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Abstract

Context: According to some studies, the tendency of mothers to breastfeed has declined in recent years. Due to numerous benefits of breastfeeding which had been reported, this problem may put children's health and overall health of society at risk. In this study, we reviewed previous studies, emphasizing importance and necessity and enumerating benefits of breast-feeding. Evidence Acquisition: Databases including Science Direct, Biomed, Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, SID, and magazines related to the topic were searched using keywords. Articles that examined various aspects of breastfeeding were analyzed as well. Results: The most perfect food for babies during the first two years of their lives is breast milk. It has so many health benefits for both mother and baby. Breastfeeding was studied from various aspects. There was significant correlation between the examined factors in vast majority of papers. However, some factors that researchers considered important did not give definitive results; therefore more extensive research is needed in this area. Conclusions: Breast milk is the most perfect food for babies during the first two years and no replacement is recommended during this time. Breastfeeding has so many health benefits for both mother and baby during the breastfeeding period as well as in the future.
J Compr Ped. 2014 May; 4(2): e14028.
Published online 2014 May 1. Review Article
An Overview of Importance of Breastfeeding
Foad Alimoradi 1; Maryam Javadi 1; Ameneh Barikani 2,*; Naser Kalantari 3; Mohamad
Ahmadi 1
1Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran
2Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran
3Department of Community Nutrition, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medi-
cal Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
*Corresponding author: Ameneh Barikani, Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2813341934, E-mail:
barikani.a@gmail.com
Received: August 4, 2013; Revised: February 17, 2014; Accepted: April 11, 2014
Context: According to some studies, the tendency of mothers to breastfeed has declined in recent years. Due to numerous benefits of
breastfeeding which had been reported, this problem may put children’s health and overall health of society at risk. In this study, we
reviewed previous studies, emphasizing importance and necessity and enumerating benefits of breast-feeding.
Evidence Acquisition: Websites including PubMed, Science Direct, Biomed, Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, SID, and magazines
related to the topic were searched using keywords. Articles that examined various aspects of breastfeeding were analyzed as well.
Results: The most perfect food for babies during the first two years of their lives is breast milk. It has so many health benefits for both
mother and baby. Breastfeeding was studied from various aspects. There was significant correlation between the examined factors in vast
majority of papers. However, some factors that researchers considered important did not give definitive results; therefore more extensive
research is needed in this area.
Conclusions: Breast milk is the most perfect food for babies during the first two years and no replacement is recommended during this
time. Breastfeeding has so many health benefits for both mother and baby during the breastfeeding period as well as in the future.
Keywords: Breastfeeding; Nutrition; Pediatrics
Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:
Decreased tendency of mothers to breastfeed in recent years may put children’s health and overall society health at risk. In this study, we reviewed previ-
ous studies to emphasize importance, necessity and enumerate benefits of breast-feeding.
Copyright © 2014, Iranian Society of Pediatrics; Published by Safnek. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
Breast milk is a unique source of food for babies (1, 2)
which contains all necessary nutrients that will ensures
the infant's health, growth and development (2). This
source of food cannot be replaced with any other diet, as
breast milk contains numerous antioxidants, protecting
babies against harm caused by pathogens (3, 4). Breast-
feeding is also an important source of antioxidants, such
as vitamin C and vitamin E, that prevent or reduce oxida-
tive damages to various body tissues (5). Many anti-in-
flammatory agents were also found in breast milk which
protects child from inflammatory damage (6).
The breastfeeding period is the most critical period of
each individual’s life in terms of his growth and devel-
opment and an infant’s nutrition is highly important at
this stage. Secretary IgA of breast milk protects the ears,
nose, throat and digestive tract, also reduces intensity of
diseases such as diarrhea, respiratory tract infections (7,
8), otitis media, bacterial meningitis and urinary tract in-
fection (9). The carnitine level in infants fed with breast
milk is higher than infants fed with milk powder. Note
that carnitine is required for utilization of fatty acids as
an energy source (9). Exclusive breast feeding up to the
first 6 months of an infant’s life reduces the risk of devel-
oping gastrointestinal infections (10), asthma (10, 11) and
increases prevention on development of childhood obe-
sity (12-15) and diabetes in later years of children’s lives
(16, 17) and may be associated with decreased cholesterol
concentrations (16). Also breast-fed children have higher
scores of mental-cognitive capability than children who
were not breast fed (18).
Breastfeeding significantly reduced the risk of sudden
death syndrome in children under one year old (19-23)
and in early birth has a tremendous positive effect on
children's health (24). On the other hand mothers who
had breastfed their babies are less likely to suffer from
hypertension (25) and with increased breastfeeding du-
ration decreased the risk of developing cardiovascular
disease in 50 year old mothers (26). Also were less prone
to develop breast cancer (27-29) and recurrence rate of
postpartum migraine (30, 31).
