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Abstract

Background Interest in fresh, functional foods is on the rise, compelled by the growing interest of consumers for diets that support health and longevity. Microgreens garner immense potential for adapting leafy vegetable production to a micro-scale and for improving nutritional value in human diet. Scope and approach Major preharvest factors of microgreens production, such as species selection, fertilization, biofortification, lighting and growth stage at harvest are addressed with respect to crop physiology and quality, as well as postharvest handling and applications, temperature, atmospheric composition, lighting and packaging technology which influence shelf-life and microbial safety. Key prospects for future research aiming to enhance quality and shelf-life of microgreens are highlighted. Key findings and conclusions Effective non-chemical treatments for seed surface sterilization and antimicrobial action, pre-sowing treatments to standardize and shorten the production cycle and crop-specific information on the interaction of sowing rate with yield and quality deserve further attention. Indigenous landraces, underutilized crops and wild edible plants constitute a vast repository for selection of genetic material for microgreens. Modular fertilization may fortify microgreens bioactive content and augment their sensorial attributes. Pre- and postharvest select-waveband, intensity and photoperiod combinations can elicit compound-specific improvements in functional quality and in shelf-life. Research is needed to identify effective sanitizers and drying methods non-abusive on quality and shelf-life for commercialization of ready-to-eat packaged microgreens. Genotypic variability in postharvest chilling sensitivity and the interactions of temperature, light conditions and packaging gas permeability should be further examined to establish environments suppressive on respiration but preventive of off-odor development.

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... Consumers constantly drive new trends in the food industry including the increasing demand for fresh, plant-based, whole foods. An emerging specialty crop known as microgreens has gained popularity in indoor gardening (Sanchez & Berghage, 2020), fine dining restaurants, and upscale grocery stores (Kyriacou et al., 2016) partly due to its appearance, texture, and flavor. Microgreens are young and tender immature greens produced from the seeds of various species including vegetables, herbs, wild edible plants, and grains (Kyriacou et al., 2016). ...
... An emerging specialty crop known as microgreens has gained popularity in indoor gardening (Sanchez & Berghage, 2020), fine dining restaurants, and upscale grocery stores (Kyriacou et al., 2016) partly due to its appearance, texture, and flavor. Microgreens are young and tender immature greens produced from the seeds of various species including vegetables, herbs, wild edible plants, and grains (Kyriacou et al., 2016). These immature greens are harvested a few days or weeks after the cotyledons are fully grown and the first true leaves have emerged (Mir et al., 2017;Paradiso et al., 2018). ...
... These immature greens are harvested a few days or weeks after the cotyledons are fully grown and the first true leaves have emerged (Mir et al., 2017;Paradiso et al., 2018). Microgreens are also gaining more attention from consumers due to their reported health benefits (Kyriacou et al., 2016;Sun et al., 2013). Specifically, micronutrients are primarily ingested from fresh produce (Ebert, 2013), and microgreens are found to have a higher concentration of functional properties such as antioxidants, phenolics, and vitamins than that of their mature counterparts (Michell et al., 2020;Mir et al., 2017). ...
Article
Microgreens are a specialty crop which have gained popularity due to their sensory attributes as well as bioactive components. The age (10–14 days from seeding) and size (1–3 inches in height) at which microgreens are harvested distinguish them from other leafy greens. This study aimed to characterize microgreen consumers and determine their knowledge, attitude, and self-reported practices related to microgreens and food safety. A 39-item survey was launched in the U.S. via Qualtrics™ to collect data from April 29th to May 14th, 2021. Data were collected pertaining to consent, eligibility, consumption, purchase, storage, washing, food safety perception, and demographics. Descriptive statistics were performed on all variables to determine frequencies and distribution. Data were collected from qualified individuals (n = 660) across 50 states with an average 9-minute completion time. Participants were mostly aged 30–39, with a bachelor's degree, and annual income of $75,000–149,999. Approximately one-half of respondents (50.5%) consumed microgreens 1–2 times per week and stored them 6 days or less (80.3%) prior to consumption. Consumers were confident in their ability to safely store and handle microgreens safely 38.9 and 39.8% of the time, respectively, and nearly three-quarters (71.3%) of all consumers washed microgreens. Consumers were mostly ambiguous on whether eating microgreens could result in foodborne illness (24.7%) and felt that microgreens were as safe as fresh produce (37.9%) in general. The results demonstrated that most microgreens consumers exhibit safe practices during the storage and handling of microgreens. However, there was a disconnection between the reported practices and confidence in related knowledge. As most respondents also did not know the difference between a microgreen and a sprout, consumer outreach should address different aspects of microgreens as compared to other produce as well as their associated food safety risks.
... This type of controlled production rules out potential contaminants due to strict conditions mostly free of contamination (Barak and Schroeder 2012). However, the systems of production generally depend upon the scale of production and the required quantity of the microgreens (Kyriacou et al. 2016). A large number of microgreens are grown either commercially by individual growers or for the smallscale house use. ...
... The harvested microgreens are normally packed in polyethylene bags and kept under low-temperature storage to ensure their freshness prior to transfer to the markets and subsequent selling to the consumers (Kou et al. 2014;Xiao et al. 2014b;Mir et al. 2017). The container-based microgreen production has been found adaptable for both large-scale commercial operation and micro-scale urban growing and thus normally allows the rapid commercialization of microgreens (Kyriacou et al. 2016). The small container-based production of microgreens could be considered highly advantageous as the container can be shipped to the markets and the crop (microgreens) may directly be harvested by the end users (consumers) (Di Gioia et al. 2015;Kyriacou et al. 2016). ...
... The container-based microgreen production has been found adaptable for both large-scale commercial operation and micro-scale urban growing and thus normally allows the rapid commercialization of microgreens (Kyriacou et al. 2016). The small container-based production of microgreens could be considered highly advantageous as the container can be shipped to the markets and the crop (microgreens) may directly be harvested by the end users (consumers) (Di Gioia et al. 2015;Kyriacou et al. 2016). So, this type of microgreen production on sterile media generally bypasses harvesting of the produce by the growers subsequently negating the possible contamination by the use of non-sterile harvest equipment as well as ensured high quality and freshness (Di Gioia et al. 2015). ...
Chapter
Microgreens are tender and young cotyledon greens with higher demand among the consumers worldwide. Microgreens are commonly used in fresh food markets and homemade dishes due to their richness in certain dietary nutrients. Microgreens can provide various essential nutrients to consumers. At the same time, these are susceptible to certain microbial infestations which negatively affect their food safety status. Hence, safe and appropriate production, postharvest handling, and conservation methods (after harvest) for industrial and domestic storage along with strict safety regulations are required to prolong the shelf life of microgreens. The shelf life of fresh produce generally depends upon various factors including relative humidity, storage temperature, pre-storage treatments, and use of packaging material as well as initial microbial content and distance of the targeted market. The major sources of contamination in microgreens include pathogen-infected seeds, irrigation with contaminated water, wild animal feces, worker health, and certain soil amendments such as the use of animal manure and even growing media. Therefore, to ensure safety status, it is important to use some appropriate decontamination practices to minimize the microbial infestations of microgreens. In this chapter, various productions related and postharvest decontamination approaches have been discussed.KeywordsBacteriaDecontaminationFoodborne pathogensMicrogreensShelf lifeYeastMolds
... The interest in microgreens as a specialty vegetable has risen in recent years due to their short production cycle and high nutritional value [1]. Light emitting diode (LED) lights have been increasingly used as the sole light source for indoor crop production [2]. ...
... However, the UVA treatments did not reduce plant biomass in the present study. It is possible that photosynthesis played a minor role in the microgreens' plant biomass accumulation since the microgreen production period consists mainly of the cotyledon emergence stage when seed storage contributes more to plant biomass [1,25]. Nevertheless, our result suggests that adding UVA to white LED would likely not compromise microgreen yield. ...
... It is worth noting that all the plant traits evaluated in this study under the two UVA treatments showed no differences, indicating that adding UVA (replacing PPFD with UVA) for several days or for the whole production period has similar effects on microgreens. In addition, short-term supplemental UVA at the end of the production period did not reduce plant height for all species in the present study and thus would have few negative effects on microgreen harvesting, since taller plants are easier to harvest, especially by machines [1,26]. The portion of UVA used in this study was 23% of TPFD, which is extremely high. ...
Article
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White light emitting diodes (LED) have commonly been used as a sole light source for the indoor production of microgreens. However, the response of microgreens to the inclusion of ultraviolet A (UVA) and/or far-red (FR) light to white LED light remains unknown. To investigate the effects of adding UVA and FR light to white LEDs on plant biomass, height, and the concentrations of phytochemicals, four species of microgreens including basil, cabbage, kale, and kohlrabi were grown under six light treatments. The first three treatments were white LED (control) and two UVA treatments (adding UVA to white LED for the whole growth period or for the last 5 days). Another three treatments consisted of adding FR to the first three treatments. The total photon flux density (TPFD) for all six light treatments was the same. The percentages of UVA and FR photons in the TPFD were 23% and 32%, respectively. Compared to white LEDs, adding UVA throughout the growth period did not affect plant height in all the species except for basil, where 9% reduction was observed regardless of the FR light. On the contrary, the addition of FR light increased plant heights by 9–18% for basil, cabbage, and kohlrabi, regardless of the UVA treatment, compared to white LED. Furthermore, regardless of UVA, adding FR to white LEDs reduced the plant biomass, total phenolic contents, and antioxidant concentrations for at least one species. There was no interaction between FR and UVA on all the above growth and quality traits for all the species. In summary, microgreens were more sensitive to the addition of FR light compared to UVA; however, the addition of FR to white LEDs may reduce yields and phytochemicals in some species.
... The term 'microgreens' has no legal definition but is used by marketers to describe a particular product category. Compared to sprouts, microgreens are grown in greenhouses [5] or indoor environments [6], with or without growing media [7], and with natural or artificial light [8]. Moreover, microgreens have a longer cycle than sprouts, and the edible portion consists only and entirely of the aerial part deprived of the roots. ...
... The values were 3.31 g for Broccolo Natalino and 3.73 g for Mugnoli, per vessel. Commercial production of quality microgreens requires seed in large quantities and represents a major cost [5]. Some species will germinate easily and grow promptly while others are slow and require pre-sowing treatments for improved germination and standardization and shortening of the production cycle [38]. ...
... Instead, considering the average conditions of the substrate coverage and the uniformity between the growth chamber and greenhouse conditions, no significative differences were found ( Table 2). In summary, the fastest crop cycle was observed in the Commercial production of quality microgreens requires seed in large quantities and represents a major cost [5]. Some species will germinate easily and grow promptly while others are slow and require pre-sowing treatments for improved germination and standardization and shortening of the production cycle [38]. ...
