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Background: Green tea has been shown to have beneficial effects against a variety of diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Through cellular, animal, and human experiments, green tea and its major component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. Our previous findings have indicated that green tea and EGCG suppress the gene and/or protein expression of inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related enzymes. Methods: Using bibliographic databases, particularly PubMed (provided by the US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, United States), we examined the potential usefulness of green tea/EGCG for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases in human clinical and epidemiological studies. We also reviewed results from cellular and animal experiments and proposed action mechanisms. Results: Most of the results from the human studies indicated the beneficial effects of green tea and tea catechins against inflammatory diseases. The cellular and animal studies also provided evidence for the favorable effects of green tea/EGCG. These results are compatible with our previous findings and can be largely explained by a mechanism wherein green tea/EGCG acts as an antioxidant to scavenge reactive oxygen species, leading to attenuation of nuclear factor-κB activity. Conclusion: Since green tea and EGCG have multiple targets and act in a pleiotropic manner, we may consider their usage to improve the quality of life in patients with inflammatory disease. Green tea and EGCG have beneficial health effects and no severe adverse effects; however, care should be taken to avoid overdosage, which may induce deleterious effects including hepatic injury.
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... Several components of green tea can also promote health benefits. Consumption of green tea beverages with a high bioactive compound content regulates the inflammatory processes by suppressing gene and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines [121]. Green tea contains four main catechins, epicatechin (EC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG); the latter is the most active and abundant [121,122]. ...
... Consumption of green tea beverages with a high bioactive compound content regulates the inflammatory processes by suppressing gene and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines [121]. Green tea contains four main catechins, epicatechin (EC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG); the latter is the most active and abundant [121,122]. Caffeine is a powerful antioxidant compound that is responsible for the antioxidant potential of the beverage [123]. Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites characterized by high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, in addition to neuroprotective and hypoglycemic effects [124]. ...
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The oral cavity harbors hundreds of microorganisms that may be uncontrolled and provoke several diseases. In this sense, periodontitis is a complex multifactorial disease with an essential microbial component in its etiology. Periodontal treatment involves mechanical control of the supra- and subgingival biofilm, but not all patients respond predictably to treatment. In this way, the biofilm chemical control helps in the reduction of periodontal pathogens during treatment or in the delay of bacterial re-colonization after scaling and root planning. Several products have been studied as adjunctive therapy and have shown promising results. Therefore, the present article reviews the biological effects of propolis, aloe vera, green tea, cranberry, calendula, myrrha and salvia that may support their use in the control of subgingival biofilm in patients with periodontitis. All the natural products cited above showed exciting results against microorganisms related to oral diseases, mainly periodontitis. These substances also have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The natural agents propolis, aloe vera, green tea, cranberry, calendula, myrrha and salvia demonstrated potential to be used as oral hygiene products, based on their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions.
... The quick drying (steaming) and withering help to protect its polyphenols and flavonoids from oxidation by naïve polyphenol oxidase. The GT can prevent prostate cancer, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia (Kumar et al., 2015) due to its powerful antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anti-proliferative activities (Ohishi et al., 2016). ...
... However, the least processed WT yields a higher percentage of total polyphenols and flavonoids than GT (Dai et al., 2017). Continuous free radical generation during oxidative damage induces acute and chronic inflammations (Reuter et al., 2010) including cancer and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), via upregulation of inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-6; matrix metalloproteinase, cyclooxygenases (COXs), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS); along with the transcription regulator NFκB (Ohishi et al., 2016). However, the pharmacological activity of WT is poorly understood. ...
