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Multiscale building modelling and energy simulation support tools

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: Building and district modelling (BIM, CityGML…) are key technologies for the deployment of energy efficiency strategies at building and district level, from the initial stages of planning and design to the operation and maintenance ones. These technologies allow satisfying the interoperability requirements that facilitate the cooperation among the multiple stakeholders and provide the framework to develop more intelligent tools. This paper introduces five complementary European R&D projects in which TECNALIA is collaborating, very good examples of innovative systems based on these concepts. MOEEBIUS enhances passive and active building elements modelling approaches enabling improved building energy performance simulations. HOLISTEEC focuses on building multi-physical simulations considering the neighborhood context. FASUDIR exploits the high potential of GIS tools for urban sustainability analysis and accurate building energy performance evaluation. EFFESUS integrates district and building scales in historic districts. OPTEEMAL develops a platform at district level, based on an IPD approach
1 INTRODUCTION
Increasingly there is a need for interactive and user-
friendly decision support tools that enable analysis
of the impact of the building energy oriented pro-
jects on the sustainability of the urban district in a
holistic way, and facilitate the necessary communi-
cation mechanisms between the multiple stakehold-
ers that are involved in the process (Egusquiza et al.
2014). The five projects presented in this paper aim
to develop the knowledge, strategies, decision sup-
port models and tools to meet the challenges of link-
ing the strategic urban level to the executive building
level from a multiscale perspective considering in-
novative energy simulation approaches.
At building level the main research focus of the
MOEEBIUS (Modelling Optimization of Energy Ef-
ficiency in Buildings for Urban Sustainability) pro-
ject is on developing tools to monitor and assess ac-
tual building energy performance, considering
relevant factors such as user behaviour, complex en-
ergy systems performance and weather forecast, and
to be able to predict accurately building energy loads
and consumption along the whole lifecycle..
The HOLISTEEC (Holistic and Optimized Life-
cycle Integrated SupporT for Energy-Efficient build-
ing design and Construction) project aims to provide
a collaboration platform for performance-based
building design during the entire life-cycle, based on
multi-physical simulations (energy, acoustics, light-
ing and environment) from early design phases and
considering interactions with the neighbourhood,
built upon IFC (Liebich et al. 2015) and CityGML
(Gröger et al. 2012) standards, and using BCF (BIM
Collaboration Format) mechanism.
The FASUDIR (Friendly and Affordable Sustain-
able Urban Districts Retrofitting) and EFFESUS
(Energy Efficiency for EU Historic Districts’ Sus-
tainability) projects propose a seamless integration
of district and building scales through a unique data
model based on CityGML standard, combining the
high potential of GIS tools for urban sustainability
analysis with an accurate energy performance evalu-
ation at building level to allow the selection of the
most suitable strategies on energy retrofitting inter-
ventions in districts.
The OPTEEMAL (Optimised Energy Efficient
Design Platform for Refurbishment at District Lev-
el) project aims to develop a design platform, based
on an IPD (Integrated Project Delivery) approach
and supported by the utilization of BIM models, for
an integrated, optimized and systemic energy orient-
ed refurbishment at district level.
2 MOEEBIUS PROJECT
MOEEBIUS project (www.moeebius.eu) aims to re-
duce the gap between energy prediction and re-
al/measured energy performance of buildings to val-
Multiscale building modelling and energy simulation support tools
A. Romero, J.L. Izkara, A. Mediavilla, I. Prieto & J. Pérez
TECNALIA. Sustainable Construction Division, Derio, Spain
ABSTRACT: Building and district modelling (BIM, CityGML…) are key technologies for the deployment of
energy efficiency strategies at building and district level, from the initial stages of planning and design to the
operation and maintenance ones. These technologies allow satisfying the interoperability requirements that fa-
cilitate the cooperation among the multiple stakeholders and provide the framework to develop more intelli-
gent tools. This paper introduces five complementary European R&D projects in which TECNALIA is col-
laborating, very good examples of innovative systems based on these concepts. MOEEBIUS enhances passive
and active building elements modelling approaches enabling improved building energy performance simula-
tions. HOLISTEEC focuses on building multi-physical simulations considering the neighborhood context.
