Article

Urinary tract infection with Escherichia coli and antibacterial activity of some plants extracts

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common infections in humans and is estimated 150 million urinary tract infections per year worldwide [1]. UTI is a bacterial infection can effected any section of urinary tract. ...
... The MIC of ciprofloxacin ranged between 15.6-500 µg/ml while gentamycin was 31.25-500 µg/ml [1]. The MIC results of combinations between antibiotics and EO according to FIC index (table 1) showed synergism effect when used gentamicin and ciprofloxacin with EO (FIC ≤ 0.5) against both moderate and strong biofilm isolates as shown in figure 1 and 2. In moderate biofilm producer, the combination of gentamicin with EO was reduced the MIC one fold (MIC 128 µg/ml) and approximately sixteen fold (31 µg/ml) in reduction when combination ciprofloxacin with EO. ...
... All isolates not observed changed in MIC of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole when used alone or mixed with EO which might be belonged to resistant of the bacterial cells to this type of antibiotic. Mounchid et al. [6] mentioned the E. coli strain that was resistant to several antibiotics was susceptible to the essential oils of R.officinalis L. The combination of the aqueous garlic extract and ciprofloxacin which led to the synergism effect on E. coli isolates, may be due to increasing the diffusion of this antibiotic to inside of the bacterial cells as the garlic may affect the cell wall of the microorganism [18], also the combination between clove alcoholic extract and antibiotics such as gentamicin, levofloxacin, amikacin and norfloxacin increase the synergistic effect of antibiotics against selected E. coli isolates [1]. In another study, Silymarin demonstrated synergistic activity in modulating the effect of aminoglycosides against E. coli reducing the MIC from 312.5 to 156.25 µg/ml for amikacin and from 78.125 to 39.06 µg/mL for gentamicin [19]. ...
... Results of the current study suggest a class effect antibacterial activity for clinical isolates, and indicate the superiority of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts compared to standard antibiotics. Kumar et al., (2012), Fuad M. M. H et al. (2012 and Al-Jiffri O et al. (2011). The antibacterial potency was initially determined by the agar well diffusion method (as shown in Table-4, 5 and 6) followed by quantitative evaluation of antibacterial activity by MIC method (as shown in Figure-2). ...
... The order of inhibition followed same pattern exhibited by C. cassia except for E. faecalis and P. mirabilis which were equally inhibited. In an interesting study on E. coli isolated from UTI samples, the antibacterial effect of cold water, boiling water and ethanolic extracts of Syzygium aromaticum-flower was studied by Al-Jiffri et al., (2011). In this study high antibacterial activity was recorded for ethanolic extracts with a zone of 18 mm, thereby again giving a confirmation that ethanolic extracts exert potential antibacterial effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study 200 urine samples were collected from both male and female patients suffering with urinary tract infections (UTI). A total of 75 bacterial cultures were isolated belonging to 5 species: Escherichia coli (44%); Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.33%); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%); Enterobacter faecalis (6.66%) and Proteus mirabilis (4%). Six plants (Coriander sativum, Syzygium aromaticum, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, Terminalia chebula and Azadirachta indica) and their parts (leaves, bark, flower, rhizome and fruit) were used to evaluate their antibacterial potential. Aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts were used for studying antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion assay and Minimum inhibitory concentration method. Among the three extracts used, highest antibacterial activity was recorded with ethanolic extracts of Cinnamomum cassia on E. coli and least against K. pneumoniae with diameter of inhibition zones (DIZ) of 21.33 ± 0.57 and 15.66 ± 0.57 mm respectively. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant parts revealed the presence of active compounds such as phenolics, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. The results obtained in this study clearly demonstrated higher and broad spectrum antibacterial activity of selected plant extracts on all five UTI isolates compared with ten standard antibiotics used for treating UTI.
... Moreover, according to traditional Chinese medicine (dating roughly 4000 years), cinnamon has been used as a neuroprotective agent [13] and for the treatment of diabetes [14]. Cinnamon has also been used as a health-promoting agent for the treatment of diseases such as inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders and urinary infections [15,16]. Another potential medical use of cinnamon would be with regards to its antimicrobial properties, especially antibacterial activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided.
... than male (32.4%) [25]. Jiffri AL O., et al. studied that the infection is most common in females (56.9%)than males (43.1%) [5]. Abubakar E [2] reported that the incidence of infection was higher in females with the prevalence of 54.3%, while in males the recorded value was 45.7% [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The study aims to identify strains of bacterial organisms causing urinary tract infections (UTI), and to determine the pattern of antibiotic susceptibility at a secondary care hospital in Samail, Oman.
... Combined effect of plant extracts with antibiotics was tested by using antibiotic discs (10 drugs) in combination with prepared extracts [19]. For this purpose, total 54 media plates inoculated with stains were used, 18 plates for each strain. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urinary tract infection is an inflammatory response of the urothelium to bacterial invasion that is usually associated with bacteriuria and pyuria. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are most familiar pathogenic infections that cause severe complications of urinary tract and difficult problems. The development of drug resistance especially to antibiotics which are used in treatment of infection is major problem. The main objective of this study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic bacteria most commonly Escherichia coli (E. coli) involved in UTIs. Different bacterial strains of E. coli were provided by Institute of Microbiology in University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also performed for direct detection and identification of E. coli by targeting UID gene. After confirmation of E. coli antimicrobial sensitivity of various antibiotics as quinolones, aminoglycosides, cephalosporin and beta-lactam were tested by standard disc diffusion method. Results were recorded as by measuring diameter of zone of inhibition and analyzed by analysis of variance techniques (ANOVA). Five antibiotics ampicillin, imipenem, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Nalidixic acid showed resistance pattern towards three strains. Clove, cinnamon, garlic aqueous and ethanolic extracts were prepared and tested to check their antibacterial efficacy against isolated E. coli. Clove and cinnamon extracts has showed best antibacterial activity against UTI strains as by their mean ± SE values (13.33 ± 2.05 for clove and 11.33 ± 0.5 for cinnamon). Ethanolic extract (10%) of clove with 27 mm, boiled extract (10%) of cinnamon and garlic with 16 mm and 14 mm diameters of zone of inhibition showed maximum inhibitory response. Combined effect of plant extracts 10% with antibiotics was also tested. In combined effect, resistance drugs ampicillin, Imipenem, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Nalidixic acid showed susceptibility pattern as by increasing diameter of zone of inhibitions on three UTI strains. Hence it is concluded that combined effect is more (additive effect) than treated UTI alone with antibiotics. Various plant extracts can be used in combination with antibiotics as a treatment therapy in E. coli caused UTIs.
... According to traditional Chinese medicine, which dates back almost 4,000 years, cinnamon has been used not only as an antioxidant and flavoring agent but also as a treatment for many health problems and diseases such as coughs and colds, diabetes, inflammation, gastrointestinal problems, and urinary tract infections. Cinnamon also has proven antifungal, antibacterial, and antiparasitic activity [7,8,9]. Recent studies have shown that cinnamon has antimicrobial activity against some microorganisms and that, when used with antibiotics, it has a favorable potential against multi-resistant bacteria [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background : Due to the increased occurrence of bacterial resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs, there is a constant search for novel therapeutic strategies; medicinal plants represent an important source for obtaining such substances. The antimicrobial activity of extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants has been proven in several studies conducted in countries with diverse flora. Aim : To evaluate the antibacterial activity of cinnamon against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Material and Method: Bacterial susceptibility testing was conducted by the diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar using paper discs impregnated with test substances. Results: All test strains were sensitive to the essential oil of cinnamon. We observed low synergistic potential between essential oils against the strain of S. aureus. Conclusion: The essential oil of cinnamon has antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Future research should be conducted to define the best concentration and better extraction solution for mastic and cinnamon peels.