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The epigallocatechin‐rich polyphenolic fraction of Assam variety white tea, traditionally used for the management of diverse inflammatory ailments and health drink, was investigated through eco‐friendly green aqueous extraction, TLC, and HPLC characterization, phytochemical screening, in vitro DPPH assay, anti‐proteinase, MTT assay on synovial fibroblast and colon cancer cells, apoptotic FACS analysis, cytokine ELISA, p‐STAT3 western blotting, and in silico docking analysis. HPLC‐TLC standardized white tea fraction (WT‐F) rendered higher extractive‐yield (21%, w/w), than green tea fraction(GT‐F) (12%, w/w). WT‐F containing flavonoids and non‐hydrolysable polyphenols showed better antioxidant activity, rather than equivalent GT‐F. WT‐F demonstrated remarkable anti‐rheumatoid‐arthritis activity via killing of synovial fibroblast cells (66.1%), downregulation of TNF‐α (93.33%), IL‐6 (87.97%), and p‐STAT3 inhibition (77.75%). Furthermore, WT‐F demonstrated better anti‐proliferative activity against colon cancer cells (HCT‐116). Collectively, our study revealed that the white tea fraction has boundless potential as anti‐rheumatoid arthritis and anti‐proliferative agent coupled with apoptotic, antioxidant anti‐proteinase, and anti‐inflammatory properties. Practical applications Our eco‐friendly extracted bioactive aqueous fraction of white tea, characterized by TLC‐HPLC study and phytochemical screening have demonstrated remarkable anti‐rheumatoid arthritis property and anti‐proliferative action on colon cancer cells including potential anti‐oxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and anti‐proteinase efficacy. The test WT‐F sample has shown impressive safety on normal mammalian cells. WT‐F has demonstrated better efficacy against rheumatoid arthritis and cancer model compared to equivalent green tea fraction. Traditionally, it is extensively used for boosting immunity, and energy, with cosmetic, and agricultural applications by the native inhabitants. So, the aqueous fraction of WT is suggested to be used as a prophylactic nutraceutical supplement and or therapeutic agent in commercial polyherbal formulation to attenuate and management of auto‐inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis and carcinogenesis of colon. It is additionally suggested to establish in vivo rheumatoid arthritis animal and clinical study to validate their pharmacokinetic stability and dose optimization coupled with anti‐inflammatory, cytotoxicity, and anti‐oxidant property.
... Polyphenols like EGCG, quercetin, and catechin have been extensively studied in preclinical research for the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory diseases [34]. Polyphenols have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits sparking significant interest in long-term treatments [35][36][37]. Previous studies indicate their use in wound healing by inhibiting collagenase and the decreasing in inflammatory cytokines [38]. ...
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Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are debilitating conditions, affecting millions of people. Both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis degrade the articular cartilage (AC) at the ends of long bones, resulting in weakened tissue prone to further damage. This degradation impairs the cartilage’s mechanical properties leading to areas of thinned cartilage and exposed bone which compromises the integrity of the joint. No preventative measures exist for joint destruction. Discovering a way to slow the degradation of AC or prevent it would slow the painful progression of the disease, allowing millions to live pain-free. Recently, that the articular injection of the polyphenol epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) slows AC damage in an arthritis rat model. It was suggested that EGCG crosslinks AC and makes it resistant to degradation. However, direct evidence that intraarticular injection of EGCG crosslinks cartilage collagen and changes its compressive properties are not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraarticular injection of EGCG induced biomechanical properties of AC. We hypothesize that in vivo exposure EGCG will bind and crosslink to AC collagen and alter its biomechanical properties. We developed a technique of nano-indentation to investigate articular cartilage properties by measuring cartilage compressive properties and quantifying differences due to EGCG exposure. In this study, the rat knee joint was subjected to a series of intraarticular injections of EGCG and contralateral knee joint was injected with saline. After the injections animals were sacrificed, and the knees were removed and tested in an anatomically relevant model of nanoindentation. All mechanical data was normalized to the measurements in the contralateral knee to better compare data between the animals. The data demonstrated significant increases for reduced elastic modulus (57.5%), hardness (83.2%), and stiffness (17.6%) in cartilage treated with injections of EGCG normalized to those treated with just saline solution when compared to baseline subjects without injections, with a significance level of alpha = 0.05. This data provides evidence that EGCG treated cartilage yields a strengthened cartilage matrix as compared to AC from the saline injected knees. These findings are significant because the increase in cartilage biomechanics will translate into resistance to degradation in arthritis. Furthermore, the data suggest for the first time that it is possible to strengthen the articular cartilage by intraarticular injections of polyphenols. Although this data is preliminary, it suggests that clinical applications of EGCG treated cartilage could yield strengthened tissue with the potential to resist or compensate for matrix degradation caused by arthritis.
... Catechins are polyphenol flavanols found abundantly in many plants and previously isolated from a number of medicinal plants such as Osyris alba [39], Camellia sinensis leaves [40], Trichilia emetica whole seeds [41], Acacia catechu [42], aerial parts of Astragalus glycyphyllos [43], and others. Catechin has been shown to have various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant [44], antiinflammatory [45], and antiparasitic [39]. Paveto et al. [40] demonstrated that catechins possess strong lytic activity on bloodstream trypomastigotes. ...
