Book

The emotions

Authors:
... According to several theories developed in the fields of neuroscience and psychology, Emotions are crucial for the feasibility of the Human intelligence apparatus in the real world [Dam94] [Fri86]. ...
... Firstly, Emotions are related to the identification of internal or external events/situations that are relevant to specific Agent' s Goals (or concerns [Fri86]). Such situations may be considered either positive (in the case of opportunities) or negative (in the case of threats), regarding the Agent' s chances of achieving those Goals. ...
... Such situations may be considered either positive (in the case of opportunities) or negative (in the case of threats), regarding the Agent' s chances of achieving those Goals. Additionally, Emotions are simultaneously related to the assessment of current capabilities and resources (or coping potential [Fri86]) that the Agent has or can make available to deal with the identified situation. ...
Conference Paper
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The role of emotions in intelligent behaviour has often been discussed: are emotions an essential part of the human intelligence machinery? Recent research on the neurophysiology of human emotions suggests that human decision-making efficiency depends deeply on the emotions mechanism. In particular. Antonio Damasio has proposed that alternative courses of action in a decision-making problem are emotionally (somatic) marked as good or bad and only the positive ones are considered for further reasoning and decision purposes. In this paper an emotion-based agent architecture supported on the Damasio somatic marker hypothesis is presented.
... In particular, it refers to the situational significance of emotions: According to Frijda emotions are the result of specific situations, two similar situations give life to the same type of emotional response. Moreover, this study refers to the "law" of "Apparent Reality" according to which is the interpretation of reality to give origin to emotions, not the reality in itself (Frijda, 1986(Frijda, , 1988. The fact is the same: an individual alone, yet this condition can be interpreted in two different ways. ...
Conference Paper
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This contribution aims to investigate how design culture can foster new models of emotional, social and cultural interaction that find in the pleasantness of the surface the creation of valuable experiences for users. In particular, the research examines interaction design from a different point of view, studying the relation of emotions and surfaces in a product-based interaction experience. Specifically, the contribution presents the results of a workshop called shaping emotions: a formal exercise based on the understanding of how user sensations-without precise references on a particular product-can play a decisive role in defining strategies that embrace the aesthetic and typological sphere of use and meanings. This study has highlighted the transfer of intangible psycho-cognitive aspects into tangible elements whose syntax and semiotics is driven by a phenomenological approach to the formal interpretation of an emotional concept. Emotions that occur from experiential states place the feelings of the human being as a focus of the project; through the design culture, the study tries to interpret experiences and desires as components of mixed emotions.
... Subjects rate their feelings according to the parameters after each stimulus session is finished. Each parameter excluding liking has a range of 1 to 9. [19] Valence represents the attraction (positive valence) or offensiveness (negative valence) of an event, environment, stimuli or object [20]. In the form, valence is defined from unhappy to happy. ...
Article
In this study, we conducted EEG-based emotion recognition on arousal-valence emotion model. We collected our own EEG data with mobile EEG device Emotiv Epoc+ 14 channel by applying the visual-aural stimulus. After collection we performed information measurement techniques, statistical methods and time-frequency attribute to obtain key features and created feature space. We wanted to observe the effect of features thus, we performed Sequential Forward Selection algorithm to reduce the feature space and compared the performance of accuracies for both all features and diminished features. In the last part, we applied QSVM (Quadratic Support Vector Machines) to classify the features and contrasted the accuracies. We observed that diminishing the feature space increased our average performance accuracy for arousal-valence dimension from 55% to 65%.
... Känslor inkluderar enligt detta synsätt hela kroppenutvärderande tankar, den subjektivt upplevda känslan (t.ex. jag känner mig glad eller jag är ledsen), ansiktsuttryck, olika fysiologiska reaktioner och en tendens att handla utifrån den specifika känslan (Frijda, 1986;Jacobs & Gross, 2014;Lazarus, 1991). Dessa tankegångar härstammar bland annat från så kallade "appraisalteorier" om emotioner som menar att känslor är kopplade till en utvärdering av antingen en situation i omvärlden eller en "inre" situation där exempelvis en person tänker på något viktigt. ...
Article
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Climate change is one of the most serious sustainability problems facing humanity today. It is also an important part of education for sustainable development. Through its existential, political and moral/ethical nature, the climate issue is value laden and also associated with a multitude of feelings. Many people worry about climate change, and studies have shown that emotions are often evoked in the classroom when teaching about this problem and other sustainability challenges. The purpose of this article is to show, through a review of theories and previous empirical studies, that not only emotions but also emotion regulation strategies are an important part of climate change education and that teachers play a vital role in whether these strategies will promote or hinder learning processes. Teachers are important both by being role models and by how they respond to the feelings of young people in the classroom. The article argues for the importance of including and promoting "critical emotional awareness" in teacher education and in teaching about education for sustainable development in schools. In the end of the article some concrete examples of how this can be done are presented.
... One of its axes corresponds to the evaluation (from negative to positive) dimension, interpreted from within cognitive emotion theory as a simplified description of appraisal [62] with valence of stimuli considered fundamental to all appraisals [52]. The other axis is the activation (from passive to active) dimension, with theoretical inspiration drawn from the action tendency theory [24]. It should be noted that the names given to these dimensions are somewhat varied across the different theoretical accounts, with terms activation, arousal, and activity used interchangeably; and similarly valence, pleasure, and evaluation; and dominance and control dimension. ...
Preprint
Artificial intelligence and machine learning systems have demonstrated huge improvements and human-level parity in a range of activities, including speech recognition, face recognition and speaker verification. However, these diverse tasks share a key commonality that is not true in affective computing: the ground truth information that is inferred can be unambiguously represented. This observation provides some hints as to why affective computing, despite having attracted the attention of researchers for years, may not still be considered a mature field of research. A key reason for this is the lack of a common mathematical framework to describe all the relevant elements of emotion representations. This paper proposes the AMBiguous Emotion Representation (AMBER) framework to address this deficiency. AMBER is a unified framework that explicitly describes categorical, numerical and ordinal representations of emotions, including time varying representations. In addition to explaining the core elements of AMBER, the paper also discusses how some of the commonly employed emotion representation schemes can be viewed through the AMBER framework, and concludes with a discussion of how the proposed framework can be used to reason about current and future affective computing systems.
... Current theories generally accept that emotion is embodied (Frijda, 1986(Frijda, , 2007Damasio, 1994Damasio, , 2010Panskepp, 1998;Barrett et al., 2004;Wiens, 2005) and that interoceptive sensation is directly related to the functional purpose of emotion. Emotion can thus be said to be: motivation which maps the rewarding/punishing aspects of stimuli to the action system for approach/withdrawal (Rolls, 1999); necessary to compute what a stimulus means to the individual (LeDoux, 2002); and "change in action readiness to maintain or change one's relationship to an object or event" (Frijda, 2007, p. 158). ...
Article
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To understand our patients and optimize their treatment, psychotherapists of all theoretical orientations may benefit from considering current scientific evidence alongside psychodynamic constructs. There is recent neuroscientific evidence that subjective awareness, feelings and emotions depend upon “interoception,” defined as the neural signaling to the brain from all tissues of the body. Interoception is the obvious basis of homeostasis (in the brainstem) but some interoceptive signals rise above this level and contribute to inferential processes that substantiate intrapersonal and interpersonal experience. The focus of this paper is on the essential role that their “interoception” plays in our patients’ emotional experience and subjective awareness, and how the process referred to as “mentalizing interoception” may be harnessed in therapy. This can best be understood in terms of “predictive processing,” which describes how subjective states, and particularly emotion, are inferred from sensory inputs – both interoceptive and exteroceptive. Predictive processing assumes that the brain infers (probabilistically) the likely cause of sensation experienced through the sense organs, by testing this sensory data against its innate and learned “priors.” This implies that any effort at changing heavily over-learned prior beliefs will require action upon the system that has generated that set of prior beliefs. This involves, quite literally, acting upon the world to alter inferential processes, or in the case of interoceptive priors, acting on the patient’s body to alter habitual autonomic nervous system (ANS) reflexes. Focused attention to bodily sensations/reactions, in the safety of the therapeutic relationship, provides a route to “mentalizing interoception,” by means of the bodily cues that may be the only conscious element of deeply hidden priors and thus the clearest way to access them. This can: update patients’ characteristic, dysfunctional responses to emotion and feelings; increase emotional insight; decrease cognitive distortions; and engender a more acute awareness of the present moment. These important ideas are outlined below from the perspective of psychodynamic psychotherapeutic practice, in order to discuss how relevant information from neuroscientific theory and current research can best be applied in clinical treatment. A clinical case will be presented to illustrate how this argument or treatment relates directly to clinical practice.
... Ces tendances comportementales oscillant entre approche et évitement peuvent être envisagées comme le reflet extérieur de mouvements internes eux-mêmes ambivalents. Dans le champ des émotions, ces mouvements correspondent aux « tendances à l'action » (Frijda, 1986) L'embarras étant associé à une volonté de réparer l'image de soi auprès d'autrui, cette motivation peut se traduire, au niveau comportemental, de deux façons. L'individu peut chercher à rétablir une image positive soit par un repli sur soi visant à se faire oublier (comme cela peut être le cas pour la honte), soit par un mouvement vers autrui (souvent une conduite réparatrice, à la manière de la culpabilité) (voir Tableau 1). ...
Article
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This paper provides a review of the literature on embarrassment, a both complex and social emotion which has been little documented as compared with other self-conscious emotions such as shame or guilt. The first aim of the current note is to define the main characteristics of embarrassment, then to propose a classification of the different models which examines its causes. The second objective is to map and to question the social effects of both experienced and expressed embarrassment, as well as some more straightforward effects (motivational and physiological) on the embarrassed individual. Several ambivalent points are highlighted in order to suggest some perspectives arising from cognitive and social psychology for future research.
... Hate has been considered an emotional attitude (Ekman, 1992), a syndrome (Solomon, 1977), a form of generalized anger (Bernier & Dozier, 2002;Frijda, 1986;Power & Dalgleish, 1997), a generalized evaluation (Ben-Ze'ev, 2000), a normative judgment (McDevitt & Levin, 1993), a motive to devalue others (Rempel & Burris, 2005), or simply an emotion (Elster, 1999). Fischer et al. (2018) in 'Why We Hate' offer a functional perspective based on appraisals and actions. ...
... Roth 58 describes three aspects of affect as influencing workplace activity, in particular influencing the choices that individuals make. 58,59 Firstly, affective valence (the potential affective payoff of an action, relating to the intrinsic attractiveness or aversiveness of an action or situation, 60 i.e., whether a chosen action is anticipated to result in positive or negative feelings) can impact on the choices that individuals make within the constraints of the system. Secondly, tacit or background feelings (the unconscious aspects of affect, such as tiredness) are constantly produced and reproduced as a consequence of actions. ...
Article
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Background: The transition to professional practice can be a challenging time. The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons' (RCVS) Professional Development Phase (PDP) aims to support recent graduates through this transition, with graduates required to reflect on their experiences. This study drew on the concept of "lived experience" to explore the influence of affect (feelings, emotions and mood) on recent graduates' experience of reflective activity. Methods: Data comprised semi-structured interviews with 15 recent graduates from one veterinary school. Thematic analysis was used to explore the influence of three aspects of affect on reflective activity: affective valence (whether a chosen action is anticipated to result in positive or negative feelings), tacit aspects (such as tiredness) and perceptions of workplace mood. Results: Participants preferred to engage in activities associated with positive feelings. Tacit feelings, such as panic or tiredness, and perceptions of workplace mood, influenced how and with whom participants engaged in reflective activity. Participants often made different choices when reflecting primarily on affective compared to clinical aspects of situations. Conclusion: These findings suggest that acknowledging and understanding aspects of affect during the professional development phase has the potential to help the profession improve support for recent graduates.
... Behavior: Most of the research that focuses on the emotional phenomena acknowledges that it is possible to infer the emotional state based on actions, behavioral tendencies, gestures, and body expressions (Frijda, 1986;Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2013). It is therefore possible to measure emotions based on behavior. ...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the subject of emotion measurement from a behavioral perspective. It analyses the external manifestations of those who experience a particular emotion, for example, facial gestures, body postures and voice tone and pitch. Particular behavior manifestations are expressed based on specific emotions. Observers can identify the behavior that accompanies the emotional experience and react accordingly. The chapter starts with a brief introduction of the behavioral aspects that are relevant to study emotions i.e. facial gestures, body postures and vocal expressions. Then an in-depth analysis of measurement methods that focus on behavioral aspects is carried out. The state of the art considers unimodal behavior reactions and it concludes with multimodal approaches. The last section of the chapter discusses how the behavioral measurement of emotions can help designers develop new products with high emotional impact on people.
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Abstract There is growing evidence that wildlife‐based tourism can be a valuable pathway to transform the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of tourists, if complemented by effective conservation messaging and proactive interpretive experiences. Yet, such conservation messaging is not always a priority for many wildlife‐based tourism operators, who often avoid exposing happy tourists to the daunting biodiversity crisis. In this paper, we argue that failing to encourage tourists to do more on behalf of wildlife represents a missed opportunity for conservation. Based on a comprehensive review of the academic literature, we show that conservation messaging is virtually absent from many mainstream wildlife‐based tourism operations, often failing to connect global audiences to conservation issues. We found that the scholarly literature on the effectiveness of different techniques, approaches and contents of conservation messaging in wildlife‐based tourism is meagre at best. Yet, alternative forms of communicating conservation‐related messages are opening new avenues to broaden the conservation potential of wildlife‐based tourism. We suggest a set of principles for improving the implementation of conservation messaging in wildlife‐based tourism operations in order to maximize their educational potential. We end by calling for further research efforts on the factors implicated in effective conservation messaging in wildlife‐based tours in order to pave the way for a new era of conservation‐oriented tourism.
Article
Infant autonomic reactivity to stress is a potential predictor of later life health complications, but research has not sufficiently examined sympathetic activity, controlled for effects of physical activity and respiration, or studied associations among autonomic adjustments, cardiac activity, and affect in infants. We studied 278 infants during the repeated Still-Face Paradigm, a standardized stressor, while monitoring cardiac activity (ECG) and respiratory pattern (respiratory inductance plethysmography). Video ratings of physical activity and affect were also performed. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and T-wave amplitude (TWA) served as noninvasive indicators of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity, respectively. Responses were compared between infants who completed two still-face exposures and those who terminated after one exposure due to visible distress. Findings, controlled for physical activity, showed robust reductions in respiration-adjusted RSA and TWA, with more tonic attenuation of TWA. Infants completing only one still-face trial showed more pronounced autonomic changes and less recovery from stress. They also showed elevated minute ventilation, suggesting hyperventilation. Both reductions in adjusted RSA and TWA contributed equally to heart rate changes and were associated with higher negative and lower positive affect. These associations were more robust in the group of distressed infants unable to complete both still-face trials. Thus, cardiac sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal are part of the infant stress response, beyond associated physical activity and respiration changes. Their association with cardiac chronotropy and affect increases as infants' distress level increases. This excess reactivity to social stress should be examined as a predictor of future cardiovascular disease.
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Objectives Increasing appropriate HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) is crucial to HIV prevention. Mass media interventions are effective in promoting testing, but to date, there has been little examination of their active content. Design We conducted a qualitative analysis of intervention materials (n = 69) derived from a systematic review of mass media interventions designed to improve testing with MSM. Methods Visual data were analysed for their affective and ideological content using a novel method drawing on concepts from semiotics (i.e., broadly speaking, the analysis of signs). Results Whilst affect was not explicitly theorized or examined in any of the studies, there are clearly identifiable affective elements implicitly at play in these interventions. Four thematic categories of affect/ideology were identified including (1) sexual desire and the ‘pornographication’ of the gay/bisexual male subject; (2) narratives of romance and love; (3) fear, threat, and regret; and (4) ‘flattened’ affect. Conclusions This is the first study to examine and detail the affective and ideological aspects of intervention content in this field. Using analytic techniques such as those reported here, in addition to approaches that focus on the manner in which intervention content address more proximal determinants of behaviour, can provide a rich and potentially more useful evidence base to assist with future interventions.
Article
Background The mechanisms responsible for why depressed parenting undermines child development are poorly understood. One proposal is that depressive symptoms increase mothers' aversion sensitivity, thereby increasing the frequency of mothers' negative emotional arousal. Objective This study examined aversion sensitivity as a marker of maladaptive emotional processes occurring in depressed mothers to explain why mothers' depressive symptoms so consistently disrupt child behavior. Method During a 2‐year period, mothers' depressive symptoms and children's externalizing problems were measured repeatedly; interactions between mothers and their 4‐ to 11‐year‐old children were observed (N dyad = 284). Results Results demonstrated that mothers' aversion sensitivity mediated the relation between mothers' depressive symptoms and child externalizing problems in the next assessment. Conclusion Aversion sensitivity may underlie depression‐related parenting problems. It has the potential to clarify why depressive symptoms predict dysfunctional parenting and, as a result, developmental problems in children. Implications Aversion sensitivity has the potential to elucidate how and why depressive adaptations to a large number of personal and social circumstances reduce parenting competence and predict developmental problems in children.
Article
Recent increases in intergroup tensions and violence have global negative implications and underline the need for effective interventions to ameliorate conflictual relations. Despite the ongoing trend in social psychology toward an interventionist approach, there is still a theoretical and empirical gap in personalizing intergroup interventions to achieve optimal effectiveness. Integrating interventions aimed at prejudice reduction and promoting peace, we present a theoretical framework for personalizing these intergroup interventions. We propose a three‐layer model: personalization parameters, intergroup interventions, and mechanisms that link parameter and intervention. To illustrate the model, three sample parameters are described (ideology, dominant emotional sentiments, and Big Five personality types) and three corresponding mechanisms (level of intervention congruency; the degree to which an intervention addresses core appraisal theme; and a needs‐based mechanism). We demonstrate how the parameters and mechanisms map onto different established intergroup interventions, and suggest some empirical directions to test and later apply the theoretical framework. Finally, we discuss the potential of personalized interventions to substantially improve intergroup relations.
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Working in organizations can result in health problems for employees, who may develop health conditions such as hypertension, cardiac problems, and obesity. To promote healthy behavior among employees, some companies use tailored online health platforms, which are customizable and accessible. Although these programs are available to all employees, they differ in terms of their participation, and we do not understand the reasons underlying variations in the use of these programs. We also have a limited understanding of the potential organizational outcomes of such participation. Thus, in this study, we develop a model of the antecedents and outcomes of employees’ participation in an organization's online health program. We propose that employees’ health beliefs, social influence to participate, and intention to participate influence their participation in an organization's online health program, which is associated with their health behavior within the organization. In turn, employees’ organizational health behavior influences organizationally relevant outcomes through mediation by availability of task‐ and family‐related support from coworkers. We tested our model through a four‐phase, multi‐source study by using data from 331 employees working in an Indian information technology company. Results generally supported our model. Our findings contribute to our knowledge of employees’ health behavior by examining why they may participate in online health programs and how their participation may promote health behavior and lead to organizationally relevant outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Philosophers routinely invoke self‐control in their theorizing, but major questions remain about what exactly self‐control is. I propose a componential account in which an exercise of self‐control is built out of something more fundamental: basic intrapsychic actions called cognitive control actions. Cognitive control regulates simple, brief states called response pulses that operate across diverse psychological systems (think of one's attention being grabbed by a salient object or one's mind being pulled to think about a certain topic). Self‐control ostensibly seems quite different because it regulates complex, temporally extended states such as emotions and cravings. But critically, these complex states also exhibit important componential structure: They rely on response pulses as a key means by which they bring about action. The overall picture is that self‐control consists of skilled sequences of cognitive control directed against extended streams of response pulses that arise from states such as emotions and cravings, thus preventing these states from being effective in action. The account clarifies the “atoms” of self‐control—the elemental units that get combined in complex ways to produce different kinds of self‐control actions. Surprisingly, the account, which is derived from research in cognitive science, aligns nicely with the commonsense conception of self‐control.
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This study examines the interaction effect of message format (narrative vs. nonnarrative) and message framing (gain vs. loss) in e‐cigarette prevention targeting young adults. Results of a two‐way experiment (N = 439) revealed that transportation and discrete emotions mediated message effect on risk perception and behavioral intention. Compared to the gain‐framed nonnarrative, the gain‐framed narrative reduced feelings of guilt, and guilt was negatively related to risk perception and positively related to behavioral intention. Thus, the gain‐framed narrative achieved desirable persuasive outcome through guilt—increasing risk perception and decreasing intention to use e‐cigarette. Similarly, the loss‐framed narrative evoked greater sadness, which also led to increased risk perception and decreased behavioral intention. Transportation and discrete emotions mediated message effect in a serial order. This research not only contributes to the literature on narrative persuasion and emotion, but also provides insight for health communication designed for e‐cigarette prevention.
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We consider behavioral issues in a new dynamic model in which a manufacturer (M) makes pricing and green investment decisions while facing heterogeneous customers including emotional, conscious, and rational consumers. Emotional consumers base their purchasing decisions on M’s green investments. Their emotions are stochastic, dynamic, and accumulate over time. The investment is made over time and is subject to time-to-build so that there is a time-lag between investment and production. Differently, conscious consumers respond to both green investments and prices and have no memory on the M’s past green initiatives. The rational consumers are not sensitive to environmental issues and base their decisions only on product price. Our findings suggest that M should realize that emotional consumers have the largest impact on investments, prices, and profits. Therefore, firms should first think to satisfy the emotional consumers and then all other segments. When firms have environmental targets or restrictions, all segments must be satisfied independent of their impact on the profits. This finding contributes to the literature by highlighting that the trade-off between economic and environmental performance also exists in presence of consumer segments.
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Under existing network security technology, it is still possible for hackers to impersonate legitimate users and invade a system for malicious destruction. Therefore, this study constructs a user's unique mouse behavior pattern to identify a trusted interaction behavior in a real environment and quantify the effects of different emotions on mouse behavior and the accuracy of the user's trusted interaction behavior identification. First, mouse data was collected for 8 user's trusted interactions on an academic study website (AML). These data were used to construct the basic trusted interaction model by a big data analysis method called a random forest. Second, in a repeated measurement experiment, 18 participants completed tasks on the AML under different emotions, and the emotions' impact on the mouse behavior and accuracy of the user's trusted interaction identification was analyzed. In the results, the accuracy of the trusted interaction behavior identification based on mouse behavior reached 91.82%, and the error rate was lower than 8.18%. Significant differences were observed in horizontal velocity, velocity, and traveled distance under different emotions. However, there was no significant difference in the accuracy of a user's trusted interaction behavior identification under different emotions. Based on these results, the trusted interaction behavior of web users can be accurately identified based on the user's mouse behavior pattern. The user's mouse behavior differs under different emotions, but there is no significant difference on the identification of the user's trusted interaction behavior. The findings help to provide another protection layer for network information security.
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Reducing unethical employee behavior is a complex challenge for organizations given that such behavior is often highly contagious. Yet, although many employees imitate the unethical behavior of their coworkers, some adhere to ethical standards in spite of their coworkers’ unethical behavior. Drawing on social cognitive theory, we propose an expanded model of unethical social influence that sheds light on the processes and boundary conditions associated with unethical contagion within organizations. Specifically, we argue that observing others engage in unethical behavior evokes feelings of envy that, in turn, facilitate moral disengagement and unethicality. We then integrate research on cognitive reappraisal with the moral disengagement literature to propose that cognitive reappraisal attenuates the experience of envy in those who observe unethical behavior. Across two field studies and an experimental study, we build a model in which envy mediates the relationship between observed unethical behavior and moral disengagement with downstream consequences in the form of unethical behavior. Additionally, both cognitive reappraisal orientation (Studies 1 & 2) and cognitive reappraisal training (Study 3) attenuate this mediated effect. Given the substantial costs of unethical contagion within organizations, these findings have implications for both scholars and managers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Background: Previous research has suggested that clinical assessment of emotions in patients with cancer is suboptimal. However, it is a possibility that well-trained and experienced doctors and nurses do recognize emotions but that they do not evaluate all emotions as necessitating professional mental health care. This implies that the sensitivity of clinical assessment should be tested against the need for professional mental health care as reference standard, instead of emotional distress. We hypothesized that the observed sensitivity of clinical assessment of emotions would be higher when tested against need for professional mental health care as reference standard, compared with emotional distress as reference standard. Patients and methods: A consecutive series of patients starting with chemotherapy were recruited during their routine clinical care, at a department of medical oncology. Clinical assessment of emotions by medical oncologists and nurses was derived from the patient file. Emotional distress and need for professional mental health care were assessed using the Distress Thermometer and Problem List. Results: Clinical assessment resulted in notes on emotions in 42.2% of the patient files with 36.2% of patients experiencing emotional distress and 10.8% expressing a need for professional mental health care (N = 185). As expected, the sensitivity of clinical assessment of emotions was higher with the reference standard "need for professional mental health care" compared with "emotional distress" (P < .001). For specificity, equivalent results were obtained with the two reference standards (P = .63). Conclusions: Clinical assessment of emotions in patients with cancer may be more accurate than previously concluded.
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How people think and act is influenced by their transient mood state. Different moods stimulate different (thought/action) tendencies, such as the tendency to be attentive (when cheerful), to be cautious (when anxious), or to be impatient (when agitated). To support an understanding of how mood can inform user-centered design, this paper reports an exploratory study that revealed the diverse scope of these mood-stimulated human tendencies. The questionnaire study (N = 43) examined the relationships between 20 moods and 68 distinct tendencies. Significant mood effects were found for all tendencies, indicating that different moods are associated with different tendencies. A Correspondence Analysis generated a visual overview of these relationships. In addition, a Factor Analysis found nine generic dimensions of mood-stimulated tendencies. In user-centered design, these results can support communications about user mood with team-members, end-users and other stakeholders. Based on the study results, a creative design tool is introduced. It aims to enable designers and service providers to become better aware of, and adequately respond to, the dynamics of mood-stimulated user preferences, feelings, and actions during the design process.
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The complex nature of work tasks leads many organizations to organize work around teams, which must develop the capacity to cope with and adapt to a variety of adverse situations. However, our knowledge and understanding of what enables and inhibits the development of resilient teams, that is, change in teams' resilience capacity, have yet to be fully developed. Drawing on the build hypothesis of broaden‐and‐build theory, we explore the dynamic emotional, social, and cognitive elements that underlie change in team resilience capacity. We posit that a change in a team's emotional culture of joy predicts change in team resilience capacity through both social and cognitive mechanisms (i.e., change in mutuality and change in reflexivity). The results from a two‐wave study involving 91 teams (comprising 1291 individual responses) indicate that the positive relationship between change in the emotional culture of joy and change in team resilience capacity is mediated by change in mutuality and change in reflexivity. This research advances the emerging literature on team resilience by theoretically delineating the underlying affective, social, and cognitive collective mechanisms that lead to within‐team variability in team resilience capacity.
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To advance the understanding of how parental self‐regulation contributes to their role in supporting children's development, this study proposes a model of the dynamic processes involved in parental self‐regulation. Based on time‐series data from 157 mothers and their 30‐ to 60‐month‐old children (49.7% female; 96% White; data collected June 2017–December 2019 in central Pennsylvania, U.S.) during a challenging wait task, the model was tested by examining the temporal relations among challenging child behavior, maternal physiology, and maternal responsiveness. Results were consistent with the hypothesized dynamic negative feedback processes and revealed their associations with the overall quality of parenting behaviors and experiences. Findings elucidate how parents adapt to competing external (attending to child) and internal (restoring parents' equilibrium) demands during parenting challenges.
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Emotion differentiation captures the detail with which people describe their emotional experiences. A compelling body of research has linked low and negative emotion differentiation to a host of adverse psychological outcomes, yet conceptual and methodological questions and issues remain. We think that the time is right to review and reflect on this growing literature to gain clarity that can be applied to future research. We first review assessment of emotion differentiation while highlighting the methodological variation across studies. Then supported by the literature review, we discuss disconnections between the conceptualization and measurement of differentiation. Finally, to motivate future research, we propose factors that we hypothesize are associated with potentially beneficial effects of emotion differentiation in a given situation (i.e., related to state emotion differentiation) and more generally across time (i.e., related to trait emotion differentiation).
