Article

Deodorization of Garlic Breath by Foods, and the Role of Polyphenol Oxidase and Phenolic Compounds: Deodorization of garlic breath…

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Abstract

Garlic causes a strong garlic breath that may persist for almost a day. Therefore, it is important to study deodorization techniques for garlic breath. The volatiles responsible for garlic breath include diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, allyl methyl disulfide, and allyl methyl sulfide. After eating garlic, water (control), raw, juiced or heated apple, raw or heated lettuce, raw or juiced mint leaves, or green tea were consumed immediately. The levels of the garlic volatiles on the breath were analyzed from 1 to 60 min by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Garlic was also blended with water (control), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), rosemarinic acid, quercetin or catechin, and the volatiles in the headspace analyzed from 3 to 40 min by SIFT-MS. Raw apple, raw lettuce, and mint leaves significantly decreased all of the garlic breath volatiles in vivo. The proposed mechanism is enzymatic deodorization where volatiles react with phenolic compounds. Apple juice and mint juice also had a deodorizing effect on most of the garlic volatiles but were generally not as effective as the raw food, probably because the juice had enzymatic activity but the phenolic compounds had already polymerized. Both heated apple and heated lettuce produced a significant reduction of diallyl disulfide and allyl mercaptan. The presence of phenolic compounds that react with the volatile compounds even in the absence of enzymes is the most likely mechanism. Green tea had no deodorizing effect on the garlic volatile compounds. Rosmarinic acid, catechin, quercetin, and PPO significantly decreased all garlic breath volatiles in vitro. Rosmarinic acid was the most effective at deodorization.

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... The intake of therapeutic medicinal plants that containing antioxidants can reduce oxidation at the endogenous level, thus diminishing the negative consequences derived from OS [3]. Recent work indicates that cursive sativum (garlic) has antioxidant properties and reduces the OS present in CVD [5]. Deodorized garlic (DG) extracts contain phytochemicals and lipid-soluble organ sulfur compounds, such as dial-lyl-thiosulfonate (allicin) and selenium that protect against OS [6]. ...
... DG stabilizes compounds with antioxidant properties such as allicin, S-allyl-cysteine (SAC), and Sallylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) [5]. These stable compounds exert antioxidant actions by eliminating ROS, increasing the activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms, catalase and GPx, and GSH levels. ...
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... Garlic (Allium sativum L., Family Liliaceae) is a bulb widely used around the world for its many benefits including culinary, therapeutic, and medicinal properties. Despite the reputed positive benefits of consuming garlic, the strong and lingering odor of garlic on the breath is an unpleasant experience and may persist for up to 24 h (Mirondo & Barringer, 2016). The distinct flavor of garlic cloves is a result of complex biochemical reactions producing volatile organosulfur compounds as well as non-volatile amino acids (Amagase, Petesch, Matsuura, Kasuga, & Itakura, 2001;Martins, Petopoulos, & Ferreira, 2016). ...
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... As discussed above, the removal of odors and potentially harmful metabolites from such materials will increase their acceptability. Instead of laborious technical processes such as those used in the juice industry (Iyer et al. 2010) the same outcome can be achieved by expressing enzymes in the plant biomass, as shown by the removal of odorous compounds from garlic (Mirondo and Barringer 2016) and the removal of alkaloids from tobacco (Lin et al. 2016). Genome editing could also be used to prevent the transformation of precursors into odorous compounds by inactivating or removing the corresponding enzymes. ...
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... However, Consumption of garlic is empirically known to cause unpleasant breath and body odour which can last from several hours to days 7 . As for breath, previous studies have identified several volatile organosulfur compounds associated with characteristic odour of garlic breath including diallyl disulfide (DADS) and allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) [8][9][10][11] . DADS is produced from allicin, a precursor of many organosulfur compounds in the human body and has an odour threshold of 0.22 ppb 12 . ...