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Background: The leaves of Osyris quadripartita Salzm. ex Decne, endemic to Ethiopia, are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Previous phytochemical investigations of Osyris species showed the presence of flavonoids, anthracene derivatives, and sesquiterpene lactones as the main constituents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimalarial activity of the leaf extract of O. quadripartita and its isolated constituent against mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Methods: Isolation of a compound was carried out on silica gel column chromatography of the extract eluting with gradient mixtures of CHCl3/MeOH. Structural elucidation of the isolated compound was achieved by ESI-MS and 1D-and 2D-NMR spectral data. Peter's 4-day suppressive test method was used to determine the antimalarial activity of the test substances. Level of parasitemia, survival time, and body weight change were used to determine the antimalarial activity of the test substances. Results: (-) Catechin was isolated and characterized from the hydroalcoholic extract of O. quadripartita. At a concentration of 400 mg/kg, both the extract and (-) catechin exhibited antimalarial activity with the highest chemosuppression values of 70.61% and 64.26%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings indicate that O. quadripartita is endowed with genuine antimalarial activity attributed in part, to its (-) catechin content. Hence, the present study may validate the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of malaria.
... In addition, cataract formation is associated with protein precipitation and crystallin aggregation which significantly increase in quantity with aging. EGCG, a major component of green tea catechin, efficiently blocks crystallin aggregation and prevents initiation of cataract formation [15,16,36]. This is the first longitudinal study with a relatively large sample size to analyze the temporal and causal effects of tea consumption habits and risk of cataract disease while adjusting for various possible confounding factors. ...
Article
We aimed to investigate the association between habitual tea consumption and the risk of developing cataracts in a large community-based cohort study. We prospectively collected volunteers from 29 recruitment centers that were ≧ 55 years old with no history of cataracts at the beginning of the study. There were 12,080 participants with available information in our study and were divided into two groups according to habitual tea consumption; non-tea-drinking and tea-drinking groups. The mean age was 59 years. Compared to the non-tea-drinking group, the tea-drinking group had a significantly lower incidence of developing cataracts (15.5% vs 12.1%) during follow-up of 46 months. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, the relative risk (RR) of incident cataracts was lower in the tea-drinking group than the non-tea-drinking group (RR = 0.848; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.751 to 0.957). Participants with ≧ 2 cups per day were associated with almost 16% reduction in the risk of developing cataracts compared with the non-tea-drinking group (RR = 0.844; 95% CI = 0.741 to 0.961). Our study suggests that habitual tea consumption can reduce the incidence of cataracts and raises the possibility that the tea content may slow the progression of cataracts.
... Natural sulfates include plant-derived products, such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and vitamins [9]. Various natural extracts have been found to have antioxidant activity, such as propolis and green tea extracts [9][10][11][12][13]. 2 of 9 The root of the Paeonia lactiflora (Paeoniae Radix Pall) is used as a raw material for various medicines [14]. Physiological activity of the Paeonia lactiflora has been researched for its anti-allergic, analgesic, antibacterial and whitening effects. ...
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Background and objectives: Bacterial antibiotics have had several side effects. Therefore, interest in natural substances with less side effects is increasing these days. Paeonia lactiflora, the root of Paeonia lactiflora, is used as a raw material for medicines. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial effect and the cytotoxicity of Paeonia lactiflora extract. Materials and methods: For cytotoxicity, MTT analysis according to ISO 10993-5 was performed. The antibacterial test of the Paeonia lactiflora was determined from bacterial viability, Inhibition zone test, CFU (colony forming unit) and SEM (scanning electron microscope). To confirm the antibacterial component of Paeonia lactiflora, the content of flavonoids and polyphenols was analyzed. Results: Our results showed that Paeonia lactiflora extract contained flavonoids and polyphenols, which exhibited antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Candida albicans (C. ablicans). Further, the cytotoxicity of Paeonia lactiflora extract was low. Conclusions: We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the literature because it demonstrates that Paeonia lactiflora extract can be used as an antibiotic.