Article
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Microgreens are a product category with a biochemical content that is currently earning them the status of a functional food. The genotype of the microgreens, and environmental factors, such as the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and light spectra, can influence the yield and biochemical profile. A landrace of broccoli called ‘Mugnoli’ was compared with a commercial variety (‘Broccolo Natalino’) in two microgreen growing systems (greenhouse vs. growth chamber) and under three growth chamber light spectra (blue, control, control + blue). The results showed that both Mugnoli and Broccolo Natalino can be used to produce microgreens, achieving similar yields, but that Mugnoli showed notably higher polyphenols and antioxidant contents. Due the higher PFFD of the greenhouse environment, microgreens yields were 18% higher than the yields from cultivation in the growth chamber. Regarding the results under different growth chamber spectra, monochromatic blue caused reductions in the microgreens yield and polyphenols content of 13.5% and 14.2%, respectively. In conclusion, Mugnoli can be considered a valuable genetic source for the production of microgreens given its fast crop cycle, good fresh weight production, and, compared to Broccolo Natalino, its superior biochemical content and lower susceptibility to PPFD variations.
... Most of the species and varieties used in current microgreen production come from the Brassicaceae and Amaranthaceae families (Xiao et al., 2015;Kyriacou et al., 2016). In the Amaranthaceae family, some of the more popular species, subspecies, and varieties include beet, chard, and amaranth; in the Brassicaceae family, radish, broccoli, kale, cabbage, tatsoi, pakchoi, mizuna, arugula, and mustard. ...
... They are considered highly nutritious food because of the presence of nutrients that include proteins, minerals, vitamins, carotenoids, phenols, and glucosinolates (Ebert, 2013;Di Gioia et al., 2017). The concentrations of bioactive compounds found in microgreens and even sprouts are reported to be much higher than their mature counterparts (Kyriacou et al., 2016). For example, Broccoli microgreens grown hydroponically and in compost were found to have more nutrient content (Mn, Cu, P, K, Na, Mg, and Fe) than mature broccoli vegetables (Weber, 2017). ...
Article
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Nutrient deficiency has resulted in impaired growth and development of the population globally. Microgreens are considered immature greens (required light for photosynthesis and growing medium) and developed from the seeds of vegetables, legumes, herbs, and cereals. These are considered “living superfood/functional food” due to the presence of chlorophyll, beta carotene, lutein, and minerals like magnesium (Mg), Potassium (K), Phosphorus (P), and Calcium (Ca). Microgreens are rich at the nutritional level and contain several phytoactive compounds (carotenoids, phenols, glucosinolates, polysterols) that are helpful for human health on Earth and in space due to their anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Microgreens can be used as plant-based nutritive vegetarian foods that will be fruitful as a nourishing constituent in the food industryfor garnish purposes, complement flavor, texture, and color to salads, soups, flat-breads, pizzas, and sandwiches (substitute to lettuce in tacos, sandwich, burger). Good handling practices may enhance microgreens’stability, storage, and shelf-life under appropriate conditions, including light, temperature, nutrients, humidity, and substrate. Moreover, the substrate may be a nutritive liquid solution (hydroponic system) or solid medium (coco peat, coconut fiber, coir dust and husks, sand, vermicompost, sugarcane filter cake, etc.) based on a variety of microgreens. However integrated multiomics approaches alongwith nutriomics and foodomics may be explored and utilized to identify and breed most potential microgreen genotypes, biofortify including increasing the nutritional content (macro-elements:K, Ca and Mg; oligo-elements: Fe and Zn and antioxidant activity) and microgreens related other traits viz., fast growth, good nutritional values, high germination percentage, and appropriate shelf-life through the implementation of integrated approaches includes genomics, transcriptomics, sequencing-based approaches, molecular breeding, machine learning, nanoparticles, and seed priming strategiesetc.
... Penanganan dan aplikasi pascapanen, suhu, komposisi atmosfer, penerangan dan teknologi pengemasan perlu diperhatikan dengan baik untuk mempertahankan kualitas microgreens (Kyriacou et al., 2016) mengingat umur tanamnya hanya sekitar 7-10 hari. Salah satu tantangan dalam memproduksi microgreens adalah kondisi penyimpanan pascapanen. ...
... Hal tersebut dapat dilihat dari tren gaya hidup masa kini yakni urban farming bagi kaum milenal. Dengan harga pasar yang tinggi dan siklus produksi yang pendek, tentu hal tersebut menarik petani rumah kaca serta pemodal untuk berinvestasi dalam produksi microgreens (Kyriacou et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan: (1) potret dari urban farming berlahan sempit yang berada di Kelurahan Bausasran, (2) pola pemberdayaan berbasis komunitas pada Kelompok Tani Bausasran untuk meningkatkan produktivitas melalui penerapan budidaya microgreens berbasis e-commerce. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif deskriptif untuk menganalisis secara detail bagaimana pola pendekatan berbasis kelompok yang dibangun di Kampung Sayur Bausasran. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa: (1) kelompok tani Gemah Ripah memiliki peranan penting dalam alur proses pemberdayaan hingga tercapainya tujuan bersama yaitu ketahanan pangan lokal di wilayah urban seperti Bausasran, (2) Budidaya tanaman microgreens dapat menjadi inovasi produk tani untuk mengatasi permasalahan kelangkaan lahan di Kampung Sayur Bausasran melalui teknik pemasaran internet.
... Microgreens have piqued consumer interest, especially chefs' of high-end restaurants who use various microgreens, primarily as garnishing elements to enhance salads, soups, sandwiches, and other culinary inventories. However, due to their interesting quality traits, their use has been extended to enrich the diet of a particular group of demanding consumers [6]. They are also preferred as a source of raw foods by various vegans who are specific in consuming nutrient-enriched dietary food. ...
... Particles surrounding the seedlings are suggested to be removed as they adhered to cotyledons in many species. [6] Post-harvesting ...
Article
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Microgreens, a hypothesized term used for the emerging food product that is developed from various commercial food crops, such as vegetables, grains, and herbs, consist of developed cotyledons along with partially expanded true leaves. These immature plants are harvested between 7–21 days (depending on variety). They are treasured for their densely packed nutrients, concentrated flavors, immaculate and tender texture as well as for their vibrant colors. In recent years, microgreens are on demand from high-end restaurant chefs and nutritional researchers due to their potent flavors, appealing sensory qualities, functionality, abundance in vitamins, minerals, and other bioactive compounds, such as ascorbic acid, tocopherol, carotenoids, folate, tocotrienols, phylloquinones, anthocyanins, glucosinolates, etc. These qualities attracted research attention for use in the field of human health and nutrition. Increasing public concern regarding health has prompted humans to turn to microgreens which show potential in the prevention of malnutrition, inflammation, and other chronic ailments. This article focuses on the applications of microgreens in the prevention of the non-communicable diseases that prevails in the current generation, which emerged due to sedentary lifestyles, thus laying a theoretical foundation for the people creating awareness to switch to the recently introduced category of vegetable and providing great value for the development of health-promoting diets with microgreens.
... The cultivation of microgreens is carried out in different environments, depending on the scale of production and selection of the plant species. It is influenced by various abiotic factors such as the type of soil for cultivation, fertilization, moisture, light, and temperature [12]. Microgreens are often grown indoors in chambers with artificial lights and under controlled conditions, which enables their cultivation throughout the year and provides protection from potential pollution present in nature. ...
... Microgreens are often grown indoors in chambers with artificial lights and under controlled conditions, which enables their cultivation throughout the year and provides protection from potential pollution present in nature. The conditions in the cultivation chambers affect the content of phytochemicals as well as the quality of microgreens after storage [12,13]. ...
Article
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Microgreens are young, immature vegetables that contain higher concentrations of active compounds compared to mature vegetables and seeds. Radish microgreens are a good source of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. The production of microgreens is limited by their short shelf life due to higher dark respiration and accelerated senescence. The study was performed on three radish cultivars (Raphanus sativus L.): purple radish (cvP), red radish (cvR), and green radish (cvG). Radish microgreens were grown in chambers with controlled conditions (24 °C and a photoperiod of 16/8 h) under two types of artificial LED light (45 μmol m−2s−1): under white light (B:G:R) and a blue/red light combination (B:2R). The effect of the two types of light was examined on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th day after storage at a low temperature (+4 °C). The physiological status of the three cultivars of radish microgreens was examined by measuring the contents of total soluble phenolics, ascorbic acid, proteins, sugars, dry matter, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and chlorophyll as well as the total antioxidant activity. The results revealed that radish microgreens’ antioxidant capacity and phytochemical profile depend on the radish cultivar and on the type of LED light used for cultivation. It was shown that B:2R and red cultivar were most beneficial for the synthesis of most of the determined phytochemicals compared to B:G:R, or the purple and green cultivar, respectively. Storage at a low temperature in darkness slowed down most of the metabolic reactions during the first seven days, thus preserving most of the antioxidant activity.
... Microgreens are immature greens harvested from tender young plants that are grown for their high health-promoting compounds and biological properties [1,2]. Previous researchers reported high amounts of phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, phylloquinone, vitamins, and minerals in different species of microgreens [3][4][5]. Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala), Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. ...
... Chla (µg/mL) = 12.25 × A663.2 − 2.79 × A646.8 (4) Chlb (µg/mL) = 21.50 × A646.8 -5.1 × A663.2 (5) Chlt (µg/mL) = chla + chlb (6) Car (µg/mL) = (1000 × A470 − 1.8 × chla − 85.02 × chlb)/198 (7) Finally, the calculated value was multiplied by the total volume (10 mL) and then divided by the total fresh weight (0.2 g), which was expressed as µg/g FW. ...
Article
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Microgreens are immature young plants grown for their health benefits. A study was performed to evaluate the different mixed growing media on growth, chemical composition, and antioxidant activities of four microgreen species: namely, kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala), Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), arugula (Eruca vesicaria ssp. sativa), and pak choi (Brassica rapa var. chinensis). The growing media were T1.1 (30% vermicast + 30% sawdust + 10% perlite + 30% PittMoss (PM)); T2.1 (30% vermicast + 20% sawdust + 20% perlite + 30% PM); PM was replaced with mushroom compost in the respective media to form T1.2 and T2.2. Positive control (PC) was Pro-mix BX™ potting medium alone. Root length was the highest in T1.1 while the shoot length, root volume, and yield were highest in T2.2. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of Swiss chard grown in T1.1 was the highest, followed by T2.2 and T1.1. Pak choi and kale had the highest sugar and protein contents in T2.2, respectively. Consistently, total phenolics and flavonoids of the microgreens were increased by 1.5-fold in T1.1 and T2.2 compared to PC. Antioxidant enzyme activities were increased in all the four microgreens grown in T1.1 and T2.2. Overall, T2.2 was the most effective growing media to increase microgreens plant growth, yield, and biochemical composition.
... Apresentam ciclos curtos de crescimento, baixa taxa de fixação de biomassa, alto índice de colheita e alta eficiência de colheita por unidade de área, tempo e volume (NIROULA et al., 2021). Em decorrência do elevado valor de mercado, se tornou um investimento atrativo aos produtores em sistemas de estufa, fazendas urbanas e periurbanas (KYRIACOU et al., 2016), bem como em escala doméstica por ser um alimento funcional (KYRIACOU et al., 2017). ...