... Two isolates of P. aeruginosa and the S. aureus isolate used in this study were susceptible to the hot water extract and cold water extract of A. indica; but they were all resistant to the leaf extracts of G. kola. Previous studies have also reported that the extracts (aqueous, ethanol and methanol) of A. indica and G. kola showed very low antibacterial activity against bacterial pathogens (as obtainable in this present day study) [Hajera et al., 2013;Fuad et al., 2012;Al-Jiffri et al., 2011]. When compared to the conventional antibiotics used in this study, the test bacterial pathogens were multiply resistant to both the herbal plants (leaf extracts of A. indica and G. kola) and the antibiotics used in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of some selected antibiotics and herbal leaf extract of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) against bacteria pathogens isolated from patients with wound infections in National Orthopedic Hospital Enugu (NOHE). A total of ninety-six (96) wound swab samples were collected from patients in NOHE using sterile swab stick. The isolated bacteria were characterized using standard microbiology techniques; and the pathogens were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method. Extraction of herbal plant leaf extract with ethanol, methanol, hot and cold water was carried using standard techniques. Susceptibility studies using ethanol, methanol, hot and cold water extract against isolated bacteria pathogens was determined at different extract concentration of stock, 50g, 25g, 12.5g, 6.125g and 3.125g using the agar well diffusion method. The result of this study revealed that out of the 96 wound swab collected 15(21.7%) bacteria pathogen was isolated in the following order E. coli 9(60%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4(26.6%), Klebsiella spp 1(6.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus 1(6.6%). All the bacterial isolates of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus were multiply resistant to the tested antibiotics used for this study. However, some of the organisms were susceptible to gentamicin, aztreonam, piperacillin, ciprofloxacin and sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim. It was generally observed that the bacterial isolates from the wound infections were highly resistant to the tested antibiotics. Similarly, the test bacteria were multiply resistant to the antibacterial action of A. indica and G. kola. No zones of inhibition was recorded for any of the test organisms excluding some E. coli isolates that showed some level of susceptibility to the ethanol, methanol, cold water extract and hot water extracts of A. indica leaf extracts. Some isolates of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were also susceptible to the antibacterial action of A. indica and G. kola. In all, the bacterial pathogens from the wound infections used for this study were multiply resistant to the conventional antibiotics used; and these organisms sowed little or no susceptibility to the leaf extracts of the herbal plants (A. indica and G. kola) used. Nevertheless, the search for novel antimicrobial agents should be a continuous process – due to the continuous emergence and spread of drug resistant pathogens in both the community and hospital environment. Plants including A. indica and G. kola still hold the potential to transform medicine especially in the area of chemotherapy – since these natural substances posses in them great healing powers still untapped.
... Common symptoms of UTI include: nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, muscle ache, strong and frequent urgency of urination, pain or burning sensation on urination, and cloudy, bloody or strong smell urine. (3) Approximately about 18% of Iraqi people suffer from urinary tract stones. Stones prevalence increase with age in both genders males and females, this study has suggested that diet and life behavior may play a more role in stone formation than ethnicity. ...
Article
Full-text available
This clinical study aimed for the evaluation of three medicinal plants which are parsley seeds, fennel fruits and corn silk against kidney stone and infections.The study's methods were included preliminary phytochemical investigation of all plant parts used and the study was done by using cold maceration with 90% ethanol. Different reagents were used for testing different active compounds such as alkaline reagent test for flavonoids, foam test for saponins, terpenoids test for terpenoids, Fehling's reagent for reducing sugar and Dragendroff's reagent for alkaloids. The clinical study carried out in an outpatient clinic in Imam Al-Hussein medical city, Karbala, Iraq. The 300 patients divided into two groups, the first group includes 150 patients for urinary tract infection for ten days and the same number of patients for stones. The dosage form of plant extracts in this study was 500 mg as soft gelatin capsules three times a day before meal. Each capsule contained 200 mg of fennel fruit extract, 200 mg of corn silk extract and 100 mg of parsley seed extract. All results analyzed by Spss and compare with T-test value at 0.001 probability. The preliminary investigation revealed that flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugar, and terpenoids were presented in plants extracts which used in this study. The result of urinary tract infection study gives indication that these three plant extracts were very effective in the treatment of infection which caused by bacteria especially E-coli. The treatment of stones also effective, but need more time to get rid of all types of stones.
... Common symptoms of UTI include: nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, muscle ache, strong and frequent urgency of urination, pain or burning sensation on urination, and cloudy, bloody or strong smell urine. (3) Approximately about 18% of Iraqi people suffer from urinary tract stones. Stones prevalence increase with age in both genders males and females, this study has suggested that diet and life behavior may play a more role in stone formation than ethnicity. ...
Article
Full-text available
This clinical study aimed for the evaluation of three medicinal plants which are parsley seeds, fennel fruits and corn silk against kidney stone and infections.The study's methods were included preliminary phytochemical investigation of all plant parts used and the study was done by using cold maceration with 90% ethanol. Different reagents were used for testing different active compounds such as alkaline reagent test for flavonoids, foam test for saponins, terpenoids test for terpenoids, Fehling's reagent for reducing sugar and Dragendroff's reagent for alkaloids. The clinical study carried out in an outpatient clinic in Imam Al-Hussein medical city, Karbala, Iraq. The 300 patients divided into two groups, the first group includes 150 patients for urinary tract infection for ten days and the same number of patients for stones. The dosage form of plant extracts in this study was 500 mg as soft gelatin capsules three times a day before meal. Each capsule contained 200 mg of fennel fruit extract, 200 mg of corn silk extract and 100 mg of parsley seed extract. All results analyzed by Spss and compare with T-test value at 0.001 probability. The preliminary investigation revealed that flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugar, and terpenoids were presented in plants extracts which used in this study. The result of urinary tract infection study gives indication that these three plant extracts were very effective in the treatment of infection which caused by bacteria especially E-coli. The treatment of stones also effective, but need more time to get rid of all types of stones.
... UTIs account for more than 7 million visits to physicians per year [1][2][3] affecting persons of all ages including children, women, and elderly but most predominant in women, especially in developing countries such as India. [4,5] Approximately 40% of women have had a UTI in their lifetime and over 20% of young sexually active women who had previous UTIs have recurrent UTIs. [6] Escherichia coli is the most common organism causing both community and hospital-acquired UTIs, leading to serious secondary health issues worldwide. ...
Article
Introduction: Biofilms are group of microorganisms which are embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance which adhere to each other. They are found to be involved in a wide range of infections in the body like urinary tract infections (UTIs). Biofilms are considered to be highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common organism causing both community as well as hospital acquired UTI leading to serious health issues. Objectives: This study was conducted to analyse the antibiotic sensitivity profile of biofilm forming Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from patients with suspected UTI attending a Teaching hospital of North Karnataka. Materials And Methods: 388 E. coli isolates recovered from1000 suspected cases of UTI were tested for susceptibility to fourteen different antibiotics. In vitro biofilm formation was detected by Tube adherence method, Congo red agar method and Tissue culture plate method. Results: 277 isolates (71.39%) produced biofilm in-vitro by all the three methods. Biofilm forming E. coli developed significantly higher degree of resistance towards antimicrobial drugs Ampicillin (87.36%), Cefuroxime (81.58%), Amoxicillin clavulanic acid (77.61%), Ciprofloxacin (71.48%) and Ceftriaxone (71.48%). They were sensitive to higher antibiotics like Imipenem, Piperacillin-tazobactam, Nitrofurantoin, and Amikacin. Conclusion: Detection of biofilm in E. coli and its resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics in the clinical practice is essential in improving the efficacy of empirical treatment. This study revealed the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of biofilm forming E. coli which helps clinicians to treat UTI effectively. © 2018 Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.
