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Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review



Abstract: A cough occurs suddenly and often repetitively which helps to clear the large breathing passages from secretions, irritants, foreign particles and microorganisms. Coughing can be due to a respiratory tract infection such as the common cold, acute bronchitis, pneumonia, pertussis, flu and smoking or health problems such as asthma, tuberculosis and lung cancer. Substantial uses of folk remedies for different medical conditions have been documented. The remedies included cinnamon, ginger, clove, cardamom, honey, lemon, garlic, onion, turmeric and licorice.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention
ISSN (Online): 2319 6718, ISSN (Print): 2319 670X Volume 5 Issue 5 ‖ August 2016 ‖ PP. 15-28 15 | P a g e
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review
Shahnaz Sultana*, Andleeb Khan, Mohammed M Safhi And Hassan A. Alhazmi
College Of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.
Abstract: A cough occurs suddenly and often repetitively which helps to clear the large breathing passages
from secretions, irritants, foreign particles and microorganisms. Coughing can be due to a respiratory tract
infection such as the common cold, acute bronchitis, pneumonia, pertussis, flu and smoking or health problems
such as asthma, tuberculosis and lung cancer. Substantial uses of folk remedies for different medical conditions
have been documented. The remedies included cinnamon, ginger, clove, cardamom, honey, lemon, garlic, onion,
turmeric and licorice.
Keywords: Cough, Herbal drugs, Home remedies, Gastroesophageal reflux disease
. I. Introduction
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring process which helps to clear the large breathing
passages from secretions, irritants, foreign particles and microorganisms. . When there is a blockage or irritation
in the throat or upper air passage, the brain thinks a foreign element is present and tells the body to cough to
remove that element. Generally coughing is perfectly normal. A cough can help to keep your throat clear from
phlegm and other irritants. However, sustained coughing can also be symptomatic of a number of conditions.
The cough reflex consists of three phases: an inhalation, a forced exhalation against a closed glottis, and a
violent release of air from the lungs following opening of the glottis, usually accompanied by a distinctive
sound. Coughing is either voluntary or involuntary [1].
It is one of the most common health problems. Coughing can also be due to a respiratory tract infection
such as the common cold, acute bronchitis, pneumonia, pertussis, flu and smoking or health problems such as
asthma, tuberculosis and lung cancer. In the vast majority of cases, acute coughs, i.e. coughs shorter than three
weeks, are due to the common cold. Pertussis is increasingly being recognized as a cause of troublesome
coughing in adults.
Some of the symptoms of a cough are itchy throat, chest pain and congestion. The repetition of
coughing produces inflammation and discomfort, which in turn result in more coughing [2, 3]. With allergies,
one can reduce flare-ups by identifying the allergens that affect them and avoiding exposure to them. Common
allergens include trees, pollen grains, dust mites, animal fur, mold and insects.
Many microorganisms, bacteria and viruses, are responsible for causing a person to cough, which helps
to spread the disease to new hosts. Most of the time, irregular coughing is caused by a respiratory tract
infection but can also be triggered by choking, smoking, air pollution, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disorder
(GERD), post-nasal drip, chronic bronchitis, lung tumors, heart failure and medications such as Angiotensin-
converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors [4].
Gastro-oesophageal reflux is associated with a wide range of respiratory disorders, including asthma,
isolated chronic cough, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis
[5]. In adults with a chronic cough, i.e. a cough longer than 8 weeks, more than 90% of cases are due to post-
natal drip, asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis and gastroesophageal reflux diseases [6].
In people with unexplained cough, GERD should be considered. This occurs when acidic contents of
the stomach come back up into the esophagus. Symptoms usually associated with GERD include heartburn, sour
taste in the mouth, or a feeling of acid reflux in the chest, although, more than half of the people with cough
from GERD don’t have any other symptoms. An esophageal pH monitor can confirm the diagnosis of GERD.
Sometimes GERD can complicate respiratory ailments related to cough, such as asthma or bronchitis. The
treatment involves anti-acid medications and lifestyle changes with surgery indicated in cases not manageable
with conservative measures. Proton pump inhibitor also recommended to improve this type of cough [2, 7].
Coughing may be caused by air pollution including tobacco smoke, irritant gases and dampness in a home. The
human health effects of poor air quality are far reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and
the cardiovascular system. People, who exercise outdoors on hot, smoggy days, increase their exposure to
pollutants in the air.
A foreign body can sometimes be suspected if the cough started suddenly when the patient was eating.
Rarely, sutures left behind inside the airway branches can cause coughing. A cough can be triggered by dryness
from mouth breathing or recurrent aspiration of food into the windpipe in people with swallowing difficulties.
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review 16 | P a g e
ACE inhibitors are drugs used in diabetics, heart disease and high blood pressure. In 10-25% of the
people who take it, it can cause them to have a cough as a side effect. Cessation of ACE Inhibitor use is the only
way to stop the cough. Such medicines for hypertension are very common in use such as ramipril and quinapril.
There are cases of "cough of unknown origin" which have resolution with stopping the drug.
A psychogenic cough may be the cause in the absence of a physical problem. In these instances,
emotional and psychological problems are suspected. Psychogenic cough is thought to be more common in
children than in adults. A possible scenario, psychogenic cough develops in a child who has a chronically ill
brother or sister.
Some cases of chronic cough may be attributed to a sensory neuropathic disorder. Treatment for
neurogenic cough may include the use of certain neuralgia medications [8].
Cough may also be caused by conditions affecting the lung tissue such as bronchiectasis, cystic
fibrosis, intestinal lung disease and sarcoidosis. Coughing can also be triggered by benign or malignant lung
tumors or mediastinal masses. Through irritation of the nerve, diseases of the external auditory canal (wax, for
example) can also cause cough. Cardiovascular diseases associated with cough are heart failure, pulmonary
infarction and aortic aneurysm. Nocturnal cough is associated with heart failure, as the heart does not
compensate for the increased volume shift to the pulmonary circulation, in turn causing pulmonary edema and
resultant cough. Coughing may also be used for social reasons, such as the coughing before giving a speech or
entering into a house or to attract attention of other people. Cough may also be psychogenic, which is different
from habit coughing and tic coughing. Coughing may occur in tic disorders such as Tourette syndrome,
although it should be distinguished from throat-clearing in this disorder [2].
Given its irritant nature to mammal tissues, capsaicin is widely used to determine the cough threshold
and as a tussive stimulant in clinical research of cough suppressants. Capsaicin is what makes chili
peppers spicy, and might explain why workers in factories with these vegetables can develop a cough.
The patients suffering from common cold and cough are the highest among 14 different respiratory
ailments, followed by whooping cough, asthma, nosebleed and bronchitis which can be treated by medicinal
The treatment of cough in children is based on an underlying cause. In children half of cases go away
without treatment in 10 days and 90% in 25 days. A trial of antibiotics or inhaled corticosteroids may be tried in
children with a chronic cough in an attempt to treat protracted bacterial bronchitis or asthma [9]. A cough is the
most common reason for visiting a primary care physician in the United States. The important herbal drugs used
as a cough remedy are discussed hereunder:
1. Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. (Mimosaceae)
A. catechu is prescribed to relieve common colds, cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual
disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines and leprosy. Because of its catechins content, it is used
as a mouthwash or gargle to combat pharyngitis, laryngitis, diarrhoea and throat infection.