... A pequena variedade de hortaliça microverdes comercializadas pode influenciar no crescimento da demanda, pois muito consumidores podem não ter preferência pelos produtos disponibilizados atualmente. No mundo, as espécies mais exploradas de microverdes são pertencentes às famílias Brassicaceae, Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Amarillydaceae, Amaranthceae e Cucurbitaceae (KYRIACOU et al., 2016), com destaque para brócolis, couve, rabanete e rúcula da família Brassicaceae (DI BELLA et al., 2021). ...
Article
Microgreens became a trend and it was noticed that few supermarket chains offer these vegetables. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the current state of supply of microgreen vegetables. In the research carried out, supermarkets were distributed in most areas of the city, with 56.25% located in the central-south area and the others distributed in the central-west areas (6.25%), north (6.25%), east (6.25%) and west (25.00%). The arugula and radish are the most frequently offered, while coriander is the least commercialized. Finally, the lack of producers of this type of vegetables in the region also appears to be an important factor for the low supply of microgreens in Manaus.
... These authors reported for coriander microgreens the following mineral values: P: 3.04 mg g −1 DW; K: 7.23 mg g −1 DW; Ca: 3.15 mg g −1 DW; Mg: 2.17 mg g −1 DW; Na: 0.61 mg g −1 DW. While the differences in the mineral profile between varieties of the same species highlight the effect of genetic factors, the differences between different species could be attributed not only to genetic factors, but also to growing conditions, the type of growth substrates used, and the composition of the nutrient solution [6]. Moreover, Kyriacou et al. [21] demonstrated that substrate choice greatly influence the macromineral accumulation of coriander. ...
... Microgreens are considered functional foods due to their high polyphenol content, which contributes by its diverse categories to the secondary metabolism and functioning of the plants [6]. In microgreens, polyphenols can represent a quality attribute that can guide consumer choice and increase the added value of the final product [2,32]. ...
Article
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Microgreens represent a new generation of food products, commonly used to garnish and embellish culinary dishes, and recently associated with an increasing interest in their nutraceutical and phytochemical profiles. Four Apiaceae species: Pimpinella anisum L. (anise), Anthriscus cerefolium L. (chervil), Carum carvi L. (caraway), and Anethum graveolens L. (dill) were assessed for fresh yield, macro- and microminerals, total chlorophylls, total ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, and their antioxidant activity. Anise was the species yielding the most (2.53 kg m􀀀2) and having the highest lutein content (18.4 �g g􀀀1 dry weight (DW)). Chervil and dill were characterized by the highest total ascorbic acid content (~151 mg AA g􀀀1 fresh weight (FW)). The phenolic profile highlighted the presence of five flavonoid derivatives and 12 phenolic acid derivatives, with quinic acid derivatives being the most abundant phenols in the species tested. In addition, anise, caraway, and dill proved to be considerably rich in total polyphenols (~11056 �g g􀀀1 DW). Caraway and dill were characterized by the highest antioxidant activity measured by the DPPH and ABTS methods, whereas the FRAP method revealed caraway as having the highest antioxidant activity. Such results highlight the potential of Apiaceae species as an alternative to other families which are commonly used for microgreens production.
... KEYWORDS specialty crops, sensory and functional quality, phytochemical contents, bioactive compounds, healthy diets, growth stages, light intensity and quality, LEDlight emitting diode Editorial on the Research Topic Sprouts, microgreens and edible flowers: Modulation of quality in functional specialty crops Sprouts, microgreens, and edible flowers constitute upcoming specialty crops increasingly esteemed for their sensory contribution to global gastronomy and their bioactive composition that potentially enhances human health. The expanding consumption of these crops is driven by their outstanding organoleptic characteristics, low fat content and rich bioactive composition comprising flavonoids, carotenoids, glucosinolates, vitamins, amino acids and minerals (Kyriacou et al., 2016). ...
... Sprouts, microgreens and edible flowers: Modulation of quality in functional specialty crops Sprouts, microgreens, and edible flowers constitute upcoming specialty crops increasingly esteemed for their sensory contribution to global gastronomy and their bioactive composition that potentially enhances human health. The expanding consumption of these crops is driven by their outstanding organoleptic characteristics, low fat content and rich bioactive composition comprising flavonoids, carotenoids, glucosinolates, vitamins, amino acids and minerals (Kyriacou et al., 2016). ...
... Seeds should receive precautionary sanitary treatments for eliminating pathogenic bacteria such as those recommended for sprouts production by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration [70]. Tavan et al. (2021) [71], proposes that Tuscan black kale (Brassica oleracea var. ...
... Careful harvesting is required and quick cooling removes the vital heat and suppresses the rate of respiration, spoilage and senescence [70]. Samples collected from the platform will be stored at −20 • C until analyzed [99]. ...
Article
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The hydroponic production of microgreens has potential to develop, at both an industrial, and a family level, due to the improved production platforms. The literature review found numerous studies which recommend procedures, parameters and best intervals for the development of microgreens. This paper aims to develop, based on the review of the literature, a set of procedures and parameters, included in a test protocol, for hydroponically cultivated microgreens. Procedures and parameters proposed to be included in the trial protocol for evaluating platforms for growing microgreens in hydroponic conditions are: (1) different determinations: in controlled settings (setting the optimal ranges) and in operational environments settings (weather conditions in the area/testing period); (2) procedures and parameters related to microgreen growth (obtaining the microgreens seedling, determining microgreen germination, measurements on the morphology of plants, microgreens harvesting); (3) microgreens production and quality (fresh biomass yield, dry matter content, water use efficiency, bioactive compound analysis, statistical analysis). Procedures and parameters proposed in the protocol will provide us with the evaluation information of the hydroponic platforms to ensure: number of growing days to reach desired size; yield per area, crop health, and secondary metabolite accumulation.
... herbs given in Table 1. are known for their various health benefits. Microgreens are grown in variety of environments for example; open air, protected environment (greenhouses) and indoor) & growing systems (soil based or soilless) depending on the scale of production. Most commonly used media for producing microgreens is peat and peat-based media Kyriacou, et. al., 2016). Other than that, microgreens are grown in greenhouses in growing flats containing potting mixes and hydroponic growth mediums or even recycled textile fiber mats (Turner, et. al., 2019). Microgreens are grown at high or low density (Stoleru, et. al., 2016). An ample supply of neutral to slightly acidic water in required for the cultiva ...
... The Brassica vegetables contains the compounds like glucosinolates, carotenoids and selenium which may protect against cancer according to studies. Plants belonging to the families Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae are also beneficial for health. Plants of the families Alliaceae and Lamiaceae produce the antimicrobial compounds. (Kyriacou, et. al., 2016). ...
Book
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The Book consists data of Soilless culture, Microgreens in which authors tried to focus on Swiss Chard and Green Mustard. This research work specifically emphasized on the effect of different nutrient combinations, pH and EC on the growth of Swiss Chard and Green Mustard. Production of Microgreens in soilless culture has been proven to be time saving, energy efficient and water efficient.
... Microgreens are tender, immature greens produced from the seeds of vegetables and legumes, having two fully developed cotyledon leaves with or without the emergence of a rudimentary pair of first true leaves with 2.5-7.6 cm (1-3") in height, harvested at 7-14 days after germination. It has outstanding nutritional and antioxidant properties and is also considered a "functional food" (5). In recent years, the microgreens market has been proliferating (6) and has also been sold as a "living product" with the growing media. ...
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Many people suffer from a deficiency of essential micronutrients. Sprouts and microgreens can transform the whole idea of vegetables to resolve the need for a diet with fresh, nutrient-rich, and high content of phyto-compounds necessary for a healthy body. The study's main objective is to evaluate the growth of 6 different seeds, such as four legumes; fenugreek, mung bean, cowpea, horse gram and two grains, wheat, sorghum microgreens. All the seeds were cultivated in soil, water and coco peat, to estimate and compare the nutritional properties of the selected sprouts vs. microgreens. The growth of microgreens in each medium was evaluated, and the proximate and nutritional properties were analysed. In terms of the growth of microgreens, coco peat medium serves the best, as it retains water for a long and it is porous to provide better aeration for the roots and also the day of harvest is shorter. In terms of the nutritional property of microgreens, soil serves the best, as it contains more nutrients than any other medium. The study results showed sprouts are better sources of proteins and carbohydrates than microgreens. However, microgreens were characterized by a high content of carotenoids, chlorophylls and ascorbic acid. It also exhibiting higher anti-diabetic and anticholinergic activity than sprouts. In addition, the microgreens have more micronutrients like zinc, copper, iron, magnesium, potassium etc., than the sprouts. Finally, microgreens were better growing with coco peat and also sources for functional components for dietary supplements and sustainable agriculture.
... Salah satunya yaitu budidaya tanaman microgreen. Microgreen merupakan kelas baru sayuran yang dipanen dalam waktu 7-14 hari setelah semai, memiliki banyak potensi gizi dan menjadi tren terbaru dalam industri makanan [1][2][3]. Nutrisi pada microgreen 4-6 kali lebih banyak dari pada tanaman dewasa, memiliki kandungan vitamin C yang baik serta mengandung antioksidan yang dapat membantu melindungi tubuh dari efek berbahaya radikal bebas [3]. Tingginya kandungan nutrisi pada microgreen disebabkan karena pada umur 7-21 hari tumbuhan masih mengalami proses katabolisme. ...
Article
Microgreen merupakan kelas baru sayuran yang dipanen dalam waktu 7-14 hari setelah semai, memiliki banyak potensi gizi dan menjadi tren terbaru dalam industri makanan. Penyinaran sangat berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman. Pendapatan cahaya yang optimum pada budidaya tanaman secara indoor sangat mempengaruhi proses fotosintesis tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh warna dan jarak vertikal lampu LED terhadap pertumbuhan dan produktivitas microgreen brokoli, sehingga mendapatkan warna dan jarak vertikal lampu LED yang baik untuk budidaya microgreen brokoli. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial (RALF), terdiri dari 3 kali pengulangan dan 2 faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah jarak vertikal/tinggi lampu LED (T) yang digunakan yaitu 20 cm (T1), 40 cm (T2) dan 60 cm (T3), faktor kedua yaitu warna cahaya lampu LED (W) yang digunakan berwarna warm white (W1), merah (W2) dan biru (W3). Selain itu ada 3 tanaman pembanding (kontrol) pada jarak vertikal lampu 20 cm (T1) dengan lampu LED putih (W0). Parameter yang diamati yaitu intensitas cahaya, energi lampu LED, tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, tingkat kehijauan daun dan berat basah microgreen brokoli. Berdasarkan penelitian ini disarankan untuk budidaya sayuran microgreen brokoli dilakukan pada warna lampu LED putih (W0) atau warm white (W1), menggunakan jarak vertikal lampu LED terhadap tanaman 20 cm (T1) dengan lama penyinaran 16 jam/hari agar mendapatkan hasil yang maksimal.