FASUDIR exploits the high potential of GIS tools for urban sustainability analysis and accurate building en-
ergy performance evaluation. EFFESUS integrates district and building scales in historic districts.
OPTEEMAL develops a platform at district level, based on an IPD approach.
ues below 10%, by addressing occupants’ behaviour,
real HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Condition-
ing) performance and real weather conditions both at
the building energy performance simulation (com-
missioning), as well as during the operation phase
(real-time optimization on the basis of fine-grained
control and automation).
MOEEBIUS solutions will be validated in real-
life conditions over an extensive 20-month pilot roll-
out period (that includes equipment and systems in-
stallations, base-lining activities, models and sys-
tems calibration and actual validation of MOEEBI-
US in real-life situations) in a variety of buildings
(office, retail, educational, sports, residential, hotel)
and building blocks (considering their interactions in
energy performance optimization) under different
environmental, social and cultural contexts in three
dispersed geographical areas (London in UK, Mafra
in Portugal and Belgrade in Serbia).
2.1 Modelling approach
MOEEBIUS introduces a holistic modelling ap-
proach that focuses on appropriately addressing and
accurately understanding all sources of uncertainty
and inaccuracy in building performance assessment.
MOEEBIUS adopts a hybrid approach that com-
bines white-box modelling techniques (at the level
of BIM) with black-box modelling approaches (fo-
cusing on occupants’ behaviour) to deliver an inno-
vative system that captures the real complexities of
actual buildings and allows for the correct under-
standing of user behaviour’s impact.
Enhanced, accurate and dynamic behavioural (in-
dividual and/or group) profiles complement im-
proved static BIM models (with reduced simplifica-
tions and able to accommodate life-cycle assessment
and life-cycle cost parameters to enable advanced
and optimized predictions through, the appropriately
configured, MOEEBIUS building energy perfor-
mance simulation engine.
2.2 Simulation approach
MOEEBIUS uses a two-step calibration process of
dynamic simulation tools that considers as-built
characteristics, set-points, local real weather data,
real occupancy (first step) and sub-metering
HVAC/lighting data, real indoor temperature (se-
cond step).
The MOEEBIUS performance optimization
mechanisms are based on an enhanced version of the
already available open-source and widely used Ener-
gyPlus simulation engine. It accommodates en-
hanced algorithmic concepts for bringing together
improved BIM models, semantically improved with
DER (Distributed Energy Resources) models and
dynamically updated with occupant behaviour pro-
files, schedules and weather forecasts and utilizing
them in building performance simulation iterations
towards offering optimized performance predictions
of high accuracy.
Even though modelling comprises a focal point of
MOEEBIUS, the core outcome and main innovation
introduced in the project lies upon the MOEEBIUS
dynamic assessment engine. At building level, the
dynamic assessment engine serves two distinct, but
also interrelated functions: (i) fault detection and di-
agnosis and (ii) distributed fuzzy model predictive
control.
Simulation outputs and real-time measurements
(from BEMS (Building Energy Management Sys-
tems), the MOEEBIUS wireless sensor network and
external sources (weather data)) are fed to the dy-
namic assessment engine and comparatively as-
sessed for the identification of performance devia-
tions and their root causes. Through fault detection
and diagnosis, the dynamic assessment engine is able
to recognize whether the building is beginning to
operate sub-optimally; and proactively identify spe-
cific performance trends at different spatio-temporal
granularity (e.g. abnormal HVAC consumption in-
crease in a specific room) that could progressively
lead to significant performance deviations. Subse-
quently, it is able to drill-in and analyze parameters
affecting the deviating metrics (e.g. ambi-
ent/behavioural trends) to define the root cause of
the evolving deviation.