2. Acorus calamus L. (Acoraceae)
Traditionally A. calamus is used for its effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This herb
eliminates phlegm, clears congestion, and tranquilizes the mind. It is traditional used to comfort amnesia,
cardiovascular disorders, insomnia, tinnitus, chronic bronchitis and asthma. The herb extracts showed cytotoxic
effects [10, 11].
3. Adhatoda vasica Medic. (Acanthaceae)
Adhatoda vasica has various biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,
immunomodulating, antispasmodic and antiallergic properties, and acts as a cough suppressant.
Arabinogalacatan samples extracted from the plant showed 67% cough suppression [12]. After oral
administration to the guinea-pig the antitussive activity of A. vasica was similar to codeine against coughing
induced by irritant aerosols [13].
4. Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae)
Garlic (A. sativum) is an all rounder treatment for preventing wound infections, common cold,
malaria, cough, lung tuberculosis, hypertension, sexually transmitted diseases, mental illness, kidney and liver
diseases, asthma and diabetes. It prevents common cold and flu symptoms through immune enhancement and
demonstrates anticancer and chemopreventive activities. In addition, aged garlic extract possesses
hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidative properties, whereas other preparations may stimulate
oxidation [14]. A garlic extract may enhance immune cell function which may be responsible for reducing
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review 17 | P a g e
severity of colds and flu [15]. Allicin, a chemical constituent of garlic, is an effective remedy for the common
colds [16].
5. Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae)
The herb, including the fruits and roots, is used in digestive complaints, flatulence and as a tonic for
colds and respiratory system disorders. It is used to a great extent against indigestion, general debility and
chronic bronchitis [17]. The imperatorin is the main active component of the herb extract which inhibited
acetylcholinesterase effects [18].
6. Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge (Fabaceae)
Astragalus membranaceus extracts decreased inflammatory infiltration, mucus secretion and collagen
deposition in the lung tissues. It has antiasthmatic effects [19] and suppressed the frequency of coughs [20]. It
has an anti-allergic effect by modulating mast cell-mediated allergic responses in allergic rhinitis [21]. Its use in
the attack or remission stage of asthma could restrain the development of inflammation by reducing the
production of TNF-alpha and inhibiting NF-kappa B activity.
7. Carum copticum L. (Apiaceae)
Ajwain (C. copticum) seeds contains about 50% thymol, a well known antibacterial monoterpenes and
thyme used to enhance the immune system to ward off colds and flu and other viral infections. An antitussive
effect of C. copticum was even greater than that of codeine and the effect was due to its main constituent
carvacrol. It had a bronchodilatory effect on the asthmatic airways which was comparable with the effect of
theophylline [22, 23].
8. Lavandula angustifolia L. (Lamiaceae)
Lavender oil from L. angustifolia has a soothing and calming effects on the nerves. It relieves
tension, depression, panic, hysteria and nervous exhaustion in general. It is effective to ameliorate headaches,
migraines and insomnia. Lavender oil is beneficial for problems such as bronchitis, asthma, colds, laryngitis,
halitosis, throat infections and whooping cough. The vapors of steamed flowers are inhaled as a cold remedy
9. Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae)
Lobelia is commonly associated with the treatment of lung-related ailments such as asthma, bronchitis,
coughs, pneumonia, colds, flu and other upper-respiratory disorders [25, 26].
10. Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae)
A S. officinalis (Echinacea or sage) preparation is as efficacious and well tolerated as a
chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray for the treatment of acute sore throats [27]. The efficacy and tolerability profile
of a 15% sage spray indicated that this preparation provides a convenient and safe treatment for patients with
acute pharyngitis [28].
11. Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae)
A liquid extract of S. nigra (elderberry ) plant displayed an inhibitory effect on the propagation of
human pathogenic influenza viruses [29]. It inhibited Human Influenza A (H1N1) infection in vitro. The Direct
Binding Assay established that flavonoids from the elderberry extract bound to H1N1 virions and blocked the
ability of the viruses to infect host cells [30]. Elderberry extract seems to offer an efficient, safe and cost-
effective treatment for influenza [31].
12. Tussilago farfara L. (Asteraceae)
The flower buds of T. farfara are widely used for the treatment of coughs, bronchitis and asthmatic
disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. In Europe, the plant has been used as a herbal remedy for virtually the
same purposes, but the leaves are preferred over flower buds [32, 33].
13. Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae)
Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as colds and nausea.
Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry are the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy [34].
14. Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae)
Verbascum thapsus, commonly known as mullein, is a medicinal plant readily found along roadsides,
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review 18 | P a g e
meadows and pasture lands and has been used to treat pulmonary problems, inflammatory diseases, asthma,
spasmodic coughs, diarrhoea and migraine headaches [35].
15. Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae)
Ginger (Z. officinale rhizome) is widely used in Ayurveda to alleviate many illnesses including
indigestion, nausea, vomiting, allergic reactions, cough, common colds, fever, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis,
bronchitis, respiratory troubles, pain, headache, backache, painful tooth and swelled gum [36]. In Siddha, ginger
is recommended to mitigate cough, nausea, pain and diarrhea. Trikatu is a very well known 'Rasayana' in
Ayurveda and taken as a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation in India. It consists of three well known plants, viz.,
Piper longum, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinale in equal ratio. Trikatu has been prescribed to subside
coughs, colds, fevers, asthma, respiratory problems and for improvement of the digestive disorders [37].
Substantial use of folk remedies for different medical conditions has been documented. The remedies
included cinnamon, ginger, cloves, cardamom, sesame oil, poppy seeds, honey, lemon, table salt, eggs and curd.
The medical conditions, in which folk remedies are used in patients' view, include conditions such as common
colds, cough and flu to more serious conditions such as asthma, jaundice and heat stroke.
The herbal drugs, their important chemical constituents and medicinal uses are tabulated in Table 1.
Home remedies for coughs due to colds, allergies and sinus infections are treated with a number of over-the
counter medicines. However, for those who prefer to avoid chemicals, the following herbal remedies are
recommended to suppress coughs:
Almonds (Prunus amygdalus Batsch, Rosaceae) have nutritional properties that play a proactive role
in subsiding cough symptoms. Soak five to six almonds in water for 8 to 10 hours. Make a smooth paste out of
the soaked almonds and add one teaspoon of butter. Eat it three to four times a day until your symptoms go
away. Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Bromeliaceae) contains bromelain which is a mixture of
protein-digesting (proteolytic) enzymes or proteases. It suppresses coughs, loosens the mucus in the throat and
relieves sinusitis and allergy-based sinus issues, which can contribute to coughs and mucus. Bromelain
supplements should not be taken by children or adults who take blood thinners. Along with honey drug showed
immediate improvement.
Bryonia alba L. (Cucurbitaceae) grows in Europe and northern Iran. It is an effective Homeopathic
remedy for bronchitis, coughs and pains, especially if the sputum is bloody or frothy. It should be given in small
doses and at short intervals. It will subdue the pain and the cough promptly and exercises a marked effect on the
fever as any special sedative known. It is also used to relieve abdonimal pain, acute back spasms, sciatica, colic,
fevers with chills, gas, heartburn, indigestion, headaches, flu with pains, sprains and pulled ligaments.
