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Junk refer to fast food which are easy to make and easy to consume. Michael Jacobson aptly coins the phrase junk food in 1972 as slang for foods of useless or low nutritional value. Junk food so called HFSS (High fat, sugar or salt). Various type of Junk food that available in restaurants is cold-drinks, pizza, burger, and sandwich etc. The number of fast food restaurants and chain is increasing because people around the world like to eat junk food .USA, Canada, Britain, Australia, Japan, Sweden etc. are the countries with most junk food consumption around the world. Junk food is more popular because of experience of great taste, better shelf life and easy transportation. The junk food advertising is also play a great role in junk food’s popularity. But it should be avoided, because of lack of energy, high cholesterol and poor concentration. It causes a lot of harmful effect on the body like obesity, diabetes, heart disease and various types of skin cancers. Eliminating the temptation for junk food and developing the awareness for fitness can be helping in avoid the junk food from the healthy diet regimen. Key Words: - junk food, cholesterol, obesity, burger, pizza.
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Bhaskar et al Journal of Drug Deli very & Therapeutics; 2012, 2(3): 67-73 67
© 2011, JDDT. All Rights Reserved ISSN: 2250-1177 CODEN: JDDTAO
Available online at http://jddtonline.info
REVIEW ARTICLE
JUNK FOOD: IMPACT ON HEALTH
Bhaskar Rajveer*, Ola Monika
R. C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Karvand Naka, Shirpur, Distt. Dhule, Maharashtra, INDIA 425405
*Corresponding Author‘s Email: bhaskar007_raj@rediffmail.com
Received 24 March 2012; Revised 13 April 2012; Accepted 01 May 2012, Available online 15 May 2012
1. INTRODUCTION:
Junk food refers to fast food, which are easy to make and
easy to consume. They are low in nutritional value and
have only lying fat in it causing ill effect on the healh of
consumer. The term ‘Junk food’ was coined by Michael
Jacobson, director of Center for Science in 1972 in the
public interest who wanted to raise public attention about
the issue of foods with a high caloric value and a low
nutritional value. Junk food contains high level of refined
sugar, white flour, trans fat, polyunsaturated fat salt and
numerous food additive such as monosodium glutamate
(MSG) and tartrazine, and lacking in protein, vitamin and
fiber. Junk food is popular because of their simplicity of
manufacture, consumes, their taste and has a long shelf life
which may not require refrigeration.1 In the united
kingdom the food standards agency do not use the term
‘junk food ‘and describe food ‘HFSS’ (high fat, sugar or
salt). They state that has foods can form part of a balanced
diet, but research show that children diet contain too much
fat (especially trans fat) salt and suger.2 Americans eat the
most fast food, but the Japanese spend the most on take
away (home delivery) according to a research conducted
by Euro-monitor International. The high level of per capita
consumption demonstrates the importance of fast food in
life style in these countries. Burger dominates the US fast
food industry as it taking more than half of total fast food
expenditure.3
1.1 Problems associated with junk food:
1.1.1 High fat content:
Junk foods such as hamburgers, pizza, fried chicken and
chips usually loads of saturated fats, too much saturated fat
in diet will cause people to put on weight and obese being
overweight is a risk to the health of heart and causes other
disease.
Figure 1: Expenditure on fast food top ten countries4, 22
1.1.2 High salt content:
Junk often have too much salt there is a lot of salt already
in food such as bread, breakfast cereals and biscuits. So
people are getting more salt than they need when they eat
junk food too much salt is unhealthy for health.
1.1.3 High sugar content:
Soft drinks, cordials, biscuits, cakes and lollies also have
loads of sugar that’s what makes them taste too good but
too much sugar makes people fat, rots the teeth, is bad for
the blood and may cause other disease.5
Junk food does have some of good things that the body
needs for good health as the body needs some salt, fat and
sugar for energy to burn while we play and work however
too much fat, salt and sugar is bad for health. People tend
to settle their meals by consuming fast food to save time.
Researchers have shown that junk food might cause
ABSTRACT
Junk refer to fast food which are easy to make and easy to consume. Michael Jacobson aptly coins the phrase junk food in 1972 as
slang for foods of useless or low nutritional value. Junk food so called HFSS (High fat, sugar or salt). Various type of Junk food
that available in restaurants is cold-drinks, pizza, burger, and sandwich etc. The number of fast food restaurants and chain is
increasing because people around the world like to eat junk food .USA, Canada, Britain, Australia, Japan, Sweden etc. are the
countries with most junk food consumption around the world. Junk food is more popular because of experience of great taste,
better shelf life and easy transportation. The junk food advertising is also play a gr eat role in junk food’s popularity. But it should
be avoided, because of lack of energy, high cholesterol and poor concentration. It causes a lot of harmful effect on the body like
obesity, diabetes, heart disease and various types of skin cancers. Eliminating the temptation for junk food and developing the
awareness for fitness can be helping in avoid the junk food from the healthy diet regimen.
Key Words: - junk food, cholesterol, obesity, burger, pizza.
