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Assessing the application and value of participatory mapping for community bushfire preparation

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Abstract

The increased ease for individuals to create, share and map geographic information combined with the need for timely, relevant and diverse information has resulted in a new disaster management context. Volunteered geographic information (VGI), or geographic information voluntarily created by private citizens enabled through technologies like social media and web-based mapping, has changed the ways people create and use information for crisis events. Research has focussed on disaster response while largely ignoring prevention and preparedness. Preparing for disasters can reduce negative impacts on life and property, but despite strategies to educate communities, preparation remains low. This study assesses the application and value of VGI in bushfire risk reduction through a participatory mapping approach. It examines VGI as a social practice and not simply a data source by considering the user experience of contributing VGI and the potential for these activities to increase community connectedness for building disaster resilience. Participatory mapping workshops were held in bushfire-risk communities in Tasmania. Workshop activities included a paper-mapping exercise and web-based digital mapping. Survey results from 31 participants at three workshops indicated the process of mapping and contributing local information for bushfire preparation with other community members can contribute to increased social connectedness, understanding of local bushfire risk, and engagement in risk reduction. Local knowledge exchange was seen as valuable, but the social dimension appeared even more engaging than the specific information shared. Participants reported collaborative maps as effective for collating and sharing community bushfire information with a preference for digital mapping. Some limitations of online sharing of information were also reported by participants, however, including potential issues of privacy, data quality and source trustworthiness. Further work is needed to extrapolate findings from the study sample to the broader population.
Assessing the application and value of participatory mapping for
community bushfire preparation

 !"#$%&'
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
Highlights
*+,)%&-&&
.&%+%%/,)-!%%&//+
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Abstract
+%//%+&+-
&++&+/+*1
,//%+&2,)3//%+&-%
&#-//+-4-+%%//
%%+&1'%
///%&%%1.%//&+%
%%-%/++&%%&+1
%%&,)-!&/%&%+%%/
%%1)*+,)%&+%-/
*%-&/,)%&&&++
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++&+1%&&%%4+%%/*-4-
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+%%/-&/+&-!%%&++++-
-/-!//+
&17/*/--+%%
+///%!+&1.&%%-&+%
8&&//++-!+&%/
+%%/1++&/+&%-%&%
/%&%91:
*%!/++%-%%&1
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%%&
1. Introduction and background
1.1 Bushfire preparation and community engagement
$++%%&++%-!1.%&
%%%1'&/
E/%%&4+/2.;B6B3+%F+%%G2
H.;B653+9%%2.+et al1;B65 0%et al1;B6<3
%%&2.+et al1;B6>3/2et al1;B6>3%%
%!-!2(7et al1;B65 et al1;B65310%++&/
+%%&%%&+2.;BB5 +et al.
;BB? /et al.;B6=31//&+/+/++&
%I++%%&+///%&%
%%1EJ+/++-++
%&%&/+%%&20''3
-/21/1")0';B6=31)K%%%-
++%&%&+-"&/0'2$LK;B6631
)K++%&%&!+/+/+4-%&1
,$:KGF$++:/G%/+-
6AA5///%/---!%%&2$:K;B6>31
++%+%%%-+:2:3F!4
'"/-G2'"3%/+++&--!
%++-!&&&
1%/++%+&-%%%-!
%--%%-!2:;B6<31+%/+*$
2F:+4:G3K2F:$++&G3+//&/
/-%/+%-!2!3-
2(;B66 (0/et al1;B6<31
$++//+%&%&+/+%&+/-
I/1)/++%&&&/+//&&
/%&%%%2..''3%/21/1
et al1;B6< et al1;B6=31'*+%F,K+G
+J+;B6B4669$"M%
%9&2,+et al1;B6;3/%
0/+C+/;B6="%9-
%&4-2';B6=31C/&&
J-I/-
//%%&//1/-
%&&+&++&/-//
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++/++///%+&
2,)3%&//+%&#-%-+/
+/+/%&%+/+2H;B6=31
1.2 The emergence and promise of VGI
,)4/%&+%&
/&+&//%+&2et al.;B6; ;BB? 