The definition of the root cause triggers the acti-
vation of an innovative distributed fuzzy model pre-
dictive control engine. The engine allows for short-
term prediction of the building performance outcome
(every few minutes) under alternative automated
control strategies that aim at mitigating the identified
deviation. This is achieved by adapting the operation
(self-adaptation) of the building to performance tar-
gets, while preserving occupants’ comfort and health
at acceptable levels. Optimization performed
through the dynamic assessment engine is an itera-
tive and continuous process that allows for the
prompt identification of deviations (continuous as-
sessment through the fault detection/diagnosis) and
execution of short-loop, few-minutes long simula-
tions for the definition of optimal automation strate-
gies.
In case no relevant root cause is identified, the
problem is passed to the predictive maintenance and
retrofitting advisor modules, for further investigation
and definition of alternative maintenance and retro-
fitting actions, respectively, to effectively mitigate
the identified deviation. To advance user experience
in this area, a virtual reality environment using BIM
information (3D BIM mapping) and mobile device
sensors (for location tracking) effectively comple-
ments the operation of the maintenance subsystem
with a highly intuitive, tempting and useful user in-
terface.
The multiscale energy simulation focuses on real
time optimisation of energy demand and supply with
the objective of reducing the difference be-tween
peak power demand and minimum night time de-
mand. Low-level information and intelligence
(building) will be uplifted to the high-level (district)
towards assessing (in real-time) the energy perfor-
mance and demand flexibility at the level of blocks
of buildings. This is achieved through an innovative
forecasting, aggregation and flexibility module that
enables real-time dynamic virtual power plants for-
mulation with enhanced aggregated flexibility capa-
bilities to participate in event-, time-, location- or
price-based demand side management strategies.
2.3 Innovation
The main innovation introduced in MOEEBIUS is
the holistic modelling approach that focuses on ap-
propriately addressing and accurately understanding
all sources of uncertainty and inaccuracy in building
performance assessment. Dynamic models reflecting
user comfort and overall behaviour in the built envi-
ronment, enhanced DER and district heating models
and short-term weather forecasts feed the MOEEBI-
US building energy performance simulation system,
allowing for predictions of high accuracy.
Novel end-user applications and decision support
tools developed in the project are oriented to (i) real-
time optimization through automated control, (ii)
predictive maintenance diagnostics and decision
making, including sanitary maintenance of HVAC
systems to preserve high indoor environmental
quality and (iii) advanced retrofitting advising
through automated criteria-based configuration,
evaluation and selection of optimal integrated retro-
fitting interventions.
2.4 Acknowledgements
This project has received funding from the European
Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation pro-
gram under grant agreement No 680517.
3 HOLISTEEC PROJECT
The central aspect of HOLISTEEC
(www.holisteecproject.eu) is to enable multi-
physical simulations and optimization during all
building life-cycle design stages, relying on a collab-
orative and loop-based design methodology (Del-
ponte et al. 2014, Mazza et al. 2015).
In order to achieve this goal it is essential that (i)
simulation tools are adapted to models in different
LOD (Level of Development), (ii) there is a proper
interoperability between BIM and simulation that
can handle model changes and versions, (iii) collab-
oration mechanisms are implemented to support
open workflows and loop-based design between de-
signers and simulation experts in different disci-
plines (energy, acoustic, lighting and environment)
so that conflicts can be evaluated and different deci-
sions can be tracked back and (iv) KPIs (Key Per-
formance Indicators) definitions and requirements
which cover all disciplines are accordingly adapted
to the design phases and can be continuously moni-
tored.
HOLISTEEC will be validated in four real build-
ing projects provided by end-users in the consorti-
um. Targeted projects cover different countries and
climates (Turkey, Finland, the Netherlands and Bel-
gium), different stages (conceptual designs, detailed
designs, retrofitting projects, etc.) as well as differ-
ent uses and typologies (residential and holiday
complexes, office buildings, student dormitories,
etc.).