Bhaskar et al Journal of Drug Deli very & Therapeutics; 2012, 2(3): 67-73 68
© 2011, JDDT. All Rights Reserved ISSN: 2250-1177 CODEN: JDDTAO
dyslexia, ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)
and may be autism.6, 7
2. TYPES OF JUNK FOOD8,28:
Various types of junk food is available in market out of
which the most popular junk food is soft drink, pizza,
hamburgers, potato chips, ice-creams, hot dog, pakora,
chowmins, French fries, cheese chili, pav bhaji etc. Fast
food in north such as hamburgers and french fries supplied
by companies like McDonald’s, KFC and Pizza Hut are
often perceived as junk food, whereas similar meals
supplied by more up-market outlets such Pizza Express or
Nando’s are often having the same or worse nutritional
content Some food are considered ethnic or traditional are
not generally considered junk food, such as gyro, pakora,
gyoza or chicharron, though all of these foods lave little
nutritional value and are usually high in fat from being
fried in oil. Similarly breakfast cereals are often regarded
as healthy but may have high levels of sugar, salt and fat.2
3. REASONS OF POPULARITY OF JUNK FOOD:
3.1 The time factor:
Junk food addiction is so high because of its simplicity.
They are easy to prepare and are very tasty. Junk foods
such as potato wafers and Cheetos® do not even need
cooking or heating. Peoples prefer to eat them while
watching TV, they save themselves a lot of hassles and
time when they are in a hurry eating pizzas and burgers as
they are served at their door step hot and ready to eat.1
3.2 The taste factor:
If time constraint is one reason that pushes peoples to
eating junk food, great taste also, to an extent influences
them to opt for junk food. But junk foods get their taste
owing to lavish usage of oils, salts and sugar. Global
broadcaster BBC World and leading market research firm
Synovate conducted a survey that showed Britons are more
addicted to junk food than any other nation. Overall the
survey showed that across the people have conflicting
attitudes and behaviours about junk food. Once they
caught in junk food addiction, they find it hard to think
about the loss of nutrition due to junk food.1, 9
3.3 Junk food advertising:
Foods prepared outside the home and restaurant foods
have a great attraction for food buffs. An estimate tells that
Frito Lays is selling a billion bags of Cheetos per year.
Junk food advertising has a major role in this. There is also
concern about the targeting of marketing to children
because children are easy and potential target for junk
food.1 , 10
3.4 Shelf life:
Junk food has a long shelf life and may not require
refrigeration for most products like chips and wafer.11
3.5 Ease of transportation:
The transportation of junk food is easy due to its
packaging as compare to the man made food. Ease of
transportation and availability increase the popularity of
junk food day by day.
3.6 Cost:
The cost is less as compared to healthy food. Less cost is
also a big reason of the popularity of junk food. It is easily
accessible to all classes of population due to its low and
attractive price range.
4. REASONS FOR AVOIDING THE JUNK
FOOD12:
Here is some junk food facts that help to understand the
harmful effects associated with them. Some of them are
long term while others are short terms effects. The fat
contents have high cholesterol level. High calorie content
with sugar can lead to obesity. Cholesterol and salt can
increase blood pressure, stroke and heart disease in chain.
Excessive salt can impaired the functioning of kidney too.
4.1 Lack of energy:
This is known as short term adverse effect resulting from
eating junk food as junk food don’t provide the essential
nutrients [like vitamins, protein and fibers] even though
they can very much sufficing, peoples feel weakened.
4.2 Poor concentration:
This is another result of junk food habit. These are traced
to effect in immediate and medium term periods when
peoples have a sumptuous junk meal rich in oil they feel
drowsy and fail to concentrate. Over sustained periods of
junk food eating blood circulation drop due to fat
accumulation, lack of vital o xygen, nutrients and protein
particularly can stale their brain cells temporarily.
4.3 High cholesterol:
Apart from forming plaques and constricting arteries
cholesterol also affects liver where it is metabolized. High
cholesterol due to junk food and diet strains liver
damaging it finally. This is long term effect.
4.4 Heart diseases:
Junk food diet is a major cause of heart diseases
(Myocardial infarction) due to plaque formation in arteries
which demands heart to put in extra effort to pump blood
on the downstream, on the upstream there is lack of
returning blood to heart, this causes two damages to heart
heart fatigues due to continuous extra effort and it suffer
in oxygen supply.
4.5 Low nutrition value:
The nutritional value of junk food is about one on a scale
of 1 to 10, which is the least. The nutritional value is lost
in the process of making the junk food so synthetic
vitamins and minerals are added to compensate it, but they
are not good compared to natural vitamins and minerals.
Natural phytochemicals are not present in junk food which
soaks up the free radicals to prevent disease.
4.6 Highly addictive:
It is well known fact that fat and sugar are as addictive as
heroin and cocaine, they stimulate the same receptors in
the brain that make feel good due to increased dopamine
level. Junk foods have a lot of hidden sugar and fat to
make it addictive and also enhance the taste.
Bhaskar et al Journal of Drug Deli very & Therapeutics; 2012, 2(3): 67-73 69
© 2011, JDDT. All Rights Reserved ISSN: 2250-1177 CODEN: JDDTAO
4.7 High chemical additives:
Junk food have lots of chemical additives which are not
useful to body, things are like artificial coloring and
preservatives. MSG and tartrazine is in almost all type of
junk food and all sorts of medical studies have revealed
that MSG causes obesity and of other nasty things. All the
techniques used to process the junk food canning,
dehydrating and freezing, virtually destroy the flavor of
food s o chemicals under the guise of ‘natural flavor’ have
been added to enamel the flavor, while color additives are
added to make food fresh. It might make the food look and
taste better but it is harmful to our bodies.
4.8 Lack of oxygen supply:
Junk food is rich in fat so accumulation of fat can takes
place in bronchioles so oxygen supply tends to reduced in
body which can cause some respiratory disorders.
5. GREAT REASON TO COOK FOOD AT
HOME13:
Homemade food is a better option than junk food because
it has several advantages over junk food. These includes
higher nutritional value, good quality mental satisfaction
etc.