;BB@31/)-;1B/-%&/+/
--++&+%&/+%
-%&/&///%+&-
%&#2;BB? .H7;BB?31/+%+&+
%-&-&%&/%&+%
&%%&-+&/
-/////%+&+2)3%
2et al.;B6631
'%%+,)%%%&
/!%%&1:*+%%&
'2;B6B3%%%&,)+%&#%/-
+/+%-&//+&-
+1$++%&%&+/-/#+
+%/+%&-&,)/!2H
';B6B31et al.2;B6;3-%%&)//%%-
/-,)1///2;B6<3%
%%,)&//2C3/+
+%1C&+&+/%&-
-//++%
++///-/&2//et al.;B6<31
K/%+,)+%-+%&1$/&
&+-,)&%+%+
&#//-*%4&#4%+&
&&%&2;B6>31
1.3 VGI in disaster management
+%//%+&+-
&++&/
+/+*2H;B6B H;B6=31+-4-
+%%/%N+/%%+&
2L+H%&;B66 7H.;B6B31-:-
*+/2et al.;B6; et al.;B6;3++%*&&
+/+%%/2(;B6;31et al.2;B6>3-&+%&%&
+%%///+%/+%-+/
+%%+-+4%%&%&%+++&
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%1/%*///%+&-&&#
%%+&/++//+%%&
%&,)-..''%+/+2H;B6=31
,)%-%%&/+/+2H;B6= 
;B6>31,)48&%++&-
&84++&-%-&/+
+&+%%481/&
/-%!+//,)-%%
&+//+-+
+%%/+%/;B6B&92(;B6;31//&#
++&+-/++%-
+%%%-++/++
%&-4%%%1/-+//
+/%&/-%%&1.%+//%/
+//+%/
2.;B6>31:+%++
&+&-&/,)2'et al.;B6=31
K%/,)92et al.;B6>31K,)+
+&4%+9&9
-/+/1'%
%%&/--+/+&21/1et al.;B6; /
et al.;B6> %HC+/;B6;31)%+%
+&--21/1et al. ;B6531'
-%&,)%/-/%+
O&2;B65 et al.;B6531*//-
,)1,)---
%%+/&2et al.;B6=31
)+%/%N++++/+
/+//+/,)+&/
%&27H;B66 Ket al.;B6=31:
,)E+/+/+G%4%%+&+&
2;B6> .H7;BB?31:+/,)-/2";BB63
&++%-&F+%/G/
-+/+/#2et al.;B65 $H:;B6=31
7!%///%&
%%2H;B6=318/%%&
,)%%&%&-!1,)-4
/4%,)%%&2HL+;B6>31
/*+&,)%&+&/-&-
+%%%&P+/&/
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+/+1),)-*%-&/
,)%&%&%+%%/++1,)
%&/%&%%,)%
/%&&%%-,)/
*+,)%&2et al.;B6;31
1.4 Participatory mapping
)/++&%9-0''2H(;BBA31
(2;BBA3++4-0''%&%&-/++&
&!&2/#-&%&31K/
I+&&%&%&%+%44
+&2/et al.;B6531
L%%/++&0''/%&%)2.)3%-
%&%&)2..)31.)..)--!-&/+-/
%%&%&2H:/+;B6=31K///%//&+
/%&/.)+/%&9&
+%&+%&)20;BB?31)%/*%&
++++-+%+%%&/
2$-;BB53%&%4+/%++
+%+++&2;BB? ($et al1;B6=31
+%&%/..)%%%&/4
++%-&&
&++%/2($et al1;B6=31)
&%%%8-%%2%
HCQ;B6<3-%:/+G2;B6=3!&
F%&%+%%/G-%&#&/+%
,)1
K/%&-..),)2;BB@3%+,)
&)2($et al1;B6= -H;B6=31,)
%&%&+%+&%
+&%%%+%++-+
2($et al1;B6=31/+GF%/+G-2;B6=3
..)cultural informaon++,)%+
%technological informaon1&*%&&%
-..),)%%/2$+H+;B65 
;BB@31..)-&%&/
%&///+&//,)-9
*-F%/+G+--2;B6=3
%&&4/1
.&%%%-8++&I48&+
+/--&2Ket al.;B6B3/-+&+
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+-)/&/%&)
%%+2;BB>31$et al.2;B6<3/
&&-!+%/&#G&
/+&&%&//!///
8&%&%&,)&&E+/%%!1
)+%%//-+%0''!+/+%%&
+/!#+2$H$/6A@A3+%+/
+/!-2Cet al.;B6B31.&%+%%/
-++&%-%#%
&+2H(;BBA31/et al.2;B653-
++4-+%+&+&/&
--++4+1)%!!