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It would be desirable to establish and standardize methods that can measure the total antioxidant capacity level directly from vegetable extracts containing phenolics. Antioxidant capacity assays may be broadly classified as electron transfer (ET)- and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT)-based assays. The majority of HAT assays are kinetics-based, and involve a competitive reaction scheme in which antioxidant and substrate compete for peroxyl radicals thermally generated through the decomposition of azo compounds. ET-based assays measure the capacity of an antioxidant in the reduction of an oxidant, which changes colour when reduced. ET assays include the ABTS/TEAC, CUPRAC, DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP methods, each using different chromogenic redox reagents with different standard potentials. This review intends to offer a critical evaluation of existing antioxidant assays applied to phenolics, and reports the development by our research group of a simple and low-cost antioxidant capacity assay for dietary polyphenols, vitamins C and E, and human serum antioxidants, utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent, which we haved named the CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) method. This method offers distinct advantages over other ET-based assays, namely the selection of working pH at physiological pH (as opposed to the Folin and FRAP methods, which work at alkaline and acidic pHs, respectively), applicability to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants (unlike Folin and DPPH), completion of the redox reactions for most common flavonoids (unlike FRAP), selective oxidation of antioxidant compounds without affecting sugars and citric acid commonly contained in foodstuffs and the capability to assay -SH bearing antioxidants (unlike FRAP). Other similar ET-based antioxidant assays that we have developed or modified for phenolics are the Fe(III)- and Ce(IV)-reducing capacity methods.
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Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety discusses the major advances in the understanding of the Essential Oils and their application, providing a resource that takes into account the fact that there is little attention paid to the scientific basis or toxicity of these oils. This book provides an authoritative synopsis of many of the complex features of the essential oils as applied to food science, ranging from production and harvesting, to the anti-spoilage properties of individual components. It embraces a holistic approach to the topic, and is divided into two distinct parts, the general aspects and named essential oils. With more than 100 chapters in parts two and three, users will find valuable sections on botanical aspects, usage and applications, and a section on applications in food science that emphasizes the fact that essential oils are frequently used to impart flavor and aroma. However, more recently, their use as anti-spoilage agents has been extensively researched. Explains how essential oils can be used to improve safety, flavor, and function Embraces a holistic approach to the topic, and is divided into two distinct parts, the general aspects and named essential oils Provides exceptional range of information, from general use insights to specific use and application information, along with geographically specific information Examines traditional and evidence-based uses Includes methods and examples of investigation and application.
Article
Enzymatic browning is one of the most important reactions that occur in fruits and vegetables, usually resulting in negative effects on color, taste, flavor, and nutritional value. The reaction is a consequence of phenolic compounds' oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which triggers the generation of dark pigments. This is particularly relevant for apples, which are rich in polyphenols and highly susceptible to enzymatic browning. The objective of the present work was to quantify enzymatic browning and PPO activity and identify and quantify target polyphenols in apple [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] pulp in the cultivars (cvs.) Aori27, Elstar, Fuji, and Mellow at three fruit developmental stages (FDS). The enzymatic browning was quantified by tristimulus colorimetry; PPO activity was quantified by an enzyme-substrate spectrophotometric assay; phenolic compounds were determined and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/visible-mass spectrometry. Enzymatic browning showed significant difference among cvs. and FDSs and interaction between both factors. PPO activity showed significant difference among cultivars and FDSs. A significant difference was evidenced for polyphenol content among cultivars and FDSs with interaction between both factors. Chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic compound in 'Aori27' and 'Mellow'. In 'Fuji', chlorogenic acid and (-)-epicatechin were the major phenolics and in 'Elstar' (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 were the major phenolics at different FDSs. The enzymatic browning showed high correlation to polyphenol content in all cultivars and high correlation was observed between browning and PPO activity in 'Aori27' and 'Elstar'. The magnitude of the correlation between browning and polyphenols and PPO activity is genotype-specific. At the commercial harvest, 'Fuji' showed the highest polyphenol content and 'Aori27' showed the lowest level for enzymatic browning. Chemical names used: 3-(3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl) quinic acid (chlorogenic acid), (-)-cis-3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavane (epicatechin), and cis,cis′ -4,8′-Bi(3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavane) (procyanidin B2).
Chapter
Numerous clinical trials with garlic cloves and standardized garlic powder tablets leave little doubt that modest amounts of garlic have significant cardiovascular effects by reducing serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and platelet aggregation. Epidemiological and animal studies strongly indicate significant anticancer effects, particularly for the intestinal tract. Furthermore, its intestinal and topical antimicrobial activities have been its longest recognized effects. Identification of the compounds essential to the activity of garlic, mostly ascribed to its high content of sulfur compounds, has only been partially resolved. So far, the thiosulfinates, of which allicin is 70-80%, are the only compounds with reasonably proven activity at levels representing normal amounts of garlic consumption. They are clearly responsible for the antimicrobial effects. Several evidences also indicate that they are essential to most of the hypolipidemic, antithrombotic, antioxidant, and hypoglycemic effects of garlic, and for some of its anticancer effects. However, because the thiosulfinates are rapidly metabolized and since their active metabolites have not yet been identified, little is known about their mechanism of action. The compounds responsible for the hypotensive effects and much of the anticancer and immune effects of garlic remain unknown. Until they are known, it is best to consume garlic in whole form, fresh or dried.