5.1 The cost:
The average cost for a taste meal will range from $4 to
$10, depending on the restaurant. By sparing only $4 a
pound of brown rice and a pound of beans and a pound of
frozen broccoli or other vegetable can be purchased and it
is equivalent to approx six meals.
5.2 Lose weight naturally:
By eating home cooked food the pounds of weight can be
drop off due to avoiding the chemicals and cutting out the
extra fat, sugar and salt which is present in junk food.
5.3 Experience great taste:
The home cooked food is superior in taste comparing to
junk food, because there is no adulteration and additional
preservatives in that food.
5.4 More energy:
The home cooked food has all the nutritional substance
comparing to junk food. It provides more energy than junk
food in a balanced way.
5.5 Better health:
Some studies have revealed that the chemicals (MSG,
flavor, color additives and preservatives) present in junk
food in high amount can cause obesity and cancer, along
with neurological complaints. The better food enhances the
life span with a greater quality of life.
5.6 Avoid traffic:
The gas money will saved if food is cooked at home, extra
food can be made and it can be taken for lunch which can
avoid to get out and go anywhere at noon and save from
hassle.
5.7 Time saving:
Cooking food at home is less time consuming that to drive
to a fast food place. Even restaurant is next to door it will
take 10 to 20 minutes to order and receive the junk food.
To bring the junk food from restaurant will take total 30 to
40 minutes; while in same amount of time food can be
cooked at home without the hassle.
5.8 Satisfaction:
There is a greater feeling of cooking fabulous meal, saving
of money, time and improved health after cooking the food
at home.
6. HOW TO AVOID JUNK FOOD14:
Clever junk food advertising and the lure of convenience
in addition to taste get people to junk food addiction.
Awareness on junk food facts is lacking dramatically in
every corner of the society. Here are some useful t ips to
avoid junk food.
Junk food and children strange affinity to each other.
Do not let children to get habituated to junk food. Ask
them to avoid junk food available in school/college
canteen.32
Eliminating the temptation for junk food is one way to
avoid it. Keep ing good food nearby and having meals
right on time may help in this direction. Controlling
the temptation for junk food is much easier then
controlling alcoholism.
Controlling children from eat ing junk food in schools
is another step that helps in a long term. Schools
administrator along with parents has a responsibility
to educate children about junk foods in schools.
Table 1: Alternatives of junk food14
Grilled chicken
Instead of
Beef, Hamburg, etc.
Salad
Instead of
Fried appetizers
Vegetables
Instead of
Pasta or potatoes
Orange juice or water
Instead of
Shakes or soda
Vegetable soup
Instead of
Chowder or cream soup
Turkey breast on oatmeal bread
Instead of
Bologna, salami, ham, etc. sub
Low fat salad dressing
Instead of
Regular dressing, mayonnaise, oil, etc.
Oatmeal, Syrian or Wheat bread
Instead of
White bread or sub roll
Bhaskar et al Journal of Drug Deli very & Therapeutics; 2012, 2(3): 67-73 2
© 2011, JDDT. All Rights Reserved ISSN: 2250-1177 CODEN: JDDTAO
7. HARMFUL EFFECTS OF JUNK FOOD:
7.1 Obesity:
It is defined as an excess of body fat or body weight that is
20% over the ideal. Obesity is a global issue. It is reaching
epidemic proportions in developed nations and now be
considered as a chronic disease.9, 15, 16
Obesity is multi factorial disorder of energy balance in
which chronic calorie intake is greater than energy
output. It is characterized by an excessive body mass
index (BMI), which is weight (kg) divided by the
square of height (m2).
A subject with a BMI of 20-25 is considered as having
a healthy body weight, one with a BMI as 25-30
overweight and one with a BMI> 30 as obese. The
main treatment of obesity is a suitable diet and
increased exercise.
At present approximately 33% adult in USA and 15-
20% middle aged population in Europe are obese. At
present only few drugs have to shown to reduce body
weight in obese i.e. Orlistat, sibutramine and
rimonabent.16
7.2 Diabetes mellitus:
It is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by
hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperlipemia, negative
nitrogen balance and sometimes ketonemia. Diabetes
mellitus is of two types, Type I (insulin dependent) and
Type II (insulin independent). Over 90% cases are Type II
diabetes due to junk food consumption.17
7.3 Hypertension:
It occurs due to use of junk food regularly. Junk food
consists of salt abundance which raise the blood pressure
which can causes hypertension, if hypertension is not
effectively treated it results in a greatly increased
probability of coronary thrombosis. Primary/essential
hypertension is due to obesity.6
7.4 Heart diseases:
Junk food diet is a major cause of heart disease,
myocardial infarction and severe heart failure is due to
plaque formation in arteries. The onset and remedy both
take a long time and great determination to win.18
7.5 Dental cavities:
Dental cavities formed due to the excess consumption of
junk food because food accumulated on teeth spaces and
plaque formation occurs which finally results in dental
cavities.6
7.6 Kidney disease:
Junk food is rich of salt sugar and fat so it causes kidney
impairment like polyuria, renal failure and hyperuricaemia.
7.7 Neurological disorders:
Mental disorders i.e. drowsiness, laziness, dyslexia,
attention deficient hyper activity disorder [ADHD], loss of
balance and lack of concentration occur due to excessive
eating of junk food.6
7.8 Skin rashes:
It is hypersensitivity disorder occur due to use of the junk
food. The junk food consists of a lot of additives and
chemicals which cause’s skin rashes.