Cayenne or red pepper (Capsicum annuum L., Solanaceae) reduces chest pain due to continuous
coughing. It is also warming and stimulating. A cough syrup is prepared by mixing cayenne pepper, ground
ginger (one-fourth teaspoon each), honey, apple cider vinegar (one table spoon each) and two tablespoons of
water. Drink the syrup two to three times a day. Carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus (Hoffm.) Schubl et G.
Martens, Apiaceae) contains many vitamins and nutrients that can help to relieve various symptoms of a
cough. Fresh juice of four to five carrots is diluted by adding some water. For taste, one teaspoon of honey is
added. The juice is drunk three to four times a day until the symptoms improve.
Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., Vitaceae) are expectorant and release the mucus from the affected parts of the
respiratory system. The faster to get rid of the mucus, the faster coughing will end. The grapes are eaten simply
or some fresh grape juice is taken. Grape juice with a spoonful of honey will be soothing as well as effective.
Ginger (Z. officinale, Zingiberaceae) is one of the most popular natural cures for a cough. Crushed
fresh ginger is boiled with water. This herbal solution is drunk three to four times a day for relief from sore
throat, non-stop coughing and even congestion. Some lemon juice and honey may be added to it. Another
option is to chew fresh raw ginger on and off throughout the day to reduce cough. Ginger in combination with
tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) is also an effective remedy for cough. Crush about 10 leaves of tulsi, mix with
juice extracted from a small ginger piece, add in an equal quantity of honey and mix; swallow about a
single teaspoon of this mixture thrice a day to get relief from cough. For a dry cough, one of the easiest
ways of finding relief is to cut a piece of fresh ginger, sprinkle some salt on it and chew it for a few
minutes. However, not everyone likes the strongly aromatic taste of ginger and in such cases, a tea made
with ginger is equally good. The pounded ginger into fine pieces is boiled with one cup of water till the
volume reduces to half the original quantity. The liquid is strained, one teaspoon of honey added and
drunk when warm to give a soothing effect against cough.
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review 19 | P a g e
Honey is a time-honored remedy for a sore throat. It can alleviate coughs more effectively than over-
the-counter medicines that contain dextromethorphan, a cough suppressant. Drinking tea or warm lemon water
mixed with honey is beneficial to soothe the sore throat. But honey may be an effective cough remedy, too.
Since honey is low-cost and widely available, it might be worth a try. Hot milk with honey can relieve a dry
cough and reduce chest pain experienced from continuous coughing. For best results, it is drunk before going
to sleep. For added benefits from the analgesic properties of honey, a teaspoon of plain honey is swallowed on
empty stomach. This will help to clear the mucus and to soothe the throat. These home remedies can give relief
from the various symptoms of a cough without the side effects that come with pills and cough syrups. But if
anyone has continuous coughing for more than two weeks, a doctor should be consulted.
Jaggery remedies are useful to appease cough and congestion. Sputum buildup can lead to a
feeling of congestion in the chest and the entire respiratory tract; expelling this sputum, therefore,
provides relief from cough and congestion. A few corns of pepper are are boiled with water for about 20
minutes; a little cumin and jaggery (Canesugar of Saccharum officinarum L., family Poaceae) are mixed
and drunk. Cut a quarter part of an onion, keep a small bit of jaggery in the middle of it and chew on this
for expelling sputum.
Lemon (Citrus lemon (L.) Burm. F. , Rutaceae) fruits can be used for curing coughs. Lemons reduce
inflammation and provide a dose of infection-fighting vitamin C. A simple cough syrup can be made by
combining two tablespoons of lemon juice and one tablespoon of honey. Drink this healthy syrup several
times a day. Another way to use lemons is to blend lemon juice with a little honey and a pinch of cayenne
pepper and then drink it.
Licorice root is both an expectorant and demulcent, simultaneously soothing the airways while
loosening and thinning mucous, easing congestion. It can also ease any inflammation that may be irritating the
throat. Its main constituent, glycyrrhizin, is responsible for most of its effects. It is 30-50 times sweeter than
sucrose (table sugar) and it inhibits an enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This enzyme regulates
access of glucocorticoid (a steroid hormone) to steroid receptors, ultimately slowing the conversion of cortisol
to cortisone. This increases the effect of cortisol and reduces inflammation.
Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L., family Malvaceae) is a perennial herb flowering in summer. The
leaves and roots of the herb have been used since ancient times to treat sore throats and coughs. The
marshmallow herb contains mucilage, which coats the throat and soothes irritation. Marshmallow root is taken
in tea or as in a capsule form, although it is not recommended for children.
Onion (Allium cepa L, Amaryllidaceae) is one of the simplest home remedies for a cough. Breathing in
the strong vapors can help stop coughing. A cough syrup is made from baked onion juice, comfrey tea and
honey. Drink it daily to get relief from a dry cough. Another option is to combine one-half teaspoon of onion
juice with one teaspoon of pure honey. Swallow this solution at least twice a day to alleviate a cough and soothe
your throat.
Probiotics are microorganisms that can provide a host of health benefits. While they don’t relieve a
cough directly, they help to balance gastrointestinal flora. This can support immune system function throughout
the body. Lactobacillus, a bacterium in dairy, can reduce the likelihood of a cold or flu, and sensitivity to certain
allergens like pollens. Fortified milk is a great source of Lactobacillus. It should be cautious, however, as dairy
may make phlegm thicker.
Peppermint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae) leaves and the oil of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora
Hook., family Myrtaceae) are both well known for their healing properties. Menthol in peppermint soothes the
throat and acts as a decongestant, helping to break down mucus. One can benefit by drinking peppermint tea or
by inhaling peppermint vapors from a steam bath. An ointment prepared from the Eucalyptus oil, coconut oil
and beeswax is rubbed to get relief from coughs.
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) is used to cure respiratory diseases. The essence extracted
from thyme leaves helps to relieve coughing and short-term bronchitis. The leaves contain flavonoids that relax
the throat muscles involved in coughing and also lessen inflammation. Thyme tea is prepared at home by taking
two teaspoons of crushed thyme leaves and one cup of boiling water. The cup is covered, steeped for 10 minutes
and strained. Thyme relaxes the muscles of the trachea and bronchi and also opens up airways. The result is
less coughing and increased comfort.
The herb turmeric (Curcuma longifolia L., Zingiberaceae) has a therapeutic effect on coughs,
particularly a dry cough. Turmeric powder mixed with black pepper (one tea spoon each) is boiled in half cup
water. Cinnamon sticks may be added. One table spoon of honey is mixed. It is drunk daily until the condition
improves. Alternatively, make an herbal tea by adding one teaspoon of turmeric powder and one teaspoon of
carom seeds to a cup of water, and boil it until water reduces to one-half cup. Add some honey and drink this
herbal solution two to three times a day. Another way to use turmeric is to roast turmeric root and grind it into a
smooth powder. Mix it with water and honey, and drink it twice a day. A glass of hot milk, mixed in half a
teaspoon of turmeric powder is drunk warm to find relief from cough. A turmeric gargle also gives good
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review 20 | P a g e
results. To one cup of hot water, half a teaspoon of turmeric powder and half a teaspoon table salt are
added. Use this liquid as a throat gargle to alleviate cough. For a dry cough, turmeric powder mixed with
a teaspoon of honey is taken three to four times a day. Turmeric tea is prepared by adding one
tablespoon of turmeric powder into 4 cups of boiling water. Keep for a few minutes, strain and mix in
some lemon and honey to the liquid and drink. Inhaling the smoke of burning turmeric called
the dhooma paan is also considered to be an effective remedy for cough and cold. Take a dried turmeric
root, burn it and inhale the smoke. Another way out is to place a few pieces of red hot charcoal in a
small mud pot that has been placed in a cup of water. Add a few dried leaves of turmeric over the
charcoal and a spoonful of turmeric powder over the leaves. Gently blow to ignite the turmeric powder
and inhale the smoke emitted.
