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The conventional drugs used to manage fever are usually not affordable, not easily available and have adverse side effects. Alternative therapeutic agents, like medicinal plant derivatives, should therefore be developed because they have been reported to be more affordable, more readily available and have lesser side effects. Terminalia brownii is traditionally used to manage fever but this ethno-medicinal claim lacks scientific validation. The present study therefore evaluated the anti-pyretic activity of T. brownii in Wistar rats. Fresh bark samples of T. brownii were collected from Kitui County, Kenya. This study used 30 adult male Wister rats that were 2-3 months old and weighing 140-180 g was used for the experiments. Steam-distilled turpentine was the pyrogen used to induce pyrexia and Aspirin was used as the reference drug. The extract reduced the elevated rectal temperatures by between 1.15-4.38% while aspirin reduced the elevated rectal temperatures by between 0.00-4.85%. The present study showed a significant dose-dependent anti-pyretic activity of methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii hence validating its folklore use as a fever remedy.
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Research Article
Mbiri et al., J Pharmacogn Nat Prod 2016, 2:3
DOI: 10.4172/2472-0992.1000121
Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 1000121
J Pharmacogn Nat Prod, an open access journal
ISSN: 2472-0992
Journal of
Pharmacognosy & Natural Products
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ISSN: 2472-0992
Abstract
The conventional drugs used to manage fever are usually not affordable, not easily available and have adverse
side effects. Alternative therapeutic agents, like medicinal plant derivatives, should therefore be developed because
they have been reported to be more affordable, more readily available and have lesser side effects. Terminalia
brownii is traditionally used to manage fever but this ethno-medicinal claim lacks scientic validation. The present
study therefore evaluated the anti-pyretic activity of T. brownii in Wistar rats. Fresh bark samples of T. brownii were
collected from Kitui County, Kenya. This study used 30 adult male Wister rats that were 2-3 months old and weighing
140-180 g was used for the experiments. Steam-distilled turpentine was the pyrogen used to induce pyrexia and
Aspirin was used as the reference drug. The extract reduced the elevated rectal temperatures by between 1.15-
4.38% while aspirin reduced the elevated rectal temperatures by between 0.00-4.85%. The present study showed a
signicant dose-dependent anti-pyretic activity of methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii hence validating its folklore
use as a fever remedy.
Anti-Pyretic Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of
Terminalia brownii
in Wistar Rats (
Rattus novegicus
)
Jane W Mbiri1*, Sichangi Kasili2, Wilton Mbinda3, Patrick D Kisangau2 and Ngugi M Piero4
1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya
2Department of Biology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya
3Department of Physical Sciences, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Karatina University, Kenya
4Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya
Keywords: Anti-pyretic activity; Aspirin; Methanolic bark extracts;
Terminalia brownii
Introduction
Microbial infections, body tissue damage, chronic diseases and gra
rejection elevates the body temperatures beyond the normal range of
between 36.5-37.5°C, leading to pyrexia or fever [1,2]. Cytokines such
as tumor necrosis factor α and β (TNF α and TNF β) and interleukins
(IL-6, IL-α and IL-β) produced when the body is invaded by micro-
organisms or body tissues are damaged stimulates the conversion of
arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, the major fever mediator, in the
hypothalamus [3]. Prostaglandins in turn trigger the hypothalamus to
produce responses that elevate the body temperatures [2]. Although
pyrexia causes unnecessary suering and discomfort, it is considered
as a natural defense mechanism that creates an environment where
infectious agent or damaged tissue cannot survive [4].
Non-Steroidal Anti-inammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are used in
the management of pyrexia [5]. However, their use is declining due
to their adverse gastrointestinal eects like bleeding, perforations and
peptic ulcers [6]. ese conventional drugs have also been reported to
be unaordable and less eective [7]. Continuous search for alternative
therapeutic agents with much lesser adverse eects is therefore
necessary. Naturally occurring plant-based derivatives are considered
as better alternatives due to their lesser side eects, ready availability
and inexpensive nature [8]. Herbal medicine is increasingly gaining
popularity. Currently, approximately 25% of available synthetic drugs
are formulated either directly or indirectly from medicinal plants [9].
Terminalia brownii [Combretaceae] is native in Kenya, Democratic
Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Ethiopia [10]. e tree grows near
rivers and wadies in dry areas and in moist savannas of semi-arid
regions, thriving best on sandy loam soils [11]. T. brownii is used as
a folklore remedy for jaundice, stomach ache, urogenital infections,
malaria, gastric ulcers, epilepsy, cough, hepatitis and liver cirrhosis in
dierent parts of Eastern and Central Africa [10]. Although T. brownii
is used as a traditional remedy for fever, no studies have been conducted
*Corresponding authors: Jane W Mbiri, Department of Biochemistry and
Biotechnology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, South Eastern Kenya
University, P.O. Box 170-90200, Kitui, Kenya, Tel: +245 704 428 355; E-mail:
jane7mbiri@gmail.com
Received July 25 2016; Accepted August 19, 2016; Published August 24, 2016
Citation: Mbiri JW, Kasili S, Mbinda W, Kisangau PD, Piero NM (2016) Anti-Pyretic
Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of Terminalia brownii in Wistar Rats (Rat-
tus novegicus). J Pharmacogn Nat Prod 2: 121. doi:10.4172/2472-0992.1000121
Copyright: © 2016 Mbiri JW, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
to validate this ethno-medicinal claim. e present study was therefore
aimed at evaluating the anti-pyretic properties of methanolic bark
extracts of T. brownii.
