predicted to be extinct by 2050, if the
present rate of PSFs conversion continues.
Meanwhile, Beamish et al. (2003)
reported 22 species of sh from 43 sites in
the NSPSF in 1998 as against 33 species
from 27 sites during the preceding year.
The PSF was largely forested during the
1997 survey, but the area was cleared and
planted with oil palms in 1998. Thirteen
species caught in 1997 were not caught in
1998. This supports the prediction by Giam
et al. (2012) the extinction of sh species
following PSF land conversion. Generally,
riparian vegetation acts as a source of energy
and matter (Kindler, 1998), and contributes
matter to the PSF ecosystem through
production of leaf litter (Tabacchi et al.,
1998). Modications in riparian vegetation
through logging affect the structure and
processes within the peat swamps. It leads to
the alteration of the swamp characteristics,
reduction of food resources (Tabacchi et
al., 1998; Wright & Flecker, 2004) and
subsequent loss of biodiversity (Bruenig &
Droste, 1995).
Peat swamp forests also serve as an
important global carbon storehouse (Parish,
2002; Chimer & Ewel, 2005; Jauhiainen et
al., 2005; Rydin & Jeglum, 2006; UNDP,
2006). The PSFs of Malaysia and Indonesia
alone store 67 gigatons of carbon in peat,
which represents 75% of total tropical peat
soil carbon storage (Page et al., 2011).
Large scale conversion of this carbon sink,
as is happening today, is expected to and
will severely impact the earth’s climate
(Couwenberg et al., 2009; van der Werf
et al., 2009; Miettinen et al., 2012) unless
drastic measures are put in place to conserve
PSFs of the world.
In the discussion of conservation of PSFs
fish biodiversity, safe fishing techniques
have always been ignored. Researchers,
and shermen alike, employ varying shing
techniques in PSFs and have always been
more concerned with increase in catchability
than safety and conservation of the shes.
One shing technique, electro-shing, that
poses a threat to the health of sh has been
employed in several surveys in Malaysia
PSFs (Martin-Smith & Tan, 1998; Beamish
et al., 2003; Shah et al., 2006; Siow et al.,
2013). Electro-shing establishes an electric
eld in the water (Lamarque, 1990) creating
an epileptic response in fish resulting
from electric shock to the central nervous
system (Reynolds & Kolz, 1993; Sharber
& Black, 1999). The reported health effects
on sh include internal haemorrhaging and
skin discolorations (Dalbey et al., 1996;
Kocovsky et al., 1997; Muth & Ruppert,
1997; Thompson et al., 1997; Ainslie et al.,
1998; Habera et al., 1999), spinal injuries
(Kocovsky et al., 1997), lactacidosis and
disturbance of the inter-renal stress response
(Mitton & McDonald, 1994), retarded
growth (Dalbey et al., 1996; Thompson et
al., 1997; Ainslie et al., 1998; Hughes, 1998),
and low gamete viability (Muth & Ruppert,
1997; Koupal et al., 1997). Although the
Sule, H. A., Ismail, A. and Amal, M. N. A.
452 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (4) 421 - 458 (2016)
effects of electro-shing on PSF biodiversity
is minor compared to the enormous loss due
to PSF drainage, clearance and re, it is
appropriate that only safe shing techniques
such as the use of scoop nets, cast nets, etc.
should be employed in a unique habitat such
as peat swamps.
CONCLUSION
It is apparent from the ongoing that one of
the strongest justications for conservation
of peat swamps is the existing ichthyofauna.
Therefore, maintaining sh populations of
PSFs is very important as this will require
maintaining the natural water tables of the
swamps with seasonal ooding. Apart from
the necessity to maintain appropriate aquatic
habitats for the fish, another important
reason is that when peat dries out due
to drainage, it is extremely inflammable
and thus, becomes highly vulnerable to
destruction by re (Langner et al., 2007;
Langner & Siegert, 2009; Page et al., 2009;
Posa et al., 2011).
A review of literature on PSF fish
and also the IUCN Red List revealed
the likelihood of many important fishes
becoming extinct in the near future if
the present PSFs degradation continues.
Moreover, there is also an inevitable risk
of increased global warming when the tons
of carbon stored in peat lands is released
through degradation. Consequently, a
concerted effort for conserve regional
PSFs is essential, and requires action
plans involving all stakeholders (Azmi et
al., 2009). The present measures aimed
at protecting only some parts of the peat
swamp forests in Malaysia are totally
inadequate (and in any case, they are largely
ignored).