Table 1.Herbal drugs as cough suppressant
Botanical name
Common name
Part used
Medicinal uses
Abrus precatorius
L. (Fabaceae)
Rosary pea
Seeds, leaves
Abrusoside A-D, abrus
agglutinin, abrussic acid,
abruquinone A-F, abrin A-
D, abrectorin, abridin,
abrine, abrasine
Antibacterial, analgesic,
antiviral, antimicrobial,
antitumour, antifungal,
antidiarrheal, cough,
Acacia catechu
(L.f.) Willd.
Wood (stem)
Catechin, epicatechin,
epicatechin gallate,
procatechinic acid,
tannins, alkaloids
quercetin and
kaempferol, sterol
Diarrhoea, swelling of the
nose and throat, cough,
dysentery, swelling of the
colon (colitis), bleeding,
indigestion, osteoarthritis,
and cancer.
hispidum (Roxb.)
terpenoids, carbohydrate,
alkaloids, glycosides,
flavonoids, tannins,
Diarrhoea, antimicrobial,
Acorus calamus L.
Calamus root
Camphene, camphor,
choline, δ-cadinene,
Cineole, α-pinene, α-
terpineol, azulene, β-
asarone, elemicin,
ethanol, eugenol,
galangin, limonene,
magnesium, menthol,
terpenes, tannin, zinc
aphrodisiac, asthma,
colds, congestion, cough,
headache/migraine, sore
throat, for stoppage of
Adhatoda vasica
Leaf, flowers, bark
alkaloids including
vasicine, vasicol and
Asthma, bronchitis, anti-
ulcer, antitussive, cough,
eupatoria L.
Catechin, palmitic acid,
quercitrin, silicic acid,
tannin, thiamin , ursolic
Sore throat, bladder
infection, cuts, wounds,
liver diseases, longevity
tonics, diarrhoea, cough,
menorrhagia, parasitic
and worm infections
Allium sativum L.
Bulb cloves
Allicin, citral, geraniol,
linalool, phellandrene, s-
Allergies, asthma,
bronchitis, burns, cancer
candida/yeast infection,
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review 21 | P a g e
flu, cardiovascular,
cholesterol, cough,
colds, diabetes, sores,
sinus, sore throat
archangelica L.
roots, stems, seeds,
Essential oils, bitter
principles, coumarin
Amenorrhea, colds,
digestion, cough,
disorders, depression,
(Fisch.) Bunge
Astragalus root
Astragalosides and other
polysaccharides, β-
sitosterol, flavonoids, and
trace minerals, especially
Cancer prevention,
cardiovascular, colds,
kidney diseases, cough,
longevity tonic, sinus
10. 3
Carum copticum
Caraway Seed,
Seeds, Essential Oil
Essential oil containing
α-pinene , β-pinene,
calcium, camphene,
carvacrol, chromium,
fiber, limonene, thymol
Analgesic, anticancer,
antispasmodic, aromatic,
carminative, digestive,
emmenagogue, febrifuge,
galactagogue, cough.
camphora (L.)
Essential oil
1,8-Cineole, α-terpinene,
borneol, camphor,
carvacrol, caryophyllene,
citronellol, eugenol ,
geraniol, kaempferol,
limonene, p-cymene ,
safrole, vanillin
Aromatherapy, arthritis,
bronchitis, bruises,
sprains, cardiovascular,
colds, congestion, IBS,
lupus, sleep, insomnia,
Zeylanicum Blume
Cassia Bark
Volatile oil, eugenol,
tannins, resin, mucilage,
coumarins, complex
Aromatherapy, athletes,
diabetes, ringworm,
Candida/yeast infection,
colds, cough,
13. 3
Citrus limonum
Rind, juice,
essential oil
Fruit peel , limonene,
antioxidants, flavonoids,
pectin, vitamin C
Acne, air freshner
culinary/kitchen, facial
care, sore throat,
hypertension, varicose
veins, wrinkles, cough.
14. 6
myrrha (Nees) Engl.
Volatile oil, gum
heerabolene, limonene,
resins, dipentene, pinene,
eugenol, cinamaldehyde,
commiphoric acids,
Aromatherapy, athletes
ingwrorm, Candida and
yeast infections, colds,
cuts, wounds, dental
/oral care, hemorrhoids,
sore throat, cough.
15. l
angustifolia de
Roots, stems and
Humulene, inulin,
caryophyllene, resin,
glycoside, betaine,
isobutylalkyl amine,
Candida/yeast infection,
colds, immunostimulant,
insect/flea bites, sinus,
sore throat, cough.
16. 2
Eucalyptus globules
α-Pinene, β-pinene, α-
phellandrene, 1,8-cineole,
limonene, terpinen-4-ol,
Allergies, burns,
arthritis, bronchitis,
colds, congestion, flu,
Herpes/cold, cough,
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review 22 | P a g e
epiglobulol, piperitone
and globulol
sores,insect, lice,
repellent, pain relief,
sinus, rheumatoid
arthritis, sore throat
17. 4
perfoliatum L.
Aerial parts
Quercetin, kaempferol,
rutin, eupatorin,
terpenoids sesquiterpene
lactones, volatile oil, resin
Bronchitis, colds, cough,
flu, immunostimulant
18. 5
ulmaria (L.)
Ariel parts
Salicylic acid, flavone
glycosides, essential oils,
Arthritis, colds, cough,
congestion, diarrhea, flu,
gastritis ulcer, lupus,
rheumatoid arthritis
19. 1
Foeniculum vulgare
Fennel seed
Essential oil, anethole (50
to 80%), limonene,
fenchone, and estragole;
seeds fiber and complex
congestion, cough,
culinary/kitchen, weight
loss, digestion, halitosis,
lupus, menopause
20. 4
Forsythia suspense
(Thunb.) Vahl.
Forsythia Fruit
suspensaside, lignans,
phillyrin , (+)-
pinoresinol O-β-D-
Antiscrofulous, diuretic,
febrifuge, skin tonic,
vermifuge, colds, cough.
21. 6
Glycyrrhiza glabra
isoliquiritigenin, liquiritin,
chromenes, coumarins,
Addiction, anxiety bron-
chitis, colds, Candida/
yeast infection, fatigue,
congestion, psoriasis,
sore throat, stoppage of
smoking, cough.
22. 1
Helianthus annuus
Flowers, seed
1,8-Cineole, amyrin,
pinenes, α-terpinene,
terpineol, tocopherol,
arginine, carotene,
sitostero, choline,
cinnamic acid, citric acid,
copper, magnesium
Culinary/kitchen. massage
oils, nutrition, cough.