7.9 Cancer:
Obese people have an increased risk of colon, breast,
prostate, gallbladder, ovarian, skin cancer and uterine
cancer.
7.10 Hypoxia:
It occurs due to accumulation of the fat in the arteries
therefore lack of oxygen supply in the body causes
hypoxia.
7.11 Asthma:
It is chronic pulmonary obstructive disorder occur due to
artificial flavoring and coloring agents which is present
abundantly in junk food.
7.12 Behavioural problems19, 2 0:
Consumption of junk in early childhood can be results in
behavior associated problem like hyperactivity,
aggressiveness etc.
Figure 2: Effect of junk food on various organs4
8. JUNK FOOD HARMING MARINE ANIMALS'
HEALTH21,22:
Biologists have determined that marine animals might be
losing weight because of feasting on "junk food" in the
oceans, which is a result of human activities like
overfishing and changes in the climate. According to a
report in New Scientist, as predatory fish such as cod have
been removed from the sea in large numbers, fish lower
down in the food chain, such as sprat, have increased in
numbers. But individually, the sprats weigh less, and these
leaner fish, according to biologists, are effectively junk
food. "They are poor sources of energy for predatory birds
and mammals, and as a result these animals are also losing
weight," said Henrik Osterblom of the University of
Stockholm in Sweden. In the 1990s, Osterblom and
colleagues noticed that 20-day-old common guillemot
chicks in the Baltic Sea were lighter than they had
previously been. Less cod meant more sprats, and since
guillemot feed sprat to their young, if quantity was all that
mattered, the chicks should have been fattening up.
Osterblom's team found, however, that although there were
Bhaskar et al Journal of Drug Deli very & Therapeutics; 2012, 2(3): 67-73 3
© 2011, JDDT. All Rights Reserved ISSN: 2250-1177 CODEN: JDDTAO
more sprats, on average individual fish weighed less than
before. The researchers worked out that the sprat was
competing for the same amount of zooplankton, and each
one was getting less of it. As a result, the guillemot chicks
were getting more fish, but fewer calories. When, between
2000 and 2004, co mmercial sprat fishing in the Baltic Sea
increased and the wild sprat stock dropped, guillemot
chicks became heavier again. The Swedish team realized
they had witnessed the junk-food hypothesis in action.
9. JUNK FOOD SOME FACTS:
The junk food industry deliberately targets children
as young as 2 in a bid to create brand preference and
lifelong loyalty. Advertisers question kids and tap
into their play into create ads and product with
guaranteed child appeal. Fast food chains use the lure
of free toys to get kids to persuade their parents to
spend. A desirable toy can double or triple weekly
sales of kid’s meals. Every child brings along at least
one adult too23.
Artificial flavors in foods aimed at kids can be twice
as sweet as the artificial flavours used in adult food.
Many children now prefer man made flavors to taste
of real food.
U.K. companies spend £300m annually on ads aimed
at kids. The average British child watches TV for 2
hour 20 min daily. Children in US have over $500 bn
a year to spend. The average American kids spend 25
hours a week to watching TV and sees around 20,000
ads a year for junk food.24,25
The metal can costs more than the ingredients, which
are primarily water mixed with additives, sugar or
sweetener and caffeine a can of cola contains 10 tea
spoons of sugar.
Soft drinks are aggressively marked by fast food
chains; because they are so profitable, at around
97%profit on the price per cup. The bigger the cup
the greater profit.
In the US, average adult consumption of soft drinks
is around 500 cans a year. 20% of American under
twenties are given soft drinks every day.25 There are
over 300000 different fast food restaurants in US.
American eats 3 burgers a week and 81% Americans
consume junk food while driving.
Thin fries absorb more fat than thick ones. Fast food
meals contain up to 1200 calories in one serving.27
Most of the fat in chicken is contained in the skin, so
remove it. If you really want to lose weight, drink
water instead of diet soda.26
Table 2: Fat and calorie details of various junk foods15, 25
Food
Calories
Fat
Hot dog with bun (regular)
300
18
Potato salad
350
22
Pickle (most kinds)
11
0.1
Ham & cheese sandwich
450
13
Roast beef sandwich
570
38
Salami sandwich
450
30
Turkey breast sandwich
270
6
Ketchup
16
0
Mayonnaise
90
10
FRENCH fries
250
12
Mashed potatoes (with butter & milk)
225
9
Baked potato (plain)
240
0
Grilled chicken sandwich w/ mayo
340
13
Chicken nuggets (fried)
280
20
Cheeseburger (plain)
310
14
1/4 pound cheeseburger (plain)
520
30
Taco (beef)
190
11
Taco (chicken)
170
9
Burrito (beef)
500
20
Burrito (chicken)
350
12
Burrito (bean)
450
14
10. JUNK FOOD FAT AND CALORIE:
Junk food, fast food and trash food are all definitions of a
quick, unhealthy, hunger satisfying substitutes for a good
nutritious meal. There are many quick and healthy
substitutes that will satisfy even the fussiest of children or
adults on the move.