... Common symptoms of UTI include: nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, muscle ache, strong and frequent urgency of urination, pain or burning sensation on urination, and cloudy, bloody or strong smell urine. (3) Approximately about 18% of Iraqi people suffer from urinary tract stones. Stones prevalence increase with age in both genders males and females, this study has suggested that diet and life behavior may play a more role in stone formation than ethnicity. ...
Article
Full-text available
This clinical study aimed for the evaluation of three medicinal plants which are parsley seeds, fennel fruits and corn silk against kidney stone and infections. The study’s methods were included preliminary phytochemical investigation of all plant parts used and the study was done by using cold maceration with 90% ethanol. Different reagents were used for testing different active compounds such as alkaline reagent test for flavonoids, foam test for saponins, terpenoids test for terpenoids, Fehling’s reagent for reducing sugar and Dragendroff's reagent for alkaloids. The clinical study carried out in an outpatient clinic in Imam Al-Hussein medical city, Karbala, Iraq. The 300 patients divided into two groups, the first group includes 150 patients for urinary tract infection for ten days and the same number of patients for stones. The dosage form of plant extracts in this study was 500 mg as soft gelatin capsules three times a day before meal. Each capsule contained 200 mg of fennel fruit extract, 200 mg of corn silk extract and 100 mg of parsley seed extract. All results analyzed by Spss and compare with T-test value at 0.001 probability. The preliminary investigation revealed that flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugar, and terpenoids were presented in plants extracts which used in this study. The result of urinary tract infection study gives indication that these three plant extracts were very effective in the treatment of infection which caused by bacteria especially E-coli. The treatment of stones also effective, but need more time to get rid of all types of stones.
... The strains of E. coli isolated from hospitalized patients were more resistance to amoxicillin. Amoxicillinclavulanate, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin and gentamicin compared to those from outpatients [9]. Traditional medicine is in practice for many centuries by U a substantial proportion of the population of many centuries. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background : Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances which can be used to treat various infectious diseases. Hence, antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of 6 plant species were studied against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was performed. Plant extract from leaf of Marribum vulgari, Saturja montana, Myrtus comminus L., Amaranthus retraflexus, seed of Cumminum cyminum L. and Peganum harmal specie was performed using rotary. Sampling was carry out from urine culture of hospitalized patients (Boo-Ali hospital, Zahedan, south-eastern of Iran) suffered from urinary tract infections during the years 2010 and 2011. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) of plant extracts of plants on bacteria was determined using micro dilution broth method at 6 different concentrations. Results : The results show P. harmal and M. comminus L. were a potent antimicrobial activity against Gr
... Mostly infection occurs in women than men due to the presence of shorter urethra. 43 The main causative factor for the stone formation by urinary supersaturation of different element present in the urine. 44,45 It may cause serious medical consequences such as extreme obstruction, hydronephrosis, infection and haemorrhage in the urinary tract system. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pedalium murex (L.) is a traditional herb, commonly used for the treatment of kidney stone related problems. Struvite stone can swiftly grow and become 'staghorn calculi' in kidney and its associated areas, which is the most aching urological disorder. The present study investigated the anti-urolithiasis activities of ethyl acetate extract of P. murex L. (EAEP) against struvite crystal. The antibacterial activity of EAEP examined against several urease producing bacteria. It showed the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (>125). On the other hand, total mass, volume, number, growth rate and dissolution rate of synthesised struvite crystals were observed at different concentrations 0.5%, 0.75%, 1% of EAEP and without EAEP. In which, EAEP addition showed appreciably reduced struvite crystal. Alternatively, MgO (300 mg of EAEP/kg/body weight) induced urolithiasis of Wistar albino rat at the rate of 1 ml for 28 days. Various biochemical parameters in serum, urine and histological analysis of kidney were taken for evaluation. Significant results (p < 0.05) were observed in 1% EAEP (300 mg) treated group than cystone treated group. From the histological study, reduced renal damage and glomerular development were observed. Our experiment, P. murex L. enhances the reducing activity on struvite crystal and prevents the crystal formation both in-vitro and in-vivo. It can be suggesting that P. murex L. and its phyto-components could be used as remedy for the management of kidney stone by dissolving the struvite stone in kidney. © 2017 Center for Food and Biomolecules, National Taiwan University.
... Cinnamomum plants belong to the Lauraceae family and contain more than 300 evergreen aromatic plant species (Ravindran, Nirmal-Babu & Shylaja, 2003). They have been also employed as a health promoting agent for the treatment of inflammation, gastrointestinal, and urinary disorders (Brierley & Kelber, 2011) as well as potential antibacterial activity (Al-Jiffri, El-Sayed & Al-Sharif, 2011). Four Cinnamomum species including Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum loureiroi, Cinnamomum burmannii, and C. aromaticum are important economic crops because of their numerous culinary uses as spices (Bandara, Uluwaduge & Jansz, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Endophytic fungi, which colonize within a host plant without causing any apparent diseases, have been considered as an important source of bioactive secondary metabolites containing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The aim of this research was to isolate the endophytic fungi of Cinnamomum loureiroi and then to screen their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. A total of 11 fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy leaves of Cinnamomum loureiroi belonging to six genera: Botryosphaeria , Colletotrichum , Diaporthe , Fusarium , Neopestalotiopsis , and Pestalotiopsis . All isolated strains were cultured and further extracted with ethyl acetate solvent. Antimicrobial activity of all crude endophytic fungal extracts was analyzed using disc diffusion assay against six bacterial and two fungal pathogens. Crude extracts of strains MFLUCC15-1130 and MFLUCC15-1131 showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all tested pathogens. Activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was notable, showing the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration at 3.91 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of all crude endophytic fungal extracts was also evaluated based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Significant antioxidant activity was detected in the crude extracts of fungus MFLUCC15-1130 and MFLUCC15-1131 with IC 50 of 22.92 ± 0.67 and 37.61 ± 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. Using molecular identification, MFLUCC15-1130 and MFLUCC15-1131 were identified as Neopestalotiopsis sp. and Diaporthe sp., respectively. The major chemical constituents produced by both crude extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eugenol, myristaldehyde, lauric acid, and caprylic acid were the primary antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds in both crude extracts. This is the first report of eugenol being a biologically active compound of Neopestalotiopsis sp. and Diaporthe sp. fungal endophytes. Eugenol has been reported as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents with agronomic applications. Thus the two newly-isolated endophytes may be used for eugenol production, which in turn can be used in a variety of applications.
... Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times in the treatment of UTI, because of their antimicrobial properties. Cinnamon is one of the spices used to treat UTI and also act as a health-promoting agent for the treatment of diseases such as inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders ( Brierley andKelber, 2011 andAl-Jiffri et al., 2011), anti-oxidant ( Hoque et al., 2008 andAsimi et al., 2013), antimicrobial ( Nabavi et al., 2015 andMarchese et al., 2014), anti-diabetic and anti-tumor. Cinnamon is the bark of the evergreen tropical cinnamon tree. ...
... Cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, and cinnamyl alcohol are the three main compounds of cinnamon [67]. Due to its antimicrobial activities, cinnamon is also used in cosmetics or food products [11], and also used as health-promoting agents to treat diseases like inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, and urinary infections [68,69]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices—such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin—possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives.