3.1 Modelling approach
In order to achieve an interoperability mechanism
between spatial domains and technical disciplines a
neutral simulation model based on XML (SIM mod-
el) is defined. Algorithms have been developed to
extract and adapt the geometry and topology from
the BIM model (IFC) and the neighbourhood model
(CityGML) and combine into a single source which
accommodates different representation details.
In addition, the model adapts to the building LOD
in terms of building products and systems. Thus, in
early phases the SIM model matches the basic com-
position information provided in the BIM (perhaps
only a name or tag representing the typology) with
performance information provided by generic e-
catalogue products. In detailed phases (higher LOD),
the details of product physical properties can be di-
rectly taken from IFC material layers. An e-
catalogue system adapted to various LOD and sup-
porting both generic and vendor-specific products is
developed as part of the HOLISTEEC platform.
The generation of simulation models is a three-
step process: (i) an automatic generation of the
aforementioned neutral or “raw” SIM model with
geometry/topology suitable for various disciples, (ii)
A loop process, where the SIM model is linked to e-
catalogue products creating a set of SIM model vari-
ants or configurations. It is a user-driven process but
supported by HOLISTEEC services and user inter-
faces and (iii) transformation of those simulation
variants into different input files for each of the pro-
vided simulation engines. In some cases tools pro-
vided by project partners and tailored to HO-
LISTEEC are used, in other cases existing third-
party engines.
3.2 Simulation approach
In relation to energy simulation, the multiscale issue
is targeted by providing two approaches, each one
focused in different users, different project phases
and different decisions. For early stages a neigh-
bourhood level simulation is offered, intended for
early decisions by the architect (e.g. building shape
type, orientation, glazing ratios). Influences of the
surrounding environment are considered in terms of
shadowing, reflections, etc. but also impacts of the
target building into the rest in a bidirectional way.
The main innovation for this approach is to ex-
tend the capabilities of an existing building scope
simulation engine like EnergyPlus for urban scale
simulation. Thus, the CityGML model is trans-
formed into the aforementioned SIM model. For the
target building envelope is created (external wall,
windows, roof…) and when there is not yet infor-
mation about windows rules for glazing ratios crea-
tion are defined. Storey-level thermal zones are then
automatically generated. Other buildings are consid-
ered as shadowing surfaces. To reduce the computa-
tional resources of a complex urban model filtering
mechanisms are implemented to consider only rele-
vant shadowing surfaces depending on distance and
height. The process is iteratively repeated, consider-
ing a different target building in each iteration, yield-
ing from one city model a set of EnergyPlus simula-
tions (one per target building), whose results are then
combined and visualized in 3D. Different design
variants can be tried and compared.
The second approach for energy simulation fo-
cuses on a single building (the target one) and relies
on a detailed representation of the building geome-
try, internal zone partitioning and details about
HVAC systems, as well as more detailed occupancy
and behavior models. In this approach, the core of
the information to the SIM model comes from IFC
and is suited for more advanced LOD, oriented to
consultants or simulation experts with a deeper in-
sight, since further manual interaction and enhancing
of the SIM model could be required. Existing soft-
ware implementations are adapted to the platform
and data models.
3.3 Innovation
Energy simulations are considered for a variable
range of levels of detail through an intermediate neu-
tral SIM model which can combine several building
and several representation modes for the same build-
ing, merging information coming from either IFC or
CityGML, which then is converted to various simu-
lation engines targeted to various end users and pro-
ject stages.
Neutral SIM models are transformed to different
existing building simulation engines through custom
adaptations. In the case of the neighbourhood, the
main innovation consists of the extension of building
scope engines (EnergyPlus) for urban extent.
3.4 Acknowledgements
This project has been funded by the European Union
Seventh Framework Programme under Grant
Agreement No 609138.
4 FASUDIR PROJECT
FASUDIR (www.fasudir.eu) main result is the Inte-
grated Decision Support Tool (IDST), developed to
help decision makers to select the best energy retro-
fitting strategy to increase the sustainability of the
whole district (Mittermeier et al. 2014). The IDST
features a 3D graphical user interface in order to fa-
cilitate the interaction between the multiple stake-
holders involved in the decision making process
(Romero et al. 2014).
FASUDIR IDST is being validated in three dif-
ferent European urban developments that are repre-
sentative of different district typologies that are
common in Europe, and especially in need of energy
retrofitting initiatives (Santiago de Compostela in
Spain, Frankfurt in Germany and Budapest in Hun-
gary).
4.1 Modelling approach
In FASUDIR a unique building/district energy mod-
el, which enables the documentation of all the in-
formation required for the development of the
FASUDIR IDST, is designed and developed.
The data model structure is based on the
CityGML standard extended with domain specific
information. Data model compiles the required in-
formation for KPI calculation at both levels (build-
ing and district). Data model is divided into CM
(City Model) and SM (Simulation model). The CM,
which is based on CityGML, contains all the data
representing the current state of the district. All the
parameters required for triggering the required simu-
lations are stored into the SM.
CM is completed with the indicators information
(KPIs) after their calculation to determine the current
state of the district. The information collected into
the FASUDIR CM is grouped into the different city
elements represented into the CityGML standard
(building, transportation, vegetation, city furniture,
etc.). CM extends CityGML with required ADE
(Application Domain Extensions) in order to repre-
sent all the required information. The way to access
the FASUDIR CM is through the use of standard
web services defined by OGC (Prieto et al. 2013).
4.2 Simulation approach
Once the building/district energy model is created,
the simulation process can start through the simula-
tion server. Instructions and data are sent to the sim-
ulation server through the user interface and record
data from the CM database are received. SM gets the
information from the CM and adapts it to the needs
of the simulation tool to be used (IES <VE>). The
results of the simulation of different variants are rep-
resented by the results of the KPIs and are stored in
the CM. The SM is generated on the fly for the
simulation.
The simulation server creates/maintains the simu-
lation job queue through the simulation scheduler for
the calculation of KPIs, creates batch instructions for
each job (e.g. solar simulations + thermal simula-
tions + value) and returns data to the CM database
once simulations are completed to be stored in the
database.
4.3 Innovation
The software enables modelling the district and
building with an adequate level of definition, in such
a way that evaluation results are precise enough, but
the input data to define the retrofitting project is eas-
ily supplied. FASUDIR model is based on CityGML
and is supported by GIS capabilities and accurate
energy performance evaluation at building level.
4.4 Acknowledgements
This project has been funded by the European Union
Seventh Framework Programme under Grant
Agreement No 609222.
5 EFFESUS PROJECT
The main output of the EFFESUS project
(www.effesus.eu) is a DSS (Decision Support Sys-
tem), a software tool, which includes all the parame-
ters needed to select suitable energy efficiency inter-
ventions for historic districts (Eriksson et al. 2014).
The main software modules developed in EFFESUS
are: a multiscale data model, a categorization tool, a
repository on technologies and the DSS
EFFESUS DSS is being validated in two different
European urban developments that are representative
of different district typologies that are common in
Europe, which are Santiago de Compostela (Spain)
and Visby (Sweden).
5.1 Modelling approach
The multiscale data model defined in EFFESUS is a
virtual 3D city model based on the CityGML stand-
ard. The multiscale data model provides a represen-
tation of the urban information at different levels
(from the city level to the building component level).
It represents graphical appearance of the city as well
as semantic or thematic properties.
A four step methodology has been defined for the
3D geometry generation and storage. Generation
methodology is based on available data sources
(footprints, cadaster, LiDAR, images, etc.). As a re-
sult of the generation process terrain, roads, green
areas and buildings at different LoD (Level of De-
tail) are obtained.
The categorization tool provides the user an easy
and intuitive way for the identification of building
typologies in an urban district. The categorization
tool is based on data included in the EFFESUS data
model. Algorithms for building categorization have
been implemented based on the building stock cate-
gorization methodology defined within the project.
Geometry of the multiscale data model has been
used for the visualization of the building typologies
as well as the most representative building of each
typology. The user interacts with the tool editing
properties of representative buildings as well as edit-
ing parameters and thresholds for categorization.
EFFESUS DSS is based on the identification of dif-
ferent typologies of building stock.
5.2 Simulation approach
The DSS software tool is based on a holistic meth-
odological framework for the assessment of energy-
related interventions in built cultural heritage. This
methodological framework for decision-making
aims to identify and classify actions according to:
compatibility with the cultural significance, energy
saving, habitability and economical, technical and
legislative feasibility. The methodology has been de-
veloped at two scales: the urban scale and the build-
ing level. The methodology defines the specifica-
tions for its implementation in the expert system of
the DSS.
The required information for the decision making
process is based on the “simple hourly calculation
procedure” included in the EN ISO 13790:2008 (ISO
2008). This procedure has been selected because it
has been proved to generate satisfactory results with
a limited input data requirement, which is crucial for
EFFESUS taking into account the scale in the deci-
sions.
An EPDE (Energy Performance Domain Exten-
sion) has been designed. It has been implemented as
an ADE for the CityGML standard. This ADE has
the purpose to storage the information regarding the
energy related parameters that will allow proper de-
cision making. The calculation procedure and the re-
quired input data has to provide enough accuracy
and flexibility to model the building stock of any
district, aiming to accomplish this calculation with-
out relying heavily on a large amount of input data.
The EPDE includes in-formation at different
scales: district, building, building envelope (wall,
roof, ground, etc.) and building installation (demand
and generation installations). Information related
with climate is referenced at district level, infor-
mation related with geometry, occupancy and use is
set at building level, while material properties, type
and size of the windows and relation between
opaque and opening areas must be identified at the
level of the envelope elements of the building. Other
element relevant for the identification of the energy
efficiency of the building is related with the energy
installations: type, efficiency, etc.
5.3 Innovation
The EFFESUS data model has been generated from
different available data sources (geometric and se-
mantic). The categorization tool provides the user an
easy and intuitive way for the identification of build-
ing typologies in an urban district. A CityGML ADE
has been designed and implemented in order to
structure and storage all the required information
that is not included in the CityGML core. Infor-
mation is structure according to the representative-
ness of the elements of the historic district for the
energy assessment and management.
5.4 Acknowledgements
This project has been funded by the European Union
Seventh Framework Programme under Grant
Agreement No 314678.
6 OPTEEMAL PROJECT
The objective of OPTEEMAL project
(www.opteemal-project.eu) is to develop an opti-
mised energy efficient design platform for refur-
bishment at district level. The platform delivers an
optmised, integrated and systematic design based on
an IPD approach for building and district retrofitting
projects. This is achieved through development of
holistic and effective services platform that involves
stakeholders at various stages of the design while as-
suring interoperability through an integrated ontolo-
gy-based DDM (District Data Model).
OPTEEMAL will be validated in three different
urban districts in three European cities, which are
San Sebastian (Spain), Lund (Sweden) and Trento
(Italy).
6.1 Modelling approach
The DDM plays a key role to ensure the interopera-
bility between different standard data models. The
proposed DDM is a comprehensive semantic frame-
work which facilitates the intertwining of standard
data models with domain specific ontologies.
The DDM will be implemented as a set of in-
teroperable data repositories. A data repository is a
DDM component whose goal is to manage the in-
formation required to carry out the platform’s pro-
cesses. Furthermore, the outputs of these processes
as well as the users’ inputs are stored in the data re-
pository.
At this stage of the project five repositories have
been envisaged: BIM repository, city repository,
contextual repository, ECM (Energy Conservation
Measures) catalogue and platform database.
BIM repository stores the models of the buildings
of the case studies. The final enhanced BIM models
generated by the platform will also be stored in this
repository. The number of BIM models to be includ-
ed in the repository will depend much on the availa-
bility of those models. An optimum scenario will in-
clude one BIM model for each building, however
currently it is not very common to have such models,
even less probable for existing buildings. In such
case the minimum number of BIM models will be
one and will be desirable to have at least a BIM
model for each building typology.
City repository stores a district model. The build-
ings represented in this model are linked to the BIM
models stored in BIM repository.
Contextual repository stores the contextual data
of the case studies such as weather data, economic
indicators, social data, and environmental data,
among others. These data are linked to the data
stored in BIM and city repositories.
ECM catalogue stores the energy conservation
measures used to generate the refurbishment scenar-
ios to be optimized by the OPTEEMAL platform.
Platform database stores the data generated within
the platform such as DPIs (District Performance In-
dicators), platform users, scenarios, user’s inputs
(e.g. barriers, targets, boundaries, priorities) and
simulation models (energy, economic, environmen-
tal…) automatically generated.
Assuring the interoperability between heteroge-
neous information is a major requirement of the
OPTEEMAL platform. In addition to the use of
standards like IFC and CityGML, it is necessary to
create links between different data models to per-
form the functionalities foreseen in the platform.
Three different types of link can be identified at this
stage: (i) links between different data models in dif-
ferent repositories describing the same district, (ii)
links between objects into different data models (e.g.
a building into the IFC and CityGML) and (iii) links
between alternative retrofitting scenarios describing
the same building or district.
6.2 Simulation approach
In the OPTEEMAL platform, the current scenario is
represented by the district data (CityGML model),
the building data (BIM model) and the contextual
data (urban data, climatic data, energy and environ-
ment data, social data, etc.). To complete the de-
scription of the current situation, according to the
targets, boundaries, barriers and the prioritization
criteria, for the refurbishment of the case study pro-
vided by the user, the platform calculates the set of
DPIs applicable to the current situation of the dis-
trict.
IFC data model is defined for being used in a
broad range of applications and domains. Due to the
vast extent of IFC specialized domain application,
models shall be defined as an intermediate step be-
tween the BIM and the simulation engine. This in-
termediate step is represented in OPTEEMAL by the
simulation models. It will be necessary to generate
different simulation models for each simulation tool
(EnergyPlus, CitySim, NEST and OPTEEMAL
tools).
The approach in OPTEEMAL is to use IFC and
CityGML as common data models for input and out-
put of the district and building information, which
will be further transformed into simulation models
tailored for each domain and simulation engine,
keeping the traceability and mapping between ele-
ments and concepts with the original models. Ac-
cording to the list of DPIs and the way they are
grouped into categories, 6 domain models are identi-
fied: energy model, environmental model, comfort
model, economic model, social model and urban
model.
6.3 Innovation
In OPTEEMAL, the DDM will be modeled using
IFC and CityGML standards linked with domain
specific ontologies. Based on the DDM, different
simulation models for the simulation tools identified
in the project will be generated in the process to DPI
calculation. As a result of the optimization process
an enhanced BIM model including most suitable
ECM will be obtained.
6.4 Acknowledgements
This project has received funding from the European
Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation pro-
gramme under grant agreement No 680676.
7 CONCLUSIONS
The five projects described in this paper provide
complementary approaches to building modelling
and energy simulation with multiscale perspective.
MOEEBIUS addresses the challenges and factors
that hinder the capabilities of current simulation and
control frameworks to provide highly accurate pre-
dictions and fine-grained optimization considering
the complexities induced during buildings’ and dis-
tricts’ real time operation.
HOLISTEEC addresses the issue of enabling
multi-physical simulations in all design stages, flex-
ibly adapting to the available information in each
stage and covering different spatial extents. This is
achieved through a neutral SIM model, which inte-
grates information from IFC and CityGML by
providing automatic geometry and topology trans-
formation routines common to all disciplines. Addi-
tionally, an intelligent e-Catalogue system is provid-
ed for providing different performance simulation
scenarios in each phase. Finally exporters to specific
simulation engine input files are developed. All the
actors involved collaborate using BCF standard.