Materials and Methods
Collection and preparation of plant materials
With the help of a local herbalist, fresh bark materials were
collected from Kitui County, Kenya. e samples were sorted, cleaned
and packed in polythene bags and transported to the Biochemistry and
Biotechnology laboratories at Kenyatta University (KU) for further
processing. A voucher specimen of the tree species was collected and
botanically authenticated at the East African Herbarium. e samples
were cut into small pieces and dried at room temperature for two weeks
before being ground into a ne homogenous powder using an electric
mill.
Extraction
To obtain the extract, 2 L of methanol was used to soak 400 g of the
sample’s powder. e mixture was stirred for 6 h and le to stand for 24
h. e extract was then soaked through a Whatman’s lter paper (No.
1) and the percolate concentrated under reduced pressure and vacuum
using R-200 Buchi rotary evaporator (Sigma Aldrich, Switzerland). e
concentrate was packed in airtight containers and stored at 4°C.
Page 2 of 5
Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 1000121
J Pharmacogn Nat Prod, an open access journal
ISSN: 2472-0992
Citation: Mbiri JW, Kasili S, Mbinda W, Kisangau PD, Piero NM (2016) Anti-Pyretic Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of Terminalia brownii in
Wistar Rats (Rattus novegicus). J Pharmacogn Nat Prod 2: 121. doi:10.4172/2472-0992.1000121
Experimental animals
e rules for caring and using experimental animals in laboratories
[12] and the standards set by the Kenyatta University’s ethics committee
were keenly followed. 30 adult male Wistar rats weighing 140-180 g and
2-3 months old [13] were used to evaluate the anti-pyretic properties
of T. brownii. e rats were placed in standard cages in the KU’s
animal house where they were le to acclimate for 1 wk under standard
laboratory conditions before being used for the experiments. e rats
were fed on standard commercial food for rodents and provided with
water spontaneously [14].
Anti-pyretic assay
e antipyretic activity of T. brownii’s methanolic bark extracts
was evaluated on steam-distilled turpentine-induced pyrexia in Rattus
novegicus [2]. Aspirin (Zhongshan Yuanhang E-Commercial Co., Ltd.,
Guangdong, China), dissolved in 10% DMSO, was used as the standard
drug. e rats were divided into six groups with each group having 5
rats. Table 1 displays a summary of the treatments.
In this assay, the weights and initial rectal temperatures of the rats
were taken before fever was induced. A properly lubricated thermistor
probe of a YB-009 digital thermometer (Shenzhen Osykyoo Technology
Co., Ltd., Guadong, China) was imbedded about 3 cm in to the rectum
[15] to take the rectal temperatures. Aer obtaining the initial rectal
temperatures, fever was induced by intraperitoneal administration of
25 ml/kg bw steam-distilled turpentine.
e rats that experienced a temperature rise by 0.8°C aer an hour
were considered pyretic and therefore given the respective treatments.
Fever was not induced in the normal control group but it was induced
in the rest of the groups. e normal control group therefore received
no treatment, negative control group received 0.5 ml of 10% DMSO,
positive control group received 100 mg/kg bw Aspirin, experimental
group A received 50 mg/kg bw extract, experimental group B received
100 mg/kg bw extract and experimental group C received 150 mg/kg
bw extract.
Rectal temperatures were recorded at hourly intervals up to the
fourth hour aer administration of the treatments. Rectal temperatures
before and aer treatments were compared by calculating percentage
inhibition using the following formula [16];
100
B Cn
B
´
Where,
B: Rectal temperature, 1 h, aer turpentine administration
Cn: Rectal temperature aer drug administration
Statistical analysis
e data obtained was recorded and tabulated on Excel spreadsheet
and the Minitab statistical soware version 17.1.0 was used to analyze
the data. e results were presented as mean ± standard error of mean
(SEM). e statistical signicance dierence among the various groups
was evaluated using ANOVA (One Way) and this was followed by
Turkey’s tests to separate the means and get the precise signicant
dierences among the dierent groups. Values of p ≤ 0.05 were
regarded as signicant.
Results
e methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii showed antipyretic
activity on the turpentine-induced pyrexia in rats and this was indicated
by reduction in the rectal temperatures aer extract administration
(Figure 1, Table 2). In the 1st h, the methanolic bark extracts of T.
brownii at the dose levels of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg bw and aspirin,
the reference drug, lowered the elevated rectal temperatures by 1.15%,
2.76%, 4.28% and 4.85% respectively (Table 2). e extract at the three
dose levels showed a dose dependent response (Figure 1, Table 2).
e antipyretic activity of the extract among the three dose levels was
signicantly dierent (p˂0.05, Table 2). e antipyretic activity of the
plant extract at 150 mg/kg bw dose level was commensurable to that of
the reference drug (p>0.05, Table 2). e extract at the three dose levels
was signicantly dierent from the negative control group (p˂0.05,
Table 2).
In the 2nd h aer administration of the treatments, the T. brownii
extract at the dose levels of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg bw and Aspirin,
reference drug, decreased the elevated rectal temperatures by 2.19%,
2.66%, 4.38% and 4.22% respectively (Figure 1, Table 2). e extract at
the three dose levels demonstrated a dose dependent response (Figure
1, Table 2). e antipyretic activity of the extract at the dose of 150
mg/kg bw was signicantly dierent from the antipyretic activity of the
extract at 50 and 100 mg/kg bw dose levels (p˂0.05, Table 2). In this
hour, the antipyretic activity of the extract at 100 and 150 mg/kg bw
dose levels was as good as that of Aspirin (p>0.05, Table 2). e extract
at the three dose levels was signicantly dierent from the negative and
normal control groups (p˂0.05, Table 2).