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Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of premature death worldwide. Inflammation and its biomarkers, like C-reactive protein (CRP), among the risk factors, such as hypertension, lipid disorders, and diabetes, may be also responsible for the residual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Modern lipid-lowering treatment with statins, ezetimibe, PCSK9 inhibitors, or bempedoic acid does not fully protect against inflammation. The recommendations of the International Lipid Expert Panel (ILEP) indicate selected nutraceuticals with anti-inflammatory properties. Diet may have a significant impact on inflammation. Especially interesting in the context of inflammation is the consumption of coffee and tea. These drinks in many observational studies significantly reduced cardiovascular risk and mortality. The question is whether the anti-inflammatory effects of these drinks contribute significantly to the observed clinical effects. Thus, in this narrative review, we primarily discuss the anti-inflammatory properties of consuming tea and coffee. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the studies and their meta-analyses, inconsistent results were obtained, which makes it impossible to conclusively state how clinically significant the potential anti-inflammatory properties of black and green tea and coffee are. A number of confounding factors can cause the inconsistency of the available results. Consumption of tea and coffee appears to increase adiponectin concentrations, decrease reactive oxygen species, decrease low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations (effect of green tea, etc.). Despite the still uncertain anti-inflammatory effect of tea and coffee, we recommend their consumption as a part of the healthy diet.
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Aging is inevitable; however, bioactives are naturally present in several plants and their products have been reported to provide remarkable protection against age-induced complications and enhance healthspan as well as lifespan due to their potent health promontory effects. Tea catechins are flavonoids, occurring largely in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). An array of studies has reported that catechins possess strong anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, cognition improving, and coronary vascular impairments preventive effects. The present chapter describes the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of tea catechins involved in the prevention of aging and age-related pathological events to explore the possibility of developing plant-origin drugs to promote healthy aging.
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This study aimed to explore whether zinc-selenium tea has an curative effect on the cardiotoxicity induced by nonylphenol (NP), and to compare the effect of zinc-selenium tea and green tea. After drinking of zinc-selenium tea or green tea, compared with the control group, the left ventricular anterior wall became thinner, and the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter increased, the anterior wall of the left ventricle became thin at the end of diastole in the NP group. The serum myocardial enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in the NP group were significantly increased, and the serum myocardial enzymes were significantly decreased after the intervention of zinc-selenium tea. Proteins and mRNA expressions of Collagen I and Collagen III in the tea groups were lower than those in the NP group. In the green tea and zinc-selenium tea intervention groups, the disorder and degree of myocardial fiber were alleviated to varying degrees. The disturbance, breakage, and inflammatory cell infiltration of myocardial fibers in zinc-selenium tea and green tea groups were less than that of NP group. After tea intervention, collagen I and collagen III in the myocardium decreased. The intervention effect of zinc-selenium tea was better than that of green tea. Zinc-selenium tea and green tea could interfere with the cardiotoxicity indued by NP, which would alleviate the myocardial fibrosis by reducing expressions of collagen I and collagen III. Moreover, the curative effect of zinc-selenium tea was better than that of green tea.
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Green tea is one of the most popular antioxidant drinks in the world. To make green tea, you must first remove the leaves from Camellia sinensis. A form of tea made from unoxidized green leaves from a tea plantation is called green tea. Several other studies have been undertaken over the past year to evaluate whether consuming green tea and extracts has any health benefits. In order to get the health benefits of green tea, the nutrients in the tea must be absorbed. Green tea's flavonoids and caffeine, which serve to accelerate the elimination of metabolites, contribute to the antioxidant function of green tea. Cancer, heart disease, and aging appear to be the main diseases to be reduced or prevented by these antioxidants. The pharmaceutical and culinary industries can use green tea due to its high potency and lack of adverse effects. Green tea is touted as a natural remedy for a wide range of health issues. Through this, we can better understand the immediate benefits of green tea. Prescription green tea components are discussed along with their antioxidant, anticancer, and antiviral actions in relation to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).
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Lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) mediated systemic inflammation plays a critical role in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major component in green tea, on LPS-mediated inflammation and neurotoxicity. LPS treatment of macrophages induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α , IL-1 β , and IL-6). However, EGCG pretreatment of macrophages significantly inhibited LPS-mediated induction of these cytokines. In addition, EGCG significantly diminished LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs). Supernatant from EGCG-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures was found to be less cytotoxic to neurons than that from non-EGCG-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures. Furthermore, EGCG treatment of neurons could inhibit LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus EGCG represents a potent and useful neuroprotective agent for inflammation-mediated neurological disorders.