%-%&%&++8&!+/+-/
/%+!++&%/%%&
%++++-2:H$%;B6<31:$%2;B6<3
9%&%+%%/-//%
//+%1+9-
/&/&+%//%&%
*%+&&1)+%$-2;BB53/%&%+%%/%
--/++%&+++++-//4
4+/-%/-+%/
++&1
$&9..)&+%&%)+%+/#
++&/+%*//-
/++%&%&2$-HC;BB=31,)++
-&%+&/%&%%&-
%1
)%%&%+%%/%%/,)-!&
/++%1)-%&%+%%//+
%++%%&%+
/-/%%%%/%%/9
%%2et al.;B6<31%+9&2(*;BB> 
et al.;B6<3//%&%-&1%
&-&-%&%/+%%&%&
+%%/%%&+-+
1%&%%%-//-
-+%+%&%G///
207H;B6<319&+%/%%%%
%%9&&/&-&&
/&%%-%%&2$&et al.;BBB31+%
8+%/%&/%4-+1%&%
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%+-+-+%%/%
%&%/++%/2et al.;B6<3/!&
&/,)%&-1
1.5 Study aims
+%+%%/-&//
+&-!%%&++++-G
/-!//+
&1(%!/9&D
630%&-&//,)//+-!
%%&R
;30&-&+%%/++R
53)///++%%/%++&R
<3)+%%8&++&//++-!
+&R
2. Methods
2.1 Study sites and rationale
.&%+%%/%-!++&+K
2:/631(+--%&!#1!+
+#+%++&/4
&/2:;B6;31-!6A>?+G%-
>;5BBB-/2(K;B66310-!+%
+;B65/;B5&-/!
S6BB+2&+&+/%
%&9&%-%320.K$;B6531;B6=46>
+-!*--4+&+
2"$'$;B6=31K&/%O;=BT
+/F,/:0/G/%/-;B@64;6BB/+
%%&2:*4/et al1;B6=31+
/-!1
%&2:/63&-61%
++-!-%&!&
-,)%%&++&8///%*&/
++//+++%!!1
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-61$&%
Region Bushre
risk1
Signicant
re event2
Populaon3Geography Engaged
bushre
groups4
Part of BRN
program5
Ke&ering  *+ 6A>? A@< ' U +
St Marys "

*+ ;BB> @BB ' U U
St Helens "

*+ ;B6< 6<A@ .4- " +
Tolmans
Hill
- *+ ;B6< <AB - " "
6+'+%%-.2.3;B6B1KAP;P;B6>
V%DPP111P%P*B5P'WK+W(%%/X1;/!D+++!&1
+//+-P++%+21/1
-O31,+&P15;B66$K&&2K31<0++
%4*&/-%&/++4!+/+4/%R1/1/-/%+&/-
%1=!4'"/-D"%'" +//+ U++1
V%DPP1-!/-11/1PX1
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.&%/D263%%/%&%%
2et al.;B6=32;3253&++
!/%-++/&/1K
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*%E%++%2Y=B3-*%
1)+&+++%(2Y6=B3
2Y6=B3+1%&+-
/+-21/1+:
++/&3//%+&:-2-//%/
X6@31
2.3 Workshop process
%"+-0+-;B6=<4=
%1%%&%+&%+%%/+4&&
++-*%//
++++--1%%&
%%+%%/&2%%*+AB+3-25B+3/+%%/
&2%%*+?=+3-%&%+%9&26=+31.
%&/:%&+'"
%/+1!%%+%&%
%%%-+&
--&-+:+I+/
+/+%&1
%-/+
*%%&&1!&%%+%%/-%&%
/%;4=/%+/2#K63%/%+%2#K63++
%&%2I:+/F-%G+&3
2#K;3-%%%&+&&1
.&%+&+%-!
%%&++/+-&%41
**%-&+%%/%&%+%
%-1%///&
+/-%%%/%--!