In the 3rd h, the extract at the dose levels of 50, 100 and 150 mg/
kg bw and the reference drug reduced the turpentine-induced pyrexia
by 1.98%, 2.55%, 4.02% and 4.01% respectively (Figure 1, Table 2).
e extract at the three dose levels showed a dose dependent response
(Figure 1). e antipyretic activity of the extract at the dose level of
150 mg/kg bw was signicantly dierent from the antipyretic activity
of the extract at the dose levels of 50 and 100 mg/kg bw (p˂0.05, Table
2). e antipyretic activity of the extract at the dose level of 150 mg/kg
bw was comparable to that of the standard drug (p>0.05). e extract
at the three dose levels was signicantly dierent from the negative and
normal control groups (p˂0.05, Table 2).
In the 4th h aer the administration of the treatments, the extract
at the dose levels of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg bw and the reference drug
reduced the elevated rectal temperatures by 2.55%, 2.65%, 3.76% and
4.01% respectively (Figure 1 and Table 2). e extracts of T. brownii at
the three dose levels demonstrated a dose dependent response on the
turpentine oil-induced pyrexia (Figure 1). e antipyretic activity of
the extract at the dose level of 150 mg/kg bw was signicantly dierent
from the antipyretic activity of the extract at the dose level of 50 mg/
kg bw (p ˂ 0.05). Compared to aspirin and the extract at 100 mg/kg bw
dose level, the extract at the dose level of 150 mg/kg bw did not show
a signicant dierence (p>0.05, Table 2). e extract at the three dose
levels was signicantly dierent from the negative and normal control
Group Status Treatment
I Normal control None
II Negative control Turpentine + DMSO
III Positive control Turpentine + 100 mg/kg Aspirin + DMSO
IV Experimental group A Turpentine + 50 mg/kg extract + DMSO
V Experimental group B Turpentine + 100 mg/kg extract + DMSO
VI Experimental group C Turpentine + 150 mg/kg extract + DMSO
Table 1: Treatment procedure for the evaluation of antipyretic activities of
methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii in R. norvegicus.
Page 3 of 5
Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 1000121
J Pharmacogn Nat Prod, an open access journal
ISSN: 2472-0992
Citation: Mbiri JW, Kasili S, Mbinda W, Kisangau PD, Piero NM (2016) Anti-Pyretic Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of Terminalia brownii in
Wistar Rats (Rattus novegicus). J Pharmacogn Nat Prod 2: 121. doi:10.4172/2472-0992.1000121
groups (p˂0.05, Table 2). e extract at the dose level of 150 mg/kg bw
exhibited the highest antipyretic activity in all the four hours.
Discussion
Turpentine oil is an exogenous pyrogen that is widely used to
induce fever in experimental rats and mice [17]. Other exogenous
pyrogens that have been used to induce fever include; brewer’s yeast
[18], Lipopolysaccharides [19] and polyinosinic: Polycytidylic acid
[20]. Steam-distilled turpentine induces pyrexia faster [within an hour
or two], experimental animals acquire a higher tolerance to it than to
other exogenous pyrogens and produces a steady pyrexia trend [2]. It is
against this background that turpentine oil was chosen as a model for
screening for the antipyretic activity of the methanolic bark extracts
of T. brownii in this study. In the present study, crude turpentine
was distilled to eliminate impurities and obtain pure turpentine oil.
ese impurities could have interfered with the tests or even killed the
experimental rats as it was observed in the pilot study.
e most commonly prescribed drugs for the management of
pyrexia are the NSAIDs such as diclofenac, aspirin and ibuprofen [17].
NSAIDs inhibit the activity of the enzyme Cyclooxygenase (COX-2)
whose function is to convert arachidonic acid to PGE2 [21]. PGE2 are the
main fever mediators [2]. e ndings of this study therefore suggest
that the methanolic bark extract of T. brownii was able to inhibit the
activity of COX-2 enzyme hence its antipyretic activity.
e methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii demonstrated
a signicant antipyretic activity in all the four hours aer the
administration of the treatments. ese results relate to the ndings
of [22] who demonstrated a signicant antipyretic activity of some
medicinal plants from Cholistan desert Pakistan, [23] who armed
signicant antipyretic properties of virgin coconut oil and [24]
who showed that Azima tetracantha’s friedelin possess signicant
antipyretic eect. e dose levels of the extract used in the present study
to evaluate the antipyretic activity of T. brownii were 50, 100 and 150
mg/kg bw and were similar to those used [17,25,26]. e methanolic
bark extracts of T. brownii exhibited a dose-dependent response on the
turpentine oil-induced pyrexia in the experimental rats. ese ndings
were consistent with the ndings of other studies on medicinal plants
from Cholistan desert Pakistan [22], Piper cubeba L. essential oil [5]
and ethyl acetate roots extracts of Ocimum sanctum [27].
-3.00
-2.00
-1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
0hrs
1hr
2hr
3hr
4hr
% Change in Rectal Temperatures
Time After Treatment (Hrs)
Negative Control
Positive Control
50 mg/kg bw
100 mg/kg bw
150 mg/kg bw
Figure 1: Antipyretic activity of the methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii in R. novegicus.