... However, peat and peat based media are most commonly used for raising micro greens. Apart from this nowadays synthetic fibrous media which consist of rock wool or polyethylene terephthalate and natural fiber media made up of jute fibers are also commercially available for growing of micro greens (Kyriacou et al. 2016). However, many naturally occurring materials such as cotton, jute, sunhemp fibres, kenaf, etc. potentially be used as a low cost media after their fortification or enrichment with beneficial microorganism (Di , Nyenhuis and Drelich 2015, Pill et al. 2011. ...
Article
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Diurnal increase in a population growth has led to the imbalance in horticultural food supply chain including vegetables resulting in several issues such as malnutrition and hidden hunger. Many families in our nation still suffer from malnutrition due to unaffordability or lack of easy access to the nutritious foods. Under such dejected situation microgreens can be used as a key source of nutritional compound. Microgreens are simply a juvenile form of edible vegetables, aromatics, condiments and other wild edible species with enriched nutritional composition beneficial for human beings in fulfilling their balance diet and also treating numerous health issues viz., cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease such as alzheimer’s, parkinson’s and huntington’s disease, diabetes, cancers. They are a good source of vitamins, minerals, fibers and antioxidant along with low levels of nitrite content which makes them a super food for addressing overall food security, nutrition, health, income generation and ecosystem services for the human wellbeing in forthcoming days.
... Microgreens are currently in high demand due to their high nutritional value and ease of production, and more people are incorporating them into their regular diet for nutrition (Turner et al. 2020). Microgreens thrive in a constant supply of neutral to slightly acidic water at 55-70% v/v of retention capacity, 20-30% v/v aeration, and 500-1000 µS cm −1 electrical conductivity (Abad et al. 2001;Kyriacou et al. 2016). ...
Article
Microgreens have been chosen as a sustainable dietary staple food due to their high nutritional value and short harvesting time. However, researchers about the actual comparison of the nutritional value between microgreens and their respective adult vegetables is still missing. Furthermore, in a hydroponic system, chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) can be used as an alternative sustainable nutrient formulation to the conventional/basic nutrient formulation solution. As a result, in this study, the quality, yield and nutritional content of hydroponically cultured microgreens versus adult of Bok Choy (Brassica rapa subsp. Chinensis (L.) Hanelt) vegetables were examined and evaluated in response to CNPs treatments and/or fertilizer supplementation that were grown under the same conditions and environments. CNPs have shown incredible potential as a sustainable alternative nutrient supplement in the growth of Bok Choy microgreens and adults. The nutritional value results backed up these claims as well. The addition of CNPs to conventional fertilizer has significantly increased the nutritional value of Bok Choy (micro-greens and adults), supporting the claims of CNPs' ability to improve nutrient absorption and uptake. This is towards high-throughput green farming with better quality and yield using the nanotechnology platform.
... The increase in demand for nutraceutical, fresh, and functional foods has made the production of consumable crops popular among the growers. Consumers are looking for food that supports their health [1]. Microgreens, also known as vegetable confetti, are a novel class of foods, defined as tiny green plants produced from seeds. ...
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Celery (Apium graveolens L.), a medicinal crop, occupies a significant position in the human diet possessing several essential macro- and microelements. For proper proximate analysis, an experiment was executed by taking 20 celery genotypes. The genotypes were analyzed for macro- and microminerals which include nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn). Results from analysis revealed that the amount of N, P, Ca, Na, and S was higher in microgreens, whereas a higher value for K was found in mature leaves. Zn, Cu, and Mn contents were found to be higher in mature leaves, while no significant difference was observed for Fe content in microgreens and mature leaves. The inclusion of celery microgreens in our daily diet would fulfill a significant portion of our daily mineral requirement. This is the first report on mineral comparison between microgreens and mature leaves of celery. It opens a new avenue for further enhancement of minerals via biofortification of this medicinal wonder crop through systematic breeding efforts. On the basis of mineral analysis, three genotypes, namely PAU2, PAU4, and PAU16, were found superior in terms of mineral composition in microgreens and mature leaves of celery. Principal component and cluster analyses divide the genotypes into two different clusters on the basis of variability in mineral composition.
... Microscale vegetables, such as sprouts and microgreens, are baby plants usually produced from the seeds or other vegetative organs of vegetables, cereals, and herbs. Being small and nutritious and having a short growth cycle, microscale vegetables are suitable for indoor and vertical cultivation and play an emerging role in improving nutritional value in human diet (Kyriacou et al., 2016). Cotton seedlings have tender stems, fast growth rates with a low demand for water and fertilizer, which makes cottonseed very suitable for microscale vegetables development. ...
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Cotton (Gossypium spp.) has been cultivated for its fiber for over 7,000years. An attribute of cotton not widely recognized is that for every 1kg of lint, the plant produces ∼1.65kg of seed. This makes cotton the third largest field crop in terms of edible oilseed tonnage in the world. In addition to 21% oil, cottonseed is a source of relatively high-quality protein (23%) and can potentially provide the protein requirements of ∼590 million people per year. However, the ability to use this nutrient-rich resource for food is hampered by the presence of toxic gossypol, which can cause poisoning in humans and monogastric animals. Here, without increasing environmental and resource costs, we propose detoxifying cottonseed through plant breeding, postharvest processing, and growth conditions controlling to meet food challenges. As the development of cottonseed as edible resource, it is expected to make cotton a multi-purpose (fiber, oil, food, and feed) crop.
... "Microgreens" is a marketing term used to describe young and tender edible seedlings harvested when the cotyledonary leaves have fully developed and the first true leaves emerge [5]. ...
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Formulation of new product involves modification of an existing product or formulation of entirely new product. This present study is focused on formulation of Ready-To-Serve microgreen chutney powder with an intention of preserving microgreens for longer duration and to get increased shelf-life. For this, various microgreens were grown and RTS microgreen chutney powder was developed and chosen based on organoleptic evaluation and highest yield microgreens. For the preparation of RTS microgreen chutney powder, microgreens were dried in a low temperature of 50⁰C for 3-4 hours and powdered. After organoleptic evaluation, green gram RTS microgreen chutney powder was rated the best with overall acceptability mean score of 4.36. The antioxidant level has been retained at 3664 mg/100 g and is rich in calcium which is 350 mg/100 g.
... Unfortunately, the risk of NaCl application to microgreens and spouts is apparent, such as a reduction in germination and yield [10,17]. Meanwhile, low yields and short shelf life are two important factors that restrict the development of the microgreens industry [18]. The addition of Ca to alleviate NaCl stress has been reported for many crops [19][20][21]. ...
Article
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Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Var. italica) microgreens are rich in various nutrients, especially sulforaphane. NaCl application is an effective method to reduce nitrate content, and to improve sulforaphane content; however, NaCl application is associated with a risk in productivity reduction. Ca application is a well-known approach to cope with salt stress. Thus, we hypothesized that adding CaSO4 may mitigate the adverse effects of NaCl stress, and enhance the quality of broccoli microgreens. In this study, we conducted an experiment to investigate the effects of a combined treatment of NaCl and CaSO4 on the fresh yield, glucosinolates (GS), sulforaphane, nitrate, and mineral element contents of broccoli microgreens. The results showed that the incorporation of CaSO4 into NaCl solution unexpectedly increased the yield of the leaf area. Moreover, the addition of CaSO4 ameliorated the decline in GS under NaCl stress, and induced the accumulation of Ca and S. The nitrate content decreased more than three times, and sulforaphane content also decreased in the combined treatment of NaCl and CaSO4. This study proposes that the incorporation of CaSO4 into NaCl solution increases the yield, and alleviates the unfavorable effects induced by NaCl stress on the quality of broccoli microgreens. This study provides a novel approach for microgreens production.
... Microgreens are considered as "Functional foods" which means the food products that possess particular health promoting or disease preventing properties that are additional to their normal nutritional values (Janovska et al., 2010). Researchers have provided a lot of information and reviews on the nutritional traits of microgreens, because they are affected by different cultivars or landraces, plant growth stages and environmental conditions (Kyriacou et al., 2016). All of these compositionally-positive aspects are coupled with a relatively easy production process, as they only need water, light, and a substrate to grow on (Marchioni et al., 2021). ...
Research
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Microgreens have emerged as a new concept of health building and nutritious functional foods. The present study on ten microgreens varieties belonging to Brassicaceae family and leafy salads aimed to study the effect of media on the growth related traits of microgreens and detailed the interaction between media and genotypes impacting visual quality of microgreens. Germination percentage was checked to determine the growth pattern of microgreens, revealing that turnip and kale microgreens germinated fastest, with a more uniform plant stand and also had better morphological quality in comparison with lettuce and broccoli microgreens which had more seedling length and yield respectively. Pusa Swarnima (turnip) and local kale emerged as the best microgreens to be grown in the media containing mixture of cocopeat, vermiculite and perlite in the ratio of 3:1:1, which performed significantly better than the same microgreens grown in vermicompost media. To conclude, media played an imperative role in the growth and development of microgreens and any alterations to the substrate will significantly affect not only the morphological characters but also the nutritional composition of microgreens.
... Here, the term "microgreens" refers to young and tender edible seedlings usually harvested at the soil level a few days after germination, when the cotyledons are fully expanded and still turgid. 11 Microgreens have been recently claimed as novel "superfoods" by virtue of their content in nutritional and bioactive compounds. 12,13 Due to their structural diversity, the examination of the GSL profile in plant extracts requires reliable and high-throughput analytical methods. ...
Article
An analytical approach based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization Fourier-transform mass spectrometry in negative ion mode (RPLC-ESI-(−)-FTMS) was developed for the untargeted characterization of glucosinolates (GSL) in the polar extracts of four Brassica microgreen crops, namely, garden cress, rapeseed, kale, and broccoli raab. Specifically, the all ion fragmentation (AIF) operation mode enabled by a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer, i.e., the systematic fragmentation of all ions generated in the electrospray source, followed by the acquisition of an FTMS spectrum, was exploited. First, the best qualifying product ions for GSL were recognized from higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD)-FTMS2 spectra of representative standard GSL. Extracted ion chromatograms (EIC) were subsequently obtained for those ions from RPLC-ESI(−)-AIF-FTMS data referred to microgreen extracts, by plotting the intensity of their signals as a function of retention time. The alignment of peaks detected in the EIC traces was finally exploited for the recognition of peaks potentially related to GSL, with the EIC obtained for the sulfate radical anion [SO4]•– (exact m/z 95.9523) providing the highest selectivity. Each putative GSL was subsequently characterized by HCD-FTMS2 analyses and by collisionally induced dissociation (CID) multistage MSn (n = 2, 3) acquisitions based on a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. As a result, up to 27 different GSLs were identified in the four Brassica microgreens. The general method described in this work appears as a promising approach for the study of GSL, known and novel, in plant extracts.