... In the present study, the alcoholic extracts of clove, ginger and thyme were the most effective than the aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolates. These results are in agreement with that obtained by many authors (Ayoola et al., 2008;Al-Jiffri et al., 2011;Fuad et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the current study, UTI bacterial isolates were then analyzed to determine their susceptibility profile to 30 antibiotics according to the standard CLSI guide. Among the tested samples, 919 bacteria isolated from urine samples (88.4%) were sensitive to the 30 tested antibiotics; 121 samples (11.6%) recognized as multi-drug resistant bacteria. The results also indicated that the most of urinary tract infection diseases were by Gram negative bacteria (102 isolates; 84.3 %).Additionally, in the present study among 15 plants extracted by boiled-water, ethanol or tested as essential oils, highest antibacterial activity was exhibited by essential oils plant extracts. Among all plant extracts highest IZ values were recorded for Cinnamomum zeylanicum in the range of 46.3 and 28.4mm against UTI bacterial isolates in following order Staphylococcus aureus > Escherichia coli >Pseudomonas aeruginosa >Enterococcus faecalis >Klebsiella pneumoniae. The next higher activity was observed for Thymus vulgaris, Origanum majorana, Syzygium aromaticum, Zingiber officinale, Salvia officinalis and Rosmarinus officinalis with the same inhibition pattern exhibited by Cinnamomum zeylanicum.Moreover, the ultrastructural effect of cinnamon essential oils on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also studied and showed dramatic cellular alterations on TEM electron micrographs with most of effects on bacterial cell wall.GC/MS analysis of essential oils indicated that cinnamon oils had fifteen components, and cinnamaldehyde was the major constituent (72.87%). On the other hand, the main components of marjoram oil were linalool (29.20%), trpenin-4-ol (20.04%) and γ-terpinen (11.89). However, thyme oil had 17 major components includes P-cymen (29.15%), thymol (24.80%) and carvecol (22.69%).
... Syzygium aromaticum is evergreen plant belonging to Myrtaceae family. The essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum i.e., eugenol, exhibits broad spectrum activities Lactobacillus, E. coli and S. enterica [101,102]. It also controls the spoilage food borne bacteria such as S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli [103]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that presents significant risk to human health. Driven by selective pressure of antimicrobial agents, spontaneous mutation, recombination and horizontal gene transfer events, inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and use outside healthcare settings has increased their impact on healthcare system. Increasing risk for human health lead us to study resistance development mechanisms, associated factors that increase dissemination of resistance genes along with information of imperative measures necessary to curtail the growing menace. Methods: In this article, we emphasized on the state of knowledge regarding imprudent use of antibiotics that act as promoters of resistance development. For this, literature based search for articles and entries related to antimicrobial resistance was done. With ample of data available, selected was performed for the epidemiological and clinical based study to curtail the facts present in these data sets so as to get accurate and important information. Results: Resistance mediated by different determinants such as TEM, SHV, OXA and CTX-M, methods of mobilization that increase spread across species and as such failure to available treatment regimens was studied. Addition to detection methods, information of the inhibitors and natural substance useful in mitigating the effect of multidrug resistance was included to strategies the policies and plans for restricting their spread. Conclusion: As intervention to this growing problem, modified use of antimicrobial agents, employment of different formulations of herbs along with public health interventions in restricting antibiotic use, are believed to be of great help in restricting their dissemination and as such spread to non-pathogenic bacterial isolates.
... The antimicrobial properties of various plants have been investigated by a number of researchers [15,16]. The antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants against Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate the antibacterial effect of Peganum harmala (P. harmala) extracts against urinary tract infection pathogens isolated from infected patients. Methods: Agar diffusion technique was used for detecting the antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration was tested by serial dilution methods. Alkaloids extract of seeds was fractioned using thin layer chromatography. Results: Phytochemical screening in the leaves of P. harmala showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids and steroids and the absence of anthraquinons, whereas the results in the seeds showed the absence of flavonoids and the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, anthraquinons, terpenoids and steroids. The results of thin layer chromatography revealed that the alkaloids profiles of the seeds extracts of P. harmala are different. The major alkaloids detected and quantified from the intensity of their fluorescence were harmine, harmaline, harmalol and harmol. The methanolic extract of the plant was effective against the four microorganism tested. It was observed that the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of flavonoids extracted from the leaves and seeds of P. harmala were bactericidal to Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that the flavonoids extract of P. harmala may be useful to treat uropathogenic bacteria.
... Ampicillin is used in the treatment of human UTI, and this high rate of resistance renders it of limited value within the study area. Norfloxacin has been previously reported to be effective for treating most UTI pathogens in KSA (Al-Jiffri et al. 2011); however, in the current study, 15.0 % of camel and 19.0 % of human isolates were resistant to this antimicrobial. ...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance is continuing to increase. Consequently, efficient approaches to identify sources of resistance are required. This study aimed to compare Escherichia coli isolates from the intestinal tract of camels with isolates from human urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Al Ahsa Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), for antimicrobial resistance and identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). A microbiological study was conducted on 100 samples of cecal contents from camels and 100 urine samples from female UTI patients, to isolate and confirm E. coli using the VITEK 2 Automated System. Sensitivity patterns and identification of ESBLs were analyzed using the antimicrobial susceptibility test. Molecular techniques were used to detect E. coli drug-resistant clones. The presence rate of E. coli in camels was 26.0 % (n = 26/100), and in human samples, the rate of E. coli was 33.0 % (n = 33/100). ESBLs were reported for the first time in KSA, in 26.9 % (n = 5/26) of camel samples and 36.4 % (n = 8/33) of human samples. The multi-drug resistance (MDR) index was 0.13 and 0.17, for camels and humans, respectively. Escherichia coli drug-resistant O25b:H4-sequence type 131(ST131) clone was detected in two camel and two human isolates. This study demonstrates a high presence rate of ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-EC) in camels for the first time in KSA. Confirmation of MDR strains and E. coli ST131 clone in human and camel isolates suggests that camels could be a potential reservoir for resistant E. coli strains contributing to the increase in antimicrobial resistance in KSA.
... Essential oils for use in the cosmetics and food industry are derived from cinnamon bark, leaves, flowers, and fruit. In traditional Chinese medical treatments, cinnamon has also been used in the treatment of diabetes [36], inflammation, urinary tract infections, and gastrointestinal disorders [37,38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, people have become more conscious about the side-effects of fluoride toothpastes and herbal products have drawn attention as alternatives in the struggle against caries. Studies have focused on the benefits of essential oils obtained from herbs because of their antibacterial effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial activity of Origanum dubium and Cinnamomum cassia oils combined with herbal toothpastes against Streptococcus mutans. The antibacterial activity of the test materials was determined using the agar well diffusion method before and after the addition of essential oils. We tested the efficacy of Splat Organic and Splat Biocalcium against S. mutans (12 mm and 11 mm, respectively) doubled in combination with Origanum dubium (23 mm for both toothpastes) and tripled with Cinnamomum cassia (38 mm and 36 mm, respectively). Jack N’ Jill toothpaste, which did not initially show any antibacterial effect, exhibited the largest inhibition zones after the addition of the essential oils (38 mm for Origanum dubium and 39 mm for Cinnamomum cassia). The results of this study pointed out that herbal toothpastes exhibit statistically higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans (p < 0.05) than their initial forms after the addition of essential oils.