Group Treatment % Change in Rectal Temperatures after Treatment
0 h 1 h 2 h 3 h 4 h
Normal Control DMSO 100.00 ± 0.00
(0.00%)
100.00 ± 0.09ab
(0.00%)
99.95 ± 0.13a
(0.05%)
99.95 ± 0.05b
(0.05%)
99.95 ± 0.10b
(0.05%)
Negative Control Turpentine + DMSO 100.00 ± 0.00
(0.00%)
100.47 ± 0.23a
(-0.47%)
101.04 ± 0.36a
(-1.05%)
101.57 ± 0.30a
(-1.57%)
102.35 ± 0.24a
(-2.35%)
Positive Control Turpentine + Asprin + DMSO 100.00 ± 0.00
(0.00%)
95.42 ± 0.23d
(4.85%)
95.78 ± 0.32cd
(4.22%)
95.99 ± 0.34d
(4.01%)
95.99 ± 0.46d
(4.01%)
Experimental Group A Turpentine + 50 mg/kg + DMSO 100.00 ± 0.00
(0.00%)
98.90 ± 0.29b
(1.15%)
97.81 ± 0.50b
(2.19%)
98.02 ± 0.37c
(1.98%)
97.76 ± 0.40c
(2.25%)
Experimental Group B Turpentine + 100 mg/kg + DMSO 100.00 ± 0.00
(0.00%)
97.24 ± 0.35c
(2.76%)
97.34 ± 0.29bc
(2.66%)
97.45 ± 0.27c
(2.55%)
97.35 ± 0.35cd
(2.65%)
Experimental Group C Turpentine + 150 mg/kg + DMSO 100.00 ± 0.00
(0.00%)
95.72 ± 0.55d
(4.28%)
95.62 ± 0.48d
(4.38%)
95.99 ± 0.23d
(4.02%)
96.24 ± 0.26d
(3.76%)
The values were expressed as Mean ± SEM for ve rats per group. Statistical comparisons were done within a column and values with a similar superscript are not
signicantly different by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test (p˃0.05). Percentage reduction in rectal temperature is given within the brackets. Turpentine oil=25 ml/
kg BW; DMSO=10%; Asprin=15 mg/kg
Table 2: Antipyretic activity of methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii in R. novegicus.
Page 4 of 5
Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 1000121
J Pharmacogn Nat Prod, an open access journal
ISSN: 2472-0992
Citation: Mbiri JW, Kasili S, Mbinda W, Kisangau PD, Piero NM (2016) Anti-Pyretic Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of Terminalia brownii in
Wistar Rats (Rattus novegicus). J Pharmacogn Nat Prod 2: 121. doi:10.4172/2472-0992.1000121
oil-induced fever with its highest anti-pyretic activity at 150 mg/kg
bw dose. e anti-pyretic activity of the extract at 150 mg/kg bw dose
level was similar to the anti-pyretic activity of Aspirin. e barks of
T. brownii can therefore be considered as a probable candidate that
can be used to develop a neoteric anti-pyretic formulation that is more
aordable, readily available and has less adverse eects. e present
study therefore supports and provides a scientic validation of the local
use of T. brownii as a remedy for fever.
Acknowledgement
The authors are thankful to the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology,
School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya, for
availing their facilities to carry out this research.
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e extract at the dose level of 150 mg/kg bw demonstrated the
highest antipyretic activity compared to the dose levels of 50 and
100 mg/kg bw in all the four hours aer the administration of the
treatments. is can be explained by the possible existence of an
adequate concentration of the active principle(s) in the dose level of
150 mg/kg bw in comparison to the lower dose levels of the extract.
It can also be explained by the quick metabolism and expulsion of the
eective principle(s) present in inadequate concentrations in the lower
dose levels of the extract. e reference drug, Aspirin, demonstrated
the highest antipyretic activity compared to the three dose levels of the
extract. is can be suggested to be as a result of the reference drug
exhibiting a better blockage of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins than
the extract [17].
e extract at the dose levels of 100 and 150 mg/kg bw and the
standard drug achieved their maximum antipyretic activity in the 1st,
2nd and 3rd h respectively and then their activity decreased subsequently.
is could probably be due to the metabolism and excretion of the
respective treatments. However, the extract 50 mg/kg bw dose level
achieved its maximum activity at the fourth hour. is could be due
to the gradual diusion of the functional principle(s), present in very
low concentrations in the extract, across the cell membrane into the
peritoneal cavity [28].
Several studies have revealed a number of phytochemical secondary
metabolites present in T. brownii. e phytochemical screening
of methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii conducted by Wanja et al.
[29] armed the presence of terpenoids, phenols, steroids, saponins
and avonoids in that extract. Methanolic leaf extracts of T. brownii
have been reported to possess phytosterols, coumarins, avonoids,
tannins, polyphenols, and saponins [30]. Fourier Transform Infrared
(FTIR) spectroscopy of crude dry powder of T. brownii revealed the
presence of saponins [31]. Phytochemical screening of ethyl acetate
stem bark extract of T. brownii revealed the presence of 3-O-β-D-
glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol, an oleanane-type triterpenoid, seven
ellagic acid derivatives and seven known triterpenoids [32]. Ethyl
acetate and n-hexane extracts of T. brownii revealed the presence of
ve compounds; arjungenin, β-sitosterol, betulinic acid, monogynol A
and stigmasterol [33].
e anti-pyretic activity of the methanolic bark extract of T.
brownii could therefore be attributed to the activity of one or more
of the phytochemical secondary metabolites that have been reported
to be present in this tree. Steroids and terpenoids have been reported
to inhibit the activity of prostaglandin synthetase, the enzyme that
stimulates the production and release of prostaglandins, the primary
mediator in fever induction [34]. Flavonoids can inhibit fever in two
ways; by decreasing the release of arachidonic acid or by interfering with
the eicosanoids biosynthesis pathways involved in fever production
[6]. ese two actions in turn suppress mediators like prostaglandins
responsible for fever [6]. Saponins also have antipyretic activity [35].
e present study therefore suggests that the methanolic bark extracts
of T. brownii demonstrated an anti-pyretic activity due to the presence
of steroids, terpenoids, avonoids and saponins that have been revealed
to possess anti-pyretic activity.