... In case of 248 pea-derived microgreens, Wu et al. (2007) studied the effects of 96-h continuous 249 illumination based on blue, red, and white LEDs on biosynthesis and accumulation 250 of various phytochemicals. In-depth research is required to unravel the mechanism 251 regulating the induction of secondary metabolites synthesis and light-associated 252 signal transduction pathways in different microgreens species (Kyriacou et al. 2016). ...
Chapter
Microgreens are 7–21-day-old seedlings of certain crop species which are harvested at first true leave stage manually or mechanically cutting the seedlings 5–10 mm above the growing media surface. Microgreens are considered as high-value functional foods as these are the storehouse of various antioxidants and certain minerals like K, Ca, Fe, and Zn. Microgreens have gained a lot of attention and popularity over last few years as a novel food, mainly due to their unique flavor, color, texture, and nutritional profiles. Recent studies have revealed that microgreens are richer than mature greens in some vitamins, sugars, and antioxidants, including carotenoids. The consumption of microgreens also appears to be associated with multiple health benefits like reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly due to prevention of hypercholesterolemia, and also provides protection against inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, and chronic diseases. Until now, microgreens have gained market mostly in the western countries; however, in other parts of the world, this is gaining foothold, especially in the urban and peri-urban settings. Rapid growth cycle, limited space requirement, rich flavor, diverse color, and highly economic produce make microgreens a dietary alternative that may contribute to the nutritional security of a large population. Success of microgreens technology will largely depend on the collective and collaborative efforts from the industry and researchers in the food chemistry, biochemistry, genetics, and human nutrition working to enhance the production of secondary metabolites. In this chapter, we have comprehensively covered various functional and nutritional aspects of a number of microgreens which are popularly being grown and consumed across the globe.KeywordsBiofortificationFunctional foodsLightingMicrogreensNovel foods
... Como um novo tipo de cultivo, os microverdes ainda estão em fase inicial, com disponibilidade limitada de informações científicas, mas expandindo a pesquisa e gerando resultados sobre sua imensa potencialidade como superalimento (Kyriacou, et al., 2016). Ainda há poucos estudos sobre a utilização de substratos e suplementação de luz, bem como seus efeitos sobre a produção de microverdes. ...
Article
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O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de diferentes substratos (fibra de coco e Carolina Soil®) e filtros de luz (preto, azul escuro, azul claro, roxo, rosa, verde, amarelo claro, amarelo escuro, laranja e vermelho) na produção de microverdes. O delineamento experimental no primeiro experimento foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x3, resultando em seis tratamentos com dois níveis para o fator substrato (fibra de coco e substrato comercial Carolina Soil®) e três níveis para o fator cultivar (Rúcula Surya, Cenoura Radesh e Beterraba Shankar). O delineamento experimental do segundo experimento também foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema unifatorial com 10 níveis para o fator espectro de luz (preto, azul escuro, azul claro, roxo, rosa, verde, amarelo claro, amarelo escuro, laranja e vermelha). No primeiro experimento foram avaliados comprimento da parte aérea (cm) e massa de matéria seca e fresca da parte aérea e raiz (g). No segundo experimento foram avaliados comprimento da parte aérea e da maior raiz (cm) como também massa de matéria seca e fresca da parte aérea e raiz (g). No primeiro estudo, a análise de variância do substrato comercial Carolina Soil® se sobressaiu, com plântulas apresentando comprimento de parte aérea de 4,94 cm. No segundo experimento, o filtro com espectro de luz roxo apresentou os melhores resultados para o cultivo de microverde Rúcula Surya com comprimento de parte aérea de 3,29 cm. Conclui-se que o substrato comercial Carolina Soil® e o espectro de luz roxa apresentaram-se mais indicados para o cultivo de microverdes.
... Microgreens are a fast growing specialty crop within the edible greens industry (Kyriacou et al., 2016). They are prized for their colour, texture, and flavour. ...
Article
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Microgreens represent a fast growing segment of the edible greens industry. They are prized for their colour, texture, and flavour. Compared to their mature counterparts, microgreens have much higher antioxidant and nutrient content categorizing them as a functional food. However, current production practices in plant factories with artificial light are energy intensive. Specifically, the lack of sunlight within the indoor structure means all of the light must be provided via energy consuming light fixtures, which is energy intensive and costly. Plant growth is usually increased with the total amount of light provided to the plants - daily light integral (DLI). Long photoperiods of low intensity lighting (greater than 18h) providing the desired/target DLI can reduce the capital costs for light fixtures and electricity costs. This is achieved by moving the electricity use from peak daytime hours (high price) to off-peak hours (low price) during the night in regions with time-based pricing scheme and lowering the electricity use for air conditioning, if plant growth is not compromised. However, lighting with photoperiods longer than tolerance thresholds (species/cultivar specific) usually leads to plant stress/damage. Therefore, we investigated the effects of continuous 24h white light (CL) at two DLIs (~14 and 21 mol m-2 d-1) on plant growth, yield, and antioxidant content on 4 types of microgreens - amaranth, collard greens, green basil, and purple basil to see if it compromises microgreen production. It was found that amaranth and green basil had larger fresh biomass when grown under CL compared to 16h when the DLIs were the same. In addition, purple basil had higher biomass at higher DLI, but was unaffected by photoperiods. Plants grown under the CL treatments had higher energy-use-efficiencies for lighting (10-42%) than plants grown under the 16h photoperiods at the same DLI. Notably, the electricity cost per unit of fresh biomass ($ g-1) was reduced (8-38%) in all microgreens studied when plants were grown under CL lighting at the same DLIs. Amaranth and collard greens also had higher antioxidant content. Taken together, growing microgreens under CL can reduce electricity costs and increase yield while maintaining or improving nutritional content.
... Brassica vegetables are known to contain high levels of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, and unique compounds, glucosinolates. Sprouts and microgreens of Brassica vegetables have gained acceptance in the population with health concerns because of their health-promoting secondary metabolites and higher nutritional value than those in their mature-leaf counterparts [80][81][82] . One study reported nutritional contents per 100 g of the edible portion of microgreens from R. sativus var. ...
Article
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Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are phospholipid bilayer vesicles released from cells, containing natural cargos. Microgreens of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef were used in this study as the source of EVs. EVs were isolated by differential centrifugation. The physical properties were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and electron microscopy. The biological and chemical composition were studied by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, respectively. EVs had a median size of 227.17 and 234.90 ± 23.30 nm determined by electron microscopy and DLS, respectively with a polydispersity index of 0.293 ± 0.019. Electron microscopy indicated the intact morphology and confirmed the size. The FTIR spectra revealed that EVs are composed of proteins as the most abundant macromolecules. Using a curve-fitting analysis, β-pleated sheets were the predominant secondary structure. Notably, the micromolecular biomarkers were not detected. EVs exerted anti-cancer activity on HCT116 colon cancer over Vero normal cells with an IC50 of 448.98 µg/ml and a selectivity index of > 2.23. To conclude, EVs could be successfully prepared with a simple and effective isolation method to contain nano-sized macromolecules possessing anti-cancer activity.
... Nowadays, even though urbanization has alienated people from the lifestyle associated with the gathering of these crops, consumer demand for these species has increased [21]. The need to diversify a monotonous diet and consume foods with nutraceutical compounds played a critical role in this increase [22][23][24][25]. Spiny chicory (Cichorium spinosum L.), also known as "stamnagathi", is one of those wild edible plants that has been gaining attention in the Mediterranean basin for the past 20 years. ...
Article
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Nutrient-efficient plants and agricultural systems could tackle issues resulting from conventional agriculture. Spiny chicory (Cichorium spinosum L.), a very adaptive, wild edible vegetable, is gaining commercial interest as a functional food. Floating-raft hydroponics is a method commonly used for the commercial cultivation of leafy vegetables due to numerous advantages compared to soil cultivation. In this paper, the simultaneous effects of different potassium, calcium and magnesium ratios and different electrical conductivity (EC) levels on the growth and mineral composition of hydroponically grown C. spinosum were investigated. Four nutrient solutions (NS) were compared, two NS with low EC (L, 2.4 dS/m) and two with high EC (H, 3.6 dS/m) with K:Ca:Mg ratios of either 50:40:10 or 40:50:10. The results showed no interactions between the two factors. No significant effects were observed on the fresh and dry weight, leaf number and leaf area. High EC levels increased the K content and decreased the Mn and Zn content in the leaf tissues. The 40:50:10 ratio led to increased Ca content in plant tissues. The Nitrate-N was only affected by the EC level and was increased under H conditions, whereas the total-N was not affected.
... Microgreens have been produced since the mid-1990s [44] but were still thought of as a new crop in 2010 [45]. Massive research and marketing have been performed in the past decade and microgreens are becoming a more popular food [46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53]. In this manner, ice plants may represent an interesting and novel food for a customer seeking diverse flavors in the salad category. ...
Article
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Common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) is a novel edible plant with a succulent and savory flavor. The plants display prominent epidermal bladder cells (EBCs) on the surface of the leaves that store water and sodium chloride (NaCl). The plants have high nutritional value and are adapted to saline soils. Previous research has determined the impact of NaCl on the growth and mineral content of ice plant, but as NaCl has an impact on a food’s sensory properties, an interesting question is whether saline growth media can affect the plant’s taste and texture, and if this alters consumers’ sensory response to ice plant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory aspects of ice plant, as well as consumer liking in response to increasing NaCl concentration in hydroponic nutrient solution. Four-week-old seedlings of ice plant were transplanted into deep water culture (DWC) hydroponic systems and treated with five NaCl concentrations (0 M [control], 0.05 M, 0.10 M, 0.20 M, and 0.40 M NaCl). Eight-week-old plants (after four weeks of NaCl treatment) were harvested, and the middle leaves of each plant were sampled for consumer testing. A total of 115 participants evaluated various flavor, texture, and appearance aspects of ice plant and provided their liking ratings. The consumers were able to discriminate differences in salt intensity from the plants based on NaCl treatment in the hydroponic nutrient solution. Low NaCl concentrations (0.05–0.10 M) did not have obvious adverse effect on consumer liking, which aligns with the result of previous research that 0.05–0.10 M NaCl could largely stimulate the growth of ice plant. NaCl concentrations higher than 0.20 M are not recommended from both a production and consumer perspective. With increased NaCl level in plant samples, the consumers detected more saltiness, sourness, and fishiness, less green flavor, and similar levels of bitterness and sweetness. NaCl treatment had no effects on leaf appearance and texture, and the consumers’ overall liking was mainly determined by flavor. Overall, ice plant presents some unique attributes (salty and juicy) compared to other edible salad greens; however, consumer awareness of ice plant is very low, and purchase intent is relatively low as well. Consumers picture ice plant being used mainly in salads and in restaurants.
... By influencing the germination process, it is possible to change the ratios of nutrients and thus modify the nutritional value of sprouts (Kyriacou et al., 2016;Pongrac et al., 2016). The differences in ash levels may be associated with the natural differences in ash content between the seeds of these two cultivars, as shown by Dziadek et al. (2016). ...