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Background: The intake of green tea has been increased recently due to its medicinal values. The antibacterial and antioxidant properties of green tea were found to be beneficial in the treatment of gingival and periodontal diseases. The aim of this comparative study was to compare the efficacy of the mouthwash containing green tea and chlorhexidine in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and methods: Thirty patients who participated in the study were divided randomly into two groups, each group of 15 patients was prescribed with either chlorhexidine or green tea mouthwash. Turesky modification of Quigley-Hein plaque index, Löe and Silness gingival index, Ainamo and Bay bleeding index, tooth stain, and tongue stain (TS) were recorded at baseline, 15 days, and 1 month. The subjects were asked to report any discomfort or alteration in taste. Results: There was a significant decrease in plaque index, gingival index, and bleeding index in both the groups. However, green tea mouthwash resulted in a statistically significant decrease in bleeding index compared to chlorhexidine group. There was no significant difference in tooth stain and TS in both the groups. Conclusion: The green tea-containing mouthwash is equally effective in reducing the gingival inflammation and plaque to chlorhexidine.
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Longevity and aging are two sides of the same coin, as they both derive from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Aging is a complex, dynamic biological process characterized by continuous remodeling. One of the most recent theories on aging focuses on immune response, and takes into consideration the activation of subclinical, chronic low-grade inflammation which occurs with aging, named "inflammaging". Long-lived people, especially centenarians, seem to cope with chronic subclinical inflammation through an anti-inflammatory response, called therefore "anti-inflammaging". In the present review, we have focused our attention on the contrast between inflammaging and anti-inflammaging systems, by evaluating the role of cytokines and their impact on extreme longevity. Cytokines are the expression of a network involving genes, polymorphisms and environment, and are involved both in inflammation and anti-inflammation. We have described the role of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IL-22, IL-23, TNF-α, IFN-γ as pro-inflammatory cytokines, of IL-1Ra, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β1 as anti-inflammatory cytokines, and of lipoxin A4 and heat shock proteins as mediators of cytokines. We believe that if inflammaging is a key to understand aging, anti-inflammaging may be one of the secrets of longevity.
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. The aim of this study is to investigate whether (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) can prevent the UA-induced inflammatory effect of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the involved mechanisms in vitro. Methods . HUVEC were subjected to uric acid (UA) with or without EGCG treatment. RT-PCR and western blots were performed to determine the level of inflammation marker. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS). Functional studies of the role of Notch-1 in HUVEC lines were performed using RNA interference analyses. Results . UA significantly increased the expressions of IL-6, ICAM-1, TNF- α , and MCP-1 and the production of ROS in HUVEC. Meanwhile, the expression of Notch-1 and its downstream effects significantly increased. Using siRNA, inhibition of Notch-1 signaling significantly impeded the expressions of inflammatory cytokines under UA treatment. Interestingly, EGCG suppressed the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and the generation of ROS. Western blot analysis of Notch-1 showed that EGCG significantly decreased the expressions of inflammatory cytokines through Notch-1 signaling pathways. Conclusions . In summary, our findings indicated that Notch-1 plays an important role in the UA-induced inflammatory response, and the downregulation of Notch-1 by EGCG could be an effective approach to decrease inflammation and oxidative stress induced by UA.
Chapter
Tea, a product of the leaves and buds of the Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) plant, is one of the world’s most popular beverages. Tea can be broadly classified according to the production method as unfermented (green tea), half-fermented (oolong tea), fully fermented (black tea), or post-fermented (pu-erh tea). Green tea is mainly consumed in Japan and China, whereas black tea is primarily consumed in Western countries, India, and other parts of the world. The global production of green tea accounts for only 20 % of the total amount of tea produced, which is approximately one fourth of that of black tea [1]. However, green tea has been the primary target for investigations on health and nutrition among the various teas as indicated by a search conducted in the PubMed database in January 2015, which showed approximately 6020, 3340, 330, and 100 publications for the keywords “green tea,” “black tea,” “oolong tea,” and “pu-erh tea,” respectively. When combined with cancer, for example, the corresponding numbers of publications were approximately 2000, 670, 40, and 10, respectively.
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Tea derived from the leaves and buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) is consumed worldwide. Green tea contains various components with specific health-promoting effects, and is believed to exert protective effects against diseases including cancer, diabetes and hepatitis, as well as obesity. Of the various tea components, the polyphenol catechins have been the subject of extensive investigation and among the catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate has the strongest bioactivity in most cases. Our research group has postulated that hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, and tumor necrosis factor-α are targets of green tea constituents including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate for their anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-hepatitis effects, respectively. Published papers were reviewed to determine whether the observed changes in these factors can be correlated with anti-cancer effects of green tea. Two major action mechanisms of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate have been proposed; one associated with its anti-oxidative properties and the other with its pro-oxidative activity. When reactive oxygen species are assumed to be involved, our findings that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate downregulated hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, and tumor necrosis factor-α may explain the anti-cancer effect of green tea as well. However, further studies are required to elucidate which determinant directs (-)-epigallocatechin gallate action as an anti-oxidant or a pro-oxidant for favorable activity.