++-%%%%/+++/%+4
4%&+%/&
:F%G1K+%&*%&%%+%
/%1:/;%*+%%%+%+%/*1
&2/+%%/3&/+&+/%
+--+%1/)&+M+%%N+21#+%1+3
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%//%/%%+%2/%&%
#+%3'7+%-%&%-/-
-%%+%+%-%1.&%
+%P+/-1%N+-%
8/1K%&%-
%&P-/+&%%/1
.&%-%-+&9
1:/5%*+%+%/+%1
K9&+%-%&%%-9&&9&
//%/*%+%%/+++&
+%%/+/++-!%%&++
%&%,)1Z&%
(J*/K&&2K3;B66
$1C///-&+%&%
//&+-1
:/;1K*+%%%+%%/C/%
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:/51K*+%/+%M+%%N+%/C/%
3. Results
516.&%+/%
+56%&%/2C/Y6> (
YA YB +Y>31+%
+%9&1K-&+2=5T3+2<?T3%&%1
/-&%&%5=2/5=4=BY;BT =64?BY=5T 
X?BY;?T31:/<%+%-/%&+%
%++%%&1ABT
%26BT3%2>?T3265T31(%&%
++=2?>T3;<T/+;B1=?T
%&%&9!&+O+%2<?T3&2=BT31
66
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5<A
5=B
:/<1%++&%&/%%&%%&%/
/%+%K;B66$%%&1
3.2 Workshop observations
3.2.1 Parcipant interacons
.&%%%+&--!%%&
++191)%&
%%+%%/&/%&%&1+%&%-
/-++++-++
&//+%%/&&+-%%2
%%+&/+%%31
)&%%//+%%/&1+E9/
&&-9%&%&/&1)+
%&/%++-%2-%%+%+%3/
/%++%%&+%&%--
/&+-/1KJ&&+//
&++/%&+%%/++-/
+%1
3.2.2 Group Discussions
6;
5=6
5=;
5=5
5=<
5==
5=>
5=?
5=@
5=A
5>B
5>6
5>;
5>5
5><
5>=
5>>
5>?
5>@
5>A
0+%+%8-+%%/+
,)4+%+-%%-++%
[/10%-%//-!++%
+%%+&%+
-+%%/%&1
.&%/-%/+%%/-&
-&51;161+%%/-%%4
//+&-!%%&&&+//%%
-/%!///1
-+%%-*+/!+&21/1%%&
/-3-&+/+&
-&/P%%+++%
%&/21/1)31
3.2.3 The informaon contributed
%&%+%%%&!
++++&%%%&#
4-FG%+-
%-&1
/!&&%&%-
++%%++%-1)+
+-/+-//-G
++&C/%&%%%4
//-4-!+/+/%+%1.&%
+%+++/-+%/-!%%+1'/
-+++%&!&%/8%+-
-/++&1.&%/+%%+
+////+-!%%&++
-+/%1
3.3 Questionnaire responses
3.3.1 The user experience of mapping community informaon
%&%-*%+%%/+&
++%&1A?T%&&-!
%%&A?T/+%/8&%+&
??T+/--!%%&++/+%%/
*1.&%++%%&%%-
/-/++/%//++
+//+//-!1
65
5?B
5?6
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5?5
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5?@
5?A
5@B
5@6
5@;
5@5
5@<
5@=
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5@?
5@@
5@A
5AB
5A6
5A;
5A5
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/&&++++-+%%&%
%&//%&*%A<T!+/%+
--!%%&&&++1+
%&%++/-!%%&-
&81:*+%D
\)--6?---]%
%/+/--
++^29&%%;B6=31
L++G%-&!
%+%%/&&1
:/=%%&%G%%&%%&%+%%/&&
%&//+<2/3+%&/*%
+++%%/-!%%&1
:/=17+%%&%+%%/*/+<
2/3+1-%+-%
F//GF0/GF"GFK/GF//G7+
%%&%%/1
%/2;>T3+%-%&%/
+&%-+++%+&-!