Article
Epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that allium vegetables and garlic constituents have antitumor effects. In a population-based, case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China, we investigated the association between intake of allium vegetables, including garlic, scallions, onions, chives, and leeks, and the risk of prostate cancer. We administered inperson interviews and collected information on 122 food items from 238 case subjects with incident, histologically confirmed prostate cancer and from 471 male population control subjects. Men in the highest of three intake categories of total allium vegetables (>10.0 g/day) had a statistically significantly lower risk (odds ratio [OR] = 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34 to 0.76; P trend <.001) of prostate cancer than those in the lowest category (<2.2 g/day). Similar comparisons between categories showed reductions in risk for men in the highest intake categories for garlic (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.31 to 0.71; P trend <.001) and scallions (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.51; P trend <.001). The reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with allium vegetables was independent of body size, intake of other foods, and total calorie intake and was more pronounced for men with localized than with advanced prostate cancer.
Article
The ability of foods and beverages to reduce allyl methyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl sulfide on human breath after consumption of raw garlic was examined. The treatments were consumed immediately following raw garlic consumption for breath measurements, or were blended with garlic prior to headspace measurements. Measurements were done using a selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometer. Chlorophyllin treatment demonstrated no deodorization in comparison to the control. Successful treatments may be due to enzymatic, polyphenolic, or acid deodorization. Enzymatic deodorization involved oxidation of polyphenolic compounds by enzymes, with the oxidized polyphenols causing deodorization. This was the probable mechanism in raw apple, parsley, spinach, and mint treatments. Polyphenolic deodorization involved deodorization by polyphenolic compounds without enzymatic activity. This probably occurred for microwaved apple, green tea, and lemon juice treatments. When pH is below 3.6, the enzyme alliinase is inactivated, which causes a reduction in volatile formation. This was demonstrated in pH-adjusted headspace measurements. However, the mechanism for volatile reduction on human breath (after volatile formation) is unclear, and may have occurred in soft drink and lemon juice breath treatments. Whey protein was not an effective garlic breath deodorant and had no enzymatic activity, polyphenolic compounds, or acidity. Headspace concentrations did not correlate well to breath treatments. Practical Application The chemical make-up of specific foods can reduce the volatile compounds that are known to cause malodorous breath due to the consumption of garlic. The enzymatic activity, polyphenolic compounds, and acidity of specific foods may cause a reduction of these volatiles, while chlorophyll does not cause a deodorization effect. This could lead to commercial applications of these deodorization mechanisms.
Article
This paper is intended as a plant operator's "check list" and guide for avoiding and correcting odor problems that occur in water pollution control plants. The bases for describing various odors, measuring their intensity, and classifying odorous compounds are outlined. The results of odor surveys conducted on 142 plants in Ontario are discussed and are used to establish the major treatment processes implicated in odor production. Gas chromatography is used to analyze odors from five of these plants having significant odor problems and representing a range of plant sizes. Methods of odor control in order of usefulness to the operator are listed, and 15 case studies, illustrating satisfactory solutions, are tabulated. Finally, the paper contains a step-by-step procedure that the operator can use as a guide to the prevention and control of wastewater treatment plant odors.
Article
Abilities of 31 kinds of raw fruits, 33 kinds of raw vegetables, and 2 kinds of raw mushrooms to remove the odor of methylmercaptan were examined. Apple, pear, loquat, peach, plum, prune, apricot, cherry, grape, lettuce, chicory, udo, perilla, peppermint, basil, burdock, potato, eggplant, and mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) showed high deodorizing activity. Highest activities were obtained with burdock and unripe fruits (apple and pear). These green foods are believed to contain large amounts of both polyphenolic compounds and their specific polyphenol oxidases, by which oxidation reaction causes addition reaction of the resulting quinone radicals with SH-compounds such as methylmercaptan. The sequential reactions can be called enzymatic deodorization. Sensory examination or measurement with an odor sensor indicated that eating apple, unripe pear and prune significantly removed bad breath caused by eating garlic. The enzymatic deodorization method has great potential for eliminating bad odors from the environment including bad breath.
Article
The deodorizing mechanism of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), the main constituent of a green tea extract, against methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) was investigated. EGCg showed deodorizing activity against CH3SH by a chemical reaction between EGCg and CH3SH. The non-volatile reaction products were identified to be compounds introducing a methylthio and/or a methylsulfinyl group into the B ring of EGCg, and gaseous oxygen was necessary for deodorizing activity. From these results, it was assumed that the deodorizing mechanism of EGCg was due to the addition of a methylthio group to the ortho-quinone generated by atmospheric oxygen. It was also found that secondary compounds produced by the reaction between EGCg and CH3SH had a stronger deodorizing activity than that of EGCg itself.
Article
A mixture of purified polyphenol oxidases (PPO), or acetone powders prepared from fruits and vegetables, and polyphenolic compounds (PPs) totally eliminated a methylmercaptan odor. 2-Methylthiochlorogenic acid was isolated from the reaction mixture of methylmercaptan and chlorogenic acid with burdock acetone powder. Further, the formation of 5-methylthiochlorogenic acid and 2,5-bis(methylthio)-chlorogenic acid was suggested. These facts demonstrate that the o-quinone compounds formed from o-diphenols by PPO rapidly reacted with methylmercaptan. The oxidation reaction of PPs by using acetone powder containing PPO or peroxidase is considered to be more effective for removing bad smells from our mouths and from the environment.
Article
Folin-Ciocalteau method of total phenolics assay, originally developed for protein determination, has recently evolved as a total antioxidant capacity assay, but found to be incapable of measuring lipophilic antioxidants due to the high affinity of FC chromophore, i.e. multivalent-charged phospho-tungsto-molybdate(V), toward water. Thus, the FC method was modified and standardized so as to enable simultaneous measurement of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in NaOH-added isobutanol-water medium. Optimal conditions were: dilution ratio of aqueous FC reagent with iso-BuOH (1:2, v/v), final NaOH concentration: 3.5×10-2 M, reaction time: 20 min, and maximum absorption wavelength: 665 nm. The modified procedure was successfully applied to the total antioxidant capacity assay of trolox, quercetin, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, glutathione and cysteine, as well as of lipophilic antioxidants such as α-tocopherol (vitamin E), butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tertiary butylhydroquinone, lauryl gallate and β-carotene. The modified FC method reliably quantified ascorbic acid whereas the conventional method could not. The modified method was reproducible and additive in terms of total antioxidant capacity values of constituents of complex mixtures such as olive oil extract and herbal tea infusion. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of the tested antioxidant compounds correlated well with those found by the Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity reference method.
Article
We present an overview of the development and use of our selected-ion flow tube (SIFT) technique as a sensitive, quantitative method for the rapid, real-time analysis of the trace gas content of atmospheric air and human breath, presenting some pilot data from various research areas in which this method will find valuable application. We show that it is capable of detecting and quantifying trace gases, in complex mixtures such as breath, which are present at partial pressures down to about 10 parts per billion.
Article
The effect of milk and milk components on the deodorization of diallyl disulfide (DADS), allyl methyl disulfide (AMDS), allyl mercaptan (AM), allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), and methyl mercaptan (MM) in the headspace of garlic as well as in the mouth- and nose-space after garlic ingestion was investigated using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Fat-free and whole milk significantly reduced the head-, mouth-, and nose-space concentrations of all volatiles. Water was the major component in milk responsible for the deodorization of volatiles. Due to its higher fat content, whole milk was more effective than fat-free milk in the deodorization of the more hydrophobic volatiles diallyl disulfide and allyl methyl disulfide. Milk was more effective than water and 10% sodium caseinate in the deodorization of allyl methyl sulfide, a persistent garlic odor, in the mouth after garlic ingestion. Addition of milk to garlic before ingestion had a higher deodorizing effect on the volatiles in the mouth than drinking milk after consuming garlic. Practical Application: Ingesting beverages or foods with high water and/or fat content such as milk may help reduce the malodorous odor in breath after garlic ingestion and mask the garlic flavor during eating. To enhance the deodorizing effect, deodorant foods should be mixed with garlic before ingestion.