Conclusion
Signicant anti-pyretic activity of the methanolic bark extract
of T. brownii was demonstrated in the present study. is study
concludes that the anti-pyretic activity of the extract could be due to
the presence of bioactive principles with a pharmacological potential.
e extract demonstrated a dose-dependent response to the turpentine
Page 5 of 5
Volume 2 • Issue 3 • 1000121
J Pharmacogn Nat Prod, an open access journal
ISSN: 2472-0992
Citation: Mbiri JW, Kasili S, Mbinda W, Kisangau PD, Piero NM (2016) Anti-Pyretic Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of Terminalia brownii in
Wistar Rats (Rattus novegicus). J Pharmacogn Nat Prod 2: 121. doi:10.4172/2472-0992.1000121
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properties of methanolic bark extracts of Terminalia brownii in Wistar albino
rats. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research 8.
30. Periasamy P, Alemayehu Y, Tarekegn W, Sintayehu B, Gebrelibanos M, et
al. (2015) Evaluation of in Vivo Central Analgesic Activity and Prelimnary
Phytochemical Screening of Methanolic Extract of Terminalia brownii Leaves.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 5: 49-53.
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of Triterpenoid Saponins in Medicinal Plants. African Journal of Tradition,
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brownii. Nat Prod Commun 8: 761-764.
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compounds from Terminalia brownii against sweet potato pathogens. Nat Prod
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extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaves in experimental animals. Medical Principles
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20. Fortier M, Kent S, Ashdown H, Poole S, Boksa P, et al. (2004) The Viral
Mimic, Polyinosinic; Polycytidylic acid, Induces Fever in Rats via an IL-1-
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colon cancer: clues to the aspirin effect? Annals of Medicine 29: 247-252.
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of antipyretic activity of some medicinal plants from Cholistan desert Pakistan.
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and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil. Pharm Biol 48: 151-157.
24. Antonisamy P, Duraipandiyan V, Ignacimuthu S (2011) Anti-inammatory,
analgesic and antipyretic effects of friedelin isolated from Azima tetracantha
Lam. in mouse and rat models. J Pharm Pharmacol 63: 1070-1077.
25. Afsar T, Khan MR, Razak S, Ullah S, Mirza B (2015) Antipyretic, anti-
inammatory and analgesic activity of Acacia hydaspica R. Parker and its
phytochemical analysis. Biomedical Central Complementary and Alternative
Medicine 15: 136-151.
26. Akuodor GC, Essien AD, Essiet GA, Essien DO, Akpan JL, et al. (2013)
Evaluation of antipyretic potential of pseudocedrela kotschyi schweint. harms
(meliaceae). European Journal of Medicinal Plants 3: 105-113.
27. Kumar A, Agarwal K, Maurya AK, Shanker K, Bushra U, et al. (2015)
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extracts for its anti-inammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.
Pharmacogn Mag 11: 217-224.
28. Hossain E, Mandal SC, Gupta JK (2011) Phytochemical screening and in-vivo
Citation: Mbiri JW, Kasili S, Mbinda W, Kisangau PD, Piero NM (2016) Anti-
Pyretic Properties of Methanolic Bark Extracts of Terminalia brownii in Wistar
Rats (Rattus novegicus). J Pharmacogn Nat Prod 2: 121. doi:10.4172/2472-
0992.1000121
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antipyretic activity of the methanol leaf-extract of Bombax malabaricum DC
(Bombacaceae). Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 10: 55-60.
... The presence of proteins in yeast is linked to fever via a variety of inflammatory reactions in this method. The production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6, IFN-α and TNF-α, and PGs like PGE 2 and PGI 2 is responsible for elevating the body temperature by acting on the brain which sets the thermoregulatory center at a lower-temperature regulatory area of the hypothalamus [22]. ...
... The presence of the active chemical constituents such as steroids, terpenoids alkaloids, and saponins in the root extract of EK [24] played a significant role in the antipyretic activity of the extract. Steroids and terpenoids have exerted their antipyretic effect through inhibiting the activity of prostaglandin synthetase, the enzyme that stimulates the production and release of PGs, the primary mediator in fever induction, while flavonoids inhibit elevating temperature by suppressing mediators like PGs responsible for fever, through its action against the release of AA or by interfering with the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways involved in fever production [16,22]. ...
... Since the lowering of temperature was almost in a similar manner to that of the reference drug, ASA, the proposed anti-pyretic property of the extract can be assumed to be through the interference of PG synthesis and inhibition of cytokine release which play a major role for the elevation of body temperature [18,22]. ...
... The presence of proteins in yeast is linked to fever via a variety of inflammatory reactions in this method. The production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6, IFN-α and TNF-α, and PGs like PGE 2 and PGI 2 is responsible for elevating the body temperature by acting on the brain which sets the thermoregulatory center at a lower-temperature regulatory area of the hypothalamus [22]. ...
... The presence of the active chemical constituents such as steroids, terpenoids alkaloids, and saponins in the root extract of EK [24] played a significant role in the antipyretic activity of the extract. Steroids and terpenoids have exerted their antipyretic effect through inhibiting the activity of prostaglandin synthetase, the enzyme that stimulates the production and release of PGs, the primary mediator in fever induction, while flavonoids inhibit elevating temperature by suppressing mediators like PGs responsible for fever, through its action against the release of AA or by interfering with the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways involved in fever production [16,22]. ...