Alimoradi F et al.
J Compr Ped. 2014;4(2):e140282
2. Evidence Acquisition
In examining factors associated with breast milk, due to
extensive articles and topics related to this area of inter-
est, papers which stressed on the importance and ben-
efits of breastfeeding were reviewed. The following key-
words were mostly looked up in articles: Breast Feeding,
Milk, Exclusive Breast Feeding, Women Milk, and Human
Milk. Sites that were used in this paper are as followed:
PubMed, ScienceDierect, Biomed, Medline, Cochrane Li-
brary, EMBASE, SID. Articles whose topics contradict this
article’s topic were considered as well.
Numerous studies have examined various aspects of
breastfeeding and breast milk feeding. There was a sig-
nificant relationship between breastfeeding and critical
factors of human health in many of these studies. Given
the breadth of material in this field of study, a summary
of examined reviewed studies are described individually
with respect to their topics in the rest of this paper.
2.1. Examining Relationship Between Breastfeeding
and Prevention of Diseases
Breastfeeding protects babies from many diseases and
reduces the severity of their symptoms. Among these dis-
eases we can mention respiratory infections, gastrointes-
tinal infections and diarrhea. Lower incidences of these
diseases were reported in infants fed with breast milk
(32-36). Salehi Abarghooyi et al. (37) showed that breast-
feeding longer than 12 months is effective in reducing the
risk of myopia in six to seven years old children. A review
of several studies showed that breast milk contains bac-
teria that are disinfectants and strengthen the immune
systems of the infants’ bodies (38). Cornall (39) supported
the high impact of breastfeeding on growth and health
of skeletal system of children, compared to other nutri-
tional methods of breast feeding.
2.2. Examining the Relationship Between
Overweight and Obesity and Breastfeeding
Ibrahimzadekar et al. (40) showed that exclusive breast
feeding up to six months and its continuation until 18
months is effective in reducing the risk of childhood
obesity. Some studies have shown that breastfeeding and
increased breastfeeding duration is an important factor
in reducing obesity and overweight in children (14, 41-
46). But, Shields et al. (47) and Nelson et al. (48) did not
find an independent relationship between decreased
overweight and obesity and breastfeeding. Instead, they
found that other factors, including genetic and environ-
mental factors are involved in this relationship. How-
ever, in another study, Kramer et al. (11, 49) showed that
breastfeeding had no effect on reducing obesity and over-
weight. Ijarotimi (50) study of 200 breastfeeding moth-
ers concluded that there was no significant relationship
between breastfeeding mothers and their BMI. Burke et
al. (45) suggested in a study that children that are breast-
fed for less than four months are more likely to develop
obesity and overweight, or had increased obesity and
overweight, compared to children who had been breast
fed more than 4 months.
2.3. Examining the Relationship between
Breastfeeding and Incidence of Diabetes and
Hypertension
Several studies also supported the protective effect of
breastfeeding against the development of type I diabetes
(17, 51). Meyer et al. (52) showed in their study of 167 ado-
lescents that breastfeeding is a protective factor against
type II diabetes in adolescents. In some studies linking
breastfeeding with reduced risk of type II diabetes has
been emphasized (53, 54). According to Villegas et al.
(53) and Stuebe et al. (55) studies, breastfeeding protects
both mother and child from type II diabetes. Stuebe et al.
(56) have also shown that breastfeeding protects mother
from hypertension; however other studies did not report
such an association (11, 57). Stuebe et al. (58) found that
the risk of developing type II diabetes in mothers who
tend to breastfeed their babies less than a month is more
than mothers who do not.
2.4. Examining the Relationship Between
Breastfeeding and Incidence of Asthma and
Allergies
In a case-control study of 400 cases and controls con-
ducted by Schnooyi et al. (59) it was shown that breast-
feeding up to six months is associated with a reduced risk
of asthma in 2-8 year-old children. Another study showed
that vitamin C found in breast milk reduces allergy in
children (6). Kramer et al. (60) study of 17046 children
did not confirm the effects of long-term breast-feeding
in reducing asthma and allergy. On the other hand, Sil-
vers et al. (61) reported a significant relationship between
breastfeeding and lower respiratory disorders, especially
wheezing. Silvers et al. (62) showed that exclusive breast-
feeding may reduce asthma and allergies at age six years
old.
2.5. Examining the Relationship Between
Breastfeeding and Development and Function of
Nervous System
In a study of 69750 children conducted by Sun et al.