23. 5
Canadensis L.
root, leaves
Hydrastine, resin,
berberine, meconin,
berberastine, canadine,
candaline, hydrastinine,
fatty acids, polyphenolic
acids, chlorogenic acid,
bronchitis, colds, cuts,
wounds, diarrhoea,
eczema, eyes/vision,
infections, psoriasis,
sore throat, cough.
24. 2
Hyssopus officinalis
Flower leaves,
essential oil
Volatile oil, hyssopin
pinocamphone, gum
pinenes, camphene,
terpinene, tannin,
flavonoids, insolic acid,
oleanolic acid, resin,
Bronchitis, burns,
bruises/sprains, flu,
cardiovascular, IBS,
congestion, facial care,
dental/oral care, cough,
Herpes/cold, sores,
hypertension, insect
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review 23 | P a g e
25. 5
communis L.
Juniper Berries
α-Pinene, myrcene,
sabinene, limonene,
terpinene, camphene,
thujone, sugars, vitamin
C, flavonoids, resin,
Acne, bladder infection,
cellulite, colds, cough,
gout, congestion,
eczema, detoxification,
facial care,
nerve/back pain,
rheumatoid arthritis
26. 5
angustifolia L.
Flowers, leaves and
Linalool, linalyl acetate,
lavendulyl acetate,
hemiarin, terpinenol,
pinene, cineole, camphor,
borneol, limonene,
tannins, coumarin,
umbelliferone, hemiarin,
flavonoids, triterpenoids,
rosmarinic acid
Acne, anxiety, burns,
colds, lice
infection, lupus, cuts,
wounds, skin care,
depression, facial care,
nausea, headache,
fibromyalgia, migraine,
insect repellent
27. 5
Lobelia inflata L.
Aerial parts, dried
flower, seed
Lobeline, isolobinine,
lobelanidine, resin, fats,
lobinaline, lobelacrin,
labelianin, gum,
chelidonic acid.
Addiction, asthma,
bronchitis, cough, sore
throat, stoppage of
28. 2
Marrubium vulgare
Aerial part
Marrubiin (a bitter
principle), diterpene
alcohols (marrbiol,
murrubenol), alkaloids,
sesquiterpene, tannin,
saponins, resin
Bronchitis, colds,
cardiovascular, cough,
sore throat.
29. 6
alternifolia (Maiden
et Betche) Cheel
Tea Tree oil
essential oil distilled
from leaves
α-Pinene, cymene,
cineole, terpenes,
terpinene, alcohols
Acne, athletes
Candida/yeast infection,
cuts, wounds, scabies,
dental/oral care,
Herpes/cold, cough,
sores, insect repellent,
insect/flea bites, sore
30. 3
leucadendron L.
Cajeput Oil
Essential Oil
Essential oil, α-terpineol,
azulene, benzaldehyde,
cajeputol, nerolidol,
arthritis, colds, bronchitis,
cough, congestion, gout,
eczema, insect repellent,
lice infection, pain
reliever, rheumatoid
arthritis, sinusis, sore
31. 3
Melissa officinalis
Lemon balm
Whole herb
Citral, citronellal, eugenol
acetate, geraniol, tannin,
polyphenols, flavonoids,
rosmarinic acid,
cardiovascular, colds,
depression, cough,
dysmenorrhea, Herpes,
sores, hypertension,
insect/flea bites, nausea,
pregnancy/childbirth, sore
throat, sun burns
32. 7
Mentha piperita L.
Whole herb
Menthol, menthone, 1,8-
cineole, methyl acetate,
methofuran, isomenthone,
limonene, β-pinene, α-
pinene, germacrene-D,
bronchitis, halitosis,
cardiovascular, cold,
congestion, fatigue, flu,
gastritis/ulcer, cough,
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review 24 | P a g e
trans-sabinene hydrate,
headache/migraine, lice
infection, nausea, sinus
nerve/back pain,
33. 4
Nepeta cataria L.
leaves and
flowering tops
Volatile oil, carvacrol,
nepetol, thymol,
nepetalactone, citronellol,
geraniol); tannins,
rosmarinic acid
Anxiety, children
diseases, colds, cough,
34. 5
Ocimum sanctum L.
Leaves, essential oil
Ascorbic acid, β-
carotene, β-sitosterol,
carvacrol, tannin,
eugenol, linoleic acid,
methyl chavicol, oleic
acid, palmitic acid,
saponins, stearic acid,
Colds, cough,
congestion, flu, IBS,
Memory/Focus, nausea,
35. 6
Paeonia albiflora
White Peony
Astragalin, tannin,
gallic, benzoic and
linoleic acids, paeonol,
Colds, cough, cuts,
wounds, headache,
36. 2
Papaver rhoeas L.
Corn poppy
Flower, seeds
Red coloring matter,
rhoeadic and paaveric
acids, alkaloid
Cough, sleep/insomnia
37. 2
sidoides. DC.
( Geraniaceae)
Aerial part
Coumarin, 5,6-
Acute bronchitis,
tonsillopharyngitis (sore
throat), common cold,
sinusitis, cough.
38. 4
Petasites vulgaris
Pyrrolizidine, senecionine,
integerrimine, quercetin,
astragalan, petasin,
tannins, volatile oil;
Asthma, cardiovascular,
colds, headache/migraine,
39. 6
Americana L.
Poke Root
Tincture of the root
Jaligonic acid, oleanolic
acid , tannin, starch,
Cancer prevention,
colds, cough, flu,
psoriasis, scabies, sore
40. 4
Pimenta racemosa
(Mill,) J.W. Moore
Bay Rum Tree
essential oil
Terpinen-4-ol, eugenol,
myrcene, 1,8-cineole,
chavicol, limonene
aromatherapy, colds,
cough, flu, insect
41. 1
Pimpinella anisum
Anise seed
Choline, sugar,
mucilage, essential oil
containing anethole
Aromatherapy, colds,
congestion, cough,
ulinary herb, digestion,
IBS, lice infection,
42. 5
Pinus sylvestris L.
Scot's pine
Pine oil, borneol, bornyl
acetate, α- and β-
phallandrenes, α- and β-
pinenes, 3-carene, ,
Antimicrobial, analgesic,
antirheumatic, antiseptic,
antiviral, diuretic,
expectorant, hypertensive,
insecticidal, restorative,
aromatherapy, arthritis,
circulation, colds, cough,
congestion, gout,
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review 25 | P a g e
43. 4
Piper nigrum L.
Black Pepper
dried peppercorns
Volatile oil, alkaloids
Aromatherapy, colds,
digestion, cough,
flu, lupus, nausea,
rheumatoid arthritis.
44. 9
Prunus serotina
Whild Black cherry
Fruit, Bark
kaempferol, p-coumaric
acid, prunasin, quercetin,
scopoletin, tannins.
Bronchitis, colds,
congestion, cough,
45. 7
officinalis L.
Leaves, stems and
Essential oil, borneol,
camphene, camphor,
cineole, limonene,
linalool, flavonoids,
rosmarinic and other
phenolic acids; diterpenes,
Aromatherapy, arthritis,
cardiovascular pain,
colds, cough,
circulation, hair tonic ,
fatigue, lice infection,
hypertension, scabies,
rheumatoid arthritis,
46. o
Salix alba L.