%+&10%
@>T%&%-+++%+
%1
3.3.2 Paper mapping versus digital mapping
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)%9&8-%%+%%//++,)
/+%%/%&%-/+2-;31:/>
%&%%%%+%%//+%%/+
%+-++1
:/>1+-%/%&%%/+%%/+KD
+D-++1
-;1/,)+%%/+&!-%%&%1
Strengths Weaknesses
Paper
Mapping
P-+/ 0I+
)& !+%
/% '&/+%+/
(E%_1/1/ ./-
"%

7+P-%/


7+P++

'
)+&-/
-1/1)
Digital
Mapping
/& /I+
K-+ 0/_
$&/+& /
6=
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)/ )P+&
$#+P%&_
/-
)+&!&_+//+

% $/+%
/ %+)%N+
(-- 0%%P
(&%+&1/1
+/
+
/PJ
0-+-
+%-
+&+%%R
1/1%-
L-
+&1/1!%
K-
3.3.3 The informaon mapped
.&%--+%%+&1@<T+&
%?<T/++-!%%&1
A5T,)-+/+/+&1A<T-%&%,)
++++-%%%&%
%+&-++-++1L%&%
++D
\.%/`-1)11%1"
%&#^29&%%;B6=31
4. Discussion
%%%&%&%-,)++
-!%%&1'%+%%//%&+&
-!%%&++++--
/-!//+&1
!/-*+%1
4.1 Study sample
+%&+%56%&%*%&!/
-%%&%&%&%%V5=/
%&%%X=B2:/;31,-/%*%//
/%%&/%%1
)/-%%&,)F-G++-&/ 
+%-%&R%&%++%#
/++//+0''%&
8/&&'"*%-%&%&20K;B6>31
-+%//+-
++%%++81/
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%%&%+%%/%&+%
*--++%&%/+2;B6>3
+%%%%1
0%*+8%/+
%-+&+-%1K*&
%%/-4++4%+&//a+
/&++/&+//
//*$4$72%++&;B6=3&
+%%&-++1
++%#%*%
%&%1.&%%+++<%&%&/%/
%//++%%/&&-&/%&%/
%%/%/
%%%&%,)+%%-!%%&//+1
9&&/9&+%/&
9&/-&&9&
+%/+%F+G*+/%+
207H;B6<31+//%+%
+%#>46;2I;B653-+%&%&
9+/+%#1-!9&+&/
*%%&%+%#26AA=31)%E
++%%%&%-
%%&%4&
!&1+/#*%%
+%+8+%1
<1;)//
)%!+*%%%&%//%&
-&/,)///-!%%&1/
8/--!8++-++
+//-*%1%,)%%&/
/+%%/%%%+///%!-/
+%%1-&0''4//+81L%
+%+..)&&%&%%+%
%O-%&%&+%21/1;BB;31
.&%--+//%-+%
/-!/%-+&
/-%/+%%&%1(%%/-//%
++%+&-+
-*&/+%++&4
*%&*%+-!4+%%/1
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(2;BBA3//4-+%%
9+%&%++//1($et al.2;B6=3
/%&%+%%/+/%/+,)%O
--/12;BB?3%/!%&/
+,)//%+-+-G&&
*%1
'//+///%+%%/-
++1+%/++%*%//+
9/1/2;B6;3+%
%%+&%K
;B66//,)&&%+%%
+++%1%--\
/&/+/%%
+++%^2et al.;B6; "et al. ;B6631$
++E++++-G
-!%%&%&+1.&%+%%/&
%&%--+//+%
++1,)%&%+%%/++&
-+&%&-&//++
1////%&%&
%++++-+%+&+&
-/[-2+et al1;BB?3/+%
2(%;BB?31
)*+/%&%A<T
%&/,)++++-%%
-&///%-/++1)-!