(63), it was demonstrated that persistent and long-term
breastfeeding is a protective factor against the develop-
ment of epilepsy in children. Several studies showed
that breastfeeding is effective in increasing children's
cognitive understanding (18, 62, 64-66), in addition these
studies emphasized on long-term breast milk consump-
tion (62). Several studies also implied the positive role
of breastfeeding on increased IQ and mental abilities,
especially in language learning (67-69). This criterion is
Alimoradi F et al.
3
J Compr Ped. 2014;4(2):e14028
probably due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acids,
especially DHA, in breast milk (65, 70). Based on a case-
control study conducted by Al-Farsi et al. (71), breast milk
prevents the occurrence of autism in children. Another
study (72) also showed that the lack of breastfeeding or
early weaning of infants can make children vulnerable
to ADHA (Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Nish-
ioka et al. (73) concluded in a study of 405 mothers that
mothers who breastfed their children for six months
were less prone to postpartum depression.
2.6. Examining the Relationship Between
Breastfeeding and Other Factors
The positive effect of breastfeeding on the decreasing
risk of breast cancer was seen in mothers who had breast-
fed (27, 29, 58, 74). In two studies by Ram et al. (75) and
Gunderson et al. (76), it was shown that an increased
breastfeeding duration by mothers protects them
against metabolic syndrome in the following years after
weaning. Stuebe et al. (77) stated in a study of 89326 that
prolonged breastfeeding protects mothers from cardio-
vascular diseases. Schwarz et al. (78) found that increased
breastfeeding duration decreases the incidence of hyper-
tension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and Hyperlip-
idemia in mothers.
3. Results
This paper showed that breastfeeding is the most criti-
cal solution which helps both an individual [the baby]
and society because both mother and child benefits from
the advantages of breastfeeding. The impact of breast-
feeding on reducing obesity and overweight were greatly
proven in children and adolescents. This issue can solve
many problems and diseases that society faces in the fu-
ture. The findings in the mentioned studies show that
breastfeeding reduces the risk of developing so many dis-
eases including diarrhea, respiratory infections, diges-
tive disorders, asthma, allergies and some neurological
disorders. Besides, breastfeeding can reduce obesity and
overweight in youths and adolescents. Other benefits
of breast milk are its protective effect in reduced risk of
developing diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome
and breast cancer in mothers and children. Breastfeed-
ing prevents the risk of developing cardiovascular dis-
eases as well. The high concentration of anti-oxidant in
breast milk, leads to the conclusion that breast milk is a
protective factor against several numbers of cancers. So
far, no replacement has been proposed for breast milk.
4. Conclusions
Breast milk is the perfect food source - without any
other replacement - in children’s diet during the first two
years of their lives. Further studies are still needed to ex-
amine the relationship between breastfeeding and other
health factors.
4.1. Recommendations
1) Child should be exclusively fed with breast milk in the
first six months of his life.
2) Child determines breastfeeding time and any time
the child demands breast milk, he should be breastfed.
3) Breastfeeding should start from early hours after
birth.
4) Breastfeeding should continue after six months
along with complementary food for the child.
5) Mothers who cannot be near their children at all
times - for any reason - can freeze their milk, so that other
family members can feed the child with this milk when-
ever the child needs to be fed.
6) Do not deprive your children from breast milk as
long as it is possible.
Acknowledgements
Sincere thanks to Social Determinants of Health Re-
search Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qaz-
vin, Iran for their helps.
Authors’ Contributions
Alimoradi 30%, Javadi 30%, Barikani 25%, Kalantari 10%,
Ahmadi 5%.
Financial Disclosure
This article did not use any financial support and there
is no conflict of interests for authors.
Funding/Support
This research was supported by Qazvin University in
Medical Sciences, Qazvin Research Center for Social De-
terminants of Health, Qazvin, Iran.
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... The importance of breastfeeding for both the mother and the baby during the period of breastfeeding and in the future have been well documented in literature [7][8][9]. For example, Alimoradi et al. [7] indicated that breast milk is the best food for children in the first two years of their life and replacing it with any other food is not recommended. ...
... The importance of breastfeeding for both the mother and the baby during the period of breastfeeding and in the future have been well documented in literature [7][8][9]. For example, Alimoradi et al. [7] indicated that breast milk is the best food for children in the first two years of their life and replacing it with any other food is not recommended. Studies have shown that breastfeeding increases the child's innate nutritional behavior including searching and sucking, which is critical for the child's growth and survival as the mother exclusively feeds them [8,9]. ...