Article
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The assessment of the individual nutrient content is not a sufficient tool for a comprehensive assessment of the plant raw material as it does not take into account the relationship between the nutrients. The study proposes new methods of modifying the mineral composition of buckwheat sprouts using plant growth promoters (PGPs) and biological control agents (BCAs) and new methods of assessing this composition using mineral quotients (Cohen's profile similarity coefficient (rc) and principal component analyses (PCA)). Based on the analyzes, the profiles of the mineral composition of buckwheat sprouts were grouped and their distinctiveness from the control profile was confirmed. Based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), a standard profile of mineral ratios was established, which allowed to refer the mineral composition of sprouts directly to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The difference between the standard profile of mineral ratios and the ratio profiles of sprouts treated with PGPs and / or BCAs was shown. This methodological approach broadened the possibilities of assessing the mineral composition of plant materials, especially in the context of the expectations of specific target groups.
... At the time of harvesting, microgreens have a very high respiration rate [29] and can be stored comfortably for nearly a week time at <5˚C [30,31]. Immediately after the harvest, microgreens should be washed and cooled (1-5˚C) [26] or this can be marketed in trays with growing-medium [24]. Thus, two genotypes each of mungbean (MH810 & MH318), lentil (L830 and K75), and Indian mustard (PM28 & PDZM31) were used for the shelf life and sensory evaluation. ...
Article
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Microgreens have been used for raw consumption and are generally viewed as healthy food. This study aimed to optimize the yield parameters, shelf life, sensory evaluation and characterization of total aerobic bacteria (TAB), yeast and mold (Y&M), Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria spp. incidence in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus subsp. culinaris), and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.) microgreens. In mungbean and lentil, seeding-density of three seed/cm2, while in Indian mustard, eight seed/cm2 were recorded as optimum. The optimal time to harvest mungbean, Indian mustard, and lentil microgreens were found as 7th, 8th, and 9th day after sowing, respectively. Interestingly, seed size was found highly correlated with the overall yield in both mungbeans (r2 = .73) and lentils (r2 = .78), whereas no such relationship has been recorded for Indian mustard microgreens. The target pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were not detected; while TAB, Y&M, Shigella spp., and E. coli were recorded well within the limit to cause any human illness in the studied microgreens. Washing with double distilled water for two minutes has shown some reduction in the overall microbial load of these microgreens. The results provided evidence that microgreens if grown and stored properly, are generally safe for human consumption. This is the first study from India on the safety of mungbean, lentils, and Indian mustard microgreens.
... However, their authors usually focused on one or a few crops [15] or they assessed groups of active compounds (vitamins and minerals) [1,16]. It is known that there is a large number of plant species that can be eaten as microgreens [8,17]. However, there have been no studies comparing the dynamics of the growth of a wide range of microgreens under different light conditions. ...
Article
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Microgreens are becoming increasingly popular both as horticultural crops and as vegetables consumed by humans. They are classified as foods of high nutritional value. Twenty-eight microgreens crops were grown in a growth chamber under fully controlled conditions in order to determine how different light treatments affected their growth rate. The plants were grown under three light sources emitting red/blue ratios of about 6.7, 0.6, and 1.6 units (Red light, Blue light, and R + B light, respectively). Apart from that, the spectrum contained 10% yellow and orange light and 10% green light. The fresh weight of the plants ranged from 8 (perilla) to 1052 mg (nasturtium), whereas the length ranged for the same plants from 2.0 to 26.2 cm. The nasturtium was particularly strongly distinguished from the other species by the high values of its biometric parameters. The fresh mass of most of the other microgreens ranged from 20 to 100 mg, whereas their height ranged from 5 to 8 cm. Red light caused a significant increase in the fresh and dry weights of more than half of the species. The light spectrum had a lesser influence on the length of the plants. The research results showed considerable differences in the dynamics of growth of commonly cultivated microgreens.
... Thus, in this research, we explored the alternative of cultivating microgreens in an urban farming system to improve antioxidant content. Microgreens are young vegetables, which could be leafy greens or fruit vegetables, that are approximately harvested at 5 -10 cm tall [11]. They are found to contain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants 4-6 times more than the amount found in mature vegetables. ...
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Urban lifestyle is identical to stressful life and sedentary habit, leading to the increase of chronic conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular-related diseases. Antioxidants are renowned for maintaining cellular function by quenching radicals produced in stressful conditions or infection. Fresh fruits and vegetables are the primary sources of antioxidants, but the long postharvest and transport system may reduce the benefits for the urban population. Hence, we designed a cultivation method to produce wheatgrass microgreens with high antioxidants in an urban indoor farming system. Generally, plants require light at the wavelength of 663 and 642 nm (red) and 430 nm and 453 nm (blue) to allow photosynthesis and production of secondary metabolites, such as antioxidants. We applied the LED lights with an RGB ratio of 91R/9B, 83R/17B, 47R/53B, 35R/65B, and white florescent as the control. Our results showed that 91R/9B reduced fresh mass and chlorophyll content, which might be due to the suppression of photosynthesis capacity. Interestingly, we found a significant (p<0.05) increase in carotenoids and flavonoid contents due to light combinations of 35R/65B and 83R/17B, respectively. However, the total antioxidants capacity was similar among all treatments. Carotenoids and flavonoids are among the antioxidants with a significant role in decreasing the risks of chronic diseases and their potential as antiviral agents. This cultivation system of wheat microgreen could be a promising solution to routinely supply carotenoids and flavonoids to the urban population. Further, it is also considered more environmentally friendly as it could be performed in a limited amount of land (vertically) and potentially use less energy for distribution.
... It has been reported that mature broccoli requires about 158-236 times more water to grow and to produce similar nutrients volumes than microgreens broccoli in the fields of California's Central Valley in 93-95% less time and without the need for fertilizer and with reduced waste (stem and leaves during meal preparation) (Weber, 2017a). Both micro and macro scale cultivation of the microgreens in containerized growing media allows the commercialization of microgreens to be freshly harvested for the consumption and thereby, bypassing many harvesting and postharvest handling issues unlike mature vegetables (Di Gioia et al., 2015;Kyriacou et al., 2016). Protected and indoor cultivation is also less vulnerable to extreme weather and environmental conditions, and soilless growing conditions are less prone to the attack of pests and soil-born bacteria (Enssle, 2020). ...
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Considering the well-being cognizance of masses, the microgreens have emerged as the potential therapeutic functional foods for improving the overall health by dietary supplementation. Microgreens have delicate texture, distinctive flavors and exceptional volume of various nutrients accounting for higher neutraceutical benefits compared to their mature counterparts. Mounting interest in microgreens owes not only to their nutritional significance but also to their fascinating organoleptic traits. Many factors like rapid shrinkage of the land resources, lifestyle modification, healthy diet habits, the functional importance of food etc. cumulatively have resulted in increased interest in the microscale production of vegetables for the ready-to-eat market. Augmenting the production of secondary metabolites could provide more nutritional benefits, sensory attributes, and resistance to pests while, sharing many characteristics with sprouts, they are not associated with any foodborne illness. Their production by manipulation of agronomic practices like seeds, growing media, and light quality and biofortification with nutrients may result in nutrient-rich produce. These high-value crops typically characterized by short postharvest life and several pre a-harvest treatments can effectively maintain the shelf life of microgreens. Further, several genetic improvement tools can enhance the availability of bioactive compounds with minimum antinutritional factors. In this review, the comparative overview of the nutritional significance of microgreens with sprouts and their mature counterparts has been discussed. Further, the advances or manipulations in production technologies, the involvement of breeding programmes, and efficient post-harvest technologies to promote cost-effective production and future strategies for maintaining the shelf life and quality of microgreens have been argued.
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Leafy greens are nutrient-packed leaves of herbs, shrubs, or trees, consumed along with tender petioles and shoots as vegetables and complete a balanced diet. They are high in dietary fiber, eaten raw or cooked, and appreciated for their bland to tangy taste. The leafy greens of herbaceous plants, more so in the recent past, are being marketed in the form of microgreens. The microgreens are miniature seedlings of herbs, very tender, crunchy, fresh, and fragrant. Moreover, they are highly nutritional compared to mature leafy greens. Microgreens contain a considerably higher concentration of vitamins and carotenoids than mature plants, but the type and quantity differ among the microgreens originating from the different plant types. The current chapter focuses on the different aspects that should be considered while growing microgreens, as well as the information about seeds that are suitable to be raised as microgreens. Also, there is an account of the growth media, light, temperature, nutrient requirements, and other methods that may be adopted to cultivate microgreens either at home or on small-scale commercial farms. Preliminary studies have irrevocably proved the nutritional and health benefits offered by microgreens, and so the recent findings in this area are updated for the interested readers. Microgreens have a short growth period, and there is every chance that they will be contaminated during harvest, storage, and transport. Therefore, awareness about the necessity of axenic conditions for microgreen cultivation is also provided. Many pre and postharvest practices may be adopted to obtain fresh and healthy produce. This would enable us to bring variety to our food palette. Thus, it is clearly evident that if proper care is taken, microgreens can become a future food choice. Hopefully, we will be able to witness the impending microgreen revolution.
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Microgreens are niche salad greens which have increased in popularity among consumers in recent years. Due to similarities with sprouts and leafy greens-both attributed to numerous foodborne disease outbreaks-characterization of the food safety risks associated with microgreen production is warranted. The present study aimed to determine the fate and persistence of a human norovirus (HuNoV) surrogate, Tulane virus (TV), within a microgreen production system. Initially, the persistence of TV in two types of microgreen soil-free cultivation matrix (SFCM)-BioStrate® (biostrate) and peat-was determined. On day 0, water containing 7.6 log PFU of TV was applied to SFCM in growing trays, and the trays were maintained under microgreen growth conditions. TV persisted throughout the 10-day observation in biostrate and peat with overall reductions of 3.04 and 1.76 log plaque forming units (PFU) per tray, respectively. Subsequently, the transfer of TV to microgreen edible tissue was determined when planted on contaminated SFCM. Trays containing each type of SFCM were pre-inoculated with 7.6 log PFU of TV and equally divided into two areas. On day 0, sunflower (SF) or pea shoot (PS) seeds were planted on one-half of each tray, while the other half was left unplanted to serve as a control. The microgreens were harvested on day 10, and SFCM samples were collected from planted and unplanted areas of each tray. No TV were detected from the edible portion of either type of microgreen, yet TV were still present in the SFCM. TV concentrations were significantly lower in the root-containing planted area compared with the unplanted area for both biostrate (P = 0.0282) and peat (P = 0.0054). The mean differences of TV concentrations between unplanted and planted areas were 1.22 and 0.51 log PFU/g for biostrate and peat, respectively. In a subsequent investigation, TV transfer from day 7 inoculated SFCM to microgreens edible portion was not detected either. Overall, this study characterized the viral risk in a microgreen production system, which will help to understand the potential food safety risk related to HuNoV and to develop preventive measures.
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Interest in microgreens, young, edible seedlings of a variety of vegetables, spices, and herbs, is growing worldwide. A recent national survey of the U.S. microgreen industry reported 48% of 176 growers learned to grow microgreens by viewing websites and videos on the internet. However, it is unknown if the content related to growing microgreens is aligned with regulations and clearly presented. The aim of this research was to conduct a content analysis to determine alignment with the Food Safety and Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule (PSR)and the presentation quality of existing microgreen training materials available on the internet. Microgreen training materials were collected using two search engines – Google and YouTube. A deductive approach was used to inform the development of three coding manuals to evaluate the training materials meeting the eligibility criteria. One was used to determine the alignment of the content and was based on the PSR. The other two manuals were used to determine the presentation quality of Google and YouTube training materials according to CDC's Quality E-learning Checklist. A total of 223 training materials (86 Google and 137 YouTube), which fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were selected for the analysis. The results of the alignment with the PSR revealed that both sources minimally covered food safety principles with several areas minimally or not addressing specific information (e.g., water testing, worker training, environmental monitoring, and record keeping). In addition, some food safety information was unclear or presented conflicting information (e.g., requirement of washing microgreens, cleaning and sanitization methods, seed treatment methods, and waste management). The Google and YouTube quality scoring systems resulted in a mean quality score of 15.81 and 22 of a maximum score of 28, respectively. These findings indicate the quality and alignment with the PSR of microgreen training materials need to be improved.
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Fortification of food with mineral micronutrients and micronutrient supplementation occupied the center stage during the two-year-long Corona Pandemic, highlighting the urgent need to focus on micronutrition. Focus has also been intensified on the biofortification (natural assimilation) of mineral micronutrients into food crops using various techniques like agronomic, genetic, or transgenic. Agronomic biofortification is a time-tested method and has been found useful in the fortification of several nutrients in several crops, yet the nutrient use and uptake efficiency of crops has been noted to vary due to different growing conditions like soil type, crop management, fertilizer type, etc. Agronomic biofortification can be an important tool in achieving nutritional security and its importance has recently increased because of climate change related issues, and pandemics such as COVID-19. The introduction of high specialty fertilizers like nano-fertilizers, chelated fertilizers, and water-soluble fertilizers that have high nutrient uptake efficiency and better nutrient translocation to the consumable parts of a crop plant has further improved the effectiveness of agronomic biofortification. Several new agronomic biofortification techniques like nutripriming, foliar application, soilless activation, and mechanized application techniques have further increased the relevance of agronomic biofortification. These new technological advances, along with an increased realization of mineral micronutrient nutrition have reinforced the relevance of agronomic biofortification for global food and nutritional security. The review highlights the advances made in the field of agronomic biofortification via the improved new fertilizer forms, and the emerging techniques that achieve better micronutrient use efficiency of crop plants.
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Based on the current trend towards broad-bandwidth LED light spectra for basil productions in multi-tiered controlled-environment horticulture, a recently developed white broad-bandwidth LED light spectrum (400-780 nm) including far-red wavelengths with elevated red and blue light fractions was employed to cultivate basil. Four Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars (cv. Anise, cv. Cinnamon, cv. Dark Opal and cv. Thai Magic) were exposed to two different rising light intensity conditions (ILow and IHigh). In dependence of the individual cultivar-specific plant height increase over time, basil cultivars were exposed to light intensities increasing from ~ 100 to ~ 200 µmol m-2 s-1 under ILow, and from 200 to 400 µmol m-2 s-1 under IHigh (due to the exponential light intensity increases with decreasing proximity to the LED light fixtures). Within the first experiment, basils’ morphological developments, biomass yields and time to marketability under both light conditions were investigated and the energy consumptions were determined to calculate the basils’ light use efficiencies. In detail, cultivar-dependent differences in plant height, leaf and branch pair developments over time are described. In comparison to the ILow light conditions, IHigh resulted in accelerated developments and greater yields of all basil cultivars and expedited their marketability by 3-5 days. However, exposure to light intensities above ~ 300 µmol m-2 s-1 induced light avoidance responses in the green-leafed basil cultivars cv. Anise, cv. Cinnamon and cv. Thai Magic. In contrast, ILow resulted in consumer-preferred visual qualities and greater biomass efficiencies of the green-leafed basil cultivars and are discussed as a result of their ability to adapt well to low light conditions. Contrarily to the green-leafed cultivars, purple-leafed cv. Dark Opal developed insufficiently under ILow, but remained light-tolerant under IHigh, which is related to its high anthocyanin contents. In a second experiment, cultivars’ volatile organic compound (VOC) contents and compositions over time were investigated. While VOC contents per gram of leaf dry matter gradually decreased in purple-leafed cv. Dark Opal between seedling stage to marketability, their contents gradually increased in the green cultivars. Regardless of the light treatment applied, cultivar-specific VOC compositions changed tremendously in a developmental stage-dependent manner.
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As the world’s population is increasing exponentially, human diets have changed to less healthy foods resulting in detrimental health complications. Increasing vegetable intake by both rural and urban dwellers can help address this issue. However, these communities often face the challenge of limited vegetable supply and accessibility. More so, open field vegetable production cannot supply all the vegetable needs because biotic and abiotic stress factors often hinder production. Alternative approaches such as vegetable production in greenhouses, indoor farms, high tunnels, and screenhouses can help fill the gap in the supply chain. These alternative production methods provide opportunities to use less resources such as land space, pesticide, and water. They also make possible the control of production factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide, as well as extension of the growing season. Some of these production systems also make the supply and distribution of nutrients to crops easier and more uniform to enhance crop growth and yield. This paper reviews these alternative vegetable production approaches which include hydroponics, aeroponics, aquaponics and soilless mixes to reveal the need for exploring them further to increase crop production. The paper also discusses facilities used, plant growth factors, current challenges including energy costs and prospects.
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Currently, science and technology are continuously evolving by convergence with each other. In agriculture, new concepts such as smart farm, vertical farming, and urban agriculture have emerged beyond the traditional form. Among the various types of smart farms, vertical farms are considered one of the most advanced forms of agriculture, and research and related industries are rapidly increasing. However, vertical farming has several limitations. The biggest problem is that the types of crops grown within this system are extremely limited. Industrially, only minimal crops are cultivated, and a significant number of many crops are rarely attempted due to cultural or economic limitations. This is especially the case with fruit crops because the innate form and various traits of fruit crops are not suitable for vertical farming. Therefore, this review will discuss the attributes of which fruit crops need to be improved to be grown on vertical farms. Finally, we show how the latest biotechnology and breeding techniques can enable the fast and accurate development of crops tailored to vertical farms.
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The study aimed to develop masala mix using microgreens, to assess the organoleptic properties of products prepared by incorporating Microgreen Masala Mix (MMM) and compare the antioxidant properties of the most acceptable variation of MMM with Standard Masala Mix (SMM). Four varieties of microgreens - Spinach, Fenugreek, Coriander and Amaranthus were cultivated, harvested, dehydrated and powdered separately. A microgreen mix (MM) was prepared by mixing 5 g each of the dehydrated powder. SMM was prepared using different spices.MMM was prepared by replacing the SMM with MM at 10, 15 and 20% (i.e Variation- 1,2 and 3) respectively. Masala rice and Masala potato fry were prepared by incorporating SMM and MMM. Sensory attributes of the developed products were evaluated by 15 semi-trained panellists using 9 point hedonic scale. Masala rice-Standard and variation 1 had a higher and similar mean score of 8.4±0.63 and 8.4±0.82 respectively. A similar trend was noticed for masala potato fry, where standard and variation 1 had a mean score of 8.13±0.74 and 7.9±1.33 respectively indicating a high overall acceptability. Hence, the antioxidant properties of MMM (variation 1) were analysed and compared with SMM. MMM (variation 1) had high total phenolic content (55.7 ?g of gallic acid equivalent/ml) and essentially similar flavonoid content (13.45 ? Quercetin/ml). The free radical scavenging activity IC50 value of variation 1 was higher (99.0 ?g/ml) than the standard. Microgreens are rich source of antioxidants hence incorporating microgreens in regular recipes along with other spices and condiments will prove useful to maintain health.
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Knowledge and evidence on how food value chains can deliver nutrition, especially micronutrients, are limited. A deeper understanding of the food value chains as part of agri-food systems approaches addressing hunger and malnutrition through agricultural development may provide pathways for nutrition and health outcomes.. This systematic review was undertaken using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) to assess the broad topic of value chains and micronutrients, focusing on interventions and their related impact pathways. Impact pathway interventions improving micronutrient delivery and consumption were classified as production, accessibility, marketing, income, knowledge and behavioral, and finally, women’s empowerment pathways. However, the case study evidence on the micronutrient-sensitive value chains for nutritional outcomes is very scant. This review identified that making value chains micronutrient-sensitive requires a multi-stakeholder, integrated approach as a basis for concerted action among various stakeholders in terms of policy, research, strengthening partnerships and coordination, and information sharing. The review illustrates the scarcity of literature with a focus on the micronutrients in the context of food value chains and developing countries. The food value chain approach offers great potential to unpack the complexity of food systems and identify entry points and pathways for improving nutrition outcomes, especially the micronutrients. Additionally, this review identifies multiple entry points and calls for strong advocacy of nutrition-sensitive value chain approaches to combat hidden hunger.
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This study aimed to evaluate the eggplant genotype x environment ineraction, using the REML/BLUP procedure, in order to identify genotypes with high productivity, adaptability and phenotypic stability. The experiments were carried out in agricultural greenhouses, in two seasons, with three types of shading: uncovered (UC); covered with plastic diffuser film (PD), 130 microns thick, covered with plastic diffuser film (130 micron) + 50% shading screen (SS). Twelve eggplant genotypes were evaluated, with four replicates and an experimental plot consisting of four plants. The traits evaluated in this study were: fruit set index, number of fruits per plant, average production of fruits/plant and in vitro pollen viability. To assess the adaptability and stability of the genotypes, statistical analyzes and estimation of genetic parameters were performed using the mixed-models of REML/BLUP type, with the aid of SELEGEN software and the statistical model 51. According to the results obtained, the authors verified an agreement between the three methods: Relative Performance of Genetic Values (PRVG), Harmonic Average of Genotypic Values (MHVG) and Harmonic Mean of Relative Performance of Genetic Values (MHPRVG) for average fruits production per plant (PP), number of fruits per plant (NF) and in vitro pollen viability (IVPV), showing the high degree of agreement in the ordering of materials. Thus, it is possible to indicate that the genotypes with the best productive performance, adaptability and stability in the evaluated environments were CNPH135×CNPH60, CNPH135×CNPH51, CNPH135×CNPH141, CNPH109, CNPH109×CNPH60 and CNPH109×CNPH141. Keywords: Solanum melongena; genotype x environment interaction; mixed models
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Microgreens, the popularly known “new Superfoods” are immature edible vegetables. This chapter reviews the art and science of growing microgreens and also examines the prospects and challenges of future projects on microgreens. The marvel of microgreens is known to have existed for about only 90 years, with the early records of cultivation of wheat grass for medicinal purposes in the 1930s and winter greens like sunflower during the 1960s and home grown “grasses” in the 1970s for their health benefits. Microgreens are perishable crops and the short shelf life is attributed to the post‐harvest degradation due to the rapid respiration of the microgreens after the removal of roots. India is emerging as a good market and is expected to grow further with the boost in consumer economy driven by elite and affluent income segments, hospitality and the travel sectors.
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Photoperiod controls many physiological processes in plants, and the manipulation of day length can achieve the desired growth and development characteristics. The photoperiodic response depends on light signal perceived by plants’ photoreceptors and can vary under controlled environment conditions where the artificial light sources are used. Many studies were focused on finding the specific light spectra and intensity to ensure healthy growth or manage metabolism, and less is known about the photoperiodic stimulus for vital processes in plants. This study was conducted to evaluate how photoperiod of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) illumination affects the growth and mineral composition of Brassica microgreens grown indoors. Mustard (Brassica juncea L., ‘Red Lion’), red pak choi (Brassica rapa var. chinensis, ‘Rubi F1’) and tatsoi (Brassica rapa var. rosularis) microgreens were grown in walk-in growth chambers (21/17±2°C day/night temperatures; 55±5% relative air humidity) for ten days. The day lengths of 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h were achieved from five solid-state illumination modules consisting of blue 447-nm, red 638-nm, 665-nm and far-red 731-nm LEDs. The total photon flux density (TPFD) was 300 µmol m‑2 s‑1. The contents of mineral elements were determined by spectrometric ICP-OES method. The shortest 8-h photoperiod led to hypocotyl elongation and increased the leaf area and fresh weight of all investigated microgreens. The lengthening of plants was decreased due to day extension from 12- to 20-h, and 24-h photoperiod suppressed the growth process most. The better uptake of potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc in mustard grown under 8-h photoperiod was observed. In tatsoi, the higher contents of all mineral elements (except iron) under 20-h photoperiod were determined. The 12- and 16-h photoperiods were the most proper for a higher uptake of calcium, magnesium and sulphur in red pak choi. The common tendency for fresh microgreens when the 24-h photoperiod increased the contents of investigated mineral elements were observed.
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Microgreens are edible seedlings of vegetables and flowers species which are currently considered among the five most profitable crops globally. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have shown great potential for plant growth, development, and synthesis of health-promoting phytochemicals with a more flexible and feasible spectral manipulation for microgreen production in indoor farms. However, research on LED lighting spectral manipulation specific to microgreen production, has shown high variability in how these edible seedlings behave regarding their light environmental conditions. Hence, developing species-specific LED light recipes for enhancement of growth and valuable functional compounds is fundamental to improve their production system. In this study, various irradiance levels and wavelengths of light spectrum produced by LEDs were investigated for their effect on growth, yield, and nutritional quality in four vegetables (chicory, green mizuna, china rose radish, and alfalfa) and two flowers (french marigold and celosia) of microgreens species. Microgreens were grown in a controlled environment using sole-source light with different photosynthetic photon flux density (110, 220, 340 µmol m−2 s−1) and two different spectra (RB: 65% red, 35% blue; RGB: 47% red, 19% green, 34% blue). At harvest, the lowest level of photosynthetically active photon flux (110 µmol m−2 s−1) reduced growth and decreased the phenolic contents in almost all species. The inclusion of green wavelengths under the highest intensity showed positive effects on phenolic accumulation. Total carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity were in general enhanced by the middle intensity, regardless of spectral combination. Thus, this study indicates that the inclusion of green light at an irradiance level of 340 µmol m−2 s−1 in the RB light environment promotes the growth (dry weight biomass) and the accumulation of bioactive phytochemicals in the majority of the microgreen species tested.
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Background: Peat-based mixes and synthetic mats are the main substrates used for microgreens production. However, both are expensive and non-renewable. Recycled fibrous materials may be low-cost and renewable alternative substrates. Recycled textile-fiber (TF, polyester, cotton and polyurethane traces) and jute-kenaf-fiber (JKF, 85% jute-, 15% kenaf-fibers) mats were characterized and compared to peat and Sure-to-Grow(®) (STG, 100% polyethylene-terephthalate) for the production of rapini (Brassica rapa L.; Broccoletto group) microgreens. Results: All substrates had suitable physicochemical properties for the production of microgreens. Microgreens fresh-yield was on average 1,502 g m(-2) in peat, TF and JKF, and was 13.1% lower with STG. Peat-grown microgreens shoots had higher concentration of K(+) and SO4 (2) (-) , and two-fold higher NO3 (-) concentration [1,959 vs 940 mg kg(-1) of fresh weight (FW)] than those grown on STG, TF, and JKF. At harvest, substrates did not influence microgreens aerobic-bacterial populations (log 6.48 CFU g(-1) FW). Peat- and JKF-grown microgreens had higher yeast-mould counts than TF- and STG-microgreens (log 2.64 vs 1.80 CFU g(-1) FW). Peat-grown microgreens had the highest population of Enterobacteriaceae (log 5.46 ± 0.82 CFU g(-1) ), and E. coli (log 1.46 ± 0.15 CFU g(-1) ). E. coli was not detected in microgreens grown on other media. Conclusion: TF and JKF may be valid alternatives to peat and STG, as both assured competitive yield, low nitrate content, and similar or higher microbiological quality.
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Modern horticultural lighting systems are implementing solid-state light sources as a supplement or alternative to sunlight or other artificial lighting systems. Many lighting systems, including those with light emitting diodes, typically ignore the contributions of green wavebands in plant development, and ultimately may affect the potential value of horticultural products produced under them. It has been shown that green light can reverse anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. The goal of this work is to test the hypothesis that green wavebands can modulate the accumulation of these valued pigments in three varieties of microgreen seedlings. The results show that while anthocyanins are induced with far-red light, green light cannot reverse, and may enhance, their accumulation under low-fluence-rate conditions, but the trend reverses in some seedlings under high-fluence rate conditions. On the other hand, blue-light-induced anthocyanin accumulation may be inhibited by the addition of green wavebands, and the effect is fluence-rate dependent and varies in sensitivity and amplitude, depending on the genotype. These trials underscore the importance of considering the inhibitory effects of green light on anthocyanin accumulation when designing lighting systems.
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The mineral element composition was analyzed for 30 varieties of microgreens, representing 10 species within 6 genera of the Brassicaceae family. Brassicaceae microgreens were assayed for concentrations of macroelements, including calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorous (P), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and of microelements, including copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). Determinations of mineral elements in microgreen samples were performed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP OES). Potassium was the most abundant macroelement ranging from 176 to 387 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), followed by P (52-86 mg/100 g FW), Ca (28-66 mg/100 g FW), Mg (28-66 mg/100 g FW), and Na (19-68 mg/100 g FW). Among the microelements, Fe tended to be most abundant (0.47-0.84 mg/100 g FW), followed by Zn (0.22-0.51 mg/100 g FW), Mn (0.17-0.48 mg/100 g FW), and Cu (0.041-0.13 mg/100 g FW). Based upon the analysis of 30 varieties, the results demonstrate that microgreens are good sources of both macroelements (K and Ca) and microelements (Fe and Zn.). Consumption of microgreens could be a health-promoting strategy to meet dietary reference intake requirements for essential elements beneficial to human health.
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We reported previously that the preharvest treatment of broccoli microgreens with 10 mmol.L-1 calcium chloride (CaCl2) increased the yield and postharvest quality. The objective of this study was to investigate whether other calcium forms have the similar effect, in particular, after postharvest dip in calcium solution. Our results are as follows: 1) Preharvest spray without postharvest dip: Both 20 mmol.L-1 calcium lactate (Ca lactate) and calcium amino acid (Ca AA) chelate significantly improved broccoli microgreens quality and inhibited microbial populations as compared with the water-only control during storage at 5 degrees C for 21 days. However, they were less effective than 10 mmol.L-1 CaCl2. 2) Postharvest dip without preharvest spray: The microgreens sprayed with water-only control were dipped in 0, 25, 50, or 100 mmol.L-1 Ca lactate solution containing 100 mu L.L-1 chlorine immediately after harvest. During storage at 5 degrees C for 14 days, 50 mmol.L-1 Ca lactate dip showed the highest overall quality and lowest tissue electrolyte leakage. 3) Preharvest spray and postharvest dip: Combined preharvest 10 mmol.L-1 CaCl2 spray and postharvest 50 mmol.L-1 Ca lactate dip resulted in better postharvest quality than individual pre- or postharvest calcium treatments. However, the preharvest 10 mmol.L-1 CaCl2 spray without postharvest dip displayed a best overall visual quality and longest storage life. Our data indicate that pre- and postharvest calcium treatments have positive effect on maintaining the microgreens quality and extending shelf life. However, current postharvest dip/spinning/drying method profoundly reduces the shelf life due to mechanical damages. Technologies to optimize microgreens wash are needed to provide ready-to-eat product. Alternatively, the wash step can be avoided when the microgreens are grown under controlled settings.
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This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of chlorinated water on storage quality and microbial reduction of tah tasai Chinese cabbage young leaf vegetable (microgreen). Fresh young leaves were washed in cold (5 degrees C) and warm (25 degrees C) chlorinated water with 0, 50 or 100 mg.L(-1) free chlorine for 90 sec. Samples were then packaged in polypropylene (PP) film bag and stored for 8 days at 15 degrees C. Changes in weight loss, color, SPAD value, external appearance, and aerobic plate count (APC) were evaluated. Chlorinated water treatment at 5 degrees C had a more beneficial effect Oil Visual quality, weight loss, SPAD value change than 25 degrees C chlorinated water treatment. No significant difference was found in APC on the surface of tah tasai Chinese cabbage microgreen after 3-day storage period. Chlorinated water either at 5 degrees C or 25 degrees C with 50-100 mg.L(-1) free chlorine significantly reduced APC during the initial period of storage (up to 2 days). The results indicated that chlorinated water only affected microbial reduction until tah tasai Chinese cabbage microgreen maintained its initial quality.
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Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of coir. The addition of coconut fiber to coconut dust increased the airspace (Air at -10cm tension) but reduced easily available water. The water buffing capacity was lower in coir than in peat. Levels of air space, however, varied considerably. It should be possible to get predetermined levels of airspace by mixing the appropriate levels of fiber to coconut dust. In incubation studies carried out over 20 weeks there was a significant nitrogen retention in one case probably due to the age of coir but the addition of fiber to the dust did not have any effect on N retention. Leaching of nitrogen was marginally higher in coir than in Irish peat (H 4 decomposition) when materials of similar particle size were compared. CO2 evolution and as well as a stability test (degree of slumping over time) indicated that coir was less stable than Irish peat. Fungal and to a lesser extent bacterial counts were higher in coir than in peat. Mixing and fertilization increased fungal counts in contrast to peat. There were clear indications that a water extraction for K determination may not be a suitable extractant for coir. Although water extractable K was strongly correlated to exchangeable K, it gave extremely low values even when the exchangeable K was reasonably high.