Integrated approaches presented in FASUDIR and
EFFESUS with intuitive user-friendly software rep-
resent an innovative alternative for decision-making
to prioritize the action to be taken and to improve the
sustainability of urban districts and their subsequent
management. The strategic management of the in-
formation generated by a city should be a key part of
this process. The development of data models based
on the international CityGML standard allows GIS
and BIM concepts to be integrated within the same
model. The information contained in the model is
unique and can be used to develop various applica-
tions that the different agents (city managers, techni-
cians and members of the public) employ.
OPTEEMAL provides a holistic platform to de-
sign efficient refurbishment projects at building at
district level supported by a comprehensive ontolo-
gies-based framework for district information repre-
sentation based on the relation of existing semanti-
cally enriched data models (CityGML, IFC) with
existing ontologies/data models in the main fields
for urban sustainable regeneration. The interopera-
bility among inputs and outputs of the platform with
external tools is assured by the definition of simula-
tion models.
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Delponte, E., Ferrando, C., Di Franco, M., Hakkinen, T., Reko-
la, M., Abdalla, G., Casaldàliga, P., Pujols, C., Lopez Vega,
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Proceedings ISBN13:979-10-95345-00-8, pp. 151-160.
Mittermeier, P., Essig, N. & Romero-Amorrortu, A. 2014.
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cision support tool in energy retrofitting projects for sus-
tainable urban districts. World Sustainable Building 2014
Barcelona Conference - Conference Proceedings - Volume
3, ISBN: 978-84-697-1815-5.
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Download the specification from https://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/citygml
An integrated platform for collaborative performance efficient building design: the case of HOLISTEEC project
  • D Mazza
  • K Linhard
  • A Mediavilla
  • E Michaelis
  • H Pruvost
  • M Rekola
Mazza, D., Linhard, K., Mediavilla, A., Michaelis, E., Pruvost, H. & Rekola, M. 2015. An integrated platform for collaborative performance efficient building design: the case of HOLISTEEC project. Sustainable Places -Conference Proceedings ISBN13:979-10-95345-00-8, pp. 151-160.
Evaluation and Development of Indicators for Sustainability Assessments of Urban Neighbourhood Renovation Projects
  • P Mittermeier
  • N Essig
  • A Romero-Amorrortu
Mittermeier, P., Essig, N. & Romero-Amorrortu, A. 2014. Evaluation and Development of Indicators for Sustainability Assessments of Urban Neighbourhood Renovation Projects. World Sustainable Building 2014 Barcelona Conference -Conference Proceedings -Volume 3, ISBN: 978-84-697-1815-5.
Integrated decision support tool in energy retrofitting projects for sustainable urban districts
  • A Romero
  • A Egusquiza
  • J L Izkara
Romero, A., Egusquiza, A. & Izkara, J.L. 2014. Integrated decision support tool in energy retrofitting projects for sustainable urban districts. World Sustainable Building 2014
Holistic and Optimized Life-cycle Integrated Support for Energy-Efficient Building Design and Construction: HOLISTEEC methodology
  • E Delponte
  • C Ferrando
  • M Di Franco
  • T Hakkinen
  • M Rekola
  • G Abdalla
  • P Casaldàliga
  • C Pujols
  • A Lopez Vega
  • S G Shih
Delponte, E., Ferrando, C., Di Franco, M., Hakkinen, T., Rekola, M., Abdalla, G., Casaldàliga, P., Pujols, C., Lopez Vega, A. & Shih, S.G. 2014. Holistic and Optimized Life-cycle Integrated Support for Energy-Efficient Building Design and Construction: HOLISTEEC methodology. European Conference on Product and Process Modelling (ECPPM), Vienna. Conference Proceedings. ISBN: 978-1-138-02710-7, pp. 899-906.
OpenGIS City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) Encoding Standard (OGC 12-019) Version 2
  • G Gröger
  • T H Kolbe
  • C Nagel
  • K H Hafele
Gröger, G., Kolbe, T.H., Nagel, C. & Hafele, K.H. 2014. OpenGIS City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) Encoding Standard (OGC 12-019). Version 2.0.0. OGC 12019. Open Geospatial Consortium.