&-*%%-+
++/G%-&&1
)/++%%/%8&++&/
/++-!+&%/+2:/>31+%/
-%%%/&a+
*%1'-;1B/+++-2et
al.;B6= .;B6=31/=?T%&%&4-
%/+%%/+%E+%---2;B6=3
%&,)-+&+/
&1+/2;B6>39&%+,)%
+%F%%G/%&%+%%/J
+%/+1L%&%+%%/%%%&-
%&%&-+%+/+
%%%/,)&&++-
%1$-C2;BB=3+&/%-+
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++%+%//
+%1:++-!%%&+-&%%/+%%/+-
%%%++&-;%&%&
,)/1
.&%G-%&+&4#
-%2%HC+/;B6; et al.;B6=31&
8++/+-92L+H%&
;B66 /et al.;B6>3/9-+O
%-7G7%++&/
&/+21/1et al.;B6B319&+-
I&+++4+%%/%O8&4&1L-;1B
%N+$!/+%+-%&&/
+&-2($et al1;B6=31($et al.2;B6=3
/-&++%&%+%%//%&/
-,)1
.%&%%&-
+&-4-%N+1)+&+%%--
%%+-&%&+!-
+1K+&%%+21/1
3+&%+%+%1-
2;B6=3//&+/&%%&
/&%&/+-9&+/1,)
%&*-E++&1:*+%&!&+/
%%&%%/%&+&
-1%&,)E++&%-
+/++%1.&&
%,)+-9%&
/++-%%/&/+
+O&1
<15:&
)+%/#+++//+-
%%-&%%Gperceived%%
//-!%%&&*%/+
-/1-%%%/
-&/&//4++%%&%+%%/-!%%&
//+++1
+%9&/+&&4
%,)&&1'&-++&+
-9,)%%&2-H;B6=31-+/
+%%&%+%/%&/2H(
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;BBA31:+%F+%G,)+-
+%+-+R%+-4-%N+
,)+%%-/%-&%-
+/+/+&2et al.;B6>3/-,)
%&1+J-%4F++G+
/E*-%%&/&&&2H(;BBA312;B6;3
//+/&G//++%&%&&
/+%/-+%!&
%-+%////%-*%F*%44
G/-17/9+%%&
-/%&%+%%/&&+-++&%%%
/&+%%1
5. Concluding remarks
C-&%&%+%%/-!+/+%+&
%-/-/+&%&%&1+
%&%+%%//,)%/%%&++
/*/G//+%-0''1
:*%!/++%-
%%&1%!/&/9&
++%&-
//&/+++%#/+%//+-
%%&///%&P4%/%1
-!/++++-+/++&/+/
/&+%%%&%-+4%%%
%/&+-1K&
/+-9+//+++&-,)4
/++&-//
++//+1)*&/++//+/+%%/-&
%&%/&/-&/++-!
+&1,)%%++//+-
-+%///1
Acknowledgements
%%-)&K&:$++
K/!"#$%&'$1
%&%/%-.(!4'
"/-++:1+
&-1'$K%%"1;B65P6B>A1
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KK17(1H012;B6B31.&%/+++%/D
1Technical report published by the Centre for Embedded Network Sensing1
KL1+%(1HK-.12;B6=31+/+/
KD/+;B6<K"M0+/
(/+$+%1The Australian Journal of Emergency
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... The literature also suggests that in such community-based processes the adoption of participatory approaches is essential to engage communities living in risk areas, capture local knowledge and resources available in the territories and strengthen adaptive capacities [26]. In particular, community participation through participatory mapping (PM), also known as volunteered geographic mapping [27], is considered an interactive approach that uses visual methods to access individual and community knowledge, which enables blending mapping activities with other participatory approaches for reducing disaster risks (e.g., community risk assessment methods), and which has been widely adopted in CBDRR processes [28]. ...
... This method seems therefore to contribute to the identification of critical issues as well as to the illustration and interpretation of risk areas and local vulnerabilities, allowing desired and useful community risk reduction measures to be addressed [6]. Thus, it can be argued that PM represents an opportunity to (i) promote social learning, (ii) broaden the understanding and preparedness for forest fire risk, and (iii) strengthen the community's connectedness and involvement in DRR, representing an important social practice to enhance adaptive capacities [27]. Promoting social practices with communities living in at-risk areas helps to build personal and collective identities, and knowledge for fire risk management [7], support social learning and new practices [30], and enact ways of sharing tasks and responsibility to achieve local resilience [31]. ...
... In addition to its importance as a source of locally based data, participatory mapping is a valuable social practice [27] involving the landowner community of Monchique. Based on the interpretation of the map the collective debate was encouraged as well as the sharing of knowledge and experiences among the participants, about the main local risk and vulnerability factors. ...
Article
Local knowledge and communities’ active role in disaster risk areas are recognized in the literature as key conditions to better understand risks, enhance adaptive capacities and foster local resilience. A participatory action research project in forest fire-prone areas in Monchique, Portugal, is aligned with the literature and adopts participatory mapping as a method that can bring evidence to the importance of local knowledge and communities’ agency. In the BRIDGE Project, different types of knowledge are integrated, triggering local/collective agency and fostering a forest fire community-based disaster risk reduction (CBDRR) approach. An innovation laboratory (InnoLab) provides the space for dialogue and knowledge sharing for different actors that manage forest territories. In the InnoLab, participatory mapping is used as a method to engage landowners where risk factors and local vulnerabilities were identified. Their active engagement enabled a collective perception in the assessment of vulnerability and led to the identification of strategic measures for risk reduction. This paper shares the process and outcomes of this participatory mapping, highlighting the benefits of a community approach and the importance of local knowledge and practices as recognized in the literature. It also reveals how the active role of local stakeholders can help drive a CBDRR process.
... Older people are often over-represented in Participatory Mapping studies, yet are also likely to experience accessibility issues with computing equipment (Brown 2017;Haworth et al. 2016;White and Selwyn 2013). Physical challenges such as visual impairments or reduced fine motor skills, as well as more psychological barriers such as technological self-efficacy can make the use of digital technologies more challenging for some older adults (Gottwald et al. 2016;Vrenko and Petrovič 2015;Carpenter and Buday 2007;Nielsen 2013). ...
... It is often reported that older people are more likely than those in other age groups to contribute to Participatory Mapping surveys, so the benefits of providing more accessible approaches such as Paper2GIS can be realised in many different contexts, not just those focused on older populations (Haworth et al. 2016). Issues of self-efficacy, visual impairments and reduced mobility (found to limit participation in digital methods of Participatory Mapping) are minimised by using a paper-based method, as is evident in much of the supporting literature (Gottwald et al. 2016;Vrenko and Petrovič 2015;Nielsen 2013). ...
... The physical size of the paper base maps in particular can influence the resulting dataset by restricting either the areas covered or the level of detail possible in responses (Yabiku et al. 2017). Whilst increasing the physical size of the maps can improve this situation, by enabling larger geographic areas to be covered at a larger scale (as used by Haworth et al. 2016, Yabiku et al. 2017and Usher et al. 2020, there is still a trade-off between maintaining accessibility through the simplicity of the system and the advantages of more complex digital systems. However, the similarity between the two datasets in this instance demonstrate that the size and scale of the maps were adequate for the questions being asked, and did not result in any reduction in the quality of data. ...
Article
Full-text available
Participatory Mapping encompasses a broad spectrum of methods, each with advantages and limitations that can influence the degree to which the target audience is able to participate and the veracity of the data collected. Whilst being an efficient means to gather spatial data, the accessibility of online methods is limited by digital divides. Conversely, whilst non-digital approaches are more accessible to participants, data collected in this way are typically more challenging to analyse and often necessitate researcher interpretation, limiting their use in decision-making. We therefore present ‘Paper2GIS’, a novel sketch mapping tool that automatically extracts mark-up drawn onto paper maps and stores it in a geospatial database. The approach embodied in our tool simultaneously limits the technical burden placed on the participant and generates data comparable to that of a digital system without the subjectivity of manual digitisation. This improves accessibility, whilst simultaneously facilitating spatial analyses that are usually not possible with paper-based mapping exercises. A case study is presented to address two energy planning questions of the residents in the Outer Hebrides, UK. The results demonstrate that accessibility can be improved without impacting the potential for spatial analysis, widening participation to further democratise decision-making.
... There exist numerous efforts around the world, such as the FIREWISE USA program of NFPA, which has a long history, recognizes the value of voluntary action and provides numerous resources to people in order to make their communities and homes safe from wildfire [35]. Community participation is sought and is a longstanding practice, not only in the USA, but also in Canada and in Australia [32,36]. However, people's attitudes are very different between countries and continents and the same is true for their social structures and their natural and built environment [59,60]. ...
... Community engagement and participation, as a rule, is initiated and managed by official agencies [36]. In Greece, with some notable exceptions, this approach has not worked well so far. ...
... The interaction of experts with the citizens, the two-way communication, and the feeling that they were all participants in a common effort were keys to success. On the other hand, a sophisticated approach based on volunteered geographic information (VGI), using social media and technologies such as web-based mapping, as tried in [36], would likely be unsuccessful in Kythira. ...
Article
Full-text available
The island of Kythira in Greece suffered a major forest fire in 2017 that burned 8.91% of its total area and revealed many challenges regarding fire management. Following that, the Hellenic Society for the Protection of Nature joined forces with the Institute of Mediterranean and Forest Ecosystems in a project aiming to improve fire prevention there through mobilization and cooperation of the population. This paper describes the methodology and the results. The latter include an in-depth analysis of fire statistics for the island, development of a forest fuels map, and prevention planning for selected settlements based on fire modeling and on an assessment of the vulnerability of 610 structures, carried out with the contribution of groups of volunteers. Emphasis was placed on informing locals, including students, through talks and workshops, on how to prevent forest fires and prepare their homes and themselves for such an event, and on mobilizing them to carry out fuel management and forest rehabilitation work. In the final section of the paper, the challenges that the two partners faced and the project achievements and shortcomings are presented and discussed, leading to conclusions that can be useful for similar efforts in other places in Greece and elsewhere.
... Similarly, in Australia, communities have developed a more intimate understanding of cyclones and these are recalled as sensory experiences with specific elements and characteristics [68]. In a community bushfire mapping activity, also in Australia, communities' spatial awareness of their environment enabled them to identify areas of increased risk, such as dense bushland as well as routes for safe evacuation [69]. Communities residing around the base of active volcanoes in Indonesia have developed localised terminologies to the hazardous elements brought by phreatic eruptions and this is one of the ways to understand their vulnerabilities [70]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The embeddedness of local and indigenous communities in their environments has led them to develop time-tested knowledge and practices to prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from the impacts of natural hazards. Collectively, these are referred to as local and indigenous knowledge (LIK) and have gained a niche in disaster risk reduction (DRR) scholarship. We conducted a systematic literature review, identifying 325 articles that were qualitatively coded to identify what practices constitute LIK, patterns in how it has been studied, and how current understanding of LIK fits to the Sendai Framework. We found a plethora of strategies that communities mobilise, from hazard forecasts to livelihood-based adaptation, with the study of these concentrated in middle- and high-income countries. Efforts to integrate knowledge (LIK and scientific) and power spheres (top-down and bottom-up) are increasingly prominent themes in disaster scholarship. There is a recognition of LIK in the Sendai Framework priority areas, although still embryonic, which we link to the existing body of knowledge in literature. Our synthesis pieces together a holistic understanding of LIK to offer a more concrete appreciation of what LIK is and how it can be further relevant for DRR efforts.
... We were able to quantify how perceived conflicts differed between catchments and groups of stakeholders and used modelling of land cover types to predict conflict in the study catchments. The mixed method approach allowed for robust mapping results, which were complemented with rich insight into the complex issues from the short questionnaire [67]. This also provided opportunity for validation as well as clarification and elaboration of the mapping results [54]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Competing socioecological demands and pressures on land and water resources have the potential to increase land use conflict. Understanding ecosystem service provisioning and trade-offs, competing land uses, and conflict between stakeholder groups in catchments is therefore critical to inform catchment management and the sustainable use of natural resources. We developed a novel stakeholder engagement methodology that incorporates participatory conflict mapping in three catchments with a short questionnaire to identify the perceptions of 43 participants from four key land and water management stakeholder groups: environmental regulators, water industry practitioners, the farm advisor community, and academics. The participatory mapping exercise produced heat maps of perceived conflict and land use competition, providing spatial detail of the complex combination of land use issues faced by catchment managers. Distinct, localised hotspots were identified in areas under pressure from flooding, abstraction, and urbanisation; as well as more dispersed issues of relevance at the landscape scale, such as from farming, forestry, energy production, and tourism. Subsequent regression modelling linked perceived conflict to land cover maps and identified coastal, urban, and grassland areas as the most likely land cover types associated with conflict in the study catchments. Our approach to participatory conflict mapping provides a novel platform for catchment management and can facilitate increased cooperation among different catchment stakeholders. In turn, land and water management conflicts can be recognised and their underlying drivers and likely solutions identified in an effort to better manage competing demands on catchment resources.
... Global development agendas such as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (SDGs), the Sendai Framework, and the New Urban Agenda (NUA), as well as academic circles, have emphasized the importance of strengthening cities' resilience to disasters in light of the growing spectrum of risks stemming from climate change, natural hazards, and, more recently, pandemics [1][2][3][4][5]. However, a greater emphasis on disaster resilience requires a shift in focus from a command-and-control model to a more strategic, participatory, and dialogic model by promoting new and innovative technical and scientific methods through community and stakeholder collaboration processes [6,7]. ...
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