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The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the weakest element in the muscle-tendon unit of the heel, and thus the most susceptible to injuries. The scarcity of adequate treatments means that tendinitis is a major concern to athletes and other groups who depend on their physical fitness, although green tea and glycine have both been shown to have beneficial effects on the inflammation. The present study investigated the remodeling effects of green tea and glycine in the MTJ of rats with tendinitis. For this, male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: animals without tendinitis and animals with tendinitis; animals with tendinitis supplied with green tea; animals with tendinitis supplied with a glycine diet; animals with tendinitis supplied with a green tea and glycine diet. Tendinitis was induced and the treatment with green tea (700mg/kg/day) and a 5% glycine diet lasted 7 days. The treatments regulated the activity of metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, 8 and -9, and induced the synthesis of type I collagen, glycosaminoglycans and non-collagenous proteins. Changes were also noted in the compaction of the collagen molecules and the amount of tenocytes. When combined, green tea and glycine modulated the inflammatory process and induced the synthesis of the elements involved in the post-lesion recovery of the tissue. The data from the MTJ were different when compared with results already published using the whole Achilles tendon. These data indicate that each region of the inflamed tendon can exhibit different responses during the treatment and therefore, modify its extracellular matrix components to facilitate recovery and repair. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Recent studies have implicated a pathogenic role for Matrix Metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) in inflammatory bowel disease. Though loss of epithelial barrier function has been shown to be a key pathogenic factor for the development of intestinal inflammation, the role of MMP-9 in intestinal barrier function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MMP-9 in intestinal barrier function and intestinal inflammation. Wild type (WT) and MMP-9(-/-) mice were subjected to experimental dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis by administration of 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. The mouse colonic permeability was measured in vivo by recycling perfusion of the entire colon using fluorescent labeled dextran. The DSS-induced increase in the colonic permeability was accompanied by an increase in intestinal epithelial cell MMP-9 expression in WT mice. The DSS-induced increase in intestinal permeability and the severity of DSS colitis was found to be attenuated in MMP-9(-/-) mice. The colonic protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and phospho-MLC was found to be significantly increased after DSS administration in WT mice but not in MMP-9(-/-) mice. The DSS-induced increase in colonic permeability and colonic inflammation was attenuated in MLCK(-/-) mice and MLCK inhibitor ML-7 treated WT mice. DSS-induced increase in colonic surface epithelial cell MLCK mRNA was abolished in MMP-9(-/-) mice. Lastly, increased MMP-9 protein expression was detected within the colonic surface epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis cases. This data suggest role of MMP-9 in modulation of colonic epithelial permeability and inflammation via MLCK.
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Cadmium (Cd), a widespread cumulative pollutant, is a known human carcinogen, associated with inflammation and tumors. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a pivotal role in tumor metastasis; however, the mechanisms underlying the MMP-9 expression induced by Cd remain obscure in human endothelial cells. Here, Cd elevated MMP-9 expression in dose- and time-dependent manners in human endothelial cells. Cd increased ROS production and the ROS-producing NADPH oxidase. Cd translocates p47(phox), a key subunit of NADPH oxidase, to the cell membrane. Cd also activated the phosphorylation of EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2, and JNK1/2 in addition to promoting NF-кB and AP-1 binding activities. Specific inhibitor and mutagenesis studies showed that EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2, JNK1/2 and transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 were related to Cd-induced MMP-9 expression in endothelial cells. Akt, Erk1/2, and JNK1/2 functioned as upstream signals in the activation of NF-κB and AP-1, respectively. In addition, N-acetyl-L-cystein (NAC), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) and apocynin (APO) inhibited the Cd-induced activation of EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK, indicating that ROS production by NADPH oxidase is the furthest upstream signal in MMP-9 expression. At present, it states that Cd displayed marked invasiveness in ECV304 cells, which was partially abrogated by MMP-9 neutralizing antibodies. These results demonstrated that Cd induces MMP-9 expression via ROS-dependent EGFR->Erk1/2, JNK1/2->AP-1 and EGFR->Akt->NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human endothelial cells.