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This research fills a gap in the consumer emotions literature regarding customer frustration in a customer service setting. Most research on customer emotions has examined anger, happiness or affect in general, largely ignoring the particularities of frustration. Consistent with appraisal theory, we use five experiments to explore the different appraisal dimensions that define frustration and its relation to customer loyalty and satisfaction. Contrary to common belief, we show that frustration is not simply the result of goal-blocking, but rather of a more complex combination of appraisals which differentiate it from anger and lead to distinct effects on satisfaction and loyalty. We also examine how the effects of frustration on loyalty and satisfaction are mitigated by service recovery in a further experiment and an event reconstructive method. Our results test appraisal theory, inform theory on customer emotions and have important implications for our understanding of customer satisfaction and loyalty following frustrating customer service encounters.
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When do hurt feelings develop? The emotion of feeling hurt is vital for close relationships because it signals that one has been devalued illegitimately, potentially eliciting guilt and the motivation to repair in the partner. We approached the question of when hurt feelings develop by studying the emergence of sulking behavior as an indicator of hurt feelings. In an online-questionnaire study, parents and teachers hypothesized that children begin to sulk during the first 3 years (N = 125). In a cross-sectional event-based diary study, parents observed their 1-to 8-year-old children (N = 40). We found that the youngest child sulked at 20 months of age and that the probability of sulking was at 50% for a child at 25 months. Finally, we conducted a longitudinal event-based diary study where parents observed their children from 16 months on until they sulked for the first time and, at the longest, until their third birthday (N = 29). We found that the probability of sulking was at 25% at 21 months, at 50% for a child at 24-25 months, and at 75% at 28 months, thus, confirming and specifying the results of studies 1 and 2. These findings indicate that the emotion of hurt feelings emerges mainly during the end of the second and the third year. We discuss the limitations of our approach and why and how the development of hurt feelings in the sense of an appraisal needs to be addressed differently.
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Research has recognized that people regulate their emotions not only for seeking pleasurable experiences but also for receiving instrumental gains. We draw on the theoretical framework of instrumental emotion regulation (IER; Tamir, 2005, 2009) to shed new light on the relationships among creativity, emotion, and psychological well‐being. We outline propositions that explain why there are concurrent creative and well‐being benefits when people experience emotional states that are consistent with their personality trait (e.g., worrisome emotions being consistent with trait neuroticism) even if such trait‐consistent emotions are negative. The IER perspective offers new interpretations of the creativity—well‐being relationship through motivating a more holistic view of emotion regulation and well‐being. We present an integrative theoretical model explicating that instrumental regulation toward trait‐consistent emotions engages people in emotional states that feel affectively right (affective path), motivate them intrinsically (motivational path), and boost cognitive efficiency (cognitive path), thus yielding potential downstream benefits on creativity and well‐being.
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Abstract Online brand communities are gaining traction in the development of marketing strategy, but it is unclear how the dominant group of users, the millennials, is being targeted with the prevailing and varying customer loyalty programmes. Grounded in understanding that loyalty is seen and understood differently by people who participate in online brand communities, this study is based on a constructivist perspective combined with hermeneutic methodology and embedded case study research strategy to examine how online brand communities activate multi-dimensional customer loyalty intentions. Empirical data were generated through 45 in-depth interviews of millennials. The analysis proposes a framework that categorises customer loyalty into: ambassador loyalists, public-voting loyalists, loveless loyalists and mercenary loyalists. Each stream contains one additional sub-category mediated by consumer levels of participation in online brand communities. This paper contributes to existing literature. Unlike extant studies, it specifically argues that customers’ loyalty intentions in online brand communities depends on the individuals and context, and it categorises loyalty into different levels. Practical steps by which companies may utilise these categories and theoretical implications for wider consideration are proposed. Key words: social media, online brand communities, electronic word of mouth, customer loyalty, qualitative research, millennials, fashion.
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