Article
Sodium chlorite (SC) was shown to have strong efficacy both as a sanitizer to reduce microbial growth on produce and as a browning inhibitor on fresh-cut apples in previous experiments. This study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory effect of SC on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the associated mechanisms. The experiment showed that SC had a strong inhibition of apple PPO. The extent of inhibition was influenced by SC concentration and pH. Inhibition was most prominent at pH 4.5, at which approximately 30% of enzyme activity was lost in the presence of 10 mM SC, followed closely by that at pH 4.0 with a 26% reduction in PPO activity. The inhibition mode was determined using Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots, which established SC to be a mixed inhibitor of apple PPO for the oxidation of catechol. Preincubation of PPO with 8 mM SC for 8 min caused a maximum of 46% activity reduction compared to noninhibited control. However, preincubation of SC with catechol for 8 min resulted in no additional loss of PPO activity. These findings provide further evidence that the inhibition of PPO activity by SC is due to the inhibition of the enzyme itself rather than removal of the substrate.
Article
The role of diet on breast cancer risk was investigated in a case-control study of 345 patients diagnosed with primary breast carcinoma between 1986 and 1989 in the north-east of France (Lorraine). For each case, one control was matched for age (+/-3 years) and socio-economic status. The dietary history questionnaire consisted of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire, a 6-day food diary and an energy expenditure record. It also elicited personal characteristics and medical history. While taking into account total caloric intake and established risk factors, breast cancer risk was shown to decrease as consumption of fibre (p value for trend = 0.03), and garlic and onions (p value for trend <10(-6)) increased. This study also supports the epidemiologic evidence that saturated fat intake and breast cancer risk are associated in post-menopausal women (p value for trend = 0.03). Conversely, it suggests that unsaturated fat intake could lower the risk in the same subgroup (p value for trend = 0.03). Our findings on protective factors of breast cancer could induce effective preventive measures and warrant further experimental investigations to isolate specific subfractions.
Article
Utilizing the sulfur-containing gases of garlic as probes, we investigated the gut versus mouth origin of odoriferous breath gases. Five individuals ingested 6 g of garlic, and sulfur gases in mouth, alveolar air, and urine samples were measured. The mouth normally contained low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide. Immediately after garlic ingestion, transient high concentrations of methanethiol and allyl mercaptan and lesser concentrations of allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl disulfide, and allyl disulfide were observed. With the exception of AMS, all gases were present in far greater concentrations in mouth than alveolar air, indicating an oral origin. Only AMS was of gut origin as evidenced by similar partial pressures in mouth, alveolar air, and urine. After 3 h, AMS was the predominant breath sulfur gas. The unique derivation of AMS from the gut is attributable to the lack of gut and liver metabolism of this gas versus the rapid metabolism of the other gases. Breath odor after garlic ingestion initially originates from the mouth and subsequently from the gut.
Article
It is not uncommon to treat plant-derived foods and feeds with alkali. Such exposure to high pH is being used to recover proteins from cereals and legumes, to induce the formation of fiber-forming meat analogue vegetable protein, for preparing peeled fruits and vegetables, and for destroying microorganisms. In addition to their profound effects on functional and nutritional properties in such foods, such treatments may also cause other side reactions, including the destruction of natural polyphenolic compounds. Because plants contain a large number of structurally different antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial polyphenolic compounds, it is of interest to know whether such compounds are stable to heat and to high pH. In this model study, the stability of the following natural polyphenols to pH in the range 3-11 was studied with the aid of ultraviolet spectroscopy: caffeic acid, (-)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, (-)-epigallocatechin, rutin, and the nonphenolic compound trans-cinnamic acid. This study demonstrates that caffeic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids are not stable to high pH and that the pH- and time-dependent spectral transformations are not reversible. By contrast, chlorogenic acid is stable to acid pH, to heat, and to storage when added to apple juice. (-)-Catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, ferulic acid, rutin, and trans-cinnamic acid resisted major pH-induced degradation. The results are rationalized in terms of relative resonance stabilization of phenoxide ions and quinone oxidation intermediates. The possible significance of these findings to food chemistry and microbiology is discussed.
Article
MonoHER is a semisynthetic flavonoid used successfully in modulating the cardiotoxic effect of doxorubicin but not its antitumor activity. The oral bioavailability of monoHER is <1%. Therefore, it should be prepared as an i.v. formulation for use in clinical trials. The solubility of monoHER in water is highly pH dependent. At pH</=8.3 the drug precipitates 4 h after preparation. DMSO was tested for enhancing the solubility of monoHER in aqueous solutions. In all DMSO-based aqueous solutions monoHER recrystalized again at pH<8.3 and room temperature within 4 h after preparation. Moreover, the stability of monoHER was lower in a DMSO stock solution than after dilution with an aqueous solution. The stability of monoHER was tested in alkaline solutions (pH 8.3 and 9.5) using an HPLC-DAD procedure to detect all possible degradation products within 10 min after injection. Minor degradation occurred to monoHER in alkaline solutions when exposed to daylight or 1% H(2)O(2). MonoHER intensively degraded when exposed to a high temperature (80 degrees C). The stability of monoHER was almost the same in saline or 5% glucose when kept at room temperature and an alkaline pH of 8.3 and 9.5. Under shelf-life conditions the stability of monoHER in 5% glucose (pH 8.4), decreased with about 10% during 48 h after preparation.
Article
Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic effect of active ingredients in garlic. This review of the epidemiologic literature on garlic consumption addresses cancers of the stomach, colon, head and neck, lung, breast and prostate. Nineteen studies reported relative risk estimates for garlic consumption and cancer incidence. Site-specific case-control studies of stomach and colorectal cancer, in which multiple reports were available, suggest a protective effect of high intake of raw and/or cooked garlic. Cohort studies confirm this inverse association for colorectal cancer. Few cohort and case-control studies for other sites of cancer exist. Garlic supplements, as analyzed in four cohort studies and one case-control report, from two distinct populations, do not appear to be related to risk. Low study power, lack of variability in garlic consumption categorization within studies and poor adjustment for potential cofounders may limit the reliability of any conclusions regarding garlic supplements. However, an indication of publication bias was also found by visual inspection of a funnel plot and in a log-rank test (P = 0.004). Evidence from available studies nevertheless suggests a preventive effect of garlic consumption in stomach and colorectal cancers. The study limitations indicate the need for more definitive research and improved nutritional epidemiologic analyses of dietary data.
Article
The health benefits of garlic likely arise from a wide variety of components, possibly working synergistically. The complex chemistry of garlic makes it plausible that variations in processing can yield quite different preparations. Highly unstable thiosulfinates, such as allicin, disappear during processing and are quickly transformed into a variety of organosulfur components. The efficacy and safety of these preparations in preparing dietary supplements based on garlic are also contingent on the processing methods employed. Although there are many garlic supplements commercially available, they fall into one of four categories, i.e., dehydrated garlic powder, garlic oil, garlic oil macerate and aged garlic extract (AGE). Garlic and garlic supplements are consumed in many cultures for their hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and procirculatory effects. In addition to these proclaimed beneficial effects, some garlic preparations also appear to possess hepatoprotective, immune-enhancing, anticancer and chemopreventive activities. Some preparations appear to be antioxidative, whereas others may stimulate oxidation. These additional biological effects attributed to AGE may be due to compounds, such as S-allylcysteine, S-allylmercaptocysteine, N(alpha)-fructosyl arginine and others, formed during the extraction process. Although not all of the active ingredients are known, ample research suggests that several bioavailable components likely contribute to the observed beneficial effects of garlic.
Article
Cocoa flavanols and procyanidins possess wide-ranging biological activities. The present study investigated the stability of the cocoa monomers, (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, and the dimers, epicatechin-(4beta-8)-epicatechin (Dimer B2) and epicatechin-(4beta- 6)-epicatechin (Dimer B5), in simulated gastric and intestinal juice and at different pH values. The dimers were less stable than the monomers at both acidic and alkaline pH. Incubation of Dimer B2 and Dimer B5 in simulated gastric juice (pH 1.8) or acidic pH resulted in degradation to epicatechin and isomerization to Dimer B5 and Dimer B2, respectively. When incubated in simulated intestinal juice or at alkaline pH, all four compounds degraded almost completely within several hours. These results suggest that the amount, and type, of flavanols and procyanidins in the gastrointestinal tract following the consumption of cocoa can be influenced by the stability of these compounds in both acidic and alkaline environments.
Article
Effects of food materials were investigated on removal of several kinds of thiols, sulfides, and disulfides, which arise from vegetables of Allium species during food preparation and eating. Methanethiol, propanethiol, and 2-propenethiol were captured by raw foods such as fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms or a mixture of their acetone powders and phenolic compounds. The odor of diallyl disulfide was remarkably reduced by kiwi fruit, spinach, cutting lettuce, parsley, basil, mushrooms, and, particularly, cow's milk, raw egg, boiled rice, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). This suggests that the removal of diallyl disulfide could be caused by a physical and chemical interaction between the disulfide and foods. Furthermore, milk and BSA captured propanethiol, 2-propenethiol, dipropyl sulfide, diallyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and dipropyl disulfide very well. An enzymatic degradation of diallyl disulfide by spinach and asparagus was also observed. These results demonstrate that the deodorization with foods is achieved by multiple actions including physical and chemical interaction between volatile sulfur compounds and foods, enzymatic degradation of disulfides, and addition of thiols to polyphenolic compounds, catalyzed by polyphenol oxidases or peroxidases.
Article
The contribution of each phytochemical to the total antioxidant capacity of apples was determined. Major phenolic phytochemicals of six apple cultivars were identified and quantified, and their contributions to total antioxidant activity of apples were determined using a 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). Average concentrations of major phenolics and vitamin C in six apple cultivars were as follows (mg/100 g of fresh weight of apples): quercetin glycosides, 13.20; procyanidin B(2), 9.35; chlorogenic acid, 9.02; epicatechin, 8.65; phloretin glycosides, 5.59; vitamin C, 12.80. A highly linear relationship (r (2) > 0.97) was attained between concentrations and total antioxidant capacity of phenolics and vitamin C. Relative VCEAC values of these compounds were in the order quercetin (3.06) > epicatechin (2.67) > procyanidin B(2) (2.36) > phloretin (1.63) > vitamin C (1.00) > chlorogenic acid (0.97). Therefore, the estimated contribution of major phenolics and vitamin C to the total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh apples is as follows: quercetin (40.39 VCEAC) > epicatechin (23.10) > procyanidin B(2) (22.07) > vitamin C (12.80) > phloretin (9.11) > chlorogenic acid (8.75). These results indicate that flavonoids such as quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B(2) rather than vitamin C contribute significantly to the total antioxidant activity of apples.
Article
Caffeoyl quinic acid (CQA) derivatives in ku-ding-cha, mate, coffee, and related plants were determined by HPLC. One ku-ding-cha contained a large amount of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA, 10.6% in dry weight) as well as 3-CQA (1.7%), 4-CQA (1.1%), 5-CQA (6.3%), 3,4-diCQA (1.8%), and 4,5-diCQA (4.3%). In this ku-ding-cha, the total caffeic acid moiety was 90.3 mmol/100 g of dry weight. The leaves of Ilex latifolia, which is one original species of ku-ding-cha, and another plant of the same genus, I. rotunda, also contained 3,5-diCQA (9.5 and 14.6%), 3-CQA (4.3 and 1.9%), and 5-CQA (4.8 and 3.8%), respectively, whereas raw coffee bean contained 5.5% 5-CQA and other low CQA derivatives. 3,5-DiCQA and 5-CQA with an apple acetone powder (AP) containing polyphenol oxidase showed high capturing activities toward thiols, and two addition compounds between 3,5-diCQA and methane thiol were also identified. Ku-ding-cha indicated extremely strong capturing activities toward methanethiol, propanethiol, and 2-propenethiol in the presence of apple AP. Furthermore, drinking ku-ding-cha reduced the amount of allyl methyl sulfide gas, well-known to persist as malodorous breath long after the ingestion of garlic.
Article
Raw and boiled aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) were administered daily to normal rats both orally and intraperitoneally for 4 wk. The serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. When the rats were treated with a low dose (50 mg/kg) of raw aqueous extract of garlic, no significant changes in the serum glucose levels were observed compared with the control group. However, there was a significant reduction in the cholesterol level of rats receiving a low dose of garlic (11-14%). Rats receiving garlic orally and intraperitoneally also showed a significant reduction in triglyceride levels (38%). When the rats were treated with a high dose (500 mg/kg) of raw garlic, glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly affected. When boiled garlic extracts were administered at high concentrations (500 mg/kg), there was no effect on the level of serum glucose. However, a relatively small but significant decrease in the concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides was observed in the serum of the rats receiving boiled garlic. Raw garlic had a profound effect in reducing the glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, whereas boiled garlic had little effect in controlling these parameters. Therefore because hyperlipidemia is a major etiopathological factor for atherosclerosis, garlic may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis.
Article
The body fat reducing effect and reduction of risks for cardiovascular disease by a green tea extract (GTE) high in catechins was investigated in humans with typical lifestyles. Japanese women and men with visceral fat-type obesity were recruited for the trial. After a 2-week diet run-in period, a 12-week double-blind parallel multicenter trial was performed, in which the subjects ingested green tea containing 583 mg of catechins (catechin group) or 96 mg of catechins (control group) per day. Randomization was stratified by gender and body mass index at each medical institution. The subjects were instructed to maintain their usual dietary intake and normal physical activity. Data were analyzed using per-protocol samples of 240 subjects (catechin group; n = 123, control group; n = 117). Decreases in body weight, body mass index, body fat ratio, body fat mass, waist circumference, hip circumference, visceral fat area, and subcutaneous fat area were found to be greater in the catechin group than in the control group. A greater decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) was found in the catechin group compared with the control group for subjects whose initial SBP was 130 mm Hg or higher. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was also decreased to a greater extent in the catechin group. No adverse effect was found. The continuous ingestion of a GTE high in catechins led to a reduction in body fat, SBP, and LDL cholesterol, suggesting that the ingestion of such an extract contributes to a decrease in obesity and cardiovascular disease risks.
Article
Organically grown products experienced a doubling in percent penetration of organic sales into retail markets during the period from 1997 to 2003; however, there is still a debate over the perceived quality advantage of organically grown fruits and vegetables. In a study focusing on commercial production of processing tomatoes, samples were analyzed from 4 growers with matched organic and conventional fields. For the 4 growers studied, individual analysis of variance results indicated that tomato juice prepared from organically produced tomatoes on some farms was significantly higher in soluble solids ( degrees Brix), higher in consistency, and titratable acidity, but lower in red color, ascorbic acid, and total phenolics content in the microwaved juice. Results were significantly different among specific growers, and this may be attributed to differences in soil type and soil nutrients, tomato cultivar, environmental conditions, or other production-related factors. Higher levels of soluble solids, titratable acidity, and consistency are desirable for the production of tomato paste, in that tomatoes with these attributes may be more flavorful and require less thermal treatment. This has the potential to result both in cost savings from less energy required in paste manufacture and potentially a higher quality product due to less thermal degradation of color, flavor, and nutrients. Future work may involve a larger number of commercial growers and correlation to controlled university research plots.
Article
Many food products are claimed to be effective in controlling halitosis. Halitosis is caused mainly by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as H(2)S and CH(3)SH produced in the oral cavity. Oral microorganisms degrade proteinaceous substrates to cysteine and methionine, which are then converted to VSCs. Most treatments for halitosis focus on controlling the number of microorganisms in the oral cavity. Since tea polyphenols have been shown to have antimicrobial and deodorant effects, we have investigated whether green tea powder reduces VSCs in mouth air, and compared its effectiveness with that of other foods which are claimed to control halitosis. Immediately after administering the products, green tea showed the largest reduction in concentration of both H(2)S and CH(3)SH gases, especially CH(3)SH which also demonstrated a better correlation with odor strength than H(2)S; however, no reduction was observed at 1, 2 and 3 h after administration. Chewing gum, mints and parsley-seed oil product did not reduce the concentration of VSCs in mouth air at any time. Toothpaste, mints and green tea strongly inhibited VSCs production in a saliva-putrefaction system, but chewing gum and parsley-seed oil product could not inhibit saliva putrefaction. Toothpaste and green tea also demonstrated strong deodorant activities in vitro, but no significant deodorant activity of mints, chewing gum or parsley-seed oil product were observed. We concluded that green tea was very effective in reducing oral malodor temporarily because of its disinfectant and deodorant activities, whereas other foods were not effective.
Article
Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic compounds (TPH), total flavonoids (TF) and individual phenolic compounds were determined in canihua collected at approx. 3850 m altitude. The TAC values varied among samples from 2.7 to 44.7 by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method and from 1.8 to 41 by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) method expressed as micromol of Trolox equivalents/g dw. The content of TPH was 12.4-71.2 micromol gallic acid equivalents/g dw and that of the TF ranged between 2.2 and 11.4 micromol of catechin equivalents/g dw. The data obtained by the four methods showed several significant correlations. Prior to analysis by HPLC, the samples were subjected to acid hydrolysis and in the water-soluble extracts this led to an up to 20-fold increase in the TAC values in comparison with the values of the nonhydrolysed samples. HPLC analysis showed the presence of eight major compounds identified as catechin gallate, catechin, vanillic acid, kaempferol, ferulic acid, quercetin, resorcinol and 4-methylresorcinol. Their estimated contribution to the TAC value (FRAP method) indicated that resorcinols contributed most of the antioxidant capacity of the water-soluble extract. The results show that canihua is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and other bioactive compounds which can be important for human health.
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