It doesn't take much effort to find healthy alternatives at
restaurants and fast food establishments. Some places even
have separate sections of their menus dedicated to low fat
healthy foods.28
Calories and fat content per serving of junk food and
breads and pastas is given in table number 2 and 3. These
tables are for comparison only. The actual serving size,
calories and fat will be different among manufactures and
preparation methods.29
Bhaskar et al Journal of Drug Deli very & Therapeutics; 2012, 2(3): 67-73 2
© 2011, JDDT. All Rights Reserved ISSN: 2250-1177 CODEN: JDDTAO
Table 3: Fat and calorie details of breads and pastas
(starches) 15, 25
Food
Serving
Calories
Fat
White bread
1 slice
65
1
English mu ffin (plain)
1
130
1
Bagel
1
300
2
Oatmeal bread
1 slice
65
1
Syrian bread
1 small
165
1
Cinnamon raisin bread
1 slice
85
1
Graham cracker
1
30
0.5
Saltine cracker
1
12
0.2
Wheat thin cracker
1
18
1
Ritz cracker
1
16
0.8
French toast
1 slice
155
7
Blueberry muffin
1
120
3
Pancake (plain)
1
60
2
Tortilla (corn)
1
65
1
Waffle (plain)
1
205
8
Tortilla chip
1
21
1
11. COMPARISION OF JUNK FOOD:
The majority of the foods served at fast food restaurants
contain an insane amount of calories, tons of fat (including
trans fat) 30. It is the kind of food that people should want
to avoid eating. The fast food restaurants continue to do
just fine because people continue to eat their unhealthy
food. But if the peoples are still going to eat this junk food
they might as well at least know which is the best of the
worst and which is the worst of the worst. For this the
nutrition facts of the most popular foods from over 15
popular fast food restaurants have been compared.31
Table 4: French Fries (Large)/Hamburgers/Sandwiches Comparison25, 26
Fast Food
Restaurant
Type
Serving
Size (g)
Calories
Total
Fat (g)
Saturated
Fat (g)
Trans
Fat (g)
Carobs
(g)
Sodium
(mg)
McDonald's
Regular
170
570
30
6
8
70
330
BurgerKing
Regular
160
500
28
6
6
57
820
Wend's
Regular
-
540
26
4
1
69
640
Hardee's
Regular
193
610
28
6
-
78
710
A&W
Regular
156
430
18
4.5
5.5
61
680
White Castle
Regular
244
700
34
6
11
89
570
Sonic
Regular
98
280
11
2
0
42
135
Carl's Jr.
Regular
198
620
29
6
-
80
380
Dairy Queen
Regular
280
730
33
6
5
100
1530
Del Taco
Regular
198
490
32
5
-
47
380
Arby's
Home-style
213
566
37
7
1
82
690
Jack In The Box
Natural Cut
236
640
33
8
10
77
820
A&W
Cheese
170
380
19
5
4
50
1040
Sonic
Cheese
125
380
19
7
0
44
600
McDonald's
QP cheese
279
740
42
19
2.5
40
1190
McDonald's
BNT cheese
220
510
28
11
1.5
38
960
BurgerKing
W cheese
315
760
47
16
1.5
52
1450
QP - Quarter Pounder, BNT - Big N' Tasty, W Whopper
12. THINK TO KEEP IN MIND: HEALTHY DIET26,
27,33:
A healthy diet is one that is arrived at which the intent of
improving or maintaining optimal health. A healthy diet
may vary widely, and is subject to an individual's genetic
makeup, environment, and health. For around 21% of the
human population, lack of food and malnutrition are the
main impediments to healthy eating. Conversely, people in
developed countries have the opposite problem; they are
more concerned about obesity.
a. Sufficient calories are required to maintain a person's
metabolic and activity needs, but not so excessive as
to result in fat storage greater than roughly 30% of
body mass. For most people the recommended daily
allowance of energy is 2,000 calories, but it depends
on age, sex, height, weight, and physical activity.
b. Sufficient quantities of fat, including monounsaturated
fat, polyunsaturated fat and saturated fat, with a
balance of omega-6 and long-chain omega-3 lipids.
The recommended daily allowance of fat is 65-80
grams.
c. Maintenance of a good ratio between carbohydrates
and lipids (4:1).
d. Avoid the excessive saturated fat (20grams
recommended limit) and trans fat.
e. Sufficient essential amino acids to provide cellular
replenishment and transport proteins.
f. Essential micronutrients such as vitamins and certain
minerals.
g. Avoiding directly poisonous (e.g. heavy metals) and
carcinogenic (e.g. benzene) substances.
Bhaskar et al Journal of Drug Deli very & Therapeutics; 2012, 2(3): 67-73 2
© 2011, JDDT. All Rights Reserved ISSN: 2250-1177 CODEN: JDDTAO
h. Avoiding foods contaminated by human pathogens
(e.g. E. coli, tapeworm eggs).
i. Most of the fat in chicken is contained in the skin, so
remove it.
j. Avoiding chronic high doses of certain foods that are
benign or beneficial in small or occasional doses, such
as
o foods that may burden or exhaust normal functions
(e.g. refined carbohydrates without adequate dietary
fiber);
o foods that may interfere at high doses with other body
processes (e.g. refined table salt);
o Foods or substances with directly toxic properties at
high chronic doses (e.g. ethyl alcohol).
k. Combination of foods eaten and timing of meals so
that hunger is kept in check; for example, to meet
calorie goal of 2000 calories to avoid gaining weight.
13. CONCLUSION:
Consumption of the junk food invites various health
problems. The habit of the consumption of junk food is
continuously increasing in young generation especially in
children. The main problems with junk food are increasing
childhood obesity, which further leads many health
complications in children. The attracting advertisements
are largely responsible for the mind make up of children to
consume junk food. Multinational companies are attracting
the new customers (Young people, children) by attractive
and aggressive marketing strategies. Parents should take
care of the eating habit of their children and protect them
from junk food by increasing the awareness about the
health problems associated with junk and fast food. The
habit of junk food can be avoided by strong will power and
awareness of the side effects associated with them. School/
college canteen also ensure to keep healthy food in their
menu rather than focusing only on junk food. Children
must be educated about the harmful effects of junk food on
health, this may be pretty helpful in avoiding of junk food
and problems associate with them.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
Authors wish to acknowledge Prof. (Dr.) S. J. Surana,
Principal, for h is valuable suggestions, necessary help and
support, and Drug Information centre RC Patel Institute of
Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, India for
providing literature facilities for the preparation of this
review article during this work.