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... Peatland represents 13% (1.66 million ha) of the total land area in Sarawak (Lulie et al., 2002). Despite its poorly buffered and highly acidic water content (~pH 3) (Posa et al., 2011), as well as low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (Beamish et al., 2003), peat swamp (also known as blackwater) supports several freshwater fish species, stenotopic to the hostile environment (Giam et al., 2012;Sule et al., 2016). A total of 40 species of fish were found inhabiting the blackwater streams in Sarawak, which accounted for about 20% of the total ichthyofauna of the peat swamp forests (PSF) in Malaysia (Sule et al., 2016). ...
... Despite its poorly buffered and highly acidic water content (~pH 3) (Posa et al., 2011), as well as low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (Beamish et al., 2003), peat swamp (also known as blackwater) supports several freshwater fish species, stenotopic to the hostile environment (Giam et al., 2012;Sule et al., 2016). A total of 40 species of fish were found inhabiting the blackwater streams in Sarawak, which accounted for about 20% of the total ichthyofauna of the peat swamp forests (PSF) in Malaysia (Sule et al., 2016). However, deforestation and peatland conversion for agricultural purposes, particularly for oil palm cultivation, pose extinction risk to the fish inhabiting the region. ...
Article
Full-text available
Information on fisheries resources in East Malaysia is scarce and poorly known. The current review aims to compile a checklist of fisheries resources in the Northwest Borneo (Sarawak, Malaysia) from available published literature, address the resources' present status, and suggest future monitoring needs for selected critical species. The study also aims to determine several Sarawak land-use issues that are in flux and responsible for habitat degradation. Five hundred sixty-four species belonging to 123 families and 32 orders were recorded from Sarawak waters. Freshwater fish species comprised 48.0% of the total, followed by a marine (36.6%), marine-euryhaline (12.9%), and brackish water (2.5%) species. Of this, Cyprinidae was the most dominant group accounting for the greatest number of species (82 species), followed by Balitoridae (34 species), Bagridae (21 species) and Penaeidae (21 species). Therefore, available fisheries resources should be managed carefully as 48 species (9.0%) are currently vulnerable to extinction. Furthermore, the presence of 20 alien species in Sarawak water bodies also requires attention from the authorities due to the potential disruption of aquatic ecological balance. Changing land use issues in Sarawak such as forest degradation, agricultural expansion, peatland deforestation and conversion, logging, destruction of mangrove forests, and construction of hydroelectric power dams and flood mitigation channels pose significant challenges to fishery management in Sarawak. Our study documents the priority of fishery monitoring and conservation in Sarawak water bodies to ensure sustainable management of fisheries resources.
... Sementara di perairan gambut Kalimantan Tengah ditemukan 39 jenis (Haryono, 2012). Beberapa jenis ikan yang hidup di perairan rawa gambut memiliki keunikan baik bentuk maupun warna (Sule et al., 2016;2018). Keunikan ini menyebabkan ikan dari perairan gambut cukup popular sebagai ikan hias (Shah et al., 2006). ...
Article
Perairan rawa gambut menyimpan potensi ikan hias yang unik dengan keragaman jenis yang berbeda dibanding ikan yang hidup di perairan air tawar lainnya. Karena terbiasa hidup pada kondisi fisik kimia air yang tidak biasa, menyebabkan banyak jenis ikan hias dari perairan rawa gambut belum dapat dipijahkan dan masih mengandalkan penangkapan dari alam. Di sisi lain, kelestarian beberapa jenis ikan hias rawa gambut menjadi terancam karena banyak yang dikonversi seperti Kesatuan Hidrologis Gambut (KHG) Sungai Mempawah-Sungai Duri di Kabupaten Mempawah, Kalimantan Barat. Kegiatan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis ikan hias dan karakteristik habitat di KHG Sungai Mempawah-Sungai Duri, Kabupaten Mempawah, Kalimantan Barat. Informasi yang didapat akan menjadi dasar untuk melakukan rekayasa lingkungan dalam adaptasi dan domestikasi ikan dari perairan lahan gambut. Penelitian dilakukan pada saluran irigasi buatan yang terdapat di lahan perkebunan sawit di daerah Sebukit dan Sawit. Penangkapan dilakukan menggunakan jaring, pancing, bubu, dan seser yang diberi umpan pakan pelet. Namun hanya seser dan bubu yang menghasilkan tangkapan ikan. Dari hasil uji coba penangkapan dan penjeratan diperoleh ikan hias di antaranya Puntius rhomboocellatus, Rasbora trilineata, Desmopuntius johorensis (Duncker, 1904), Rasbora dorsiocellata, sepat (Trichogaster sp.), dan Rasbora cephalotaenia. Karakteristik perairan di wilayah tersebut di antaranya kecepatan aliran sangat lambat (tergenang), pH asam (pH 3-4), kelarutan oksigen sedang (2-3 mg/L), dan berwarna merah hitam seperti teh dengan kecerahan sekitar 20 cm. Di bagian pinggir perairan terdapat rumput-rumputan yang hidup menjorok ke perairan dan menjadi habitat ikan. Hasil penelitian ini menggambarkan bahwa keragaman ikan di daerah ini cukup rendah dan didominasi Puntius rhomboocellatus dan Rasbora cephalotaenia.Peat swamp waters (black water) usually have diverse, unique, and attractive fish species, which often have the potential as ornamental fish. However, due to the uniqueness and adaptation to the water quality condition, black water fishes’ culture, and breeding technology have not yet been fully understood, resulting in reliance on wild capture. On the other side, many of the peat swamp areas were converted to palm plantations such as Peatland Hydrology Unitary (KHG) Mempawah River-Duri River, West Kalimantan. This study aimed to build a biodiversity inventory of ornamental fish species and their habitat characteristics in the peat waters of Peatland Hydrological Unit (KHG) of Mempawah River-Duri River, West Kalimantan. The information obtained serves as baseline information for environmental engineering to adapt and domesticate ornamental black water fishes. The study was conducted in two irrigation channels located on oil palm plantations of the Sebukit and Anjongan-Sawit. These locations are on peat swamps areas and were once a habitat for different black water fishes. The fish samples were caught by hand net, cast net, angler, trap using artificial bait or pellet. Only the hand net and fish trap were successful in capturing the fish. The fish caught included Puntius rhombocellatus, Rasbora trilineata, Desmopuntius johorensis (Duncker, 1904), Rasbora dorsiocellata, Trichogaster sp., and Rasbora cephalotaenia. The water condition of the locations was characterized by very slow-moving water mass (<1 m/minute), acidic (pH 3-4), moderate dissolved oxygen (2-3 mg/L), and typical black water brightness (± 20 cm). Overgrown bushes and grasses along the channels are the natural habitats of these species. This study concludes that the diversity of fish in this area is relatively low and dominated by P. rhomboocellatus and R. cephalotaenia.
... The main objective of this work is to investigate the taste preferences and feeding behavior of the three spot gourami T. trichopterus and to compare these data with obtained for the pearl gourami, in order to reveal the specific and general features of the taste reception and behavior of these two Anabantoidei representatives. Since the ranges of both gourami species overlap and the lifestyle is similar (Linke, 1991;Sule et al., 2016), a comparative assessment of the taste spectra in these closely related and sympatric fish has been perfomed. The data on this issue are scarce and contradictory (Mikhailova and Kasumyan, 2015). ...
Article
The taste of 14 L-amino acids of the 21 studied is attractive for three spot gourami Trichopodus trichopterus, and only one (tyrosine) causes aversive responses. Agar-agar pellets containing sucrose are also rejected, whereas citric acid, sodium chloride, and calcium chloride do not affect feeding behavior. When compared with a previously studied pearl gourami T. leerii, closely related and similar in lifestyle species, opposite or mismatched gustatory responses to most of the tested substances are found. The behavior exhibited by the gourami when testing food has the same characteristics (preliminary touching the pellets with the lips, multiple rejections and re-grasps, generation of sounds), which indicates its conservatism compared to taste preferences. It is assumed that the presence of the labyrinth suprabranchial organ, which reduces the area of the oral cavity available for the distribution of taste buds, does not affect the ability of gourami to respond differently to various food objects.
... Spesies ikan ini hidup berdampingan dengan Puntius collingwoodi dan Hampala bimaculata pada aliran yang lebih dalam dan lambat dari sungai berarus lebih besar (Choy dan Chin, 1994). Selain berpotensi sebagai ikan hias di Sabah dan Serawak, Malaysia (Sule et al., 2016), publikasi terkait Osteochilus spilurus mendeskripsikan keberadaannya pada perairan air tawar tanpa informasi tentang pemanfaatannya secara ekonomis. Kondisi tersebut menjadikan ikan ini termasuk dalam kategori tidak rentan terhadap penangkapan dan perdagangan, bukan termasuk endemik dan ikan dilindungi (Jeanes dan Meijaard, 2000). ...
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Osteochilus spilurus, which has been known to be of minimal use, is an important economical fish in East Belitung. Public perceptions related to consumption and understanding of these fish need to be known as the community's point of view in utilization and management. This study was conducted to obtain information about people’s perceptions about Cempedik Fish from the citizen and related business actors in Gantung District. Information and data collection techniques in this study were carried out with three kinds of methods, namely, interviews, observation, and discussion. Public perception of Gantung District, Belitung Timur Regency towards Cempedik Fish shows that more than 79% of respondents recognize and consume these fish with the majority of consumption obtained from trade. Season and methods of catching Cempedik fish are understood to be more than 65% of respondents. Most of them assume that the size and number of fish are not changing. But they hope protection and cultivation for the continuity of production. The limited availability of Cempedik Fish products outside the rainy season is a potential for its development as an aquaculture commodity for meeting market demands and the sustainability of populations in their natural habitats.
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This study was carried in order to update the current fish diversity in north Selangor peat swamp forest (NSPSF), Selangor, Malaysia. Fish sampling were conducted at five different sampling sites within the Sungai Karang Forest Reserve and Raja Musa Forest Reserve. The fishing equipment used were gill and scoop nets with a mesh size between 0.5-2.0 inches. A total of 41 species of fish from 13 families has been identified. Family of Cyprinidae recorded the highest number of fishes with 14 species, followed with Osphronemidae with 11 and Bagridae with three species. Two species of endangered fish, including Betta livida and Parosphromenus harveyi were also identified. Most of the identified fish were usually used for human consumption and ornamental purposes. The findings suggest that NSPSF is still inhabits by numerous fish species and should be conserved to ensure the richness of its ichthyofauna in the future.
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An annotated checklist of the fishes of the Endau River drainage in southeastern Peninsular Malaysia is provided. A total of 108 species in 26 families is reported from the Endau basin, of which 36 are new records and 2 are new species of catfish described here. Akysis microps, new species (Akysidae) resembles A, heterurus, but differs from it and other congeners by the following unique combination of characters: depth of caudal peduncle 8.3%-9.6% SL length of anal-fin base 16.2%-18.6% SL, length of adipose-fin base 15.2%-23.0% SL, eye diameter 9%-13% HL, length of nasal barbel 95%-106% HL, length of maxillary barbel 139%-170% HL, length of inner mandibular barbel 94-102% HL, length of outer mandibular barber 110%-154% HL, 10-11 anal-fin rays, and 5-7 serrations on the posterior edge of the pectoral spine. Nanobagrus nebulosus, new species (Bagridae), is characterized by large eyes (eye diameter 14.1%-15.1% HL), pectoral spine with 16 serrations on the posterior edge, 35-36 vertebrae, and a dark grayish-brown body with a series of cream-colored spots mostly on the dorsal surface of the body. It is also the Ist record of the genus from Peninsular Malaysia.
Chapter
Lowe-McConnell (1969, 1975) has reviewed the ecology of tropical freshwater fishes in relation to their great diversity, mechanisms of speciation and the ability of so many species to co-exist. However, most of the information discussed is from Africa and South America. Most of the studies on freshwater fishes in Asia have been taxonomic with little ecological information. Only two comprehensive ecological studies on Malaysian freshwater fishes have been published since 1962. Inger and Chin ( 1962) have given a comprehensive account of the ecology of riverine fishes in Sabah, East Malaysia, while Johnson (1967b) conducted an extensive survey of the distribution and community composition of freshwater fishes in Peninsular Malaysia in relation to water chemistry. However, a large area of the central region of Peninsular Malaysia, where Tasek Bera lies, was not studied. Recently Bishop (1973) in an intensive limnological survey of a small Malaysian river, the Sungai Gombak, included a chapter on the ecology of fishes. This included community structure, longitudinal succession, feeding segregation, diversity and annual productivity of the fish community. This section deals with some aspects of the ecology and behaviour of the fishes in Tasek Bera.
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Six new species of licorice gouramies of the genus Parosphromenus are described from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo. Parosphromenus alfredi (from southeastern Johor, Peninsular Malaysia), P. opallios (from southwestern Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo), P. rubrimontis (from Perak, Peninsular Malaysia) and P. tweediei (from southwestern Johor, Peninsular Malaysia) were earlier identified as P. deissneri, a species restricted to Bangka Island; they are distinguished by details of coloration and dorsal and anal fin ray formulae. Parosphromenus pahuensis (from Mahakam Basin, Borneo), is distinguished in having 1-3 conspicuous black spots in the middle of the lower lateral dark stripe, a rounded caudal fin, 6-9 segmented rays in anal fin, 12-14 spines in dorsal fin and details of colour pattern. Parosphromenus quindecim (from southeastern Kalimantan Barat, Borneo) is distinguished in having 13-15 spines in dorsal fin, the absence of conspicuous black blotches on the lower lateral stripe, a black subdistal band in the dorsal, anal and caudal fins of the male, a rounded caudal fin, and impaired fins of female grey with numerous hyaline spots. The taxonomy of P. harveyi, P. allani and P. sumatranus are also discussed and lectotypes designated for the first two species.