... Since the lowering of temperature was almost in a similar manner to that of the reference drug, ASA, the proposed anti-pyretic property of the extract can be assumed to be through the interference of PG synthesis and inhibition of cytokine release which play a major role for the elevation of body temperature [18,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background. Toxicity and untoward effects are very ostensible in most standard drugs including antipyretic agents. Searching for conceivable antipyretic drugs with minimal toxicities and side effects from traditional plants is a growing concern to date. Echinops kebericho M. (Asteraceae) is one of the most prominent traditional medicinal plants, which is frequently testified for its traditionally claimed uses of treating fever and different infectious and noninfectious disorders by traditional healers in Ethiopian folk medicine. However, this plant has not been scientifically assessed for its traditionally claimed uses. This study therefore is aimed at investigating the antipyretic and antioxidant activities of 80% methanol root extract and the derived solvent fraction of Echinops kebericho M. in mouse models. Methods. Successive solvent maceration with increased polarity was used as the method of extractions, and chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water were used as solvents. After extraction, the crude extract and its derived solvent fractions were assessed for their antipyretic activities using yeast-induced pyrexia while, the antioxidant activities were measured in vitro using the diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay method. Both the extract and solvent fractions were evaluated at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg for its antipyretic activities, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated at the doses of 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 mg/kg. The positive control group was treated with standard drug (ASA 100 mg/kg), while normal saline-receiving groups were assigned as negative control. Result. E. kebericho crude extract along with its derived solvent fractions showed statistically significant (p < 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001) temperature reduction activities. The maximum percentage of temperature reduction was observed by the highest dose (400 mg/kg) of the crude extract. The aqueous fraction also showed significantly ( p < 0.05 and 0.01) higher temperature reduction than those of ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The free radical scavenging activities of the crude extract were also significantly high at the maximum dose, and the aqueous fraction showed the significantly highest antioxidant activity. Conclusion. In general, the data obtained from the present study clarified that the extract possessed significant antipyretic
... The presence of proteins in yeast is linked to fever via a variety of inflammatory reactions in this method. The production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6, IFN-α and TNF-α, and PGs like PGE 2 and PGI 2 is responsible for elevating the body temperature by acting on the brain which sets the thermoregulatory center at a lower-temperature regulatory area of the hypothalamus [22]. ...
... The presence of the active chemical constituents such as steroids, terpenoids alkaloids, and saponins in the root extract of EK [24] played a significant role in the antipyretic activity of the extract. Steroids and terpenoids have exerted their antipyretic effect through inhibiting the activity of prostaglandin synthetase, the enzyme that stimulates the production and release of PGs, the primary mediator in fever induction, while flavonoids inhibit elevating temperature by suppressing mediators like PGs responsible for fever, through its action against the release of AA or by interfering with the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways involved in fever production [16,22]. ...
... Since the lowering of temperature was almost in a similar manner to that of the reference drug, ASA, the proposed anti-pyretic property of the extract can be assumed to be through the interference of PG synthesis and inhibition of cytokine release which play a major role for the elevation of body temperature [18,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Toxicity and untoward effects are very ostensible in most standard drugs including antipyretic agents. Searching for conceivable antipyretic drugs with minimal toxicities and side effects from traditional plants is a growing concern to date. Echinops kebericho M. (Asteraceae) is one of the most prominent traditional medicinal plants, which is frequently testified for its traditionally claimed uses of treating fever and different infectious and noninfectious disorders by traditional healers in Ethiopian folk medicine. However, this plant has not been scientifically assessed for its traditionally claimed uses. This study therefore is aimed at investigating the antipyretic and antioxidant activities of 80% methanol root extract and the derived solvent fraction of Echinops kebericho M. in mouse models. Methods: Successive solvent maceration with increased polarity was used as the method of extractions, and chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water were used as solvents. After extraction, the crude extract and its derived solvent fractions were assessed for their antipyretic activities using yeast-induced pyrexia while, the antioxidant activities were measured in vitro using the diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay method. Both the extract and solvent fractions were evaluated at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg for its antipyretic activities, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated at the doses of 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 mg/kg. The positive control group was treated with standard drug (ASA 100 mg/kg), while normal saline-receiving groups were assigned as negative control. Result: E. kebericho crude extract along with its derived solvent fractions showed statistically significant (p < 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001) temperature reduction activities. The maximum percentage of temperature reduction was observed by the highest dose (400 mg/kg) of the crude extract. The aqueous fraction also showed significantly (p < 0.05 and 0.01) higher temperature reduction than those of ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The free radical scavenging activities of the crude extract were also significantly high at the maximum dose, and the aqueous fraction showed the significantly highest antioxidant activity. Conclusion: In general, the data obtained from the present study clarified that the extract possessed significant antipyretic and antioxidant activities, upholding the traditionally claimed use of the plant.
... 11,16 Previous studies indicated that different parts of T. brownii have been shown to exhibit varieties of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic, in vitro antimicrobial and antiplasmodial, central analgesic, and radical scavenging activities. 13,14,[17][18][19][20] Although T. brownii has been traditionally used for management of diabetes and its complication in the Ethiopian folklore medicine, scientific study that supports its traditional claim has not been carried out yet. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic effect of the crude extract and solvent fractions of T. brownii stem bark. ...