White Willow
Tannin, salicin, fragilin,
salidroside, salicortin,
populin, tremulacin
saligenin, flavonoids,
syringin, caffeic and
ferulic acids
Arthritis, colds, cuts,
wounds, weight Loss,
fibromyalgia, cough,
lupus, pain relief,
osteoporosis, rheumatoid
47. 6
Salvia officinalis L.
Leaves, small stems
and flowers
Volatile oils, thujone,
cineole, borneol, linalool,
camphor, pinene, tannin
oestrogenic s ubstances,
salvin, carnosic acid,
flavonoids, phenolic acids,
rosmarinic acid,
Cellulite, colds, cough,
dental/oral care,
deodorants, perfumes,
digestion, facial care,
hair tonic, insect
repellent , lice infection,
menorrhagia, sore throat
48. 2
Sambucus nigra L.
Elder berry
Flower, berries
Eessential oil, palmitic,
linoleic and linolenic
acids, triterpenes,
flavonoids (flowers);
pectin, sugar, vitamin C,
flavonoids (berries);
cyanogenic glycosides
Bronchitis, colds,
congestion, cough, eyes
vision, flu, sinus, sore
49. 6
officinalis L.
Colds, cough, eczema,
gout, psoriasis.
50. 4
officinale F.H.
Dandelion root
roots, flowers,
taraxacin, taraxol,
taraxasterol, sterols,
inulin, sugars, pectin,
vitamins, choline,
phenolic acids,
asparagine, lutein,
violaxanthin, carotenoids
Acne, warts, cough,
alcoholism, bruises,
sprains, cholesterol,
colds, diabetes, digestion,
hypertension, liver
disorders, longevity
tonics, osteoporosis,
51. 3
Thymus vulgaris L.
Tymol, carvacrol,
cymene, β-pinene,
menthone, borneol,
congestion, cough, cuts,
wounds, dental/oral care,
facial care, insect
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review 26 | P a g e
52. 5
Tilia cordata Mill
α-Pinene, astragalin,
amyrin, hesperidin, β-
sitosterol, caffeic acid,
geraniol, isoquercitrin,
limonene, linalyl acetate,
nerolidol, p-coumaric
acid, phenylalanine
Anxiety, colds, cough,
cardiovascular, sore
53. 1
ammi Sprague
α-Pinene, β-pinene,
camphene, carvacrol,
thymol, limonene
Culinary , digestion,
54. 1
Tussilago farfara L.
Seeds, stem
Mucilage, alkaloid,
saponins, tannin
(especially in the leaf).
Asthma, bronchitis,
colds, congestion,
cough, smoking inhibitor
55. 1
Valeriana officinalis
Velerien root
Acetic acid, ascorbic acid,
β-ionone, caffeic acid,
quercitin, valeric acid
cardiovascular, cough,
insomnia, stoppage of
56. 4
Verbascum Thapsus
Verbathasin A, crocetin,
hesperidin, ascorbic acid,
coumarin, verbascoside
Congestion, cough, ear,
sore throat, stoppage of
57. 6
Verbena hastata L.,
V. officinalis L.
Leaves, flowering
Anxiety, colds, cough,
depression, lupus, back
58. 1
Veronica officinalis
Flower part
Organic acids, sugars,
flavonoids, resin and
Cough, cuts, wounds
59. 8
Viburnum opulus
Cramp Bark
Scopoletin, viburnin,
triterpenoid saponins,
salicosides, resin, valeric
acid, tannin, arbutin.
menopause, cough,
Zingiber officinale
Zingiberone, bisabolene,
Gingerols, shogaol,
paradols, fats, protein,
starch, vitamins, amino
Amenorrhea, colds,
lupus, nausea, cough,
aromatherapy, arthritis,
digestion, bruises/sprains,
cardiovascular, flu,
rheumatoid arthritis
II. Conclusion
Among respiratory track disorders cold and cough are common symptoms having variety of reasons behind
them. It can lead to the serious disease if not treated in time. Proper diagnoses can cure this problem by different
types of medicinal drugs commonly found around us alone or in combination.
Cough Suppressant Herbal Drugs: A Review 27 | P a g e
My sincere thanks to Authors and Editors of various scientific research articles for assisting me to compile this
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... ENT: ear, nose, and throat. and sore throat 22 . A Turkish study also found that linden (T. ...
Full-text available
Objective: This study evaluates the self-practices with conventional and herbal drug use among ear, nose, and throat outpatients. Methods: A cross-sectional survey-based study was carried out among all ear, nose, and throat outpatients on their first visit to the otorhinolaryngology department at a tertiary care hospital. The survey comprised a total of 14 questions with 4 different sections, including demographic characteristics, self-medication of conventional medicines, herbal medication usage, and perception regarding herbal medicines. Results: Overall, 255 questionnaires were distributed among patients, of which 183 completed the questionnaire (response rate=71.7%). Respondents reported self-medication (44.8%) with conventional drugs before visiting a hospital. The most commonly used medicine was analgesics (31.7%) and antibiotics (21.9%). Nearly half of the patients (49.2%) used at least one herbal drug. The most commonly used herbal medications were Tilia cordata (78.8%), Zingiber officinale (62.2%), and Camellia sinensis (45.5%). According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, most of the medicinal herbs were considered as data deficient/least concern. About 36.6% of the participants perceived that herbal drugs are effective for ear, nose, and throat problems. Moreover, 22.9% of the patients did not know about herbal-drug interaction with other medications. Conclusions: This study observed a considerable prevalence of self-based practices with conventional and herbal medications. Strict national regulations on conventional and herbal medication access and long-term actions should be implemented to discourage inappropriate drug use.
... (Acanthaceae), Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae), Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae), Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge (Fabaceae), Carum copticum L. (Apiaceae), Lavandula angustifolia L. (Lamiaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Tussilago farfara L. (Asteraceae), Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), and Zingiber officinale Rosc.(Zingiberaceae)[71,72]. ...
This chapter assesses the recent cases of COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. COVID-19, a global pandemic, is spreading so fast across all continents with African region not left out of its ravaging and devastating effects. Nigeria, on May 31, 2020, became the first country in West Africa to hit the 10,000 mark of confirmed COVID-19 cases. This recent spike in COVID-19 cases with accompanying increase in the number of fatalities calls for concern. As of July 21, 2020, Nigeria ranked third in Africa, just behind South Africa and Egypt, while the total number of confirmed cases in Africa has increased to 736,288. What would have led to the increasing cases in Africa? We found that poverty, hunger, people's violation of health guidelines, and increase in the number of laboratory tests for suspected COVID-19 cases are responsible for the sudden and sustained rise in cases in the continent.
Background The multitargeted computational approach for the design of drugs to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lung infection from herbal sources may lead to compound/s that is/are safe (derived from natural sources), effective (act on predefined targets) and broad spectrum (active in both, adult and juvenile population). Objective The present work aims at developing a specific and effective treatment for a lung infection in both the adult and juvenile population, caused due to SARS-CoV-2 through a computational approach. Methods A systematic virtual screening of 27 phytoconstituents from 11 Indian herbs with antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activity was performed. After applying the Lipinski rule of five, 19 compounds that fitted well were subjected to molecular docking studies using Molegro virtual docker 6.0 with two targets viz. SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) (PDB ID 6LU7) and ACE receptor (PDB ID 6M0J). The best-docked complexes were used to develop a merged feature pharmacophore using Ligandscout software, to know the structural requirements to develop multitarget inhibitor(s) of SARS-CoV-2. Drug likeliness and ADMET studies were also performed. Results The results revealed that Syringin, a glycoside from Tinospora cordifolia, has a good binding affinity towards both targets as compared to Remdesivir. Furthermore, drug likeliness and ADMET studies established its better bioavailability and low toxicity. Conclusion The pharmacophores developed from protein-ligand complexes provided an important understanding to design multitarget inhibitor(s) of SARS-CoV-2 to treat COVID-19 lung infection in both the adult and juvenile populations. Syringin may be subjected to further wet-lab studies to establish the results obtained through In-silico studies.
Full-text available
In the past, the Sundanese farmers of West Java, Indonesia, managed wet-rice (sawah) farming using pranata mangsa, the traditional ecological calendar. They cultivated rice varieties that were adapted to local environmental conditions. The pranata mangsa helped in determining the appropriate time to undertake rice farming activities, including preparation of land, planting, and harvesting. All these activities were accompanied by traditional ceremonies. Various natural indicators, such as the constellations of stars, leaf fall of certain plant species, sprouting of tubers, and call of insects, were used to determine the months (mangsa) of the ecological calendar. In addition, the calendar and the embedded traditional knowledge also helped in managing rice pests, prudent utilisation of water in irrigation, and effective utilisation of the social capital of villagers, through communal activities. However, after the Green Revolution, traditional rice cultivation practices changed, leading to the neglect of the pranata mangsa. Revitalising the pranata mangsa with inputs from formal scientific knowledge would help the community practise ecologically sound and economically viable agriculture that is adapted to the local environment and culture.Keywords Pranata mangsa Sawah farmingTraditional ecological knowledgeRituals
In the original version of the book, the author provided a revised map that has been updated in Figure 6.1. The book and the chapter have been updated with the change.
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Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of online breastfeeding counseling after cesarean section on breastfeeding success and anthropometric measurements of the baby in the first 6 months. Methods: The study was conducted with single-blind randomized controlled experimental research design and performed with 151 primiparous women as intervention (n=76) and control (n=75) groups. The mothers were given training in the first 24 h postpartum by applying the "Data Collection Form," "Breastfeeding and Infant Follow-up Form," and "Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale - Short Form," who followed up at the first and sixth months, and further again for 6 months. Results: Although there was no difference and homogeneity at the beginning of study among the participants in the intervention group compared with the control group, it was observed that the breastfeeding rates at the first and sixth months were higher and significant. When the anthropometric measurements of the participants in both the groups were compared, it was found that there was a significant difference between the measurements of height and weight at discharge, first, and sixth months. Breastfeeding self-efficacy scores in the intervention group were significantly higher at discharge, 4 weeks postpartum, and 6 months postpartum than those in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions: Breastfeeding training and online counseling given to mothers who give birth by cesarean section during the early postpartum period increased breastfeeding rates and self-sufficiency, and the anthropometric measurements of babies were found to be higher at healthy limits.
Background: Menthone that is a monoterpene rich in Mentha × piperita L. has been found anti-inflammatory potential for treating various diseases. However, the effect of menthone supplementation in vivo on systemic allergic inflammation in allergic asthma has not been investigated yet. Purpose: To unravel the puzzle, menthone was administered by gavage to ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice for 5 weeks to evaluate the effects on allergic asthma. Study design: There were six groups in the experiment, including dietary control (DC group, 0 mg menthone/kg b.w./day), 8 (ML group), 40 (MM group) as well as 200 mg menthone/kg b.w./day (MH group), positive control (PC group, 3 mg dexamethasone/kg b.w. before OVA challenge) and non-treatment control (NTC group, normal mice without treatment). Methods: Changes in mediators of systemic immune responses including serum antibody titers, Th1/Th2 cytokines by splenocytes and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages of the experiment mice were analyzed using ELISA. Results: As a result, menthone supplementation significantly decreased Th2-polarized OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE titers, as well as total IgE levels. Menthone supplementation dose-dependently and significantly decreased IL-4 and IL-5 (Th2) secretions by splenocytes. Menthone supplementation decreased pro-/anti-inflammatory secretion ratios (TNF-α/IL-10) by peritoneal macrophages. Conclusion: Our results suggest that menthone supplementation may effectively ameliorate systemic allergic inflammation in the allergic asthmatic mice via regulating Th2-skewed immune balance.
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Herbal plants are among the products sold in many urban markets in Asia. They play a vital role in alleviating various and common ailments among city-dwellers. People buy them because of their availability, ease of preparation, low cost, and effectiveness as compared to synthetic and commercial drugs. This study was conducted to identify and document the uses of the medicinal plants sold in the streets and market places of Baguio City, Philippines. Information on the part/s used, method of preparation, and mode of use/application were collected through semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. The data gathered from 42 local street and stall vendors were analysed using use value (UV) as a quantitative tool. A total of 59 species belonging to 52 genera and 29 families were recorded to treat various health-related problems or ailments and diseases. More than 50 health problems were identified. Cough is the most common ailment treated. The leaves are the most frequently used plant part for the treatment of various diseases. Decoction and drinking are the most common modes of preparation and administration respectively. Over-all, Lamiaceae is the most dominant (11 species) and important family (UV 2.26), while Angelica keiskei (Miq) Koidz is the most important species (UV 1.05). Thus, this study shows that medicinal plants continue to be widely sold by local vendors for primary health care in an urban context.
Coronavirus Drug Discovery SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Various individuals, community organizations and institutions must be involved in planning and developing a cure for the COVID-19 flu pandemic. In addition to governmental organizations, those who need to be involved in the process are responsible for implementing pandemic plans. There should be a balance between centralized national control and regional and local communities through the effective implementation of the guidelines. There is a need to introduce social distancing and to study and isolate cases to contain disease spread. Due to the amendment and tightening of the law "SARS-CoV-2" in many countries, special attention should be paid to respect for citizens, especially national minorities. That is why it is necessary to protect freedom statements and providing access to critical information; make sure that quarantines, locks and travel bans comply with legal standards; persons.
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Cough is one of the most common symptom of many respiratory diseases. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases organized cough guideline committee and cough guideline was developed by this committee. The purpose of this guideline is to help clinicians to diagnose correctly and treat efficiently patients with cough. In this article, we have stated recommendation and summary of Korean cough guideline. We also provided algorithm for acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered. If UACS is suspicious, first generation anti-histamine and nasal decongestant can be used empirically. In CVA, inhaled corticosteroid is recommended in order to improve cough. In GERD, proton pump inhibitor is recommended in order to improve cough. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, habit, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factor, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and idiopathic cough can be also considered as cause of chronic cough. Level of evidence for treatment is mostly low. Thus, in this guideline, many recommendations are based on expert opinion. Further study regarding treatment for cough is mandatory.
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Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is a shrub of the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region. The material used for herbal purposes includes lavender flowers (Lavandula flores) containing essential oil (3%), anthocyanins, phytosterols, sugars, minerals, and tannins. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil of lavender is variable and depends on genotype, growing location, climatic conditions, propagation, and morphological features. The essential oil contains over 300 chemical compounds. The dominant components are linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, acetate lavandulol, oci-mene, and cineole. Lavender essential oil has good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and a significant positive effect on the digestive and nervous systems. Lavender extract prevents dementia and may inhibit the growth of cancer cells, while lavender hydrolate is recommended for the treatment of skin problems and burns.
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To determine the expected duration of symptoms of common respiratory tract infections in children in primary and emergency care. Systematic review of existing literature to determine durations of symptoms of earache, sore throat, cough (including acute cough, bronchiolitis, and croup), and common cold in children. PubMed, DARE, and CINAHL (all to July 2012). Randomised controlled trials or observational studies of children with acute respiratory tract infections in primary care or emergency settings in high income countries who received either a control treatment or a placebo or over-the-counter treatment. Study quality was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias framework for randomised controlled trials, and the critical appraisal skills programme framework for observational studies. Individual study data and, when possible, pooled daily mean proportions and 95% confidence intervals for symptom duration. Symptom duration (in days) at which each symptom had resolved in 50% and 90% of children. Of 22,182 identified references, 23 trials and 25 observational studies met inclusion criteria. Study populations varied in age and duration of symptoms before study onset. In 90% of children, earache was resolved by seven to eight days, sore throat between two and seven days, croup by two days, bronchiolitis by 21 days, acute cough by 25 days, common cold by 15 days, and non-specific respiratory tract infections symptoms by 16 days. The durations of earache and common colds are considerably longer than current guidance given to parents in the United Kingdom and the United States; for other symptoms such as sore throat, acute cough, bronchiolitis, and croup the current guidance is consistent with our findings. Updating current guidelines with new evidence will help support parents and clinicians in evidence based decision making for children with respiratory tract infections.
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The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy is warranted.
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Acorus calamus Linn. (Araceae) is a traditional herbal plant used for centuries to treat various allergic symptoms including asthma and bronchitis. The present study was focused to provide a pharmacological basis for the traditional use of Acorus calamus in allergic symptoms using the mast cell-dependent anaphylactic reactions in in vitro and in vivo models. Cell viabilities were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin (DNP-HSA) induced β-hexosaminidase and interleukin (IL)-4 productions in IgE-sensitized rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells were measured by enzymatic assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction mouse model was implemented for in vivo studies. Hot water (HW), butylene glycol (BG), hexane (HE) and steam distilled (SD) extracts of Acorus calamus showed different cytoxicity levels evaluated in RBL-2H3 cells. Sub-toxic doses of HW extract suppressed the β-hexosaminidase secretion and IL-4 production significantly and dose dependently in DNP-HSA induced IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells compared to other extracts of Acorus calamus. Further, in vivo studies also revealed that the HW extract significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mouse compared to the normal control group. HW extract of Acorus calamus most effectively inhibited degranulation and IL-4 secretion in DNP-HSA-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells and also reduced the mast cell-mediated PCA reaction in mouse, providing a therapeutic evidence for its traditional use in ameliorating allergic reactions.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux is associated with a wide range of respiratory disorders, including asthma, isolated chronic cough, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Reflux can be substantial and reach the proximal margins of the oesophagus in some individuals with specific pulmonary diseases, suggesting that this association is more than a coincidence. Proximal oesophageal reflux in particular has led to concern that microaspiration might have an important, possibly even causal, role in respiratory disease. Interestingly, reflux is not always accompanied by typical reflux symptoms, such as heartburn and/or regurgitation, leading many clinicians to empirically treat for possible gastro-oesophageal reflux. Indeed, costs associated with use of acid suppressants in pulmonary disease far outweigh those in typical GERD, despite little evidence of therapeutic benefit in clinical trials. This Review comprehensively examines the possible mechanisms that might link pulmonary disease and oesophageal reflux, highlighting the gaps in current knowledge and limitations of previous research, and helping to shed light on the frequent failure of antireflux treatments in pulmonary disease.
In the last decades plant substances have become a leading form of treatment of many respiratory symptoms, including cough. It has been shown that compounds purified form polysaccharides from Adhatoda vasica, Withania somnifera, and Glycyrrhiza glabra have various biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antispasmodic action, or antiallergic properties, and they often act as cough suppressants. This work demonstrates new natural substitutes for synthetic antitussives whose application is associated with numerous adverse effects. We investigated pharmacodynamic characteristics of arabinogalacatan samples extracted from Adhatoda vasica, Withania somnifera, and Glycyrrhiza glabra. These extracts showed the ability to reduce citric acid-induced cough in awake guinea pigs after oral administration in a dose of 50mg/kg. The strongest antitussive effect (81%) was found after application of the extract from Glycyrrhiza glabra. There was a 67% cough suppression with Adhatoda vasica and 61% with Withania somnifera, which was comparable with the antitussive activity of codeine (62%).
Astragalus membranaceus (AM), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been widely used for centuries to treat asthma in China. Previous studies demonstrated that AM had inhibitory effects on airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation and airway remodeling in murine models of asthma. However, it remained unclear whether the beneficial effects of AM on asthma were associated with CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells; this issue is the focus of the present work. An asthma model was established in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assessed for inflammatory cell counts and cytokine levels. Airway hyperresponsiveness was detected by direct airway resistance analysis. Lung tissues were examined for cell infiltration, mucus hypersecretion and airway remodeling. CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the BALF and Foxp3 mRNA expression in lung tissues were examined. The oral administration of AM significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine and inhibited eosinophil counts and reduced IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels and increased INF-γ levels in the BALF. Histological studies showed that AM markedly decreased inflammatory infiltration, mucus secretion and collagen deposition in the lung tissues. Notably, AM significantly increased population of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells and promoted Foxp3(+) mRNA expression in a rat model of asthma. Together, these results suggest that the antiasthmatic effects of AM are at least partially associated with CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs.
Earlier studies show that dietary bioactive compounds can modify proliferation of γδ-T cells. Garlic contains numerous compounds that have this potential and, in addition, has been shown to influence NK cell function. Our primary aim was to demonstrate that aged garlic extract could modify these immune cells. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel intervention study recruited 120 healthy subjects (60 per group) to determine the effect of aged garlic extract supplementation (2.56 g/d) on immune cell proliferation and cold and flu symptoms. After 45 d of consuming an encapsulated aged garlic extract, γδ-T cells (p = 0.039, n = 56) and NK cells (p = 0.043, n = 56) were shown to proliferate better compared to placebo. After 90 d of supplementation, illness diary entries showed that the incidence of colds and flu, a secondary outcome, were not statistically different; however, the group consuming the aged garlic extract appeared to have reduced severity as noted by a reduction in the number of symptoms reported (21% fewer, p < 0.001, z-test of proportions), a reduction in the number of days (61% fewer, p < 0.001, z-test) and incidences (58% fewer p < 0.001, z-test) where the subjects functioned sub-optimally and the number of work/school days missed due to illness (58% fewer, p = 0.035, z-test). These results suggest that supplementation of the diet with aged garlic extract may enhance immune cell function and that this may be responsible, in part, for reduced severity of colds and flu.