... Possibly, most women in Gambia do not give birth at the health facilities, reducing their propensity of practicing TIBF [56]. The importance of breastfeeding for both the mother and the baby during the period of breastfeeding have been documented in literature [7][8][9]. Evidence has shown that breast milk is the best food for children in the first two years of their life and replacing it with any other thing is not recommended [7]. Additionally, breastfeeding increases child's innate nutritional behavior including searching and sucking, which is critical for the child's growth and survival as the mother exclusively feeds them [8,9]. ...
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Background:Mother and newborn skin-to-skin contact (SSC) plays a key role in breastfeeding practices of mothers. In this study, we examined the association between mother and newborn SSC and timely initiation of breastfeeding in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 17 countries in SSA from 2015 to 2020. Multilevel binary logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between mother and newborn SSC and timely initiation of breastfeeding. The results are presented using adjusted odds ratios (aOR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The pooled prevalences of mother and newborn SSC and timely initiation of breastfeeding were 45.68% (95% CI = 34.12–57.23) and 62.89% (95% CI = 55.67–70.11), respectively. Mothers who practiced newborn SSC were more likely to practice timely initiation of breastfeeding compared to those who did not practice SSC [aOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.58, 1.78] and this persisted after controlling for all the covariates [aOR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.29, 1.47]. At the country level, mother and newborn SSC increased the odds of timely initiation of breastfeeding in Angola [aOR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.44, 2.76], Cameroon [aOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.99], Ethiopia [aOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.16, 2.28], Guinea [aOR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.10, 2.60], Liberia [aOR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33, 3.12], Malawi [aOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.12], Mali [aOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.84], Sierra Leone [aOR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.23, 2.83], South Africa [aOR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.41, 4.76], Tanzania [aOR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.27, 2.01], Uganda [aOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.99], Zambia [aOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.50, 2.30], and Zimbabwe [aOR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.21]. Conclusion: The prevalence of SCC was relatively low but timely initiation of breastfeeding was high. Mother and newborn SSC is a strong predictor of timely initiation of breastfeeding in SSA. To enhance timely initiation of breastfeeding after birth, this study recommends that more child and maternal healthcare interventions focused on improving mother and newborn SSC should be implemented.
... Breast milk has widespread benefits for both the mother and the baby. 1 From the development of a healthy brain in babies and protecting them from infectious diseases, boosting their immune system, lowering the risk of acquired and autoimmune diseases to protecting mothers against ovarian and breast cancers, breast milk has multiple advantages. 2 It has been reported that when the mother holds their babies' skin-to-skin immediately after their birth, this act provides warmth to the baby, regulating their heartbeat, respiratory, oxygen saturation rate. Hence, infants should be breastfed within one hour of their birth, breastfed exclusively for six months, and continue to be breastfed for up to 2 years. ...
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Background: Initiation of breastfeeding within one hour after delivery plays a vital role in a newborns life by not only increasing their survival rate but also reducing many life-threatening diseases in the newborn. The aim of the study was to determine frequency of early initiation of breastfeeding among primiparous mothers in a rural district of Thatta, Pakistan.Methods: This study was conducted using survey data extracted from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2019 on prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and factors associated with it among women in Thatta. The outcome was early initiation of breastfeeding. To determine factors associated with it, multi variable logistic regression was carried out.Results: The study showed that 30.3% of primiparous mothers in Thatta initiated breastfeeding within one hour of birth and knowledge of mothers (OR=9.76, 95% CI: 1.99-17.59), place of birth (OR=3.51, 95% CI: 1.32-9.31) and support of health care professional at health facility (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.09-7.86) are the factors significantly associated with early initiation of breastfeeding among primiparous mothers.Conclusions: In order to enhance the early initiation of breastfeeding, it is important for health care professionals to emphasize on the effect of pre-lacteal feeding during and support breastfeeding immediately after delivery, especially among women who had given birth for the first time.
... An irreplaceable food for a baby, breast milk helps in gaining muscular weight, mental agility, physiological functions, capacity to fight pathogenic infections and diseases and is a rich source of antibodies and antioxidants. 13,14,15 Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of infants and breastfeeding within the first hour of birth is a preventive measure for numerous diseases, infections and unwanted health outcomes of infants/ children. 1 The likelihood of infants dying is 14 times more if they have not been breastfed, as breastmilk consumption protects from sudden infant death syndrome, it also catalyses childhood development and higher intelligence, and lowers the risk of getting leukaemia, obesity or type-II diabetes. 16 Breast milk during the first 1000 days of an infant provides a unique opportunity for its future holistic growth and development of physical and mental health. 1 ...
... The benefits of breast milk for mothers and babies include preventing some diseases, obesity in children, asthma, allergies, hypertension, and diabetes in children and their mothers, as well as increasing infants' cognitive abilities. 4 WHO reports that 800,000 toddlers can be saved every year if breastfeeding is given optimally from ages 0-23 months. Breast milk has many benefits that can reduce the morbidity and mortality rates of infants and children. ...