... Prevalence of E.coli in the present study was high 70.00%, which agreed with the study by Kibret andAbera (2014) 63.60%, andOladehinde et al., (2011) 85.00% respectively, but contracted the work of Derese et al., (2016) who obtained 9.00% as prevalence of E.coli in urine. E. coli had severally being reported as the predominant organism responsible for UTIs (Sibiani, 2010;Okonko et al., 2010;Al-Jiffri et al., 2011;Parveen et al., 2011;El-Sokkary, 2011, Vasudevan, 2014. Al-Asoufi et al., (2017), Fu et al., (2014, Benfield et al., (2007), Berke and Tilton (1986), Bonadio et al., (2004), and Boyko et al., (2005 adduced the prevalence of E. coli to its virulence conferred by Type 1 fimbriae, S fimbriae, P fimbriae, afimbrial adhesion, aerobactin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor and hemolysin. ...
... The main cause for 85% community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTIs) and 50% hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) is E. coli bacteria [10,11] . There are different factors that affect the prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) like gender, age, urological instruments, and immunosuppression [12,13] . The empirical usage of ciprofloxacin and cephalosporins has been threatened by the emergence of broad-spectrum beta-lactamases [14,15] . ...
... Antibiotics must not be prescribed excessively, particularly in sight of the escalating prevalence of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, the infection initiated by the MDR strain of E. coli would boost the cost of treatment, morbidity, and mortality, specifically in countries such as India [4,5]. The antibiotic sensitivity patterns arising from these would differ from location to location. ...
Article
Full-text available
As per the current scenario of weakened immune systems in humans and inadequate usage of antibiotics, the infections came out as serious medical conditions and pathogens, especially bacteria causing urinary tract infections to have gained resistance. To combat this, the bioactive and antimicrobial properties of healing herbs have gained the limelight. Likewise, Picrorhiza kurroa, a famous traditional and local drug in the higher Himalayan region, is used for antimicrobial treatments and partial sanitation of air by the tribes, including Ayurveda scientists. This study was done on the urine sample of a 78-year-old UTI patient, the successive pathological tests revealed the acute infected condition, and further microbiological analysis of the urine sample diagnosed the presence of pathogenic E. coli in large numbers, which was further detected to be multiple drug-resistant (MDR) by antibiotic sensitivity tests. The plant extract through the methanol extraction method of Picrorhiza kurroa roots was subjected to antimicrobial assay against the isolated pathogen E. coli by well diffusion method. The MDR E. coli was found to be highly sensitive against the plant extract indicating 23 mm microbial inhibition zone, which proves the description of Kedar Jadi as an antimicrobial drug mentioned in Charak Samhita; furthermore, this can lead to the preparation of drugs and addition in combating against acute MDR bacterial infections.
... Antibiotics must not be prescribed excessively, particularly in sight of the escalating prevalence of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, the infection initiated by the MDR strain of E. coli would boost the cost of treatment, morbidity, and mortality, specifically in countries such as India [4,5]. The antibiotic sensitivity patterns arising from these would differ from location to location. ...
Research
Full-text available
As per the current scenario of weakened immune systems in humans and inadequate usage of antibiotics, the infections came out as serious medical conditions and pathogens, especially bacteria causing urinary tract infections to have gained resistance. To combat this, the bioactive and antimicrobial properties of healing herbs have gained the limelight. Likewise, Picrorhiza kurroa, a famous traditional and local drug in the higher Himalayan region, is used for antimicrobial treatments and partial sanitation of air by the tribes, including Ayurveda scientists. This study was done on the urine sample of a 78-year-old UTI patient, the successive pathological tests revealed the acute infected condition, and further microbiological analysis of the urine sample diagnosed the presence of pathogenic E. coli in large numbers, which was further detected to be multiple drug-resistant (MDR) by antibiotic sensitivity tests. The plant extract through the methanol extraction method of Picrorhiza kurroa roots was subjected to antimicrobial assay against the isolated pathogen E. coli by well diffusion method. The MDR E. coli was found to be highly sensitive against the plant extract indicating 23 mm microbial inhibition zone, which proves the description of Kedar Jadi as an antimicrobial drug mentioned in Charak Samhita; furthermore, this can lead to the preparation of drugs and addition in combating against acute MDR bacterial infections.
... Then it was transferred in a conical flask and the total volume was made up to 100ml with double distilled water. The solution was stirred on a magnetic stirrer with heating mantle for 30mins at 50-60°C and eventually, the solution was filtered using Whatman's filter paper no. 1 [12] . 10ml of 1mM concentration silver nitrate solution and 10ml of the freshly prepared ginger extract was mixed together to make up the volume ratio of 1:1. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, the synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)by aqueous extracts of ginger used as reducing and stabilizing agents, respectively and its antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infection. After optimizing the synthesis parameters, samples were characterized by SEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy and FTIR. Biologically synthesized Ag-NPs was tested by two techniques i.e. Minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC) determination and agar well diffusion method to study the antibacterial properties. The initial syntheses of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and showed the surface Plasmon resonance band at 420nmsupported the reduction AgNO3 to AgNP. The average diameter of the prepared nanoparticles in solution was about 40-60 nm and were spherical in shape. Analysis of FTIR showed that secondary metabolites are responsible for bio-reduction in silver nanoparticles of silver nitrate. In this study, biologically synthesized Ag-NPs also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against bacteria (Escherichia coli) of the clinical isolates from patients suffering from urinary tract infection, shown effective inhibitory activity against sensitive strains of E. coli. (Susceptible to first-line antibiotics used to treat urinary tract infections. Results confirmed this protocol as simple, rapid, eco-friendly, non-toxic and an alternative to conventional physical/chemical method. It could be used as a safer alternative to antimicrobial and antibacterial agents for further research purposes.
... The main cause for 85% community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTIs) and 50% hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) is E. coli bacteria [10,11] . There are different factors that affect the prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) like gender, age, urological instruments, and immunosuppression [12,13] . The empirical usage of ciprofloxacin and cephalosporins has been threatened by the emergence of broad-spectrum beta-lactamases [14,15] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Escherichia coli cause Urinary tract infection (UTIs) throughout the world, so to improve infection control measurement knowledge about the distribution and frequency of Urinary tract infection (UTI) is very important. A total of 70 patients were examined of different ages and sexes suffering from UTIs. The isolated bacteria were recognized by conventional biochemical test and the antimicrobial susceptibility tests are performed on Mueller-Hinton agar using disk diffusion (Kirby Bauer's) technique. Out of them UTI's prevalence in female was 68% and male 32%, the maximum UTIs prevalence rate within the age of 21-40 was (30%), followed by above 80 (07%). E. coli was sensitive to antibiotics (TZP, FOS, F, IMP, AK and SCF) in males 61-80 (09 patients), followed by age 01-20 (09 patients) in the female. However, E. coli show resistant to antibiotic found in male between the age of 61-80 (09 patients), followed by 41-60 (04 patients), while in female, consequently, from the age of 21-40 (15 patients) were reported, followed by 01-20 (09 patients) and 41-60 (06 patients). The sensitivity of antibiotic is TZP, FOS, F, IMP, AK and SCF 6/14 (40%), while resistivity antibiotics to E. coli are as follow, AM, AMC, CFX, SXT, DO, CIP, CEF and CRO 8/14 (60%). The emergence of antibacterial-resistant bacteria is also contributed by inappropriate antibacterial treatment and abuse of antibiotics. The aim of this research work was to isolate the bacteria from urinary tract infection to determine its prevalence and the antibiotics susceptibility patterns of the E. coli Bacteria.