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... Unhealthy eating and junk food consumption have adverse repercussions on health and wellbeing. Eating junk food-i.e., high energy density food that is rich in fat, sugar, and salt and which lacks nutritious elements [1,2]-is not only associated with higher risks of developing physical dysfunctions such as obesity, diabetes, and heart diseases [2,3], but also linked with increased psychological problems (e.g., depression [4,5]; anxiety [6]). In order to minimize these negative impacts on health, many social efforts and interventions have been designed to increase healthy eating and decrease unhealthy eating [7][8][9]. ...
... The eating norm manipulation started with a definition of junk food. Specifically, and based on the World Health Organization [WHO; 2] guidelines, junk food was defined as food that is rich in salt, sugar or fat, or low in nutritional value [1]. Then, the daily maximum recommended intake of salt, fat and sugar by the WHO was provided. ...
... The third category of unhealthy eating intentions measures, i.e., junk food components intentions, assessed the three components (i.e., sugar, salt and fat) that are considered to constitute junk food [1,2]. Specifically, and based on WHO guidelines, participants were presented with three questions, which specifically asked whether they intended to exceed the daily recommended intake of sugar, salt and fat within the next week, respectively (i.e., 1) "How many days in the next week do you intend to exceed the daily recommended intake of sugar?", 2) "How many days in the next week do you intend to exceed the daily recommended intake of salt?, and 3) "How many days in the next week do you intend to exceed the daily recommended intake of fat?"). ...
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Our eating behaviors are highly influenced by those of individuals surrounding us and the groups we belong to. The first goal of this experiment was to determine how social norms that encourage (pro-) vs. discourage (anti-) unhealthy eating influence people’s intentions and motivations to eat unhealthily. Since these norms can be conveyed by one’s group in a manner that either promotes group members’ autonomy (i.e., collective autonomy support), or pressures them into eating certain foods (i.e., collective control), the experiment also tests which of these types of messages promotes the highest conformity to group norms. Hence, the second goal of this experiment was to investigate this synergetic effect of pro- vs anti-unhealthy eating norms and of collective autonomy support vs. collective control on participants’ unhealthy eating intentions and their motivations for unhealthy eating. An experimental study ( N = 341) using a 2 (eating norm: pro-unhealthy eating norm vs. anti-unhealthy eating norm) x 3 (type of group support: collective autonomy support vs. collective control vs. no support) design was conducted. Results showed that pro-unhealthy eating norms increased participants’ intentions to eat salty and fatty food, but also their amotivation (i.e., lack of motivation) for unhealthy eating relative to anti-unhealthy eating norms. In addition, when pro-unhealthy eating was encouraged in a controlling (vs. in an autonomy supportive) manner, participants reported higher intentions to eat tofu tacos. Finally, when pro-unhealthy eating was promoted by supporting group members’ autonomy, participants reported higher integrated regulation, i.e., a highly internalized motivation, for unhealthy eating. These results demonstrate that eating norms do not impact all types of unhealthy food consumption in the same manner, and that collective control may be motivating in uncertain contexts; furthermore, when individuals’ autonomy is supported and promoted by other group members, they are more susceptible to integrate unhealthy eating in their life.
... To determine how many days a week people take food on time, one week is divided into three parts where never (0 days), sometimes (1-5 days), and yes (6-7 days). To test the family's ability to provide healthy food, they are classified into three categories: 'little,' 'medium,' and 'perfectly' where the score of little (0-10), medium (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20), and perfectly (> 20). ...
... Total scores ranged from (0 to 7) with an average of 1.7786 and a standard deviation of 1.4694. Overeating junk food causes many diseases such as obesity, diabetes, skin cancer, etc. [20] . ...
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Good health depends on moderate and proper nutritional food. There is a noticeable difference in eating patterns between individuals living in rural and urban regions. The central aspect of this study is to make a comparative analysis of the health of rural and urban people with their eating habits. In February 2022, data were collected from 1,400 people in Bangladesh's major cities through offline and online surveys and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 25 and Microsoft Excel. Three types of correlation are brought out among the selected parameters, such as local people will be able to protect themselves from heart disease by consuming vegetables. The paper highlights the staple food of people of all ages in Bangladesh as well as their daily food intake time and quantity through a comprehensive survey. People will be able to adjust their health depending on the type and amount of food they consume, and they will also be able to know whether urban people are ahead of rural people and vice versa. This research can bring good health to the people by reviewing the food habits of the people of the village and the city.
... Junk foods are easy to prepare and take. However, they contain a low nutritional value and contain fat, high sugar, salt, calories, and colours which adversely affect the health of consumers (Bhaskar, 2012;Hassan et al., 2020;Johnson et al., 2012;Kaur & Kochar, 2019). Fried chicken, peanuts, popcorn, bagels, candies, and cookies are considered junk foods (Smith, 2011). ...
... Moreover, alted snack foods, gum, cake, candy, sweet desserts, fried fast food, and sugary carbonated beverages, hamburgers, pizza, tacos, chips, chocolate, soft drink are taken as junk foods (Kavle et al., 2015). The term "junk food" was coined in 1972 by Michael Jacobson to raise public awareness of foods (Bhaskar, 2012). People eat junk food even though they know the negative health effects of junk food. ...