Article
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Breast milk is a food source for infants with essential nutrition for their health, growth, and development. Breast milk has various benefits including preventing children from a variety of conditions that can inhibit their growth and development such as malnutrition. Malnutrition is associated with 45% of deaths and illnesses of children. Exclusive breastfeeding is considered to be able to help overcome nutritional problems such as stunting and malnutrition. A report from the Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia in 2015 showed that 18.8% of toddlers suffer from malnutrition while 12.7% experience stunting. This study aimed to analyse factors influence breastfeeding given by working mothers. This was a quantitative descriptive study with a cross-sectional approach. The study involved 101 respondents who were working mothers of children aged 7-24 months old. The respondents were selected using questionnaire measurement tools. Data analysis used the Chi-Square test with an alpha value of 0.05. The results show that there was no relationship between knowledge of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding. However, there was a significant relationship between family support and exclusive breastfeeding. Good knowledge must be followed by a good attitude and family support, especially from the husband, so that the mother will give exclusive breastfeeding to the baby.
... Kata Kunci : Pengetahuan, Ibu hamil, ASI Eksklusif ASI tidak hanya bermanfaat bagi bayi akan tetapi juga sangat bermanfaat bagi ibu, manfaat lain dariASI bagi ibu dan bayi diantaranya adalah ASI dapat mencegah beberapa penyakit, mencegah obesitas pada anak, mencegah hipertensi dan diabetes pada anak dan ibunya, mencegah asma dan alergi, meningkatkan kemampun kognitif bayi.[1]WHO menyebutkan bahwa 800.000 anak usian BALITA bisa diselamatkan setiap tahun jika ASI diberikan dari usia 0-23 bulan secara optimal. ...
Article
Air susu ibu (ASI) jika diberikan 0-23 bulan secara optimal akan dapat memberikan manfaat yang banyak untuk ibu dan anak, diantara manfaat pemberian ASI adalah mencegah obesitas, mencegah beberapa penyakit sehingga dapat menurunkan angka mortalitas dan morbiditas anak. Manfaat lain dari ASI adalah dapat meningkatkan kemampuan kognitif bayi. Upaya promotif yang dilakukan melalui program pendidikan kesehatan diharapkan mampu membantu meningkatkan angka capaian pemberian ASI eksklusif. Tujuan dari pengabdian masyarakat ini adalah untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan ibu tentang ASI eksklusif pada ibu post partum di Ruang Melati RSUD Sunan Kalijaga Demak. Pengetahuan ibu post partum setelah dilakukan pendidikan kesehatan adalah meningkat dengan nilai rata-rata post test 70. Terjadi peningkatan pengetahuan antara sebelum dan setelah dilakukan pendidikan kesehatanKata Kunci : Pengetahuan, Ibu hamil, ASI Eksklusif
... These can't be replaced with other type of food, because breast milk contains antioxidant to protect them from infection. [5] Besides, breastfeeding has been considered as one of preventive factors against obesity. The suggested mechanisms are: 1) Breastfed babies have more discretion to adjust the amount of breast milk they need to, if compared with formula-fed babies, so that there will be a better self-regulation for energy intake in the future 2) Breast milk contains lots of hormones such as leptin, ghrelin, and adiponectin that may affect body fat deposition positively 3) Formula milk, as comparison with breast milk, contains more protein that may increase adiposity and body weight among formula-fed babies. ...