... Cinnamomum verum (Ceylon cinnamon) as also a functional food belongs to the Lauraceae family, being used for various human ailments such as antiseptic, antifungal, antiviral, neuroprotective agents, inflammation, urinary infections, gastrointestinal disorders, and for the treatment of diabetes and hyperglycemia (Al-Jiffri et al., 2011;Brierley & Kelber, 2011;Camacho et al., 2015 Government of India, Ministry of Health andFamily Welfare, Department of ISM &H, 1999 ;Khasnavis & Pahan, 2011;Kim et al., 2006;Pittman, 2011;Ravindran et al., 2003). Several studies have suggested that it helps in fatty acid oxidation (in adipose tissue) through activation of TRPA1 (transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1) and genes involved in it. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nutraceuticals need special attention as preventive molecules to create a natural barrier against various dreadful diseases like cancer and to regulate metabolism. In the present study, two spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Cinnamomum verum, been identified as excellent Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPases) sources that play significant role in the regulation of cell signal transduction and developmental processes in plants as well as animals, being lucrative and potential targets for pharmacological modulation. PTPases from both cases were partially purified into 0%–40% and 40%–80% fractions based on ammonium sulfate saturation levels. Fraction (40%–80%) exhibited a purification level of 4.44‐fold and 2.86‐fold with specific activity of 44.06 and 23.33 U/mg for PTPases from T. ammi and C. verum, respectively. PTPases being found to be thermally stable up to 70°C imply their industrial significance. Kinetic studies showed Km values to be 7.14 and 8.33 mM, whereas the activation energy (Ea) values were 25.89 and 29.13 kJ/mol, respectively. Divalent cations: Cu²⁺, Zn²⁺, and Mn²⁺ acted as inhibitors of PTPases, from both sources. The Ki values of inhibitors varied from 0.014–0.125 mM in the descending order Cu²⁺ > Zn²⁺ > Mn²⁺ and Mn²⁺ > Cu²⁺ > Zn²⁺ for PTPases from T. ammi and C. verum, respectively. The inhibitory effect of sodium metavanadate aligns with prominent PTPase characteristics. In addition to these properties, the thermostability of PTPases from two spices enhances their significance in industries with therapeutically vital products. Although the source of PTPases is culinary spices, further studies are required to establish the utilization of PTPases as nutraceuticals and in therapeutic formulations. Practical applications For a healthy lifestyle, awareness needs to be created by humankind towards food habits to minimize illnesses. Numerous studies have explored the consumption of nutraceutical products acts as a natural barrier and immune booster for various human ailments including SARS‐COV‐2. PTPases play important roles in regulating intracellular signaling and, ultimately, biological function along with their structural features. The importance of PTPases and their inhibitors has been implicated in various diseases like cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Further investigations need to be undertaken to explore the therapeutic properties of PTPases in both in vivo and in vitro for their clinical significance.
... In UTI, the bacterium may grow in any part of the urinary tract system including kidneys, urinary bladder, ureter and urethra. 74 Herbal drugs are safe, economical, and easy to use. The major advantage of these herbal drugs is that bacteria have not developed resistance against them. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most severe public health problem affecting both genders but females are more susceptible due to the differences in urogenital and reproductive anatomy, physiology and lifestyle. As in UTI, different parts of the urinary tract are affected and morbidity due to UTI is more common in women of all ages and older men. Due to multi‐drug resistant strains and high recurrent rate, UTI has become a major socioeconomic burden. The current review article was aimed to describe the natural therapeutic strategies to manage and cure the UTI. For this purpose, different databases including Google Scholar, Cochrane database, and PubMed etc. were explored. Inclusion criteria was to include any research article investigating the current therapy of UTI. It was found that microbial infections including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Klebsiella species are the major causes of UTI with a different signs and symptoms including painful urination or dysuria, hematuria, urinary urgency, burning micturition, frequent urination, nausea, and vomiting. Antibiotics like Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole, quinolone etc. as the first choice of the drug are used worldwide. However, due to microbial resistance, several life‐threatening side effects, repeated high doses, high cost and low efficacy of these antibiotics motivated the researchers to explore natural remedies for the treatment of UTI. Herbal medicines are effective to combat bacterial resistance with high efficacy, and easy availability with minimal or no side effects, that's why it attained the attention to explore the herbal treatment of UTI. Vaccinium macrocarpon, Tribulus terrestris, Trachyspermum copticum, Cinnamomum verum and Hybanthusenn easpermus are some common medicinal plants reported to have therapeutic potential for the management and cure of the UTI. Although herbal medicines have more potential over conventional medicine but more discoveries are required to explore the phytoconstituents and their mechanism of action responsible for the management and cure of UTI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Cinnamon bark contains procyanidins which include both procyanidin A-type and Btype linkages the seprocyanidins extracted from Cinnamon and berries possess antioxidant activities (Peng et al., 2008;Anderson et al., 2004). Cinnamon also been used as Comparative Analysis of In vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Potential of Cinnamomum tamala Extract and their Essential... antiproliferative, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorder, urinary infection (Kallel et al., 2019;Brierley and Kleber 2011;Al-Jiffri et al., 2011). ...
Article
Background: The essential oils of aromatic plants have wide range of biological applications. Natural food preservatives have been always a demanding for food industries in both developed and developing countries to prevent bacterial growth in food stuffs. Therefore, focused on Cinnamon leaves essential oils components against food pathogens have been investigated to confirm its potential use in food products. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of two Cinnamon leaves oils and extracts (T-2 and T-19) were examined by disc diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration by two-fold serial dilution method against foodborn pathogenic microorganisms i.e. E.coli (MTCC 723), B. Cereus (MTCC 430), S. aureus (MTCC 3381), S. typhi (MTCC 734) and C. perfringens (MTCC 1349). The antioxidant activity of both essential oils and extract was determined by DPPH assay. The chemical profiling of Cinnamon essential oils were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Result: The antimicrobial activity of both Cinnamon leaves oils and extract were evaluated by disc diffusion assay and it showed that in essential oils and extracts exhibited the highest zone of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus and E.coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both oils and extracts ranged from 0.156 mg/ml to 5mg/ml and the antioxidant properties of oils and extract of cinnamaldehyde type Cinnamon possessed the highest antioxidant activity than linalool type. The chemical constituent of Cinnamon oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that T-2 contains cinnamaldehyde (75%) and T-19 contains Linalool (63.77%) were found as major constituents. Therefore the results shows that essential oil of cinnamaldehyde type Cinnamon could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants and also more effective against food borne pathogens than linalool type and could be used as natural antibacterial agents in food preservation.
... (E)-cinnamyl acetate and caryophyllene are the principal components of cinnamon fruit and flower essential oil [48,49]. Cinnamon is used in cosmetics and food products because of its antimicrobial properties [50,51], and It can be utilized as a health-promoting agent to treat ailments such as inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, and urine infections [52,53]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing consumer concerns about the dangers associated with synthetically produced additives in food processing have led researchers to focus their investigation on eco-friendly materials and natural antimicrobials from animal sources, microorganisms, and plant-based materials. Although fruits and vegetables are an essential element of most people’s diets, the perishable nature of these products results in a very limited shelf-life. Postharvest factors such as transportation, environmental factors, and preservation methods further decrease the product quality and storage limits. Thus, it is crucial to choose the correct substance and packaging method to retain product freshness. Minimally processed fruits and vegetables (MPFV) are among the most developing branches of the food industry. One of the practical techniques is essential oils (Eos) as natural preservatives and antimicrobial agents in MPFV. Eos demonstrated compelling against different pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. This review provides updated information on the use of Eos like Thyme, cinnamon, sage, peppermint, clove, their synergetic effect and applications in minimally processed fruits and vegetables. These essential oils ought to be investigated in the future to inspect their harmfulness and results through in vitro and clinical examinations. Graphic abstract
... piperita), e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L.) foram mais eficazes do que extratos aquosos frente a E. coli. Os autores ressaltaram que o extrato do cravo da Índia tem uma potente função antimicrobiana contra a E. coli(40). O efeito antibacteriano do A. sativum e do Z. officinale também foram testados em um estudo realizado por Karuppiah e cols. ...
Article
Full-text available
Infecções do trato urinário (ITU) caracterizam-se pela resposta do organismo diante uma invasão e multiplicação bacteriana. O tratamento através de terapias alternativas, entre elas plantas medicinais, tem se mostrado eficaz na prevenção de patologias. Dessa forma, o presente estudo objetivou realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre as principais plantas medicinais utilizadas para o tratamento de ITU. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, Scielo, Medline, Science Direct e Google acadêmico, nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol e em documentos oficiais dos últimos 12 anos. Sugere-se que os constituintes fitoquímicos presentes em algumas espécies, agem modulando o estresse oxidativo, impedem a fixação e proliferação de microrganismos. Existem muitos estudos sobre o potencial das plantas medicinais nas ITU, porém ainda são necessárias mais investigações visando o estabelecimento de doses, forma e tempo de uso, além de seus respectivos mecanismos de ação.
... In addition also showed various pharmaco-logical activities such as antioxidant (Dickson et al., 2006), antitumor (Kaskoos, 2014). Antispasmodic, anti-histaminic, vasorelaxant effects (Asghari and Lockwood, 2002), wound healing immuno modulation properties, leukemia healing (Zaker et al., 2007), antibacterial and antitubercular activities (Shahverdi et al., 2008) and antimicrobial (Al-Jiffri et al., 2011;Dogruoz et al., 2008) . ...
... In addition also showed various pharmaco-logical activities such as antioxidant (Dickson et al., 2006), antitumor (Kaskoos, 2014). Antispasmodic, anti-histaminic, vasorelaxant effects (Asghari and Lockwood, 2002), wound healing immuno modulation properties, leukemia healing (Zaker et al., 2007), antibacterial and antitubercular activities (Shahverdi et al., 2008) and antimicrobial (Al-Jiffri et al., 2011;Dogruoz et al., 2008) . ...
... In addition also showed various pharmaco-logical activities such as antioxidant (Dickson et al., 2006), antitumor (Kaskoos, 2014). Antispasmodic, anti-histaminic, vasorelaxant effects (Asghari and Lockwood, 2002), wound healing immuno modulation properties, leukemia healing (Zaker et al., 2007), antibacterial and antitubercular activities (Shahverdi et al., 2008) and antimicrobial (Al-Jiffri et al., 2011;Dogruoz et al., 2008) . ...
... In another study in 2011 that performed by O. Al-Jiffri, antibacterial effect of Cinnamon had showed on E. coli and Salmonella enteric isolated from UTI (O. Al-Jiffri et al., 2011). Amalaradjou et al. (Amalaradjou et al., 2011) showed the ability of trans-cinnamaldehyde to inhibit UPEC biofilm formation of UPEC on catheters. ...
Article
Full-text available
With use of continuous prophylactic antibiotics in societies without any limitation, the number of drug resistant bacteria has been increased. This survey was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Cinnamon extract and essence on bacteria that cause urinary tract infections (UTI), and compare it affects with common used antibiotics. This study was experimental design. Bacterial isolates i.e. E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis were isolated from UTI. Antibacterial effects of Cinnamon against these bacteria then were analyzed according to the standard protocols. Antibacterial effects of antibiotic such as nalidixic acid and Co-trimoxazole were also evaluated by disc diffusion method. Enterococcus faecalis, E.coli and Streptococcus agalactiae showed 100% sensitivity for extract and essence. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aurus (MRSA) had 80% sensitivity to extract and essence, and Klebsiella pneumonie had 90% sensitivity to extract and essence of Cinnamon. we conclude that essence and extract of Cinnamon have a much more effectiveness against bacteria isolated from UTI than common used antibiotics.
... In addition also showed various pharmaco-logical activities such as antioxidant (Dickson et al., 2006), antitumor (Kaskoos, 2014). Antispasmodic, anti-histaminic, vasorelaxant effects (Asghari and Lockwood, 2002), wound healing immuno modulation properties, leukemia healing (Zaker et al., 2007), antibacterial and antitubercular activities (Shahverdi et al., 2008) and antimicrobial (Al-Jiffri et al., 2011;Dogruoz et al., 2008) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Pegnum harmala is belong to Zygophyllaceaee family. It is a wild growing flowering plant which is possess antimicrobial functions and an essential component in commercial medicine, Traditionally revealed the smoke of its seeds is used as antiseptic. The aim of this study: harmala alkaloids (Harmaline, Harmalol, Harmol, Harmane, Harmine, tetra hydroharmine, acisine, acisinone) were isolated and chemically identified from Pegnum harmala seeds. Phytochemical screening of Pegnum harmala seeds showed the absence of flavonoids, Coumarin and resins and presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, anthraquinons, terpenoids and steroids. In vitro antibacterial activity results were summarized in table 3 of Peganum harmala and its alkaloids against some pathogenic bacterial strains isolated from patients Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Aeromonas, E.coli, klebsiella, Acinetobacter.
Article
The present study investigatedthe antimicrobial potential of four medicinal plants viz., tulsi, amla, neem and henna against the pathogenic bacteria. The ethanolic extract of all medicinal plants exhibited maximum antimicrobial activity against all bacterial pathogens. The ethanolic extract of henna exhibited maximum antimicrobial potential against E. coli (19.6±0.27 mm) while that of amla exhibited maximum antimicrobial potential against E. coli (16.7±0.34 mm). The ethanolic extract of tulsi exhibited maximum antimicrobial potential against Klebsiella(13.3±0.47 mm) while the ethanolic extract of neem exhibited maximum antimicrobial potential against E. coli (15.4±0.20 mm). © 2015, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
article is about effect of different prebiotics on lipid profile of high fat fed rats
Article
The present study investigated the prevalence of uropathogens and antimicrobial potential of three ayurvedic herbs viz., anantmul (Hemidesmusindicus), gulkhair (Malvasylvestris) and manjishtha (Rubiacordifolia) against the urinary tract infection pathogens.E. coliwas the most prevalent pathogen (42%) while Alcaligeneswas least prevalent (3%). The methanolic extracts were found to more effective as compared to aqueous extracts. The methanolic extract of anantmul exhibited maximum antibacterial property against E. coli(18.3±0.47mm) w hile aqueous extract of exhibited maximum effect upon Alcaligenes(13.7±0.47 mm). The methanolic extract of gulkhair showed highest potential against E. coli (23.7±0.94 mm) while aqueous extract of gulkhair exhibited maximum antimicrobial effect against E. coli (18.7±0.25 mm). The methanolic extract of manjishtha exhibited maximum antibacterial property against E. coli(29.3±0.47mm) while aqueous extract was most effective against E. coli (18.0±0.47 mm).The ayurvedic herbs exhibited significant antimicrobial potential. © 2015, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. All Rights Reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Clinical management of the urinary tract infections (UTI) is influenced by the antimicrobial vulnerability patterns. Objective The study aimed to analyse the resistance pattern of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing UTI in patients over a period of 4 years from 2012 to 2015. Materials and Methods 1000 samples from patients suspected of having urinary tract infections were collected and processed for culture and antimicrobial drug susceptibility as per the routine microbiological techniques. Results Of the total 1000 samples, 395 cases were culture-positive for E. coli. These isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disk diffusion method. Of the total 395 E. coli isolates, 170 (43%) were multi drug resistant (MDR). The isolates showed high level of resistance to Ampicillin (82.53%), Cefuroxime (72.41%), Amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (71.90%), Ceftriaxone (66.58%), Ciprofloxacin (65.82%) and Cefepime (57.47%). The isolates were sensitive to Imipenem (96.71%), Nitrfurantion (92.41%), Amikacin (90.89%), Chloramphenicol (85.82%), Piperacillin-tazobactum (80.76%), Gentamicin (59.24%), Azetreonam (54.43%) and Norfloxacin (53.67%). Conclusion We conclude that a significant number of the urinary tract infections in our study subjects were caused by multiple drug resistant E. coli. The sensitivity pattern showed a continued decline from 2012 to 2015, with Imipenem being currently the most effective antibiotic.
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT:Plant essential oils a well known herbs that was widely used in traditional medicine and food preservation due to the antimicrobial properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils alone and in combination with tetracycline antibiotic against E.coli growth. In this study the antimicrobial effects of rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis), clove(Sygium aromaticus), cumin(Cuminum cyminum) and ginger(Zingiber officinale) were tested alone and with tetracycline at concentration of (1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10) w/v dilution concentration which incorporated into Muller Hinton Agar that inoculated with pure activated E.coli culture and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C , the inhibition zone diameter was recorded. The obtained result showed that clove and rosemary essential oil alone was indicated the antimicrobial action, while clove, rosemary and ginger in combination with tetracycline were exhibited much more antimicrobial action than in tetracycline positive control against E.coli growth. This study emphasize the antibacterial properties of rosemary, clove and ginger essential oils in combination with tetracycline against E.coli were much higher than that of tetracycline, such combinations can be recommended for therapeutic purpose and be used as alternative medicine.
Article
Full-text available
Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens have become a serious global health concern. Main etiological agents for UTI are Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recently, medicinal plants have found great popularity in medical treatment for different kinds of infections including urinary tract infections. The study has been planned to evaluate the efficacy of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and crude extracts of medicinal plants i.e. Syzygium aromaticum, Glycerrhiza glabra,Laurus nobilis and Brassica rapa against MDR urinary tract pathogens through agar well diffusion method. To investigate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBCs), dilution method was used. Quantitative evaluations of phytochemicals indicated the presence of alkaloids in higher concentrations. Results obtained for the antibacterial activities, the crude extracts of the four plants showed significantly higher inhibition zones as compared to other phytochemicals. The MIC values obtained for different extracts varying from 7.5-15 mg/ml. Comparig the activities of the extracts of the the four medicinal plants it was found that Syzygium aromaticum was the most potent plant against the tested bacterial pathogens indicating its strong candidateship for the drug development.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston is one of the extensively used medicinal plant belonging to the family Bixaceae. In the present study, we determined antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activity and elemental analysis of C. religiosum flowers. Methods: Shade dried and powdered flower material was extracted by maceration process using methanol. Antibacterial activity of flower extract was determined by agar well diffusion assay against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Antifungal activity was tested against two molds namely Rhizopus sp. and Curvularia sp. by poisoned food technique. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging and ABTS free radical scavenging assays and ferric reducing assay. Insecticidal activity was assessed in terms of larvicidal activity against I, II and III instar larvae of Aedes species and Anopheles species. Elemental analysis was carried out to estimate the content of major and minor elements. Results: The flower extract was effective in inhibiting all test bacteria. Overall, the flower extract was effective against gram positive bacteria to higher extent when compared to gram negative bacteria. Flower extract showed dose dependent scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals with an EC50 value of 2.72 and 1.50µg/ml, respectively. In ferric reducing assay, an increase in the absorbance with increase in concentration indicated reducing potential of flower extract. At 1mg/ml concentration, the flower extract caused 100% mortality of I, II and III instar larvae of Aedes species and Anopheles species. The flower was shown to contain potassium and iron in highest quantity among major and minor elements, respectively while magnesium and chromium content was least among major and minor elements, respectively. Conclusions: The results are promising and the study highlights the possible utilization of the C. religiosum flowers against pathogenic microorganisms and oxidative stress and to manage mosquito-borne diseases. The flower can be used as a food supplement as it is shown to contain various mineral elements that are required.
Article
Cinnamon is a common spice obtained from the bark of Cinnamon tree (Cinnamomum zeylanicum). It has been used for culinary, as well as medicinal, purposes since ancient times in various countries. Apart from substantial amounts of several nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, choline, vitamins (A, K, C, B3), and minerals, several biological active compounds are present in the extract of oil, which contribute to immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antiviral, lowering blood cholesterol, antimicrobial, lipid-lowering, antihypertension, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, gastroprotective, antidiabetic, neuroprotective and blood purifying properties. Cinnamon roots serve as a hepatic stimulant by improving bile production, eliminating toxins, restoring electrolyte balance and regulating hydration and can be used for enhancing digestion. In addition, nutritional properties of cinnamon powder include positive effects regarding growth, digestion, enhanced activity of gut microflora, improvement of immune response, as well as improved feed efficiency and health improvement of poultry birds. Recently,research focus has been directed towards supplementing broiler diets with cinnamon powder as a phytobiotic in order to replace synthetic growth promoters.After reviewing the literature, it was found that the research at the molecular level to elucidate the mechanisms behind the potential ofcinnamon as a feed additive in poultry is limited, despite its promising impacts. Furthermore, supplementation doses vary significantly, i.e., from 0.02 to 7%. So, the aim of this review was to compile the published research related to cinnamon, explore its beneficial properties, find out its optimal dosage for uses byveterinarians, researchers, and nutritionists, as well as its potential to use as anatural feed additive to replace the synthetic antibiotic growth promoters in poultry feed.
Article
This study aimed to study the frequency and susceptibility profile of bacteria causing urinary tract infections and associated risk factors among women at Hail province, Saudi Kingdom. A total of 320 mid-stream urine samples were collected from women between the ages of 15-45 years. Escherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen. It was 7 (53 %) in a healthy non-pregnant women, 9 (50 %) in pregnant non-diabetic women and 17 (37.7 %) in diabetic pregnant women. Urine microscopy revealed the presence of pus cells in 62 (81.5 %) urine samples collected. Higher incidence of UTIs was found in age groups 15-24 and 25-34 years, the percentage of the bacterial isolates were 51.1% and 37.8%, respectively. Also, we found a significant relation between high HbA 1 C level and the prevalence of bacteriuria. Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that most of the urinary pathogens were highly susceptible to Augmentin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidime and Ofloxacin. Statistically, our results indicated that a higher significant relation between UTIs and age, duration of pregnancy, number of pregnancy and level of HbA 1 C (P-value < 0.05).
Article
Full-text available
Pedalium murex L. is a medicinal herb that has been used for the treatment of diseases related to kidney in the traditional system of medicine. The current study aims to study the effect of ethyl acetate extract of P. murex (EAEP) and its fractionated compound pedalitin against urease production and UreC gene expression in Proteus mirabilis. The selected reference strain Proteus mirabilis (MTCC 425) and the isolates culture of Proteus mirabilis were subjected to study the antibacterial efficacy of P. murex. Expression analysis of P. mirabilis urease gene was successfully done by QPCR. The ethyl acetate extract effectively inhibit the reference Proteus mirabilis and bacterial isolates of Proteus mirabilis in the clinical samples studied. EAEP has showed more potent activity (56.7%) against urease enzyme and pedalitin also exhibited potent activity (30.1%). Using qPCR, the expression of UreC gene of P. mirabilis was controlled by EAEP and also its bioactive compound pedalitin. The present study clearly demonstrated the potency of P. murex in controlling the growth of pathogenic P. mirabilis and to control the expression of urease enzyme production as well as to restrict the urease gene expression in P. mirabilis.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.