... In this context, a number of medicinal plants such as, T. chebula, T. arjuna, Calyusea abyssinica and Croton macrostachys have been reported to have a similar mode of action with glibenclamide, providing support to our work. 22,30,45,46 Phytochemical screening of methanolic leaf and stem bark extract of T. brownii revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, polyphenols, terpenoids, steroids, phytosterols, and coumarins 17,19 Flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, and polysaccharides have been demonstrated to have antidiabetic activity. 46,47 Thus, the potential antidiabetic activity of the crude extract and solvent fractions of T. brownii could be attributed to the aforementioned bioactive phytochemical implicated for their potential antihyperglycemic activity which might exert their effects individually or in synergy with each other. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that imposes a huge health and economic burden on societies. Because the currently available medications have many drawbacks, it is important to search for alternative therapies. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicines are ideal candidates. Hence, this study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic activity of crude extract and solvent fractions from the stem bark of Terminalia brownii Fresen. (Combretaceae) in mice. Materials and methods: The in vitro α-amylase inhibition assay was performed using the chromogenic 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) method while the antihyperglycemic activity was assessed using three mouse models: streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, normoglycemic mice, and oral glucose challenged mice. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at a dose of 150 mg/kg and animals with fasting blood glucose level (BGL) >200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug. Fasting BGL and body weight were used to assess the antidiabetic activity. The result was analyzed using GraphPad Prism software version 8 and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test with p<0.05 considered as statistically significant. Results: The crude extract of T. brownii at all tested dose levels (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg) showed a significant BGL reduction in all the three animal models. Moreover, the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (at 500 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.01) reduced the BGL in the streptozotocin induced diabetic model. The crude extract and different solvent fractions also showed a dose-dependent in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and improvement of body weight. Conclusion: T. brownii crude extract and its solvent fractions showed a significant antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic mice, hypoglycemic activity and improvement of oral glucose tolerance in normal mice.
... The increased production of PGE2 stimulates the hypothalamus to generate responses to raise the body temperature (Shah & Seth, 2010). Although pyrexia causes unnecessary suffering and discomfort, it is considered as a natural defense mechanism that creates an environment where infectious agent or damaged tissue cannot survive (Mbiri et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Species of the genus Tabebuia are used in traditional medicine, and are reported in the literature for their properties against various diseases. Tabebuia hypoleuca is an endemic species of Cuba, of which only the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the methanol extract of its stems are known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antipyretic, sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanol extracts of it stems at doses of 150, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. using the Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia test in rats, Open field and Sodium thiopental-induced sleeping time tests in mice respectively. In the Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia test, the methanol extract of stems of T. hypoleuca at 500 mg/kg, produced a significant decrease of the fever as from the first hour after administration and was sustained for 4 h, when compared with control group (p < 0.001). Doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg showed no antipyretic activity. In the Open-field test, all the assayed doses did not cause any significant change in the number of crossings, rearing, preening and defecation, and either in the time of immobility compared to the control group over a 5-min period. In the Sodium thiopental-induced sleeping time test, the extract at the same doses did not produce changes in neither the sleeping latency nor the sleeping time induced by sodium thiopental compared to the control group. These results showed that the methanol extract of stems of T. hypoleuca administered orally at 500 mg/kg exerts antipyretic activity, probably mediated by the inhibition of the enzyme COX-2. This study also showed that this extract does not exert sedative and hypnotic effects at the doses tested.
... In the fourth and the third hours, the DCM root extract of C. abyssinica, showed a dose dependent response in reducing the elevated rectal temperature in turpentine-induced pyrexia in Wistar albino rats (Table 2; Figure 1). The dose dependent response observed in this study are in agreement with studies by Ref [31], who observed a similar trend while examining antipyretic activities of methanolic bark extract of T. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fever is a symptom that is associated with pathological processes in animal body. It is mostly presented in a number of infections and diseases. Although, fever is utilized by the immune system as a means of defense against infections and diseases, it lowers the quality of life. Since fever brings discomfort to the victims it requires medication. Synthetic drugs that are used to manage fever are inaccessible and are associated with adverse effects. Herbal medicines are deemed to be safe, have good efficacy and are assumed to have fewer side effects. C. abyssinica has been used traditionally by Kallenjin community to manage fever among other ailments. However, ethnomedicinal use of the C. abyssinica lacks scientific validation. The study was designed to determine the antipyretic potential of dichloromethane root extracts of C. abyssinica on turpentine-induced pyrexia in Wistar albino rat. Thirty Wistar albino rats aged 8-9 weeks and weighing 120-140 g were grouped into normal group, positive control, negative control and three experimental groups. The laboratory animals were administered with the dichloromethane root extract at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight. The dichloromethane root extract reduced the elevated rectal temperature between 0.68 and 3.34%, while the reference drug reduced between 3.32 and 4.96%. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the root extract showed the presences of various phytochemicals compounds associated with antipyretic activities. The present study demonstrated antipyretic potential of C. abyssinica in Wistar albino rats and thus the traditional use of the C. abyssinica was scientifically confirmed.
Article
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Objective: This study investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of methanolic bark extract of Terminalia brownii in Wistar albino rats (Rattus novegicus). Methods: The experimental animals were divided into six groups of five rats each; normal control, negative control, positive control and three experimental groups. Carrageenan was used to induce inflammation. Diclofenac was used as the reference drug, and the three experimental groups were treated with the extract at the dose levels of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg bw. The extract was screened for the presence or absence of selected phytochemical secondary metabolites using standard procedures. Results: The methanolic bark extracts of T. brownii significantly [p ˂ 0.05] reduced the carrageenan-induced paw edema by between 1.57%-20.41% while diclofenac reduced it by between 11.12%-25.33%. Phytochemical screening of the extract indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, steroids and terpenoids. Conclusion: The present study revealed that T. brownii bark extract is a potential candidate for the development of a novel anti-inflammatory formulation.