Article
Obesity is a public health concern that its prevalence and intensity on children have been increasing with alarming status. Breastfeeding has been considered as one of protective factors that can prevent childhood obesity. The aim of this study is to discover the relationship between history of breastfeeding and obesity on elementary school children. This is an analytical study with cross sectional design. All children in first and second grade of Namira Islamic Elementary School and their mothers were included as population. Ninety samples were recruited randomly. Data on breastfeeding history were collected by using questionnaire guided interview from the mothers. The BMI-for-age curve CDC 2000 was used to determine obesity status of the children (≥ 95th percentile). Data were analyzed using chi-square test. This study found percentage of children with and without history of breastfeeding consecutively is 92.2% and 7.8%. Prevalence of children with obesity is 12.2% and without obesity is 87.8%. Eight of 83 children with history of breastfeeding (72.7%) were obese, and 3 of 7 children without history of breastfeeding (27.3%) were obese (PR=0.2; 95% CI=0.27-0.752;p<0.05). Based on the study, there is a relationship between history of breastfeeding and obesity in elementary school children. Keywords: Breastfeeding, Elementary School Children, Obesity ABSTRAK Obesitas merupakan masalah kesehatan yang prevalensi dan intensitas kejadiannya pada anak terus meningkat serta telah mencapai status yang mengkhawatirkan. Pemberian ASI telah dipertimbangkan sebagai salah satu faktor yang dapat mencegah terjadinya obesitas pada anak. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui adanya hubungan antara riwayat pemberian ASI dengan kejadian obesitas pada anak sekolah dasar. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui pendekatan analitik dengan desain cross sectional. Populasi penelitian ini adalah anak Sekolah Dasar Swasta Islam Namira yang berada di kelas satu dan dua dan Ibu nya. Jumlah sampel dalam peneltian ini adalah 90 orang yang dipilih secara acak. Data mengenai riwayat pemberian ASI didapatkan melalui wawancara dengan kuesioner dari Ibu. Kriteria obesitas pada anak ditentukan dengan menggunakan kurva indeks massa tubuh menurut usia dari CDC 2000 (persentil ≥95). Data yang didapat dianalisis dengan uji kai kuadrat. Pada penelitian ini ditemukan 92.2% anak mendapat ASI dan 7.8% anak tidak mendapat ASI saat bayi. Anak yang mengalami obesitas adalah 12.2% sedangkan anak yang tidak mengalami obesitas adalah 87.8%. Anak yang mendapat ASI dan mengalami obesitas adalah 72.7% sedangkan anak yang tidak diberi ASI dan mengalami obesitas adalah 27.3%. Berdasarkan hasil uji hipotesis didapatkan (RP=0.2; 95% CI=0.27-0.752: p<0.05). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa terdapat hubungan antara riwayat pemberian ASI dengan kejadian obesitas pada anak sekolah dasar. Kata Kunci: Anak Sekolah Dasar, ASI, Obesitas
... The universal importance of breastfeeding and human milk are demonstrated by different researches indicating it's nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, cognitive, socio-economic, and health significance [1][2][3]. The World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and continued breastfeeding to the age of two and beyond with appropriate and sufficient complementary foods, but despite the importance and international recommendations only 37% of children are exclusively breastfed worldwide [4][5][6]. ...
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Background: The universal importance of breastfeeding and human milk are demonstrated by different researches but despite the importance only 37% of children are exclusively breastfed worldwide. Women employment is one way of ensuring women's empowerment but it is also one of the commonly mentioned factors contributing for the low prevalence of breastfeeding. Hence, there needs to be a conducive work environment that accommodates maternal needs not to fall back from empowerment and to improve breastfeeding practice. There are not many studies that focus on work environment in relation with employers’ experience and their perception of breastfeeding of employed mothers. Therefore this study aims to explore employers’ experience and perception of employed mothers’ breastfeeding experience in different working environments in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A descriptive phenomenology strategy was employed in this study and purposive sampling technique was used to recruit study participants. Data was collected from 10 employers from private, governmental and non-governmental institutions through an in-depth interview. Thematic data analysis was performed where collected data was organized, coded and categorized into themes to give meaningful contributions to answering the research questions. Results: Understanding breastfeeding, current maternity leave, perception of breastfeeding supporting conditions and mother-friendly work environment were the themes generated after analysis. Almost all employers in this study recognized the importance of breastfeeding despite the different work environments they worked in and they also acknowledged the importance of making working environment mother-friendly for stability and motivation of employed mothers. Conclusions: Providing mothers with a friendly environment is understood as a positive thing by employers. The current maternity leave of three months has low acceptance and both onsite child care center and six-month maternity leave are believed to help in creating a mother-friendly work environment despite their pros and cons.
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Breastfeeding is undoubtedly the best nutrition for infants. Even throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, more pregnant mothers intend to breastfeed their babies. Despite this desire, not all of them succeed in initiating breastfeeding. One of the overlooked challenges in breastfeeding is that working mothers need to return to work, increasing hesitancy to continue breastfeeding due to numerous inconveniences, leading to full breastfeeding cessation. Systematic changes are needed following simple and practical changes: giving access to knowledge on breastfeeding while working, sharing advice and support from employers and colleagues, and providing a breastfeeding-friendly workplace, all of which can increase breastfeeding rates in many countries. Improvement in breastfeeding habits would also bring greater impact as increases in working mothers’ wellbeing will increase their work performance. Danone has done several breastfeeding initiatives and post-natal support in workplaces which has shown a positive impact through preliminary evaluation included in this study. The corporate world has not fully supported breastfeeding, but some best practices and learning points shed from this study could become an example that would lead to better commitments from other companies.
Article
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which affects the whole world, negatively affects breastfeeding mothers and newborns. This study aimed to evaluate the breastfeeding practices influenced by women's life events and the breastfeeding women compliance with the rules established against the risk of SARS-CoV-2. This prospective cross-sectional online survey design study was carried out on 339 breastfeeding mothers between April 21 and May 10, 2020, in Turkey. Data were collected by an information form and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R); 39.2% of breastfeeding mothers were traumatically affected by events experienced as a result of the pandemic. Study results reveal that breastfeeding mothers concerned about the risk of SARS-COV-2 transmission to their infants through human milk or breastfeeding. Noncompliance with SARS-CoV-2 measures among breastfeeding women was high. Policymakers and healthcare providers should not ignore this situation. It may be beneficial to conduct consciousness-raising and awareness studies to increase the compliance ratios of breastfeeding women with the recommended measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
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Background Prematurity brings along a high risk of early and late mortality and morbidity that demands specialized care within the NICU. Mothers of premature babies often feel powerless and helpless once the premature baby is discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). These experiences might interfere with their transitions into parenthood as they might question their ability to care for their baby. As nurses become greatly concerned regarding the continuity of care at home, the purpose of this study was to explore and describe the information that mothers of prematurely born babies need upon discharge for inclusion in a guideline booklet. Methods A qualitative explorative design was used to conduct interviews with mothers of prematurely born babies in a NICU of a tertiary hospital in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Purposive sampling was used to select mothers whose prematurely born babies were preparing for discharge from NICU and mothers whose babies were discharged and at home and were brought to the hospital for their six weeks follow-up after discharge. Unstructured individual interviews were conducted. Results The following seven themes were identified, namely feeding of a prematurely born baby, positioning of the baby, infection control and hygiene, care for a sick baby or baby with special needs, immunisation and clinic visits, normal development and growth, and information guidelines. Conclusion The findings of this study were used to include essential information in a guideline booklet for mothers with prematurely born babies upon discharge from the NICU.
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In this review, we describe the patterns of known immunological components in breast milk and examine the relationship between breastfeeding and reduced risk of breast cancer. The top risk factors for breast cancer are a woman's age and family history, specifically having a first-degree relative with breast cancer. Women that have a history of breastfeeding have been shown to have reduced rates of breast cancer. Although the specific cause has not been elucidated, previous studies have suggested that breastfeeding reduces the risk of breast cancer primarily through two mechanisms: the differentiation of breast tissue and reduction in the lifetime number of ovulatory cycles. In this context, one of the primary components of human milk that is postulated to affect cancer risk is alpha-lactalbumin. Tumour cell death can be induced by HAMLET (a human milk complex of alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid). HAMLET induces apoptosis only in tumour cells, while normal differentiated cells are resistant to its effects. Therefore, HAMLET may provide safe and effective protection against the development of breast cancer. Mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed their babies because the complex components of human milk secretion make it an ideal food source for babies and clinical evidence has shown that there is a lower risk of breast cancer in women who breastfed their babies.
Article
Background: Findings from observational studies suggest an inverse association between lactation and premenopausal breast cancer risk, but results are inconsistent, and data from large prospective cohort studies are lacking. Methods: We used information from 60 075 parous women participating in the prospective cohort study of the Nurses' Health Study 11 from 1997 to 2005. Our primary outcome was incident premenopausal breast cancer. Results: We ascertained 608 incident cases of premenopausal breast cancer during 357 556 person-years of follow-up. Women who had ever breastfed had a covariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-1.00) for premenopausal breast cancer compared with women who had never breastfed. No linear trend was found with duration of total lactation (P=.95), exclusive lactation (P=.74), or lactation amenorrhea (P=.88). The association between lactation and premenopausal breast cancer was modified by family history of breast cancer (P value for interaction =.03). Among women with a first-degree relative with breast cancer, those who had ever breastfed had a covariate-adjusted HR of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.22-0.75) for premenopausal breast cancer compared with women who had never breastfed, whereas no association was observed among women without a family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: In this large, prospective cohort study of parous premenopausal women, having ever breastfed was inversely associated with incidence of breast cancer among women with a family history of breast cancer.
Article
Context A number of studies suggest a positive association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in early and middle childhood. However, the only previous study that investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and intelligence in adults had several methodological shortcomings.Objective To determine the association between duration of infant breastfeeding and intelligence in young adulthood.Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective longitudinal birth cohort study conducted in a sample of 973 men and women and a sample of 2280 men, all of whom were born in Copenhagen, Denmark, between October 1959 and December 1961. The samples were divided into 5 categories based on duration of breastfeeding, as assessed by physician interview with mothers at a 1-year examination.Main Outcome Measures Intelligence, assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) at a mean age of 27.2 years in the mixed-sex sample and the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP) test at a mean age of 18.7 years in the all-male sample. Thirteen potential confounders were included as covariates: parental social status and education; single mother status; mother's height, age, and weight gain during pregnancy and cigarette consumption during the third trimester; number of pregnancies; estimated gestational age; birth weight; birth length; and indexes of pregnancy and delivery complications.Results Duration of breastfeeding was associated with significantly higher scores on the Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale WAIS IQs. With regression adjustment for potential confounding factors, the mean Full Scale WAIS IQs were 99.4, 101.7, 102.3, 106.0, and 104.0 for breastfeeding durations of less than 1 month, 2 to 3 months, 4 to 6 months, 7 to 9 months, and more than 9 months, respectively (P = .003 for overall F test). The corresponding mean scores on the BPP were 38.0, 39.2, 39.9, 40.1, and 40.1 (P = .01 for overall F test).Conclusion Independent of a wide range of possible confounding factors, a significant positive association between duration of breastfeeding and intelligence was observed in 2 independent samples of young adults, assessed with 2 different intelligence tests.
Article
Background: Cohort analyses suggesting that breast-feeding protects against being overweight have been criticized for inadequately controlling for confounding associated with the self-selection of feeding practices. Methods: Using nationally representative U.S. data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–1996), we performed traditional cohort analyses (n = 11,998) using logistic regression to estimate the relation between breast-feeding and adolescent overweight (body mass index ≥85 percentile, based on year 2000 CDC growth charts), controlling for known potential confounders. Breast-feeding also was assessed in a subsample of 850 sibling pairs to account for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors. Results: Among girls in the full cohort, the odds of being overweight declined among those who had been breast-fed at least 9 months; odds ratios ranged from 0.90 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.09) for <3 months of breast-feeding to 0.78 (0.64–0.96) for ≥9 months. A similar effect was seen in boys, although these trends were less consistent. In contrast, an analysis of sibling pairs provided no evidence of breast-feeding effects on weight within discordant trends. Conclusion: Cohort data indicate that odds of being overweight decrease as breast-feeding duration increases, at least among girls. However, sibling analyses suggest that this relationship may not be causal but rather attributable to unmeasured confounding related to mothers’ choice to breast-feed, or to other childhood risk factors for overweight. Our results illustrate the utility of sibling analyses in understanding the true effect of early life exposures (such as breast-feeding) on health outcomes over time, independent of confounding factors that may not be satisfactorily controlled using traditional prospective cohort methods.
Article
Background: A review of the breastfeeding related literature was undertaken to provide background for a qualitative study that explores how osteopaths promote effective breastfeeding. Topics considered relevant to osteopathic practice are presented with the aim of informing and stimulating discussion and further inquiry. Data Sources and Selection: Information is drawn together from the following databases: Lactation Resource Centre of Australian Breastfeeding Association, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, and Medline. Qualitative and quantitative studies of all designs, government and professional association websites, and conference presentations are included as the aim is to generate a broad background on the biological and psychosocial aspects of breastfeeding that could impact on osteopathic practise. The theoretical literature is included in areas where little research is available. Conclusions: A strong evidence base promotes breastfeeding as important health behaviour for a mother and baby; influenced by many complex and sensitive biopsychosocial factors. The theoretical literature and studies that have investigated the biomechanics of breastfeeding provide a rationale for osteopathic treatment to facilitate effective breastfeeding; however little supportive research has been undertaken. Further well designed studies are needed to determine the role that osteopaths might play in supporting a mother-baby dyad to successfully breastfeed.
Article
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine how parity and breastfeeding were associated with maternal high blood pressure, and how age modifies this association. Study design: Baseline data for 74,785 women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia. These women were 45 years of age or older, had an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure before pregnancy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between giving birth, breastfeeding, lifetime breastfeeding duration, and average breastfeeding per child with high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression. Results: The combination of parity and breastfeeding was associated with lower odds of having high blood pressure (adjusted OR, 0.89; 99% CI, 0.82-0.97; P < .001), compared with nulliparous women, whereas there was no significant difference between mothers who did not breastfeed and nulliparous women (adjusted OR, 1.06; 99% CI, 0.95-1.18; P = .20). Women who breastfed for longer than 6 months in their lifetime, or greater than 3 months per child, on average, had significantly lower odds of having high blood pressure when compared with parous women who never breastfed. The odds were lower with longer breastfeeding durations and were no longer significant in the majority of women over the age of 64 years. Conclusion: Women should be encouraged to breastfeed for as long as possible and a woman's breastfeeding history should be taken into account when assessing her likelihood of high blood pressure in later life.