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Junk foods are easy to prepare and take but have low nutritional value and contain only fat, high sugar, salt, calories, and colours which adversely affect the health of college students. The objective of this study was to assess the junk food consumption practice and its causes and study the relationship between socio-demographic factors and frequency of junk food consumption among college students. This study utilized a cross-sectional research design under quantitative research. Three hundred and fifty-four students were selected by using the multistage sampling method. A set of questionnaire was used to collect the required data. The collected data were entered and analyzed in SPSS version 20 using simple statistical methods including univariate and bivariate analysis. This study found that all of the respondents consumed junk food, among them 33.1 percent of the respondents consumed doughnuts, 40.1 percent of the respondents consumed chat-pat, 37.9 percent of the respondent consumed pani-puri, 39.0 percent of the respondents consumed noodles, 22.31 percent of the respondents consumed chocolates. Likewise, 60.7percent of the respondents consumed junk food in the afternoon and least (2.8%) of the respondents consumed junk food at night. Similarly, 30.2 percent of the respondents consumed junk food three times a day and 12.4 percent of the respondents consumed twice a day. Likewise, this study also found that there is no relationship between socio-demographic factors (age, gender, religion, fathers’ education, mothers’ education, fathers’ occupation, mothers’ occupation) and frequency of junk food consumption among college students. Furthermore, this study found that the main reason of taking junk food is it being easy to make and influence of advertisements, save time, and its taste. Therefore, this study suggests conducting junk food related health awareness programmes for college students.
... Not by chance the "junk food" was coined by Michael Jacobson in 1972, during the [lexible biological determinism boom as has become more and more relevant till then, too(O'Neill, 2006). Very speci[ically, the unhealthy abundance of sugar and additives as an essential part of the food industry is linked with sadness, guilt and further overconsumption, which results in a loop of convenience and pro[it (Szulc, 2016);(Bhaskar, 2012);(Lefebvre et al., 2019);(Hassan et al., 2017). The global food barons' sugar lobbies and alike only evidence the moral vice of manipulativeness by those for ...
Chapter
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An introduction the planetary health background and how bioethics has developed to include ethical considerations of all bio or living organisms.
... Not by chance the "junk food" was coined by Michael Jacobson in 1972, during the [lexible biological determinism boom as has become more and more relevant till then, too(O'Neill, 2006). Very speci[ically, the unhealthy abundance of sugar and additives as an essential part of the food industry is linked with sadness, guilt and further overconsumption, which results in a loop of convenience and pro[it (Szulc, 2016);(Bhaskar, 2012);(Lefebvre et al., 2019);(Hassan et al., 2017). The global food barons' sugar lobbies and alike only evidence the moral vice of manipulativeness by those for ...
Book
Full-text available
Bioethics is the love of life (Macer, 1998), and is the construction of all the decisions that we make across the entire planet. This collection of writings involving bioethical deliberations of situations, actions, events and policies that affect human wellbeing and fitness of the environment may at times appear to value more people in positions of authority for policy making, but it is the accumulated individual choices and actions that shape our planet. The way forward to align both improvements in human wellbeing whilst safeguarding all life and the natural environment are less subjects for debate which divides and polarizes opinion but should catalyse discussion and dialogue that unites parties. Many of the readers of this book will not be in positions of direct responsibility to make difficult policy decisions. However, we can all contribute to this discussion, and increasingly we can see that in many countries citizens can exert influence at different levels of governance and advocate for all stakeholders, and thus promote more ethical decision making. The term “Planetary Health” has arisen within the last decade, and could be viewed as just another buzz word, but it clearly signifies concern for the wellbeing of Earth itself and by implication that includes all within the biosphere. Although the recognition that the natural environment has significant impact on human health has been voiced for at least thirty years since the WHO Commission on Health and 5 Planetary Health and Bioethics Environment (1992) published their report Our planet, our health. Yet declines in biodiversity, rising average global temperatures, soil degradation, deforestation, ocean acidification etc. etc. have continued unabated. Indeed, the human population alone has increased by more than 50% since that report was published. There are diverse causes, impacts and approaches to improve both human health and the wellbeing of the living natural systems we are an integral part of. This book contains a selection of writings that reflect this diversity. As Sam Myers (2021) of the Planetary Health Alliance says, “It is not just climate change; It is everything change.” This is reminiscent of the WHO (1992) report that identified population, urbanization, poverty, resource use, macroeconomic frameworks, food production and agricultural systems, water management, industrialization and energy generation and consumption as all impacting on human health. To address this diversity there are contributions in this volume from writers around the world many of whom have extensive experience. Collectively they reflect a breadth of expertise including industry, governmental and academia – medical ethicists, environmentalists, education workers, energy researchers, agriculturists and health professionals. The collection in this book sheds some light onto a range of issues and makes some insightful recommendations for workable ways forward, that include ethical implications necessary to fully engage the actors involved. The initial chapters of this text include a transcript of an online discussion between two graduates from an online planetary health course. The second is a call for action on human population control, which in the authors opinion is often omitted or glossed over in debate and there is little policy directly addressing the fact that overpopulation puts enormous strain on natural resources and the environment. These two chapters give some insight into how some very different, but typical members of the public, perceive both planetary health issues and bioethics. The format of the remaining collection of essays, case studies and papers is divided into four sections: Bioethical principles; People and the environment; Hazards from the environment; and Moving forward.
... Not by chance the "junk food" was coined by Michael Jacobson in 1972, during the [lexible biological determinism boom as has become more and more relevant till then, too(O'Neill, 2006). Very speci[ically, the unhealthy abundance of sugar and additives as an essential part of the food industry is linked with sadness, guilt and further overconsumption, which results in a loop of convenience and pro[it (Szulc, 2016);(Bhaskar, 2012);(Lefebvre et al., 2019);(Hassan et al., 2017). The global food barons' sugar lobbies and alike only evidence the moral vice of manipulativeness by those for ...
... Not by chance the "junk food" was coined by Michael Jacobson in 1972, during the [lexible biological determinism boom as has become more and more relevant till then, too(O'Neill, 2006). Very speci[ically, the unhealthy abundance of sugar and additives as an essential part of the food industry is linked with sadness, guilt and further overconsumption, which results in a loop of convenience and pro[it (Szulc, 2016);(Bhaskar, 2012);(Lefebvre et al., 2019);(Hassan et al., 2017). The global food barons' sugar lobbies and alike only evidence the moral vice of manipulativeness by those for ...
Chapter
Full-text available
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... Michael Jacobson coined the term junk food in 1972 as slang for meals of little nutritional value, often known as HFSS (High fat, sugar, or salt) [1]. The appeal of junk food is also influenced by junk food advertising. ...
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Background: Food's high in calories, salt, and fats are known as junk foods. Excessive intake of junk foods can result in a range of health problems. Purpose: The goal of this study is to learn more about teenage fast-food intake in Odisha, especially among those aged 15 to 25, and how it affects their health. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of teens was undertaken using 60 adolescents of both sexes as the study's sample. The questionnaire was divided into two parts: the first was for socio-demographic information, and the second was for junk food intake patterns and determining variables, as well as their impact on health. MS Excel was used to analyse the data. A statistically significant value was defined as P <0.05. Results: The findings revealed that more females (72.0 percent) than boys consumed fast food, and nearly half of participants (25.0 percent) consumed fast food as a substitute for a main meal, and more than half of participants (75.0 percent) consumed soft drink every day. Furthermore, a higher proportion of participants (58.0 percent) had urinary tract infection, which could be linked to the fact that chips and soft drink were the most appealing food items among participants.
Chapter
As a result of bad eating habits, humanity may be destroyed. People are constantly on the lookout for tasty foods, with junk foods being the most common source. As a consequence, our eating patterns are shifting, and we’re gravitating toward junk food more than ever, which is bad for our health and increases our risk of acquiring health problems. Machine learning principles are applied in every aspect of our lives, and one of them is object recognition via image processing. However, because foods vary in nature, this procedure is crucial, and traditional methods like ANN, SVM, KNN, PLS etc., will result in a low accuracy rate. All of these issues were defeated by the Deep Neural Network. In this work, we created a fresh dataset of 10,000 data points from 20 junk food classifications to try to recognize junk foods. All of the data in the data set was gathered using the Google search engine, which is thought to be one-of-a-kind in every way. The goal was achieved using Convolution Neural Network (CNN) technology, which is well-known for image processing. We achieved a 98.05% accuracy rate throughout the research, which was satisfactory. In addition, we conducted a test based on a real-life event, and the outcome was extraordinary. Our goal is to advance this research to the next level, so that it may be applied to a future study. Our ultimate goal is to create a system that would encourage people to avoid eating junk food and to be health-conscious.
Article
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The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of educational intervention program based on principles of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to reduce junk food consumption in high school students in Pakistan. With quasi experimental design, educational intervention was planned and conducted. Fifty students of ages between 13 and 19 years were selected. The Risk Behavior Diagnostic Scale was adapted to measure perceived susceptibility and severity of various disease; response and self-efficacy along with intentions to leave junk food consumption. Junk Food Frequency Checklist was constructed to gauge junk food consumption behavior. Assessments were made before, after and at follow up level. Results from repeated measures ANOVA and post hoc test revealed significant increase in perceived susceptibility and severity of threat to health from pre intervention to post intervention and after one month follow up in adolescents. Significant increase was also noted in response and self-efficacy as well as in intentions to reduce junk food consumption from pre to post and follow up level. Further, significant decline in junk food eating behavior was also reported from pre intervention to follow up and from post to follow up level. Findings provide some evidence that PMT based intervention is effective for reducing junk food consumption in adolescents. Such interventions may also be considered to modify other health-hazardous behaviors.
Article
Full-text available
To determine whether a 'junk food' diet at age 4(1/2) is associated with behavioural problems at age 7. Data on approximately 4000 children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a birth cohort recruited in Avon, UK in 1991/92 were used. Behavioural problems were measured at age 7 using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; maternal completion). Total difficulties and scores for the five sub-scales (hyperactivity, conduct and peer problems, emotional symptoms and pro-social behaviour) were calculated. Principal components analysis of dietary data (frequency of consumption of 57 foods/drinks) collected at age 4(1/2) by maternal report was used to generate a 'junk food' factor. Data on confounders were available from questionnaires. A one standard deviation increase in 'junk food' intake at age 4(1/2) years was associated with increased hyperactivity at age 7 (odds ratio: 1.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.29). This persisted after adjustment for confounders including intelligence quotient score (odds ratio: 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.15). There was little evidence to support an association between 'junk food' intake and overall behavioural difficulties or other sub-scales of the SDQ. Children eating a diet high in 'junk food' in early childhood were more likely to be in the top 33% on the SDQ hyperactivity sub-scale at age 7. This may reflect a long-term nutritional imbalance, or differences in parenting style. This finding requires replication before it can provide an avenue for intervention.
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