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Synthetic antipyretic drugs are not readily accessible and have adverse side effects. Herbal medicines possess bioactive compounds that are safer and efficient in the management of various diseases and disorders. Acacia hockii and Kigelia africana are traditionally used to manage pyrexia among the Embu and Mbeere communities in Kenya but lack scientific data to validate their use. The present study evaluated for the antipyretic activity of the A. hockii and K. africana in rat models to scientifically validate their traditional use. The plant samples were collected with the help of local herbalists in Embu County, Kenya and transported to Kenyatta University for cleaning, air drying, milling, and extraction. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of 5 animals each; normal control, positive control, negative control, and three experimental groups. The antipyretic effect was assessed using turpentine-induced pyrexia method. The antipyretic activities of the extracts were compared to reference drug aspirin. The stem bark extract of A. hockii reduced the raised rectal temperature by between 0.62-3.88% while the stem bark extract of K. africana reduced the elevated rectal temperature by between 0.06-3.07%. The reference drug aspirin reduced the rectal temperature of pyretic rats by between 0.63-3.1%. The qualitative phytochemical screening of the two extracts indicated the presence of flavonoid, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids which are associated with the antipyretic activity. The present study demonstrated potent antipyretic activities of methanolic extracts of A. hockii and K. africana in a dose-dependent manner after the second hour of the treatment period, which supports their traditional use. The present study, therefore, recommends the ethnomedicinal use of K. africana and A. hockii in the management of pyrexia.
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Acacia nilotica has been used to manage several diseases including pain, inflammation and fever. However, its efficacy has not been scientifically validated. The aim of this study therefore is to investigate the antinociceptive, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of its aqueous extracts. The plant extract was collected from Loita division, Narok county in Kenya. A total of 96 albino mice with an average weight of 20 g was used for this study. Antinociceptive activity was determined by use of formalin−induced writhing test. A writhe was recorded by a stopwatch following the stretching of the abdomen and/or stretching of at least one hind limb. Anti-inflammatory activity was established by a formalin induced inflammation test. Hourly changes in paw sizes and reduction of edema around the paw was determined using a venier calipers. Antipyretic activity was carried out using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia. Temperature of each mouse was determined rectally by thermal probe thermometer. The aqueous leaf extracts of A. nilotica reduced pain, inflammation and fever mostly at dose 150 mg/kg body weight. Based on these findings it was concluded that the present study has demonstrated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potential of aqueous leaf extracts of A. nilotica in albino mice and will serve as good bio-resource for generating readily available herbal formulations that are more effective in the treatment of pain, inflammation and fever conditions which are cheaper than the conventional synthetic drugs and have no side effects.
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Traditional herbal healers "Hakims" use various plants of the Cholistan desert, Pakistan for treating a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases. However, there has never been a scientific validation of these plant-based therapeutics. We compared the antipyretic effect of Echinops echinatus, Alhagi maurorum, Fagonia cretica, Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Panicum turgidum in animal model. These plants were used to reduce E.coli lysate induced pyrexia in rabbits. There were five groups of rabbits having five rabbits in each group. Among these five groups, three received various doses of experimental treatment, paracetamol was given to fourth group known as positive control. The fifth group of animals served as negative control and received no treatment. Ethanol extracts of Fagonia cretica (500mg/kg), Panicum turgidum (500mg/kg and 750mg/kg), Alhagi maurorum (500 and 750mg/kg), Cymbopogon jwarancusa (250mg/kg) and Echinops echinatus (750mg/kg) showed significant antipyretic effects when compared with controls and experimental counterparts. These results revealed that ethanol extracts of the plants evaluated in this study have dose dependent antipyretic activity. Further detailed screening of these plant species is recommended.
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This study was designed to investigate the possible antiniciceptive, antipyretic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of Piper Cubeba (L.). To assess the antinociceptive and antipyretic activities, three doses (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, tail flick reaction and hot-plate and Brewer's yeast-induced hyperpyrexia test models in animals. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity was examined using agar diffusion method and broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The Piper Cubeba essential oil (PCEO) showed a marked antinociception (17, 30 and 54%) and an increase in reaction time in mice in the flick tailed and hot-plate tests. The brewer's yeast induced hyperpyrexia was decreased in a dose dependent manner. PCEO also exhibited a strong antimicrobial potential. These findings confirm the traditional analgesic indications of P. cubeba oil and provide persuasive evidence and support its use in Arab traditional medicine.
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Phytochemical evaluation of Terminalia brownii extracts led to the isolation of five compounds namely β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, monogynol A, betulinic acid and arjungenin. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and physical methods as well as by comparison with literature data. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the extracts and isolates were investigated against fungi and bacteria which infect sweet potato. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest (p ≤ 0.05) antifungal and antibacterial activities compared to n-hexane and methanol ones. Streptomyces ipomoeae was more susceptible to ethyl acetate extract (inhibition zone, 18.6 mm) than streptocycline used as a positive control. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the isolates ranged between 50 and 200 μg/ml with the lowest MIC value of 50 μg/ml being observed with betulinic acid against Aspergillus niger and S. ipomoea.
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The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (í µí±ƒ < 0.001 and í µí±ƒ < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (í µí±ƒ < 0.001) after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins.